A prospective comparative study to evaluate the Intraocular Pressure in Diabetes Mellitus and non-diabetic individuals
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 6966-6971
AbstractBackground: Diabetes Mellitus is becoming an epidemic in our country and worldwide. It is an important risk factor for raised Intraocular Pressure (IOP). Raised IOP is associated with a potentially blinding condition known as Glaucoma. Identification of factors, which increase the risk of Glaucoma, is a mainstay in the early detection and prevention of blindness due to the disease.
Aim: To compare the Intraocular Pressure in Diabetes Mellitus and non-diabetic individuals.
Material and Methods: This prospective observational study was done in the Department of Ophthalmology, Netaji Subhas Medical College and Hospital, Amhara, Bihta, Patna, Bihar, India . All the patients having Diabetes Mellitus on treatment and non-diabetic individuals were included in this study. Two groups were formed, which includes Group A constituting Diabetes Mellitus patients and Group B constitutes non-diabetic individuals. A detailed history of Diabetes Mellitus patient was taken regarding the duration of diabetes, treatment, fasting, postprandial blood sugar levels and HbA1c was recorded. Intraocular Pressure was compared between Group A and Group B, to correlate Intraocular Pressure concerning the duration of Diabetes Mellitus and different stages of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy changes were classified according to the ETDRS classification.
Results: Among 120 patients, 55 patients had Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (all were non-insulin-dependent) and 5 patients had Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (all were insulin-dependent) and 60 patients were Non-diabetics subjects. Mean age of non-diabetics was 55.2±11.4 years and that of diabetics 57.45±10.33 years (p valve 0.38) statistically not significant. In those 60 diabetic patients, 45 were male and 15 were female. The mean age of male subjects was 58.19±9.7 years and that of female was 57.37±10.68 years in the diabetic group which was no statistically significant (p-value 0.42). Mean Intraocular Pressure was higher (17.06±2.11mmHg) in diabetic patients as compared with (14.11±2.77mmHg) in non-diabetic, p-value < 0.0001 which is statistically significant. Mean Intraocular Pressure was (17.95±2.36mmHg) in diabetic patients with a duration greater than 10 years as compared with (17.11±3.11mmHg) in diabetic patients with duration less than 10 years, p > 0.05 which is not significant. Mean Intraocular Pressure was (16.06±1.48 mmHg) in diabetic patients with HbA1c less than 6.5 as compared with (17.12±2.82 mmHg) in diabetic patients with HbA1c more than 6.5 years, p < 0.05 which is significant.
Conclusion: The diabetic patients are prone to higher IOP, and especially, the patients with poor glycemic control were more prone to raised IOP. Diabetic patients should be regularly screened for IOP so that burden of ocular morbidity due to glaucoma can be reduced.
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