A Minireview: Nanomaterial as Antimicrobial Agents
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 4190-4202
AbstractThe design, synthesis, and application of substances and gadgets whose size and shape have been designed at the nanoscale can be defined as nanotechnology. Nanoparticles (NPs) are used for the manufacture of multiple applications of different nanoscale materials, especially in diagnostic and therapeutic diseases. The size of nanoparticles is proportionate to biomolecules and microbial cell structures, and it provides a medium for fine-tuning interactions between nanomaterial-bacteria through appropriate surface modification. An antimicrobial agent is any substance of natural or synthetic origin that explicitly kills or inhibits the production of microorganisms, causing just a little or no harm to superior organisms. The production of biofilms is a highly complex process in which microbe cells transmute from planktonic to sessile growth modes. The formation of biofilms depends on the expression of genetic components (genes) that have contributed to the production of biofilms. The mode of action of NPs is poorly known, but metal ion release, oxidative stress induction and non-oxidative mechanisms are the mechanisms generally recognized. In this review, we discuss the antimicrobial resistances and biofilm development, mechanisms of action nanoparticles, antimicrobial nanorough surfaces. Applications in antibacterial therapies are also discussed.
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