Characteristics of Asymptomatic Malaria in Eastern Indonesia: A Cross-sectional Study
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2405-2414
AbstractBackground: Asymptomatic malaria predominates in the malaria-endemic region. Asymptomatic malaria is defined as an individual with confirmed-malaria test yet has no fever at the time of sample collection. Despite the absence of fever, other malaria-related symptoms can be present in an asymptomatic individual. The absence of fever leads to a low proportion of asymptomatic malaria case findings. Unfound and untreated asymptomatic malaria may lead to a decrease of hemoglobin level that progresses to anemia. It is necessary to find out those symptoms since it may aid asymptomatic malaria finding. This study was conducted to identify malaria-related symptoms other than fever and its potential contributing factors, as well as hemoglobin level in asymptomatic malaria subjects in eastern Indonesia.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using secondary random sampling data from the previous study in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to analyze the data.
Results: 178 asymptomatic malaria data were included in the study. The most frequent symptoms were headache (18.8%), chills, and myalgia (12.4%). P. vivax was the most prevalent etiologic agent (52.5%). The risk of developing any symptom increased in P. vivax infection (OR =1.16, 95% CI=0.38-3.50), in the presence of anemia (OR=1.30, 95% CI=0.58-2.73), and in the presence of breeding sites (OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.40-2.66). Conclusion: malaria-related symptoms other than fever were found in asymptomatic malaria thus it may help the case finding and management as well as aid the malaria elimination program be easier to reach.
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