An observational study to analyse the morphometrical and topographical variations of nutrient foramina in human clavicles of Gaya, Bihar, India
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 5363-5367
AbstractBackground: The nutrient artery, which enters the bone shaft through the nutrient foramen, is the principal source of the blood to a long bone, particularly during its growth period in the embryo and fetus, as well as during early phases of ossification during childhood. From recent hypothesis it has been confirmed that vascularized bone and joint allograft survival depends strongly on the blood supply of bone.
Aim: to determine the morphometrical and topographical variations of nutrient foramina in human clavicles of Gaya, Bihar, India.
Material and methods: The study material consisted of 100 dry human clavicles of unknown age and sex, without any deformity or fracture, which were collected from the Department of Anatomy. All the bones were macroscopically observed using magnifying handlens for the number, position and direction of the nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramina were identified by the presence of a well marked groove and often with slightly raised edge at the commencement of the canal. The distance of foramina from the sternal end & the total length of the clavicle were measured in millimeters, ignoring curves of clavicle. Results: The foramina were single in 41(41%) clavicles, double in 53 cases (53%), and more than two foramina in 6 clavicles (6%). Most of the right clavicles contained single foramina (28%) whereas left clavicles contained double foramina (33%). Three foramen were found in 2 clavicle of right side and 4 clavicles in left side. Total 110 number of nutrient foramen was found, out of which, 34.54% foramen were on inferior surface and 65.46% foramen were on posterior surface of the clavicles. Percentage of clavicle containing nutrient foramina on inferior surface was 47.5% and on posterior surface was 52.5%. Total number of clavicles considered was 80 as some clavicles contained nutrient foramen on both posterior and inferior surfaces. We found 18.18% foramens at the medial 1/3 region, 71.82% at the middle 1/3 region and 10% at the lateral 1/3 region of the shaft of the clavicles. In our study 63.75% of clavicles contained nutrient foramen in middle one third region, 23.75% contained on medial one third and 12.5 % on lateral one third. Average distance of the foramina from the sternal end was found to be 66.3 mm (6.63 cm) and the average total length of clavicles was 13.12 cm resulting in the mean foraminal index of 51.77.
Conclusion: Nutrient foramina vary in their position, number and distribution on the bone surface. Knowledge of nutrient foramen is helpful in surgical procedures like bone grafting and in microsurgical bone transplantation.
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