EFFECT OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE ON MATERNAL OUTCOME – A CASE CONTROL STUDY
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 2609-2613
The leading reason for neonatal death may be attributed to preterm delivery or low birth weight infants. In addition, it also causes long term neuro-developmental disturbances, and several other morbidities. Plethora of studies done in the past have associated preterm delivery with diseases occuring in the periodontium.
The aim of the study was to establish the association between periodontitis occuring in pregnancy and pre-term/low birth weight among infants. (PLBW).
A total of 180 patients were enrolled for this study. The pregnant women were designated based on the weight of their infants,as cases (<2500 g and <37 weeks) and controls (≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks). A questionnaire was used to assess the association between risk factors for periodontal diseases with risk factors of low birth weight such as age of the mother, hemoglobin levels, history of previous deliveries, history of previous LBW deliveries, history of dental treatment, and periodontal status from maternal medical record. In this study, nursing mothers who had minimum of four teeth with probing depth ≥4 mm and clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm, with bleeding on probing at the same site, were categorized as cases with periodontitis. The birth weight of the infants were obtained through the hospital medical records. The association between maternal peritontal status and pregnancy outcome was evaluated using the chi-square test, considering confounders.
Among the post partum mothers, the prevalence of periodontal disease was 33% among the cases and 29% among the control group.The levels of periodontitis had a significantly association with low birth weight/preterm infant. Moderate clinical symptoms were seen in both cases and controls. Other co-morbidities were not significant with maternal outcome.
The present study suggests a remarkable association between periodontal disease and low birth weight/ Preterm babies and highlights periodontal inflammation as an independent risk factor.Good oral hygiene practices and routine prenatal visits are a key to avoid obstetric complications like low birth weight/ preterm.
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