Evaluation Of Prevalence And Incidence Of Smokeless And Smoking Form Of Tobacco With Correlation With Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test And NRT Therapy- A Cross-Sectional Survey
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6904-6915
AbstractBACKGROUND- The recent epidemic of drug abuse has been recognized as one of the major problems facing the human race, both in the developing and developed countries. Tobacco is a leading preventable cause of death, killing nearly 6 million people worldwide each year. This is a matter of great public health concern. India’s tobacco problem is very complex, with a large use of variety of smoking forms and an array of smokeless tobacco products. Reversing this extremely preventable man made epidemic should be our top priority. This epidemic can be resolved by becoming aware of the devastating effects of tobacco, learning about the proven effective tobacco control measures, national programs and legislation prevailing in the home country and then engaging completely to halt the epidemic to more toward a tobacco free world.
There are various methods to curb this menace through various tobacco cessation programs like Psychological motivation, Nicotine replacement therapy, medications that mimic nicotine effects.
AIM- With this background the aim of the study is to assess the incidence and prevalence of tobacco use, to check the effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement Therapy in cessation of tobacco and as well as to identify the association between NRT, stress, anxiety and depression.
METHOD- The study will be conducted after obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. The patients reporting to the Out-patient department of the reputed Dental College of North India will be screened and their demographic details will be recorded. The patients will be asked about their tobacco consumption habits, the various forms of tobacco which they would be using and if any lesions associated the consumption of tobacco. The nicotine dependence levels will be assessed by the Fagerstrom nicotine dependence test of the patients who will be giving positive history of tobacco consumption
in some form or other. The patients will be asked about their willingness to quit tobacco and those patients who would be willing to quit tobacco will be given Nicotine Replacement Therapy in the form of chewing gums. Pre and post-depression, anxiety and stress will be evaluated in the patients receiving NRTs. A 6 month follow up will be done to evaluate the effectiveness of NRTs in cessation of habit and reducing the depression, anxiety and stress amongst these patients.
RESULT – The results revealed that out of 1760 patients, 317 patients gave positive history of tobacco consumption in some form or other (86.0% males and 14.0% females) and the various types of tobacco used by the patients were Beedi (55.0%), cigarette (25.0%), Ghutka (11.0%), pan masala (9.0%) and quid. Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence test was performed for 66.2% of patients who were willing to quit habit and out of 209 patient 184 were given. Nicotex chewing gum (2, 4 mg) and 25 patients refused to continue the treatment. It was noted that there was substantial decrease in the depression, anxiety and stress level on DASS 42.
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