Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Volume 8, Issue 1

Volume 8, Issue 1, Winter 2021

Review Article: COVID‐19 And Liver Disease

Mr. Vikrant Mankar, Ms. Madhavi Narayane, Mr. Amit Dhengre, Dr. Anjalee Chivane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

Background:- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019became a global threat to human health. Liver impairment had been frequently reported as a common manifestation and clinical significance is still unclear particularly in patients with underlying chronic liver disease.Aims:-The summarise the changes in liver function tests during Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 infection and its impact of COVID19 in patients with  Chronic Liver Disease.Methods:-A literature review using online database Pub Med was done using the search terms “SARSCoV2”, “COVID19”, “liver”, “cirrhosis” and “liver transplantation”.Conclusion:-COVID19 is frequently associated with different degrees of abnormal liver function tests most notably transaminases which are usually transitory and of mild degree. This Available evidence suggests that liver injury may have result from direct pathogenic effect by the virus and systemic inflammation or toxicity from commonly used drugs in this subset of patients. Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2infections in children is associated with minimal or no increase in liver enzymes thus the presence of abnormal liver function tests should trigger evaluation for underlying liver diseases.It seems that patients with Chronic Liver Disease are not at greater risk for acquiring the infection these are cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases or liver transplant may has a greater risk for severe COVID19.

Yoga Helps To Improve Immunity & Fight Against Infection During Covid19

Mr Pravin Pande, Mrs Vaishali Tendolkar, Dr Shaini Suraj, Dr. Nandkishor Bankar, Dr. Swapnil Patond

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 7-12

Corona is a pandemic disease but other than the corona also so many viruses and organisms effect on the respiratory system and harm on immune system of the body. Yoga plays a important role in the life. Yoga, perhaps, is one amongst the foremost effective and tried resistance boosters that we will adopt for a healthier life. Yoga could be a holistic follow that strengthens our body physically similarly as mentally. As a result, the body’s defense conjointly improves in such a condition. A healthy life may be simply achieved if we have a tendency to learn to adopt a healthy modus vivendi, healthy food decisions and regular follow of yoga and meditation. Ayurveda, yoga, and meditation square measure the perfect factors to measure a healthy life. Surya Namaskar or Sun Salutation could be a sequence of twelve powerful yoga poses. Besides being an excellent vas physical exercise, Surya namaskar includes all 12 asanas and it will help to the growth of the physical body as well as mental peace. Surya Namaskar is additionally legendary to possess an associate vastly positive impact on the body and mind.

Stress: A Factor For Ulcerative Colitis Flareups And Its Management

Dr. Shaini Suraj, Dr. Vaishali D. Tendolkar, Dr. Yashwant Lamture

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 13-18

Stressful life events always create a disturbance in the normal life of any organism and thus is a threat to the homeostasis.  This triggers off a physiological response which needs adaptation and response. Mild stress may subside over a period of time but if stress continues, it can cause damage and exacerbation of disease process. One such disease related to stress is ulcerative colitis.  It was first described in mid-1800s.  Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic disease with chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. It commonly involves the rectum and can extend in a proximal and continuous fashion and other parts of the colon are affected.  Though there is still a controversy over the role of psychosocial factors in the development and modulation of common gastrointestinal disorders, but researches do establish bidirectional interactions between the brain and gut, and that certain stressful life events frequently precede exacerbation of symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders. 

Intrahepatic Cholestasis Of Pregnancy: Perinatal Outcome And Its Relations With Maternal Bile Acid Levels.

Amruta Choudhary, Ranjeet Ambad, Minal Kalambe, Uravashi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 19-25

Introduction: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (IHCP) is characterised by unexplained pruritus in pregnancy associated with abnormal liver function tests (LFTs), along with or without raised bile acids, which resolves soon after delivery. Overall prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis is around 0.1-2%. It mainly affects patients in second and third trimester. Maternal morbidities related to obstetrics cholestasis are mainly intense pruritus, but in case of perinatal outcome, it has significant adverse effects like preterm birth, meconium stained amniotic fluid, respiratory distress syndrome, increased admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and stillbirth. Aims and objectives:The aim of this study was to evaluate different perinatal outcome in patients of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and co-relate it with the maternal bile acids levels. Material and methods:This was an observational study.All the pregnant patients with history of pruritus and abnormal liver function test, with bile acid levels > 10micromol/litre, who fits into definition of obstetric cholestasis were included in this study, as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: During the study period, 54 patients were selected for the study and were divided into two groups. 33 patients in group 1 with bile acid levels <40 micromol/litre and 21 patients in group 2 with bile acid levels > 40 micromol/litre. More fetal complications were seen in group 2 when compared to group 1. There was 2 intrauterine death (IUD) and one still birth in group 2 and none in group 1. In group 2 there was 8 low birth weight babies whereas there was one baby in group 1.There were 6 babies in group 2 with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and required intubation whereas in group 1, 3 babies had RDS and 4 required intubation. In group 2, 10 babies required neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission whereas in group 1, 4 babies required NICU care. Conclusion: Increased bile acid levels are related to adverse perinatal outcome and can be used for monitoring the progress of the IHCP.However,timely decision of termination of pregnancy as opposed to inuterocontinuation of pregnancy comparing the risks over benefits plays very important role in favourable outcome of pregnancy.

Jalaukawacharana (Leech Therapy) A Scientific Reviewin Ayurveda

Dr. Snehal Kukade, Dr. Vivek Dhongdi, Dr. Mamta G. Mate

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 26-36

Jalaukawacharana is the form by which blood is released in the treatment of Conditions of illness such as Psoriasis, Osteoarthria with the aid of therapeutic leeches. Modern medical science is the most acceptable and completely developed science in th entire world. but there is still not much impact on disorders such as Psoriasis, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatic Gout, Chronic Ecezema,Vulgar Acne, Varicose Vein, Sciatica, Alopecia, etc. Leech therapy may be a safe and safer choice for treating such treatment.Leech has been used as Jalaukawacharana for Raktamokshana since ancient days. Reference should be gathered from conventional Ayurvedic texts, physicians, the internet, As well as professional experience. Detailed Jalaukawacharana details can be found in SushrutaSamhitaThis illness, according to Ayurveda,is caused by vitiation of three let out the blood that helps to remove vitiated ones in Jalaukawacharana Dosha, particularly Pitta.The mode of action in leech therapy depends on the leech. Bioactive saliva containing Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic, Analgesic, Thrombolytic, antioxidant, vasodilator, anticoagulant, improvement of blood circulation Assets.  In this current study, Ayurvedic sculptures and leech therapy have been in the light of modern science, explored.

A Self-Controlled Prospective Study Between Methylprednisolone And Dexamethasone Inter-Laminar Epidural Steroid Injection In Radicular Pain For Prolapse Intervertebral Disc In Lumber Vertebrae.

Dr Ashutosh Parate, Dr Suvarn Gupta, Dr Ankit Mittal, Dr. Vasant Gawande, Dr Kunal Saoji

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 37-42

Introduction :
Previous studies have shown varying results with trans-foraminalapproach epidural steroidinjections performed with particulate versus non-particulate corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in pain relief and functional improvement between particulate and non-particulate lumbosacral (MIL) in patients who had undergone both injections through intra-laminar approach.
This was a self-controlled, prospective study of 40 patients who underwent both a methylprednisolone and a dexamethasone intra-laminar injection to the same vertebral level and side. Primary outcomes included pain relief according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional improvement determined by a yes/no answer to questions regarding mobility and the activities of daily living. Post-injection data was recorded at 6, 12, and 24 weeks.
A decrease in VAS scores of-3.6 +/- 3, - 3.2 +/- 3.2,  -3 +/- 3.1 is noted in methyl prednisolone group as compared to better VAS score projected in patients with dexamethasone group as suggested  -3.9+/- 3.2, -3.1 +/-  2.9,- 2.2 +/- 3.2 at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks respectively. 
Introduction :
Previous studies have shown varying results with trans-foraminalapproach epidural steroidinjections performed with particulate versus non-particulate corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in pain relief and functional improvement between particulate and non-particulate lumbosacral (MIL) in patients who had undergone both injections through intra-laminar approach.
This was a self-controlled, prospective study of 40 patients who underwent both a methylprednisolone and a dexamethasone intra-laminar injection to the same vertebral level and side. Primary outcomes included pain relief according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) and functional improvement determined by a yes/no answer to questions regarding mobility and the activities of daily living. Post-injection data was recorded at 6, 12, and 24 weeks.
A decrease in VAS scores of-3.6 +/- 3, - 3.2 +/- 3.2,  -3 +/- 3.1 is noted in methyl prednisolone group as compared to better VAS score projected in patients with dexamethasone group as suggested  -3.9+/- 3.2, -3.1 +/-  2.9,- 2.2 +/- 3.2 at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks respectively. 
Findings positively supports the use of non-particulate steroids for lumbar prolapse inter-vertebral disc with radicular pain in contrast of safety use of particulate steroids for one of treatment modality in dealing with localized or radicular pain

Implementation Of The Smart Industry Competences In Indian Industry

Dr. Vinod Waiker, Mr. Sarwar Alam Ansari, Dr. Abhishek Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 43-50

Introduction:  The fifth largest, fastest-growing economy in the world by nominal GDP of $ 2.94 trillion and among the top 1o countries in shares of global manufacturing output, India has become one of the manufacturing hubs along with a service sector. To further boost the economy government had taken initiatives such as “Make In India” supplemented with ‘Digital India’ and ‘Skill India’ Mission.  Achieving the target of $ 5 trillion by 2024 seems to be postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic by another two years or must be geared up for a continuous growth rate of 11.5% per annum. To achieve the growth rate double along with all constraints like inflation, unemployment, GST, low demands, low purchasing power is a big challenge. We need to look fresh to our industry, their practices, effectiveness, productivity, technology adoption, skillset and overall reform through policy to work upon the fundamental dimension of technology, people, governance, and impact to achieve sustainable growth. This paper study and analyze the readiness of industrial enterprises, especially manufacturing companies on six dimension model.
Aim: This study aims to understand the preparedness of the industry stakeholders for awareness and adoption of nine key technology components that pave the way for industry 4.0 or SAMARTH Udyog Bharat 4.0. This study analyzing the working environment of the industry to understand the workforce is ready with the technologies they are working upon. This will help to findthe gap of readiness for Industry 4.0 and to bridge them quickly to achieve a growth rate of approximately 11.5%. The industry, which is there in 2.0 or 3.0 will immediately move in the direction of 4.0 to fill the gap.
Material and Methods: The survey of one hundred fifty industry manager is carried out to understand the current implementation of industry 4.0 components.  The companies are from the Vidharbha region and mostly from Nagpur and nearby areas. The attributes required in the Industry 4.0 is considered for data collection and analysis. Cross tabulation is used to analyze the data.
Result:The study reveals that manufacturing units are more ready towards Industry 4.0 rather than the service industry. The age group of 46-55 are more active in the manufacturing sector to work upon future generation technology whereas the young age group is rarely involved and aware about the same.
Conclusion:Industry needs to be more geared up for the preparedness of Industry 4.0. As early the corporate take the move as other stakeholders will improve to match the environment. The influencing and resulting barriers have to minimize to attain the targeted growth in a specified time period.

Diet Plan In Covid-19 To Boost Immunity

Ms. Madhavi Madhukar Narayane, Mr. Abhas Nakhale , Roshan Kumar Jha, Mrs. Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 51-57

Background:AfteroutbreakturnedpandemicofCOVID-19strucktheworld,ithasshakeneverynookandcornerofthe world. Need of greater research and analysis on how we can contain this virus and prevent in firstplace.Summary:Various measures are being employed to contain the virus. The dietary factor plays a major role in influencing the outcome of the result. Certain substances which contain anti-viral properties needs more research to establish the relation between treatment and outcome after its usage. Infodemic so termed by WHO is also creating a global menace which can only be countered by true information.Conclusion:More comprehensive study is needed to prepare a diet plan well curated according to the present condition of patients after contraindications been evaluated to ensure most expected result.

Ayurvedic Management Of Apasmar Vis-A-Vis Epilepsy – A Review

Dr. Sonali Dilip Wairagade, Dr. AnujaVasant Nagrare, Miss. Tanvi Wairagade, Dr. Poonam Madan, Dr. Krutika Umathe, Dr. Abhishek Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 58-69

Epilepsy is the most common management in a neurological problems and stands after stroke and dementia in its prevalence.Epilepsy is a chief public health problem all over world. The anticipated proportion of the general population with active epilepsy at a given time ranges from 4-10 per 1,000 people. The disease and its management have high impact on the quality of life of the affected person and also prejudice in education, employment and social acceptance. In Ayurveda, the comparable presentation is named as ‘Apasmara’ has been explained with its etiology, symptoms, diagnosis and management. AcharyaCharaka has mentioned Shodhana therapy along with Shamana therapy as a line of treatment of Apasmara. In this regard, there is great potential for identifying outstanding Ayurvedic mechanism particularly in consideration of the fact that such substances may provide maximum improvement with cost effectiveness, least side effects.

Comparative Clinical Study Ofrole Of Mustadikwathghanvati In Sthoulya (Obesity) By Antaparimarjanandmustadichurna In Bahiparimarjanchikista

Dr. Sonali Dilip Wairagade, Dr. Anju P. Thaware, Dr. Prerna Uikey, Miss. Tanvi Wairagade, Dr. Anjalee Chivane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 70-83

Sthoulya(Obesity) is the major and basic cause of lifestyle disorders like Diabetes mellitus,Hypertension, Coronary heart disease. Sthoulya(Obesity) is increasing at an alarming rate in developed industrialized countries which are undergoing rapid nutrition and lifestyle transition. Obesity is one of the most effective diseases which affect someone’s social, physical and mental status. In Ayurveda; Sthoulya (Obesity) is regarded as Medoroga, a disorder of MedaDhatu, which includes fat tissue and fat metabolism. According to Ayurveda;Sthoulya begins with an imbalance of  Doshas  (Vata, Pitta and Kapha),  Agni (digestive fire),  Malas  (waste products) or an imbalance of Srotas (microcirculatory channels). This collection of imbalances then interferes with the formation of tissues or Dhatus and leads to a tissue imbalance that we experience as excess weight.
Overweight and obesity are linked to more deaths worldwide than underweight. Overall, about 13% of the world adult population (15% of women and 11% of men) was obese in 2016. The worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly tripled between 1975 and 2016. Around 5-8.8% of school children are obese in India. And if the rates increase at a pace like this, 27 million Indian children will be obese by 2030.
Now a day’s every person is running after life’s goal hence does not have time to think and act for healthy life and not able to follow the proper Dincharya, Ritucharya, Dietetics rules and regulations. Due to artificial living lifestyle, person suffers from so many disorders for themselves;Sthoulyais one of them.
Keeping in the view of above concepts, research work entitled“Comparative Clinical Study ofrole of MustadiKwathGhanvati in Sthoulya (Obesity) by AntaparimarjanandMustadiChurna in BahiparimarjanChikista”is taken into consideration.
The result of study showed that excessive intake of oily and fatty food, sedentary lifestyle, and psychological factor along with genetically predisposition play a major role in aetiopathogenesis of Sthoulya(obesity).
Furthermore it was also found that MustadiKwathGhanvati effectively helps in reducing weight & BMI ratio. The effect of study shows that MustadiKwathGhanvati provided better relief as compare to MustadichurnaUdhavartana in the management of Sthoulya

Incidental Risk Of Sthaulya (Obesity) Among Individuals Of Some Part Of Sakkardara Region At Nagpur: An Observational Study

Dr Arshiya Khan, Dr. Vijay Patrikar, Dr. Harshala Rajurkar, Sonali Bhoyar,Dr. Anjalee Chivane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 84-101

Obesity is one of the most serious health problem of current era. Affecting both developed and developing countries and children as well as adults. It’s a 5th leading risk of global death. Adverse effect of obesity affecting population in transition are hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease and glucose intolerance.  Obesity has reached epidemic proportion in India with morbid obesity affecting 5% of the country’s population. Obesity lowers the life expectancy. Ayurveda has very well explained the causes, symptoms & treatment of obesity.AcharyaCharaka has also mentioned Sthaulya in SantarpanjanyaVyadhi. At an individual level, a combination of food intake and a lack of physical activity is thought to explain most cases of obesity. Limited number of cases due to genetic, medical reasons and psychiatric illness.
Material & Methods-In this study 70 individuals are selected from our institutions on the basis of pre-obese, obese class 1 & obese class 2.after diagnosed obese individuals all were observed for demographic characteristics and the statistical analysis done.
In this observational study we can conclude thatAge between 30-50yrs, females, literates, upper middle class & lower middle class peoples, People having desk work & field work, Professional workers, Both vegetarians & non vegetarian, people having good sleep, presence of stress, people having regular bowel habits, pittakaphaj&pittavataj predominant prakriti all these factors might be the risk factors for Sthaulya or obesity

Histopathological Evaluation Of Vertebral And Intervertebral Disc Lesions Causing Neural Compression

Anita B. Sajjanar, Suman S. Gupta, Seema More, Obaid Noman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 102-107

Background: Compressive symptoms of spinal nerves is common presentation in general population. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) is the commonest pathology that leads to low back pain.Damage to intervertebral disc-vertebra interface associates with back pain and various lesions. This study is aimed at histopathological evaluation of excised specimen of cases presenting with neural compression at single or multiple sites.
Material methods: The prospective study was performed on surgically excised tissues from 75 (n) patients. Demographic data and brief clinical history were recorded.Tissue sections were prepared by using a paraffin block and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H & E).Detailed microscopic evaluation was performed, and the diagnosis was recorded. The statistical evaluation was done using R Studio V 1.2.5001 software. The Chi-square test of association was used to find the association between histopathological findings of different lesions and age, and gender.  
Results: Outof 75 cases48 males and 27 females. The mean age of subject is51 yearsranging from 24 to 72 years.The study included histopathological findings of vertebral and intervertebral disc lesions.Intervertebral disc lesions showed presence of degenerated and inflammatory lesions.Vertebral lesions were classified as benign and metastatic lesions. The degenerated intervertebral disc material was in 35cases, inflammatory lesions included intervertebral discitis (n=21) and Potts spine in (n=10). The benign lesions are aneurysmal bone cyst(n=2), fibrous dysplasia (n=1), giant cell tumor (n=2), meningioma (n=2), plexiform neurofibroma(n=1).One case of metastatic deposit of adenocarcinoma from lung (1) were diagnosed.No primary malignancy cases were found in our study.
Conclusion: Majority of histopathological findings of excised samples showed intervertebral discitis and Pott’s spine.The present study provided valuable information regarding histopathology of lesions and their corelation to preoperative diagnosis.

Mental Health First Aid And Indian Family System: A Comparative Overview

Mr. Prakash Makasare, Prof. Sr. Tessy Sebastian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 108-114

Mental Health first aid is still in infantile stage in India. The main reason being stigma of mental illness preventing mentally ill to access mental health facilities.Further the mental health first aid is required in mental health crisis such as irreversible losses and other significant life events leading to severe mental shock and mental pain. In India, traditionally the people in the family, close relatives, family friends and neighbors are usually available at the time of significant life events. The foregoing article is an attempt to identify if there is any resemblance Indian family system to psychological first aid module now in vogue worldwide.

Histopathological Study Of Myometrial Lesions In Hysterectomy Specimens.

Dr. Anita Sajjanar , Dr. Pratibha Dawande , Dr. Anil K. Agrawal , Dr. Sunita J. Vagha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 115-124

Leiomyomas of the uterus are extremely common neoplasms. The overall incidence ranges between 4% and 11% and rises to nearly 40% in women’s over the age of 50 years. Among smooth muscle lesions uterine leiomyomas (uterine fibroid) are most common followed by adenomyosis of myometrium
This study consists of 517 hysterectomies cases collected over a period of 2 years from June 2008 to June 2010 (2 years prospective study). The material was obtained from the patients admitted to district hospital in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Detailed micro-anatomic features were studied and recorded
During the two-year study period, out of 517 hysterectomy cases, the study includes histopathological proved 276 cases with myometrial lesions. Youngest was 20 years old and oldest was 65 years old. Menorrhagia was the commonest presenting symptom seen in 99 patients followed by dysmenorrhea in 49 patients, white discharge per vagina 33 patients and mass per vagina  in 53patients . Histologically non-neoplastic lesions in the form of adenomyosis was seen in 52 uteri (18.84%). Pure leiomyoma was diagnosed in 156 specimens (56.18%), whereas other 67 leiomyomas were associated with adenomyosis (24.27%).
Histopathological study of myometrial lesions includes adenomyosis and variety of leiomyomas classified based on site, size and microscopic variants. Although benign and malignant lesions of are distinct and well studied, there are some benign lesions that often mimic cancer-causing diagnostic dilemma.

Coexisting Adenocarcinoma Of Stomach With Hepatic Tubercular Granuloma.

Dr. Anita B Sajjanar, Dr. Obaid Noman, Dr. Anita B Sajjanar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 125-129

Research on carcinogenesis is growing, possible correlation between cancer and other chronic illness is slowly being unveiled. Tuberculosis, one of the commonly occurring chronic granulomatous inflammation is considered asa risk factor for development of malignancy. The pathophysiology and practical implications of their co-existence have received little attention.
We present a case of elderly male, who was treated with antitubercular drugs thirty years ago for pulmonary tuberculosis. Recently patient presented with pain in the abdomen and loss of weight. Endoscopy of gastrointestinal tract showed ulceroproliferative growth involving pyloric region of the stomach with antral thickening. Cut section showing grey white growth with two adjacent ulcers. Gross examination of liver showed grey brown lobular mass in segment eight. Lymph node metastasis was seen in lesser and greater omentum. Special stains Mucicarmine&Alcian blue were positive but ZN stain for AFB was negative.
Pathologist needs to be aware of the coexistence of Koch’s and malignancy as an uncommon event, maintaining a high index of suspicion for simultaneous and/or misleading presentations. Tuberculosis infection present in immunocompromised patient is well known. Present case highlights occurrence of tuberculous infection in the liver coexisting with gastric adenocarcinoma.

‘‘Correlation Of “Agni” With Serum Bile Acids In Subjects With Sama-Nirama Mala (Stool)”

Dr, Namrata B. Chouragade, Dr, Pradnya D. Dandekar, Dr. Praksh Kute

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 130-135

Background:- Agni is an important factor for digestion and metabolism in our body. Ingested food is to be digested, absorbed and assimilated, which is unavoidable for the maintenance of life and is performed by Agni. In Ayurveda, the term “Agni” is used as a key factor responsible for digestion of food and metabolic products
Objectives are to study the correlation of “Agni” with serum bile acids and sama-Nirama mala
Methodology:-Random Selection of clinically normal Subjects followed byassessment of Agni, Prakruti and Koshtha based on Subjective parameters, Observation of Sam - Niram quality of Malaalso estimation of bile acids in blood of all the selected participants, Correlation of Subjective and objective parameters related to Agni and bile acids.
Results:- will be drawn from the observations of data
Conclusion:- will be drawn from observations, results and statistical analysis of the study.

Neurocyticercosis In A 10 Year Old Male: Case Report

Dr. Anjali Kher, Dr. Swarnika barde, Dr. Rohini Gulhane,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 136-142

NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS: Taenia solium, also known as the pork tapeworm, causes 2 different infections in children. Infection with cystic form is termed cysticercosis, and involvement of central nervous system (CNS) is termed nuerocysticercosis. We report a case of 10 year old male child with abnormal limb movement with upward rolling of eyes. History of repeated consumption of noodles from roadside food eatries.MRI BRAIN s/o- well defined rounded cystic lesion containing tiny scolex in it as well adjacent another rounded lesion showing hypo intense rim on T2W seen in left parietal region with mild perilesional edema seen in left temporo-parietal region s/o- granulomatous lesion. Patient was admitted for monitoring. No further complications were noted.
CONCLUSION Children can acquire tapeworm by ingestion of undercooked pork containing theLarval cyst. In the intestines the cyst converts into the tapeworm form. Children are also susceptible to infection by the eggs shed by tapeworm carriers.

Replaced Right Hepatic Artery- A Case Report

Dr. Rohan A Gawali, Dr. Brij Raj Singh , Dr. Vaibhav Anjankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 143-147

The aim of the study is to note the variation in the origin of right hepatic artery.
Case report
Variations in the arterial supply of liver and extrahepatic biliary apparatus are known to exist. In a study done on 30 cadavers at Seth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai, India, during the period 2011–2012, it was found that right hepatic artery was originated from coeliac trunk in an adult male cadaver.
Variation in the origin of the artery may make it prone to injuries during surgical procedures including laparoscopic cholecystectomy, liver transplantation, etc., if due care is not taken.

Effectiveness Of Information Booklet On Knowledge Regarding Crash Cart Among Staff Nurses Serving In Tertiary Care Hospital Of Maharashtra State.

Gaikwad S, Suresh J, Dr. Swapnil Bhirange

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 148-160

Background: A crash cart or code cart (crash trolley) or "max cart" is a set of trays/drawers/shelves on wheels used in hospitals for transportation and dispensing of emergency medication/equipment at site of medical/surgical emergency for life support protocols to potentially save someone's life. Objectives: Primary objective:To assess the effectiveness of information booklet on knowledge on crash cart among staff nurses. Secondary objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge on crash cart among staff nurses in tertiary care hospital. 2. To find out the effectiveness of information booklet on knowledge regarding crash cart among staff nurses in tertiary care hospital.3. To find out the association between the post-test knowledge score and selected demographic variables of staff nurses in tertiary care hospital. Methods: Pre-experimental method. Sample size: 80 staff nurses serving in selected tertiary care hospital of Maharashtra state. Material:Information Booklet on knowledge regarding crash cart. Results: The study finding reveals that the majority of staff nurses were found average knowledge Before intervention, had mean knowledge score of 15.78± 3.25 is average and After intervention, had mean knowledge score is excellent and very good 26.35± 1.53. Effectiveness of information Booklet on crash cart among staff nurses The Student’s paired’ t’ test shows significant difference (31.56) at 0.05% level significance Hence it is concluded that The post-test knowledge scores on crash cart has shown highly significant difference in “t” value (t=31.56, p<0.05) among staff nurses serving in tertiary care hospital. Therefore, the information booklet on crash cart was effective among staff nurses.

Effect Of Pranayama In Relieving Stress: A Review Article

Sonali Bhoyar, ArshiyaKhan, Saroj Tirpude, Namrata cahuragade, kaustubh Bhoyar, Dr. Anuj Varma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 161-165

In order to preserve sound physical and mental wellbeing, Pranayama is a subset of yoga practise, is highly beneficial to humanity.Prana is defined as life or energy, Ayama implies regulating the flow of life through the body.Pranayama helps toregulate all of the breathing processes, including inspiration, expiration, and retention.Pranayama is one of the yogic techniques for healthy individualswhich can produce various physiological responses for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological conditions, breathing strategies. Various breathing habits and manoeuvres may impact the autonomic nervous system significantly and may intensify or decrease adverse reactions to stressors.

“Effect Of Yogic Exercise Module On Aerobic Capacity In Young Adult Males -A Study In Central India”

Meshram K, Biswas D, Mishra V, Meshram A, Ambad R , Meshram H .Kanyal L

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 166-173

Introduction –Yoga is a science that’s being practiced in India over thousands of yearswhich facilitates homeostasis, an ancient way of life intended to improve the quality of life, general health and fitness of an individual. Practice of yogic exercise have proposed to alter the aerobic capacity of individual. Physical fitness depends upon cardiorespiratory endurance of an individual which can be determined by VO2 max.
Aim and objectives- To assess the effect of yogic exercise module on aerobic capacity (VO2 max).
Methodology –Total forty, first year MBBS male students, age 18-20 years with normal body mass index were included in the study. Theyperformed yogic exercise in the form of module which included a set of physical postures (asana), breathing techniques (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana) for 35mins, 5times /week for 6 months.VO2 max was assessed using (AD-Instrument) pre and post interventional.
Results-Mann Whitney U test was used to compare pre and post interventional results. VO2 maxwas found to be increased after 6 months practice of yogic exercise. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Conclusion:Aerobic capacity of young adult participants was found to be enhanced after 6 month’s practiceyogic exercise module.

Therapeutic Potential Of Yoga Practices In Management Of Diabetes

Dr. Subramaniam Seshan, Dr. Ninad Nagrale, Dr. Ranjit Ambad, Dr. Shailesh Nagpure

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 174-182

In India 72 million people are suffering from DIABETES as per the record of 2017 which is expected to double by 2025. The prevalence of diabetes in adults aged 20 years or older in India increased from 5·5% (4·9-6·1) in 1990 to 7·7% (6·9-8·4) in 2016. The prevalence in 2016 was highest in Tamil Nadu. Diabetes is more in urban locales than rural parts. The reasons of diabetes happening in many is varied but the major reason is genetic. Due to this many people are becomingmentally depressed & they feel that at the age of 50 yrs,they are going to have DIABETES just like their parents. This results into stress diabetes which has become common amongst all the Indians. Medicines are commonest curative remedy in India but I am proposing through this article some remedies through YOGA. This article doesn’t guarantee 100% result but it is preventive remedy for DIABETES.

’A Study Toasses The Effectiveness Of Planned Teaching Program On The Knowledge Regarding The Prevention Of Drug Addiction Among Higher Secondary In Selected Schools Of Secondary Students In Selected Schools Of Jabalpurcity’’

Ms. Margaret Jeffrin, Dr.Vaishali D. Tendolkar, Dr. Komal Meshram, Dr. Swapnil Bhirange, Dr. Swapnil Bhirange,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 183-190

Drug abuse is a worldwide problem, not confined to either the developed on the developing countries. At the age of 10-20 years, the use of drug abuses in adolescence represents a serious public health problems.The teens who abuse drugs and alcohol are at higher risk of physical and mental health problem.OBJECTIVES 1.Assess the pre-test level of knowledge of  higher secondary students regarding on the prevention of drug addiction. 2.Assess the post-test level of knowledge of  higher secondary students regarding on the prevention of drug addiction. 3.Assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program on knowledge of  higher secondary students regarding on the prevention of drug addiction. 4.Find out the association of pre-test level of knowledge of higher secondary students with selected demographic variables
Pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test researchdesign was used to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program SAMPLE SIZE:100Higher secondary studentsPOPULATION:Accessiblepopulation SETTING :Students of AP Narmada Higher Secondary School in Jabalpur RESULT: Pre-test score(SD=3.26),Post-test score (SD=2.87) Paired value is 1.88 (p=0.05) CONCLUSION: The study concluded that the planned teaching program the prevention of drug addiction was effective method for providing moderate to adequate  knowledge  of  higher secondary students in selected schools of Jabalpur City to enhance their knowledge regarding the prevention of drug addiction.

A Review On Pharmaceutics Of Brahmya Dighrita

D Santosh Suryakant Pusadkar, Dr. Kaustubh Bhoyar Dr. PrashantSarde, Dr. Sunil G. Topre, Dr. ShaileshKumar Nagpure Dr. ShaileshKumar Nagpure

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 191-198

According to ayurvedic classical texts, BrahmyadiGhrita is one of the formulation recommended in AshtangaHridyaBalrogadhikar as medhya and Smritivardhak. It contains eight ingredients Brahmi, Kushta, Sariva, Pippali, Vacha, Sidhartaka, Goghritaand Saindhav. These drugs are mainly having Medhyaproperty. In entirety ingredient possess Tikta, Katu Rasa, UshnaVirya, KatuVipaka. Due to these properties it may acts as Kaphavataharandby clearing Srotorodhit makes the way for the action of Medhyadrugs on target cells. Saindhavlavanapossesses‘sukshmaguna’,it can enter deep into the tissue & can carry the drugs with it. Goghritapossess buddhi, smritivardhak, Agnivardhakproperty. Almost all the drugs possess medhyaactivity, hence synergic effect of these contents makes the formulation potent & useful to treat various CNS disorders. In Ayurvedictext it is recommended as Medha, Buddhi&Smritivardhak.
      In present Study it is described about the process of manufacturing and standardization of  BrahmyadiGhritain laboratory.

Indrabasti Marma Fatality In Current Scnerio: Aretrospective Observational Study

Dr Madhulika, D Tiwari, D Tiwari,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 199-206

Marma Science holds an important place in Ayurveda especially from the Surgical point of view. AcharyaSushruta has given a lot of importance to Marma describing them as physio – anatomical vital structures where concentrated life force energy (Prana) is located. Out of the 107 Marmas described in our texts, IndrabastiMarma is a shakhagat (Limbs)Marma located in both upper and lower limb. The Samhitas describe the ill effect (viddhalakshana) produced by Injury to IndrabastiMarmaas death after a peculiar interval, which is caused due to gradual blood loss within 15-30 days. In this fast-moving lifestyle, road traffic accidents are quite common.  Limb injuries are quiet commonest injuries in RTA.The present work was conducted to revalidate whether the impact of injury on IndrabastiMarma, mentioned by Samhitais applicable in today’s era.This observational study conducted on 30 patients of IndrabastiMarmaViddhata (injury)revealed that IndrabastiMarma asKalantarPranaharaMarma in maximum cases was converted to either Vaikalyakara (deformity producing) or Rujakara (pain causing) type. The fatality percentage due to IndrabastiMarma Injury has gone down in todays developed modern medical science.

A Review On Etiological Factors Responsible For Lifestyle Disorders

Dr KaustubhBhoyar, Dr Arshiya Khan, Dr Santosh Pusadkar, Sonali Bhoyar, Anjalee Chiwane Anjalee Chiwane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 207-213

Ayurveda has a holistic approach towards lifestyle disorders. In Ayurveda there are many diseases which are caused due to management of lifestyle. The burden of these lifestyle disorders is increasing day by day in the society. There are many etiological factors which cause lifestyle disorders. The life style disorders considered in Ayurveda are Sthaulya (obesity), Premeh (diabetes), Asthisandhigahtaroga (musculoskeletal disorders), Rakatgatavata (Hypertension), Hridyaroga (coronary artery diseases), cancer, psychosomatic disorders (Alzheimer’s disease), Kalibhata, Bandya (infertility) etc. These all disease is having lifestyle management causes for which they are taken under lifestyle disorders. They are rising in the society due to modernization, affluence of science technological development which leads to more sedentary life styles, which disturb the physical, mental and social wellbeing of an individual. In Ayurveda the main cause of any disease is improper functioning of the Dosha and Dhatus. And they are disturbed by the etiological factors which influence them. Tridoshas are influenced by both AaharVihar etiological factors. In addition to these etiological factors there is a main factor which cause lifestyle disorders is stress. All these factors which are responsible for the disturbance of Tridoshas and Dhatus are the main cause for life style disorders.

Study Of Shirogat (Head Region) Avedhyasira And Marma With Special Reference To Adhipati And Shankha As Avedhyasira And Sadhyapranharmarma.

Dr. Sanjivani Jadhao, DrRadha Andhare, Dr. Deepali Giri, Dr. Pratik Gilbe, Dr. Anita Wanjari, Dr. Yashwant Lamture Dr. Yashwant Lamture; Dr. Sanjivani Jadhao, DrRadha Andhare, Dr. Deepali Giri, Dr. Pratik Gilbe, Dr. Anita Wanjari, Dr. Yashwant Lamture Dr. Yashwant Lamture

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 214-221

Ayurved is science of healthy life, which has its unique and useful basic concepts. Out of these concepts, Avedhyasira and Marma-Vigyan are important structural concepts which are described by AcharyaSushrutin SushrutaSamhitaSharirsthan and by AcharyaVagbhat in AstangHridayaSharirsthan. Without studying Avedhyasira and Marma, Surgeon cannot perform skilled and perfect surgery as well as for physician it will be definitely difficult to treat the patients without knowing the perfect location of these structures. In our present study we emphasized on Avedhyasira and Marmain the head region. Specially Adhipati and Shankhathese two structures which are studying in the text as Marma and Avedhyasira are the same, which in the modern texts are given as vital parts. With the help of correlation with modern anatomy, here we try to explain exact anatomicalstructure mentioned as Adhipati and ShankhaAvedhyasiraand sadhyapranharMarma.
In ancient time AcharyaSushrut and Vagbhat have clearly mentioned these structures from which incision should not be taken and more care should be taken as they are vital parts and fatal of life. Injury to these structures may cause death also.

A Review Article To Explore The Gaps In The Research Of Ayurvedic Concepts Of Anatomy: Rachanasharir

Dr.DeepaliGiri , Dr.SonaliWairagade, Dr.SanjivaniJadhao , Vikrant Mohrir, Dr. VaibhavAnjankar Dr. VaibhavAnjankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 222-228

Ayurveda has lot to offer to the world of health science. Ayurveda is proving its mettle with the solutions which it provides to various health issues. Research in Ayurveda is also a growing field. Though Ayurveda research is still in its infancy, the Ayurveda scholars are giving their best to reach the standards of international research. Ayurveda people have been contributing in the research area with pharmacological studies, clinical trials etc. Apart from these fields of research, there is a comparatively neglected area, and that is the literary research field. Literary research is to study the basic principle of Ayurveda. Sincere efforts are very essential to study and analyze the ancient text books as it is the base of ayurvedic treatments. Rachanasharir is one of the basic branches of Ayurveda. Many newcomers in the field of Ayurveda don’t find research in Rachanasharir very interesting. They don’t find much research gaps in this branch. The present study is intended to explore the research gaps in the field of Rachanasharir.

A Critical Review Of Ojas: An Ayurveda Immunity Booster

Dr. Sarita Nayak, Dr. Shilpa M. Gabhane, Dr. Radha Andhare, Dr. Madhulika Tiwari, Dr. Sarju Zilate Dr. Sarju Zilate

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 229-234

Boosting immunity is the new requirement of today’s world. So, the factors responsible for immunity are getting the importance.  Ojas is one of the key factors responsible for immunity.  Ojas connects the mind to the body and consciousness. It nourishes all body tissues and influences the physical, psychological and emotional life of a person directly. So, an attempt is made to study Ojas and OjovahaSrotas in details including its formation, primary seat, types, perception of Ojas according to various acharyas, symptoms of its elevation as well as depletion and how to assess it practically in the patient, ways to increase the Ojasetc.  This can help to have a deep insight of the subject and can help in the early detection of the Ojodushtilakshanas. Also, diseases including Ojodushti are given collectively in order to elaborate the practical view of the subject. 
The further scope of the study includes the pre-clinical and clinical trials of the Ojovrudhhikar drug (drugs increasing Ojas)

Effectiveness Of Self Instructional Module On Cardiac Rehabilitation In Patients With Coronary Heart Diseases.

Ms.Pratiksha, Ms.Ranjana Sharma, Dr.Gajendra Manakshe Dr.Gajendra Manakshe

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 235-242

Introduction:-Cardiovascular disorders are the world's number one cause of death. A coronary heart disease (CHD) is and accounts for most of these deaths as the most prevalent form of cardiovascular diseases. Patients with coronary heart diseases and can be asymptomatic or develop chronic stable angina. Unstable angina (UA) and myocardial infarction (MI) are more serious manifestation of coronary heart diseases and are termed acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Cardiac rehabilitation is defined as “Program is designed to limit the physiologic and psychological effect of cardiac illness and also teaches the importance of life style changes to prevent recurrence of cardiac events.”Aim: - To assess the effectiveness of self instructional module on cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart diseases.Objectives:1) To assess the existing  knowledge regarding cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart diseases.2) To assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module on cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart diseases.3) To find out the association of knowledge score  with selected demographic variables.Methods and Materials: The study was an interventional research approach conducted among 70 patients of coronary heart diseases from selected hospital in AcharyaVinobaBhave Rural Hospital Wardhawere used to collect data.Results: Result of the study was Mean value of pretest is 5.34 and posttest is 17.37 and standard deviation values of pretest are ± 1.29 and posttest is ±1.65. The calculated t-value is 50.88 and p-value is 0.001 and there is a substantial difference between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores interpreting successful self-instruction module on cardiac rehabilitation information in patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusion: According to the result of this study statistically interpreted that self-instruction module was successful for cardiac recovery among coronary heart disease patients.

Effectiveness Of Hot Water Application With Epsom Salt To Reduce Knee Joint Pain In Osteoarthritis Among Women Residing In Selected Urban Community Of Maharashtra State

Ms. Pallavi Nimkar, Mr. SudnyanGawaie, Dr. Veda Vivek, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh, Dr. Vasant Gawande Dr. Vasant Gawande

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 243-254

Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common cause of pain and disability, especially in the elderly.1 Osteoarthritis is a condition characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage and remodeling of the underlying bone. OA affects almost all joints, but the most commonly affected joints are the knee and hip joints. Objectives: Primary objective : To assess the effect of hot water application with Epsom salt to reduce knee joint pain among women. Secondary objectives:1. To assess the level of knee joint pain of urban women before hot water application with Epsom salt. 2. To assess the effect of hot water application with Epsom salt to reduce knee joint pain in osteoarthritis among urban women.3. To find out the association of knee joint pain among women with selected demographic and clinical variables. Methods: An Experimental method .Sample size: 100 Urban Women. Material: Eleven Point Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Hot Water Application with Epsom Salt.Results: The hot water application with Epsom salt has shown Highly significant difference ( t=39.41 at p<o.ooo1) between pretest and posttest with a mean +SD of 2.68± 0.67. Hence it is concluded that the hot water application with Epsom salt is effective among the urban women those who suffers from mild and moderate knee joint pain.

A Quasi-Experimental Study To Assess The Effectiveness Of Lecture Method Versus Information Booklet On Interpretation Of Electrocardiogram Among Staff Nurses Working In Selected Hospital

Netranjali Agashe, Ancy Ramesh, Madhavi Narayane, Vikrant Mankar, Dr. Anjalee Chiwane Anjalee Chiwane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 255-266

Background:In medical education, lecture is one of the most common teaching method. It has been suggested that teaching methods that enhance engagement and encourage self-learning concepts leading to increased knowledge.Information booklet is one of the educational materials that help individual learning.A century after its introduction into clinical practice, ECG remains one of the most commonly used tests for the assessment of cardiac conditions. Therefore ECG interpretation is an important skill, medical practitioners and nursing personnel were expected to be proficient at reading ECG changes.Research question:Is there any difference between lecture method and information booklet in improving the knowledge of staff nurses regarding interpretation of electrocardiogram? Primary objective:To study the effectiveness of lecture method verses information booklet on interpretation of electrocardiogram among staff nurses working in selected hospital. Secondary objectives were: 1) To study the existing knowledge regarding interpretation of electrocardiogram among staff nurses receiving lecture method. 2) To study the existing knowledge regarding interpretation of electrocardiogram among staff nurses receiving information booklet.Purpose:Nurses should be able to interpret ECG and implement the acquired knowledge which helps in saving the life of the patient. Lecture method is easy to understand, motivating and encourage able for nurses. Information booklet is handy, easy to take along with nurses and can clarify their doubts anywhere at anytime by information booklet.Methodology:The investigator developed the conceptual framework based on Imogine King’s Goal Attainment theory. A quantitative research approach was used with quasi experimental two group pre-test post-test design. The subject consisted of 150 staff nurses selected by Non-probability convenient sampling technique. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used to collect the data which includes two sections; Section A - Demographic variables includes, Age, Gender, Professional qualification, Year of experience and the area in which they work. Section B, consist of 35 multiple choice questions which includes 16 image based questions. Validity of the tool is obtained from 12 experts and the tool was found valid. Reliability of the tool was established by test-re-test method and the reliability coefficient was r= 0.98. thus the tool was found to be reliable. The data was collected individually through paper and pencil test. The data collected were organised, tabulated and analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics in terms of frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and ‘z’ test.Result:Comparison of post test knowledge score of participants received lecture method and information booklet on interpretation of electrocardiogram. In lecture method and information booklet no any subject had poor knowledge score. Average knowledge score is obtained only in lecture method. 4 (5.33%) of subjects in lecture method and 15 (20%) of subjects in information booklet had good knowledge score. 37 (49.33%) subjects in lecture method and 48 (64%) of subjects in information booklet had very good knowledge score. 32 (42.68%) of subjects in lecture method and 12 (16%) subjects in information booklet had excellent knowledge score. Mean, standard deviation and mean difference values are compared and z-test for difference between two means is applied at 5% level of significance. Conclusion:The difference between post-test knowledge score of subjects receiving lecture method and information booklet, lecture method was effective in increasing the knowledge regarding interpretation of electrocardiogram among staff nurses working in selected hospital.

A Comparative Study To Assess The Knowledge And Attitude Of Emergency Contraceptive Among Eligible Couples In Selected Rural & Urban Area In Pune.”

Mr Pravin Pande Pande

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 267-274

Contraceptives provide women with a safe and effective means to avoid unwanted pregnancies or pregnancies that may place their health at risk; these pregnancies may have serious consequences, including illness, disability, and even death. Many of these deaths occur when women with unwanted pregnancies resort to unsafe abortion. Each year there are about 250 Million pregnancies globally and one third of these are unintended and 20% of these undergo induced abortion. In Low income countries, more that one third of the 182 million pregnancies is unintended; the fate of 19% will be induced abortion and 11% of this is unsafe. In low income countries, the women who do not use any contraceptive contribute to two third of unintended pregnancies, where more than 100 million married women have unmet need for contraception. Unsafe abortion has much ill effects in women's health, each year about 68,000 women die because of unsafe abortion, and millions of women end up with many complications of unsafe abortion, survey methods used for this comparative study, the sample consisted of 50, 25 from urban and 25 from rural areas. Self structuredquestionarries tools was used. The result shows that In rural group, 44% of them women had poor knowledge (Score 0-4), 52% of them had average knowledge (Score 5-8) and remaining 4% of them had good knowledge (score 9-12) regarding emergency contraceptive. In urban group, majority of 80% of the women had good knowledge (score 9-12) and 20% of them had average knowledge (score 5-8) regarding emergency contraceptive.

Impact Of COVID-19 On Mental Health Of Management Students.

Dr. Shiney Chib,Kanchan Lade, Kanchan Lade, Roshan Kumar Jha Roshan Kumar Jha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 275-286

An individual always want to cherish their College life, as it is one of the most  memorabledays of life.  But the ongoing pandemic situation has forced the educational institutes since March 2020, and classes are held in online mode.  Both the partners of this show, students as well as teachers are missing all the fun of regular classes on campus.  This paper deals with the impact of COVID-19 on the Mental Health of students pursuing MBA Degree.A Self-developed questionnaire having 36 items was considered for the study.  Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to identify the determinants leading to Mental Health due to COVID-19.  Total 350 questionnaire was distributed, out of which 327 was received back.  Multi Regression Analysis was applied inorder to find the parameter which is more prominent in influencing mental health among the MBA students due to COVID-19.

Review Article On Aspects Of Cardiac Rehabilitation

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 287-293

Cardiac rehabilitation is defined as “Program is designed to limit the physiologic and psychological effect of cardiac illness and also teaches the importance of life style changes to prevent recurrence of cardiac events.” Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive treatment given in patients with cardiac disease providing elements of health education, counseling for cardiovascular risk mitigation,Physical exercise, and stress-management. There is increasing evidence that cardiac rehabilitation decreases mortality, morbidity and unplanned hospital admission, as well as improvements in exercise ability, quality of life and psychological well-being. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients with coronary artery disease is an important, albeit underutilized, therapy. The goal of this study was to determine the relation between CR completion and resource utilization and mortality. Discussion of this analysis focuses on what constitutes cardiac rehabilitation, as well as examples its effects on cardiovascular mortality, morbidity and quality of life

The Rise And Impact Of COVID-19 In India:Aarogyasetu App

Mr. Vikrant Mankar, Ms.Madhavi Narayane, Dr. Swarupa Chakole, Mr. Vikrant Mankar Mr. Vikrant Mankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 294-300

Thecorona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which originated in the city of Wuhan, China has quickly spread to various countries, with many cases having been reported worldwide of 8th May 2020 in India, 56,342 positive cases have been reported. In India, a population of more than 1.34 billion .The second largest population in the world have difficulty in controlling the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 among its population. METHOD:Multiple strategies should be highly necessary to handle the current outbreak include computational modelling, statistical tools and quantitative analyses to control the spread as well as the rapid development of a new treatment. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India has raised awareness about the recent outbreak and has taken necessary actions to control the spread of COVID-19. The central and state governments was taking several measures and formulating several wartime protocols to achieve the goal. Indian government implemented as 55-days lockdown of the country .He started on 25thMarch 2020 to reduce the transmission of the virus. The outbreak is inextricably linked to the economy of the nation,as it has dramatically impeded industrial sectors because people worldwide are currently cautious about engaging in business in the affected regions.

Thyroid Profile In Goiter Patients

Dr. Ranjit Ambad, Dr. Pradip Jain, Dr. Ajonish Kambale,Dr. Chandrasekhar Mahakalkar, Dr. Ranjit Ambad Dr. Ranjit Ambad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 301-307

INTRODUCTION: The most prevalent endocrine condition in clinical practice is thyroid dysfunction, and approximately half of the population with thyroid dysfunction remains undiagnosed. In India, too the burden of thyroid diseases is significant. For normal human growth and mental development, iodine is an important micronutrient with an RDA of 100-150μg. Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a complex clinical and subclinical disorder triggered predominantly by insufficient intake of adequate iodine in foods. One of the most common micronutrient deficiencies globally is iodine deficiency. In clinical practice, thyroid gland enlargement is a common issue associated with iodine deficiency, an increase in the amount of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), natural goitrogen, smoking, and lack of selenium and iron. At the age of puberty, Goiter is characterized by the enlargement of the entire thyroid gland. It is found in patients who have either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism or elevated levels of TSH. The goal of the present study was to identify associations of goiter patients with thyroid hormone levels.
METHODS:The cross sectional study was carried out at SMHRC, Maharashtra India during the period of 8th January 2020 to 7th November 2020. We enrolled 144 patients (72study group and 72control group) aged 20-35 years with goiter (Thyroid dysfunction) and normal subject from Nagpur. In each patient, thyroid function test were determined.
RESULTS:The outcome indicates a substantial difference between goiter and control group individuals in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients. The study concluded that goiter prevalence depends on the higher and lower concentration of TSH.
CONCLUSION:This study concluded that goiter prevalence may rely on the degree of specifically normal and abnormal TSH levels of hormonal dysfunction. As possible predictors of goiter, female gender, thyroid nodules, and TSH levels were established. The presence of thyroid nodules was predicted by the female gender, TSH levels and thyroid volume. The epidemiological profile of the patients with goiter is warranted in future systematic investigation.

To Assess Hba1c In Non Diabetic Subclinical Hypothyroidism Patients

Mr. Dattu Vilas Hawale, Mr. GangaramLaxmanBhadarge, Dr. Pradip Jain, Dr. V. Shegaonkar, Dr. Pradip Jain Dr. Pradip Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 308-313

Introduction:  India has the highest prevalence of prediabetes, hypothyroidism, and diabetes. In females, subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is more prevalent than in men. Studies in non-diabetic hypothyroid patients have reported elevated HbA1c. Standard serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels dropping from 4.2 to 10 (mIU/L) are classified as SH.
Aim: To study the HbA1c level in the non-diabetic SH patients and to compare the HbA1c level with the controls.
Materials and Methods:This study was a case-control study conducted between September 2020 and November 2020 in the Department of Medicine at DMMC & SMHRC, Nagpur in collaboration with ABVRH, Sawangi (Meghe). For the analysis, a total of 120 participants were considered, 60 in each case and 60 in the control groups. Parents and friends of patients who were matched by age and sex were monitored.
Results: Since there was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, FBS, haemoglobin, serum T3 and serum T4 levels between the case group with subclinical hypothyroidism and the control group with normal healthy subjects, the only difference between the case and control groups was serum TSH levels.
Conclusion:Our data suggest that the non-diabetic subjects with SH show high levels of the HbA1c. Therefore, the effect of altered levels of the serum TSH on the HbA1c must be considered when interpreting the HbA1c for the diagnosis of diabetes in the SH patients

Study Of Hba1c In Iron Deficiency Anaemia

Mr. Gangaram Laxman Bhadarge, Dr. Prajakta Warjukar, Dr. Pradip Jain, Dr. Prakash Kute, Dr. V. Shegaonkar, Dr. V. Shegaonkar,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 314-319

Iron deficiency anaemia increased when iron intake concentrations, iron reserves, and iron loss by the body was inadequate to completely sustain erythrocyte development. Anemia with iron deficiency rarely causes death, but the effect on human health is severe. This disorder is quickly diagnosed and treated in developed countries, but it is often ignored by doctors. On the other hand, in underdeveloped nations, it is a health issue that affects large portions of the population.Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) represents the glycemic status of the patient over the previous three months. Previous studies have reported that, independent of glycemia, iron deficiency can increase HbA1C concentrations.
Aim:This study is aimed to analyze the effect of iron deficiency anemia on HbA1c levels inanaemicpopulation and compare with healthy individuals.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included 50 patients of iron deficiency anemia and 50 healthysubjectsas the control group. This is a cross-sectional investigation wherein cases were out-patients. Patients went to the Directly Observed Treatment Short-course focus in the Dept. of General Medicine, DattaMeghe Medical college, SMHRC, Nagpur in collaboration with JNMC, ABVRH (DattaMegheInstitute of MedicalSciences Deemed To Be University), Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra.
RESULT:HBA1cour  results  suggested  that  IDA  was  associated  with higher  concentrations  of  HbA1c.The  mean  HbA1c  of cases   was   6.81 %   while   it   was   5.04 %   in healthy control.  Application  of  statistical  test  shows  that  the difference of HbA1c  between case  and control group was statistically significant.CONCLUSION:In this study, we observed a positive association between IDA and elevated HbA1C level in non diabetic population. HbA1C rises with severity of anaemia. In iron depletion, this spurious elevation of HbA1C contributes to over or under diagnosis of diabetes at the cutoff point (6.5 percent).

Level Of Creatinine And Cystatatin C In Different Stages Of Kidney Failure

Ankita A. Kondhalkar, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad, Roshan Kumar Jha Roshan Kumar Jha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 320-326

INTRODUCTION:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health concern, and for the assessment of patients with CKD, estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is vital. Serum biomarkers, such as serum creatinine and serum cystatin C, have been commonly used to test renal function in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is necessary to recognise the elevated risk of CKD progression to delay the deterioration of kidney failure and to plan for the evolution to end-stage renal disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare serum cystatin C and creatinine diagnostic output with measured GFR and estimated GFR in patients with CKD.
METHODS:This study was conducted at SMHRC, Maharashtra India throughout the period of September 2019 to August 2020. We enrolled 100patients (50 males and 50 females) aged 40-60years with CKD stages2–5from Nagpur. In each patient, serum creatinine and serum cystatin C were determined. Serum cystatin C was measured with a particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA) method. The detection methods for SCr were the enzymatic method and the Jaffe’s method. GFR was measured using diethylenetriaminepenta aceticacid (DTPA) renal scan method.
Results: In females, serum cystatin C had significantly greater diagnostic specificity than serum creatinine. In males, no distinction between serum cystatin C and serum creatinine was observed. Serum cystatin C's diagnostic accuracy was significantly greater than that of creatinine.
Conclusion: In young and elderly patients with CKD, serum cystatin C showed a high correlation with measured GFR compared with creatinine. Cystatin C is therefore a good alternative marker for CKD patients compared to creatinine. Our findings show that in patients with mild to moderately impaired kidney function, serum cystatin C is a reliable marker of GFR and has greater diagnostic accuracy than serum creatinine and measured clearance of creatinine.

Level Of Interleukin 6, Malondialdehyde And Calcium In Hypo And Hyper Thyroidism

Rakesh Kumar Jha, Ankita A. Kondhalkar, Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad, Dr. Prakash Kute Dr. Prakash Kute

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 327-332

INTRODUCTION:Thyroid hormones are essential throughout life for the regulation of development, calorigenesis, and metabolic rate. They operate on almost all organs in the body, including the gut and the visceral, so disturbances in the function of the thyroid may have gastrointestinal manifestations and concomitant effects on the immune system on body tissues. It is possible that cytokines play an important role in thyroid autoimmune disease. IL-6 is a 26 KD protein that is produced by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, monocytes, and T lymphocytes. Typically, hyperthyroidism can cause limited serum calcium elevation. In up to 20 percent of patients with hyperthyroidism, asymptomatic serum calcium elevation has been reported and is due to increased bone resorption and subsequent release of calcium from the bone into the bloodstream.There are well-known effects of thyroid hormones on mitochondrial oxygen intake. Total antioxidant status (TAS) provides information on all antioxidants in the organism, while Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a marker of lipid peroxidation that is used to measure lipid peroxidation due to increased oxidative stress.
METHODS:The study was carried out at SMHRC, Maharashtra India during the period of August 2019 to May 2020. We enrolled 150patients (50 hyperthyroidism Female, 50 hypothyroidism Female and 50 normal females) aged 25-50 years. The control subjects and patient groups were not taking any medication that affect thyroid metabolism.Serum IL-6 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.MDA was estimated by TBA method.
Results: In hyperthyroid women's cells, the development of IL-6 by blood mononuclear cells was higher. Substantial increased levels of IL-6 were observed in untreated hyperthyroid patients relative to healthy controls (p<0.001). Hyperthyroidism may be associated with hypercalcemia symptoms. Compared to controls, MDA was elevated in hypothyroid patients.
Conclusion: We found that serum IL-6 increased in hyperthyroidism patients, but reduced in hypothyroidism patients, and normal in control group. The correlation of hypercalcemia with hyperthyroidism should be known to the clinician. These findings indicate an increased malondialdehyde in hypothyroid states, which can be clarified by both the inadequate rise in antioxidant level and the altered lipid metabolism in these cases. This may promote early diagnosis and effective intervention.

Study Of Micro-Albuminuria In Chain Smokers: A Case-Control Study

Rakesh Kumar Jha, Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad, Dr. Prakash Kute Dr. Prakash Kute

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 333-339

The major causes of cancer and death from kidney failure among males worldwide are tobacco consumption such as smoking and chewing. Excessive morbidity and mortality from a number of diseases are associated with smoking. In cross-sectional studies and in selected population samples, the link between cigarette smoke and albuminuria has already been seen. In Caucasian populations with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, it has been shown that cigarette smoking raises the risk of microalbuminuria. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine microproteinuria and other renal functions in smokers and to determine whether smoking is associated with an increased risk of renal disease.
Material and Methods: The present study included 100 subjects of age group 35-55 years. Out which 75 were cigarette smokers and 25 were normal healthy control. Microalbuminuria was estimated by biochemistry fully auto-analyzer.This study is based in part on secondary data from a cross-sectional analysis of this study population that has been presented in detail previously.
Results:In the current study, relative to non-smokers, we observed substantial increased levels of urinary albumin and urinary albumin creatinine ratio in cigarette smokers. The level of microalbuminuria and urinary albumin creatinine ratio was directly linked to smoking levels. Among smokers, 55 had microalbuminuria (> 20 mg / L) and 45 had an increased ratio of creatinine to urinary albumin. The level of urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance was comparable.
Conclusion: The creatinine ratio of urine albumin and urinary albumin is directly linked to the amount of cigarettes smoked each day. Smokers have a 4-fold higher microalbuminuria rate than nonsmokers.

Oxidative Stress And Anti Oxidant Status In Male Infertility.

Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad, Mrs. Lata Kanyal Butola, Dr. Chandrasekhar Mahakalkar, Mrs. Lata Kanyal Butola Mrs. Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 340-348

Background: one of the major causes of infertility is a defective sperm. The male factor of couple infertility is estimated to be about 25 percent to 50 percent. Sperm DNA integrity is important to successful fertilization and the normal development of embryos. Furthermore, sperm oxidative stress (OS) is associated with decreased sperm motility, decreased acrosome reaction, DNA damage and lower levels of implantation for in vitro fertilization.
Materials and Methods:  The study was conducted on two groups of 40 infertile men and 40 fertile men. Blood sample and semen sample was collected.
Result:Seminal MDA was highly increased found in infertile men compared to fertile healthy men and serum level of antioxidant are low in infertile men as compare to fertile healthy men.
Conclusion:The present study concludes that oxidative stress was involved in low sperm quality and male infertility's etiological agent, they should take the antioxidant rich diet and antioxidant therapy to boost infertility, and the measurement of MDA could be a useful diagnostic tool to assess oxidative stress.

Clinical Correlation Of Oxidative Stress Andantioxidant In Obese Individuals

Dr.Ranjit S. Ambad, Mrs. Lata Kanyal Butola, Dr. Nandkishor Bankar, Dr. Archana Dhok, Mrs. Lata Kanyal Butola Mrs. Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 349-355

Introduction:Obesity is a health and dietary problem in both developed and developing countries, Obese people have a higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, hypertensive, dyslipidaemia and cancer. This would also increase the frequency of oxidative stress due to the difference in the number of oxidants and antioxidants, which contributes to unpaired mitochondria and β oxidation, resulting in increased reactive oxygen species.Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH), and non- antioxidants such as vitamin C, E act as free scavengers, therebyreducing oxidative stress. Thus, we aimed to study Antioxidant levels in this study mainly, Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 Obese patients and 100 healthy controls and thelevels of Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E are measured before and after giving supplements.
Results:In obese patients Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were 142.15±21.31, Glutathione Peroxidase levels were 1.941±2.36, Vitamin C levels were 0.29±0.08 and Vitamin E levels were 3.906±1.31 which is lower than normal range.
Conclusion:Present study concludes that estimation of antioxidant capacity is used as one of the biological markers for monitoring oxidative stress in obese persons.

Clinical Profile Of Hypothyrodism In Indian Females: A Cross-Sectional Study

Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad, Mr. Roshan Kumar Jha, Dr. Nandkishor Bankar, Dr. Neha Bhatt, Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad, Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 356-362

AIM: correlation of clinical profile and hypothyroidism in female patients at Nagpur region
MATERIAL:This was a cross-sectional study. 220 females’ patients of hypothyroidism attending fromMedicine OPD and IPD were selected for the present study during Dec 2019 to Nov 2020. Demographic details of patientswere recorded for age. Clinical history of patients was noted in detail and their general examination was conducted.
RESULT:On basis of symptoms as per age group.Weight gain was more prevalent in patients within age group of 26-30 followed by age group of 36-40 and the numbers were less below 20 age group. Dry skin was found more in age group of 26-30 and 55 and above patients, only 3 patients within age group of 30 -40 were found to have constipation. Cold intolerance was seen in patients within age group of 26-30, 31-35 and 46-50. Depression was more common between age group of (31-35) followed by (21-25) & (41-45). Menstrual problem was common between age group of (21-25) followed by (26-30) and few cases was only seen in age group below 20 and age group of (41-45). Dyspnoea was common in age group above 55. Levels of T3 were high between ae group of (41-45) followed by age group above 50 and decreased in between age group of (46-50). T4 level was high between age group of (36-40) followed by (26-30) and low between age group of (21-25). TSH level was increased in cases with age group above 50, followed byage group of(31-35)& (21-25) lowered between age group of (46-50).  Level of TCH was increased in age group above 50 and lowered between age group of below 20. Triglycerides levels was increased between age group of (41-45) and decreased between age group below 20. HDL levels were found to be decreased with increasing age as it was decreased in age above 50 as compared to age below 20.
CONCLUSION:Weight gain may directly be associated with hypothyroidism as Thyroid hormone regulates metabolism in both animals and humans. Present findings reveal old age is more affected. Any patient presenting with weight gain, dry skin,dyspnoea, constipation, cold intolerance, depression, menstrual abnormalities should be suspected of hypothyroidism.

A Comparative Study: Incidence Of Needle Stick Injury In Healthcare Personnel.

Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad, Mr. Roshan Kumar Jha, Dr. Nandkishor Bankar, Dr. Abhishek Joshi, Mr. Roshan Kumar Jha Mr. Roshan Kumar Jha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 363-367

INTRODUCTION:Needle stick injury is defined as a type of injury, caused during improper handling of hypodermic needles, blood collection needles, intravenous stiles, and needles that are used to connect parts of intravenous delivery systems. Indeed, NSIs are most preventable occupational hazards; it is also regarded as common hazards among health care individuals.
AIM: To find out the prevalence of needle stick injury among different categories of health care workers.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: A hospital based cross sectional study, was designed to observe the prevalence of needle stick injury among various health care workers of a tertiary level care hospital in Shalinitai Meghe Hospital and Research Centre in collaboration with Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital Wardha. Study period was six months.
RESULT AND OBSERVATION:Majority of participants were aged between 25-45 years of age, which was around (n=130, 68.8%), followed by professional above age of >45 years of age (n=32, 16.9%). On the basis of work experience of healthcare personnel; it was observed that, more than 70% of the health care personnel (n=135) had an exposure to needle stick injuries.
CONCLUSION:Present study concludes that proportion of NSIs were high among HCWs, even though, having the knowledge about handling the needles and sharps. Training and management of needles and sharps must be introduced in effective way to minimize NSIs, for improving health and performance of healthcare individuals.

Analysis Of Metopic Suture In Adult Human Skulls Of Vidarbha Region: A Cross Sectional Study

Dr. Ninad Nagrale, Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad, Dr. Prakash Mohite , Dr.Nandkishor Bankar , Dr. Harsh Salankar Dr. Harsh Salankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 368-371

Background: Vertical sutures between two halves of the frontal bone that stretch from the anterior fontanelle (bregma) to the nasion are metopic sutures. It is called metopism when the full suture persists between bregma and nasion, while if only a small part persists, it is called incomplete metopic suture.
Aims & Objectives: The present study is aimed at the presence of recurrent metopic sutures in different types in Central Indian adult skulls.
Materials and Methods: The current research was carried out using 100 dry human skulls from the Department of Anatomy & Forensic Medicine obtained from adults. The skulls and their morphological differences were closely investigated for the presence of metopic suture.
Results: 100 adult dry human skulls were analysed in the current study, of which 27 (27 percent) of the skulls displayed recurrent metopic sutures. In 6 (6 percent) of cases, full metopic suture (metopism) was observed. Persistent incomplete metopic sutures were revealed in 17 (17 per cent) of skulls. In 6 (6 percent) of cases, the linear form was observed among the morphological variations. The occurrence of U shaped variation & V shaped variation was shown by 3 skulls each.
Conclusion: Continuous metopic sutures are often misdiagnosed as fractures, so radiologists, forensic specialists, and neurosurgeons must have knowledge of metopic suture and its variations.

Characteristics Of Patterns Of Palatal Rugae In Central Indian Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

Dr. Ninad Nagrale ,Dr. Ranjit S. Ambad , Dr. Nandkishor Bankar , Dr. Harsh Salankar Dr. Harsh Salankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 372-375

Background: Palatal-Rugae refer to the ridges on either side of the median palatal raphe & on the anterior part of the palatal mucosa, behind the incisive papilla. Numerous studies on various individuals have identified definiterugal trends within each group.
Aim: The different patterns of Palatal-Rugae among the individuals of Central India are studied, evaluated & documented & compared with the patterns described in the literature that can assist as an additional method of identification in cases of crime or mass disasters.
Material & Methods: Pre-orthodontic casts of 200 samples (100 males & 100 females) have been selected. The method for defining the pattern of rugae used was Thomas et al. The different types of rugae among males & females have been analyzed statistically in the literature & compared with other studies.
Results: A statistically insignificant (p >0.05) higher mean primary rugae score was observed in males (7.32 ± 2.78) while higher secondary (3.72 ± 2.24) & tertiary (2.88 ± 1.36) rugae score were observed in females. Both genders displayed predominance in the wavy shape of distribution (males= 4.76 ± 1.64 & females= 4.18 ± 1.56). Commonly observed trends converged (58%) in males & diverged patterns (62%) among females in the unification mode, which was statistically significant (p= 0.04).
Conclusions: The findings showed a clear rugal pattern in this group, relative to other individuals reported in the literature. Palatal-Rugalpatterns are definitely associated with geographic variation & may act as an additional tool for assisting in forensic identification procedures.

Ayurvedic Intervention For Autism – A Case Study

Rekha V Shinde, Sunanda Patil, Roshan Kumar Jha Roshan Kumar Jha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 376-381

Holistic health is looking beyond the physical body and is addressing physical, emotional, social, spiritual and intellectual health. In autism there is social, social, emotional, and sometimes intellectual health impairment is observed in the child. It affects boys more than girls and actually exact number of children living with autism is not known. In autistic child there are 3 core symptom interactions observed; Social interaction difficulties, Communicationdifficulties and, Behavioral problems. Autism can occur as a result of genetic mutation, environmental risk factors during pregnancy, paternal age at higher site.
The present study describes the case of childhood autism visited at Datta Meghe Ayurvedic Hospital. Child was diagnosed clinically and has been treated with Ayurvedic interventions, Panchakarma therapies and diet modification. Child has got relief symptomatically within one week of therapy started. Case study briefly explained Ayurvedic concepts regarding childhood autism and Ayurvedic treatment protocols in autistic disorder.

A Study To Assess The Level Of Stress Among Caregivers Of Individuals With Mental Disorders Attending Psychiatric Opd Of Selected Hospitals In The City”.

Miss. Nayna P. Rane, Dr. Vaishali D. Tendolkar, Dr. Ajinkya Ghogare, Dr. Pradeep S. Patil, Dr. Pradeep S. Patil,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 382-393

BACKGROUND: - Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. OBJECTIVES -To assess the level of stress among caregivers of individuals with mental disorders attending psychiatric OPD of selected hospitals in the city .To associate the level of stress among caregivers of individuals with mental disorders with selected demographic variables.METHODS - A descriptive research design was used to accomplish the objectives. Sample size: - 100 caregivers for the toolA pilot study was conducted on 10 samples to refine the methodology and find the feasibility of the study.100 caregivers  of individualswith mental disorders who fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for the main studyRESULT- According to the results,75% of caregivers have moderate level of stress and 25% had severe level of stress. Andhighest stress score were in the area of role performance with modified mean i.e. 2.15 so, caregivers may perceive challenges regarding the caring of individuals with mental disorders.

Effect Of Madhu Haritaki In The Management Of Sthaulya With Special Reference To Obesity With The Help Of Objective Parameters: Experimental Study

Dr Arshiya Khan, Dr.Vijay Patrikar, DrHarshala Rajurkar, Dr. Abhishek Joshi Dr. Abhishek Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 394-408

Obesity is one of the most serious health problem of current scenario. Prevalent in both developed and developing countries and affecting children as well as adults. Obesity is a key risk factor in occurrence of other chronic and non-communicable disease. Adverse effect of obesity to found in population are hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease and glucose intolerance. 1.3% of males and 2.5% of females aged more than 20 years were obese in the year 2008. Obesity is mainly caused by combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, genetic susceptibility. Obesity has reached epidemic proportion in India with morbid obesity affecting 5% of the country’s population. In Ayurveda Charka Samhita has mentioned Atisthaulya is in Santarpanjanyaroga.Charka has also mentioned MadhuHaritaki as one of the Chikitsa for SantarpanjanyarogaHaritaki is Rasayana, Laghu and Ruksha in Guna ,Madhura in Vipaka , Ushna in Virya , Tridoshashamaka, Anulomaka&Madhu is Sandhana , Chedana, Rukshaand Madhur & Kashaya in it may help to reduce obesity & avoid further serious health problem .  


Zebo Zafarjonovna Askarova; Nasiba Raximbayevna Saparbayeva; Madina Zafarjanovna Kurbaniyazova; Dilfuza Abdullayevna Aliyeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 409-416

The perimenopause period is characterized by a gradual extinction of ovarian function, during which hypoluteinism is replaced by anovulation with relative hyperestrogenia and then hypoestrogenia. At any stage of perimenopause, there is a high probability of the formation of menstrual dysfunction, in particular, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). The frequency of AUB
in premenopause reaches 60-70% among gynecological diseases [5, 12, 18]. Today, hysteroscopy is becoming increasingly important as a method for detecting intrauterine pathology in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. [11.13]. The pathology of the endometrium and uterine cavity is represented by hyperplastic processes, uterine body leiomyoma, developmental abnormalities (Müller's abnormalities), inflammatory and immunopathological conditions, tumor processes that are clinically manifested by abnormal bleeding, as well as changes in neighboring organs and systems resulting from tumor damage.

Phytochemical screening of Basella alba leaves extracts and evaluate its efficacy on sun burn (Sun Protection Factor)

Hema Arya; Chandra Mohan; Savita Pandey; Meenakshi Verama; Vinod Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 417-423

Plant based preparation have been used to treat illness and beautifying the skin from ancient time. Basella alba is one of the important leafy vegetable species belongs toBasellaceaefamily have been used in traditional medicine system to treat several disorders in India. Apart from therapeutic use, it is the rich sources ofmany nutrients and
antioxidant compounds which can be used to protect the skin from UV rays. The current work involves the evaluation of sun protection factor (SPF) of various extracts viz alcoholic, ethyl acetate and methanolic of Basella alba plant. All extracts were prepared via hot extraction using soxhlet and the total phenolic content and total flavonoid contents and sun protection factor (SPF) were calculated. Among all methanolic leaf extract showed the highest value i.e., 533.28 ± 0.16, 446.02 ± 0.1 and 12.04 ±0.011 value of total phenolic content, total flavonoid contents and SPF value respectively.

Immigration Issue in Assam : Understanding the Demographic Transformation after 1971 period

Nagendra Nath Gogoi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 424-430

The issue immigration has troubled the state of Assam for decades now. It has deep impact on the socioeconomic and political life of the state. Further, it is adversely affecting the demographic structure of the state; creating law and order problem wherever they are present in sizeable number. At the very outset, the native people fear that the unchecked migration from across the border, particularly from Bangladesh will subvert their way of life and change the demographic profile of the state in the near future. This paper traces the impact of immigration on the society and politics of Assam. Based on insights from the immigration discourse of Assam, the author offers certain policy recommendations to deal with the immigrant issue in Assam


Oviya M; Brigit Vaghese Eapen; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 431-440

In this review collected from the literature on usage of laser in oral minor surgery based on a Medline search in the time period between the years: 2008 and 2013, the most current evidence on laser-assisted oral minor surgery is going to be surveyed. Lasers in oral surgery are much useful in almost all surgical procedures in dentistry. More developed and innovative lasers are available in commercial markets. Dentists will be more knowledgeable if they tend to attend seminars regarding lasers to get used to the latest technologies. Laser is a monochromatic, collimated, coherent, and intense beam of light produced by stimulated emission of radiation from a light source. Lasers are classified according to different factors among which is the classification based on laser active medium such as gas, liquid, solid and semiconductor, which identifies and distinguishes the type of emitted laser beam.

Analgesic effect of dermatological patch in orthodontic Patients

Ajrish George; Naveen Kumar; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 441-448

Background:There are various routes in drug delivery system including intra-venous, intra-muscular, oral, sublingual etc. In all these routes time of action of drug, life of the drug differs. In oral route the drug is absorbed into circulation then it is metabolised in liver and then only the action of drug begins. As in transdermal patches the action of the drug is slow but has a long life i.e.., the effect of drug in the body is long compared to other routes. Dental pain is very common in orthodontic treatment due to the movement of the tooth and the pressure exerted by the orthodontic system. So this study will involve in evaluation of pain relief in patients taking tablets verses patients who are not taking tablets verses patients using transdermal patch undergoing orthodontic treatment Aim: To analyse the analgesic effect of transdermal patch in patients who are undergoing orthodontic treatment Materials and methods: 20 selected randomly after the placement of initial niti wire in mild crowding .1-4mm little irregularity index without extraction of teeth were selected for the study. Among that 10 were given trans- dermal patch (NUPATCH-DICLOFENAC SODIUM) and other 10 were not given trans-dermal patch. Pain intensity was noted using pain chart which was given to the patient and collected after 2 days. Pain was noted in time interval of 1hour, 4 hour, 1 day and 2 day. All the data were collected, which was computed and Statistics was done Results : All the data were statistically analyzed using spss software and the mean were analysed. It is found that that the analgesic dermatological patch has a good action in reducing dental pain , due to its long half life period and less systemic toxicity. Conclusion : Use of transdermal patch has a significant analgesic effect. This study reveals that transdermal patch had a significant analgesic effect and can also be used in routine dental practice.


Reshmi B; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 449-459

The outbreak of COVID-19 has become a severe global acute respiratory pandemic around the world in just a few months with an increasing number of infections and deaths. COVID-19 is a highly contagious and fatal disease. Almost everyone in the population is susceptible. The clinical symptoms of the COVID-19 are fever, dry cough and fatigue. Some patients are accompanied by symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, myalgia and diarrhea. Severe patients could even develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shocks, metabolic acidosis and multifunctional organ failure, etc. Due to the relatively closed environment of dental clinics and the unique nature of dental procedures, both dental personnel and patients are easy to get infection through currently known respiratory droplet transmission, aerosol transmission, close contact transmission and other ways, inducing mutual cross-infection. Dental practitioners are facing unprecedented challenges due to the high risk of exposure to droplets and aerosols from saliva and other body fluids during dental procedures. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of COVID preventive measures in dental practice during treating asymptomatic COVID carriers.This questionnaire containing 10 questions regarding awareness about the preventive measures were given to 100 students including interns , final year students ,and third year students through google forms and responses were collected and results were tabulated using SPSS software.This question regarding the awareness of Covid 19 ,80% of them agreed that it is caused by virus and 10 % did not agree that it's by virus. 55% of the students agreed that it can be prevented and 45% did not agree to it.So through this survey we conclude that students are more aware and cautious about this global pandemic and they will be more secured and follow all safety protocols to prevent them from any disease and treat patients without any barrier.


Oviya M; Jayanth Kumar V; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 460-472

The aim of this study is to determine the understanding regarding the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. The purpose of this study is to create awareness and determine the understanding of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called Survey Monkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students who are currently practicing in Chennai participated in the study. As an overall result, most of the participants are aware of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems. As a conclusion, awareness on the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students in Chennai is adequate but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them for a higher level. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treat their patients with more consent and awareness.


P.Kuzhalvai Mozhi; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 473-484

INTRODUCTION:The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is grouped to the genus Lentivirus within the family of Retroviridae, subfamily Orthoretrovirinae .On the basis of genetic characteristics and differences in the viral antigens, HIV is classified into the types 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2) . Before 1996, few antiretroviral treatment options for HIV-1 infection existed. The clinical management of HIV-1 largely consisted of prophylaxis against common opportunistic pathogens and managing AIDS-related illnesses. AIM : To assess the knowledge and awareness of antiretroviral drugs in HIV patients among dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional questionnaire was designed and distributed to 100 dental students. Questionnaire includes email address, questions aboutART, objectives of ART, group of antiretroviral drugs and newer drug for treating HIV infection. Data was collected, statistically analysed and results were obtained. RESULTS: Among the study population, majority (90%) aware of antiretroviral therapy (ART) whereas 9% of the study population not sure about antiretroviral therapy and 1% of the study population not aware of antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings observed in our study showed that awareness and knowledge of antiretroviral drugs for HIV patients among dental students were high. But, dental students were not aware of recent drug approved for adult patient living with HIV who tried multiple medications and whose HIV infection cannot be successfully treated.

Awareness of Precision Attachment in Fixed Partial Denture among dental students

Ajrish George; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 485-490

Background Precision attachment is one of the attachment, usually used in long-span fixed partial denture. It has historic value of advantage. It is the combination of cast-partial(removable partial denture) and fixed partial denture. It is usually used in ares of cantilever as precision attachment provide equal and balanced force distribution to the retainers. The precision attachment needs more sound practical and theoretical knowledge by the professional. So this is a technique sensitive procedure. This study involves accessing the awareness about the use of precision attachment in fixed partial denture among the dental students. Aim: To access the awareness about precision attachment among dental students Materials and Methods 206 students across different institution in and around Chennai were accessed. Survey plant an online live survey software was used in the survey. Series of questions were computed and was shared among students across different dental institutions. The percentage of each category(first year, second year, third year, final year, intern, postgraduate students) of students was accessed separately. Results The results were obtained using the survey planet software.In the present study there were of 206 participants. Of which 12% were 1 year, 22% were second year, 32% were third year, 23.3% were final year, 18.6% were postgraduates.68% of the students were aware about use of precision attachments in fixed partial dentures. Conclusion The students were moderately aware of precision attachment use in Fixed partial dentures. In the era of developing implantology students should also know about the other prosthetic replacement. This will enable the students to do a perfect treatment plan.


P.Kuzhalvai Mozhi; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 491-503

INTRODUCTION: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is grouped to the genus Lentivirus within the family of Retroviridae, subfamily Orthoretrovirinae .On the basis of genetic characteristics and differences in the viral antigens, HIV is classified into the types 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2). The HIV genome consists of two identical single-stranded RNA molecules that are enclosed within the core of the virus particle. The genome of the HIV provirus also known as proviral DNA, is generated by the reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into DNA, degradation of the RNA and integration of the double-stranded HIV DNA into the human genome. AIM : To assess the knowledge of structural biology of HIV among dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional questionnaire was designed and distributed to 100 dental students. Questionnaire includes email address,questions aboutstructure of HIV, genes and enzyme associated with HIV. Data was collected, statistically analysed and results were obtained. RESULTS: Among the study population, majority (82%) aware that HIV belongs to genus Lentivirus whereas 18% of the study population told that HIV belongs to genus retrovirus. Among the study population, majority (80%) aware that HIV genome contains 3 structural genes whereas 18% of the study population told that HIV genome contains 2 structural genes and 1% of the study population told that HIV genome contains 1 structural gene. CONCLUSION: The results observed in our study showed that awareness of structural biology of HIV among dental students were high. Dental students were also aware of enzymes, structural and non structural genes associated with HIV.


Oviya M; Pradeep .; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 504-512

Biocompatibility is the ability of a material to elicit a biological response, when applied to the body, without causing a chronic inflammatory reaction, foreign body reaction or toxicity, is related to the interaction of the cell or any biomaterial. A few materials are completely inert from the physiological point of view since, most of the components with a variety of potential toxicity. In addition, chemical reactions during cure of the material may also produce undesirable effects. In order to increase knowledge about the characteristics and properties of materials and their interaction with the biological environment, this study aimed, through literature review, guide and inform didactically professionals and academics on the importance of biocompatibility of restorative materials more direct use in dental practice: amalgam, composite resins and glass ionomer cements.


Ajrish George S; Caroline Annette Jacob; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 513-520

Background: Calculus is the mineralised matrix of plaque present on the hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. The breakdown of proteins within dental plaque releases ammonia and carbon dioxide which increases salivary pH and lowers the precipitation constant. Precipitation of the calcium phosphate salts within the plaque facilitates calculus formation. In order to prevent plaque accumulation after oral prophylaxis, chlorhexidine mouthwash is routinely prescribed. However, common side effects of brown staining of the teeth and calculus formation have been seen to occur with frequent use. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of two anti-calculus tootpastes subsequent to chlorhexidine use. Materials and methods: 90 patients with calculus formation were selected for the study and broadly categorised into two groups. Following oral prophylaxis, one group of patients used the anti-tartar toothpaste XTAR-TM (ICPA, India) with the active ingredient potassium pyrophosphate while the other used Colgate Total (Colgate-Palmolive) with the active ingredient triclosan. Within this group, the patients were further divided into 3 sub-groups: the first using only the toothpaste, the second using the toothpaste and chlorhexidine mouthwash for a week and the third group that used chlorhexidine for two weeks along with the toothpaste. The calculus accumulation on the lower anteriors was recorded preoperatively and post-operatively using the Volpe-Manhold index. All the indices and the pockets were measured from baseline to the end of 2 weeks. Results:Accessing the two week statistical data we were able to find a good prognosis in use of the potassium pyrophosphate tooth paste in comparing the triclosin tooth paste. After the use of chlorhexidine there was a little positivity at the end of second week. Among that group potassium pyrophosphate had better prognosis even after the use of chlorhexidine for 1 week Conclusion:Use of Anti- calculus has a good prognosis of periodontium along with the use of the chlorhexidine mouth wash. Effect of triclosin on prevention of calculus is minimal but when used with it has a better action. General oral hygiene maintenance by the candidates is important which act as a main criteria for the plaque formation; better oral hygiene prevent the accumulation of the plaque thereby preventing calculus formation


Reshmi B; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 521-530

Coronavirus disease caused by SARS-COV2, a potentially fatal disease has become a global public health concern. As the understanding of this novel disease is evolving, dental students and professionals should have an in-depth knowledge and understanding and should be updated with the practices that have to be adapted to identify a possible COVID-19 infection .Not only knowledge but also an update on diagnostics, treatment ,variant ,side effects will be required to survive the infection on the upper hand .Knowledge of diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still evolving, and a clear understanding of the nature of the tests and interpretation of their findings is important.The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of diagnostic tests for COVID-19 among dental students.This questionnaire containing 10 questions regarding awareness about the diagnostic test were given to 100 students including interns , final year students ,and third year students through google forms and responses were collected and results were tabulated using SPSS software.In this survey 79.8% were females and 20.2% were males. 16.2% were third years, 12.2% were final years , 34.3 % were interns and 37.4% were post graduates. 66.6% of the students know PCR is used for diagnosing and detecting viruses responsible for COVID 19 and 33.4% don't know that PCR is a key test for diagnosing COVID and detecting viruses.7-11 The study concluded the respondents had moderate awareness about the diagnostic tests for COVID-19.


Oviya M; Brunda MP; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 531-536

Personal hygiene among children is considered as the best tool to improve community strategies and intervention practices to tackle the many communicable and infectious diseases. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out. The participants were school children who are 10-14-year olds. A questionnaire was used to collect information about demographic characteristics, and then the children were interviewed and inspected regarding their general hygiene, including the state of their uniform or clothes, bathing, oral care, hand washing before and after eating, hand washing after use of toilet, covering one’s mouth when sneezing and coughing, appropriate disposal of solid tissue and unkempt hair or nails. The prevalence of cleanliness and neatness among school children was 76.7%. Furthermore, these improved with age. Poor oral hygiene (47.6%) and not washing hands after eating (47.1%) followed by unkempt hair (44.0%) were the main types of poor personal hygiene. Health promotion programmes and health education lectures should be implemented for children and their families. School nurses, school staff and parents also have an important role in teaching the children how to practice good personal hygiene.

Insilico Interaction of Bioactive Compounds from Clove againstOral Candida albicans biofilm drug targets

Sindhu priya Kuppusamy; Lakshmi T; Surendar A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 537-548

Aim: Insilico Interaction of Bioactive Compounds from Clove againstOral Candida albicans biofilm drug targets. Materials and methods: All the 3D models were obtained from PubMed and the final analysis was produced by two systems, mainly chemsketch and GOLD protein-ligand docking. Results : Here in this study we have tried to find the best compatible bio active compound of clove towards the target. Out of 5 Bioactive compounds from clove Eugenol acetate O4,O3 showed the highest docking score having h bond score to be 2.888(O4) , 2.653(O3). Conclusion: In most of the cases the docking the H bond value must be considered must be considered because the hydrogen bonds are stronger than van-der-walls bond and weaker than covalent bond as H bonds have the ability to create a bond or break a bond easily in this study we r trying to read the compatibility between the bioactive compounds and the target compound in this case its Candida albicans biofilm. Further the the research can be extended to wet lab work for further details.


P. Kuzhalvai Mozhi; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 549-561

INTRODUCTION: Superinfection is highly relevant to the disciplines of public health and immunology because it indicates that primary infection may provide only limited cross-immunity against re-exposure to a new strain of the virus. Development of a prophylactic vaccine may be more challenging if superinfection with a particular virus is common.HIVsuperinfection occurs when an HIV-infected individual becomes re-infected with a new phylogenetically distinct viral HIV strain. AIM: Aim of the study is to assess the knowledge of superinfection in HIV individuals among dental students and dental practitioners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional questionnaire was designed and distributed to 105 dental students and practitioners. Questionnaire includes email address, year of study, and questions about knowledge of superinfection in HIV individuals and various methods of detecting superinfection in HIV individuals. Data was collected, statistically analysed and results were obtained. RESULTS: Among the study population, majority of the study population (91.4%) aware that superinfection can occur in HIV individuals, whereas 7.6% of the study population not sure about the superinfection and 1.9% of the study population not aware of superinfection that occur in HIV individuals. CONCLUSION: Most of the dental students and dental practitioners (91.4%) were aware of superinfection in HIV individuals. The results observed in our study showed that most of the dental students (third year, final year, intern) aware about dual infection, types of dual infection, difference between superinfection and coinfection and various diagnostic assays for superinfection in HIV individuals.

Obesity among dental students

Ajrish George; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 562-569

Obesity is a chronic medical condition associated with various oral health problems. The worldwide prevalence of obesity is 27.8%. Since obesity has a high prevalence worldwide, it is considered and prioritized as a major issue with regard to the economics of developed nations. Obesity is a disease with multiple aetiological factors, with genetics and specific obesity-related genes playing key roles. Due to the recent trends associated with urbanization, including increased refined food product consumption, unhealthy dietary habits, and a lack of physical activity, obesity is spreading fast. Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for various systemic diseases, including hypertension, cardio- vascular disease, metabolic diseases, osteoarthritis, respiratory difficulties, and some oral diseases, such as periodontal disease.The aim of the study is to accesses the prevalence of obesity among dental students of a private dental college.The study involve acessesing the obesity of various dental students using BMI index. All the data collected was computed in excel formal and statistical analysis was done.The study was conducted to accesses a change in 6 months period. All the data was statistically significant. After statistical analysis it was found that there was significant change between the initial and the data collected six months after. Thus in the current study it was observed the mean variation of the weight, food pattern and the BMI of each students and was found to have significant higher variation.


Reshmi B; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 570-578

COVID-19 is the disease supported by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes a severe form of pneumonia. Due to the pathophysiological characteristics of the COVID-19 the particular transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, and the high globalization of our era, the epidemic emergency has spread rapidly all over the world. Human-to-human transmission seems to occur mainly through close contact with symptomatic people affected by COVID-19, and the main way of contagion is only through the inhalation of respiratory droplets, for example when patients talk, sneeze or cough.The dental practitioners are particularly exposed to a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection because they cannot always respect the interpersonal distance of more than a meter and are exposed to saliva, blood, and other body fluids during surgical procedures. Moreover, many dental surgeries can generate aerosol, and the risk of airborne infection is to be considered higher. The questionnaire was shared among students pursuing dentistry which contained a set of 10 questions . The questions were about duration , practice on PPE and how aware and protected the students are during treating the patients.88% of them agreed that the gloves they wear protect them from viral pathogens and 5% did not agree and 7% of them were not sure about it .90% of them were trained on personal protective equipment whereas 10% of them were not trained before.This study observed good awareness regarding the practice of using protective equipment during dental treatment among the respondents.

A Critical Peep into Identity Crisis in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Lowland

Dr. Prem Bahadur Khadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 579-582

In the discourses of literary analysis the theme of identity is a prominent one. As it is the phenomenon through which a human being gets access into the physical world of existence. But sometimes he/she may suffer from uncertainties and confusions into which his/her identity becomes insecure and suffers from subsequent identity crisis. The Lowland by diaspora writer Jhumpa Lahiri is such kind of novel. It was published in 2013. The plot is centered around two significant events i.e. Marxism and nostalgic sentiment of the characters. The recollections of the characters lead the readers to feel about native land. In this novel The Lowland Jhumpa Lahiri has centered her perspectives on the political aspects of postcolonial India. The novel examines lives and conflicts across India and America spanning over fifty years, leading the narrative technique of shifting between two geographical locations and the past and present. Jhumpa Lahiri’s works are a spontaneous outlet of her personal life. She was born in India; her parents were Bengali descendants, brought up on the eastern coast. This critical paper attempts to give a thorough analysis of Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Lowland. The issue of identity is conspicuous in the novel and various characters could be analyzed with respect to this. Among many characters one such major character is Gauri, an Indian woman. She became widow and married the brother of her ex-husband. When after marriage of Gauri the couple moved to USA, she started finding her unprecedented multiple (possibly present and the future) identities. Hence, the critical paper endeavors in discussing Gauri’s changes of identity and subsequent crisis throughout the narrative. The discussional article is grounded on theory of identity and its pertinent ideas. It uncovers how migration became a remarkable experience and influenced identity of Gauri.

Quest for Cultural Identity in Select Works of Toni Morrison

Dr. Prem Bahadur Khadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 583-589

The leading example of Afro- American novel writer Toni Morrison belonged to an excellent wordsmith, a political worker, a dedicated scholar and an honest humanitarian. Toni Morrison has recently earned the highest appreciations for literary excellence and for her distinguished career as an academic. She is also an economist, a Nobel Prize laureate, and a winner of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Moreover, she was also awarded with an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Literature from the Universities of Oxford, Rutgers, and Geneva. Toni Morrison's professional resume is both academic and artistic accomplishments, but her enduring accomplishment is her literary legacy. Toni Morrison's writing is completely fluid and impressive. Her novels are excavations of the human psyche by uncovering the basic elements of the humanitarian soul in its cruelest and most dark scenarios. A respected voice of an acclaimed writer such as Toni Morrison can be heard from each beat of her sentences. This critical paper is an intense exploration of search for identity and entity in select novels of Toni Morrison. With this paper an endeavor has been made how the black people; especially the so-called ‘other’ who are labeled obnoxiously by the superior whites; articulate their voices in the colonized Africa. In this respect of postcolonial discourses no other writer is as copacetic as Toni Morrison in the realm of literature of Black transnational feminism.


Normamatova Dilfuza Turdikulovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 590-601

This article reveals the interrogative aspect of question forms in English and Uzbek, including the characteristics of interrogative pronouns ‘Kim’/’Nima’ in Uzbek and ‘Who’/’What’ in English. ‘What’/‘Who’ and ‘Kim’/’Nima’ in two English and Uzbek languages by definition indicate meanings of both “interrogation”, and thus it is anticipated that the semantic characteristics of these forms will not differ significantly. When studying the semantic characteristics of both ‘who/kim’ and ‘what/nima’ are listener-oriented interrogative sentences with strong communicativity possess the commonality in English and Uzbek. It is analyzed, the status of interrogative words “Who’ and ‘What’ (WH-words) for interrogative interpretations in English and Uzbek, including the derivation of constituent questions evolves from a specific interplay of syntactic representations with pragmatics. The given examples in English and Uzbek to compare the interrogative pronouns in morphological usage verify the evident distinctions. However, one perceives many differences when examining the morphologic characteristics of interrogative pronouns ‘Who’ and “What’ in both English and Uzbek languages. In a cross-linguistic overview, we discuss the characteristic elements contributing to the derivation of interrogatives in Uzbek. It also replies in the article that WH-words can form a constitutive part not only of interrogative, but also of exclamative and declarative clauses. Based on this, characteristic of interrogatives in exclamation and rhetoric usage the question usage does not solicit an answer.

Comparative evaluation of awareness of link between oral and systemic health among undergraduate dental and medical students

Dr. Anupama Desai; Dr. Harish Kumar; Dr. Roquaiya Nishat; Dr. Shivanand Aspalli; Dr. Nagappa. G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 602-609

Background: Oral health maintenance is indispensable for the upkeep of overall health, and a close association has been found between oral diseases and several systemic conditions.
Aims and objectives: To assess the status of awareness of link between oral health and systemic health among undergraduate dental and medical students.
Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire, wherein 20 questions were asked related to oral hygiene care, practice done and association of potential link between oral and various other systemic diseases like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, myocardial infarction, respiratory diseases, osteoporosis. A total of 300 subjects were randomly selected for the study, wherein 150 were third and final year medical students and the other 150 third and final year dental students.
Results: Dental students had more number of mean positive responses and less negative responses in comparison to their medical counterparts, and this difference was found to be statistically significant. Thereby, it is perceptible that dental students had more awareness with respect to the link between oral and systemic health. Moreover, it was also noted from the responses of the first six questions that dental students had better oral health behavior, knowledge and status than the medical students.
Conclusion: Our study shed some light on the lacunae that exists in the inter-field (medical and dental) training from the undergraduate level which can be rectified by modifying the regulations.

Influence Of The Ultrasonic Irradiation On Characteristic Of The Structures Metal-Glass-Semiconductor

O.O. Mamatkarimov; B.H. Kuchkarov; N.Yu. Sharibaev; A.A. Abdulkhayev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 610-618

The studied influence ultrasonic irradiation on change the rolling charge built-in in structure lead borosilicate glasses PbO - SiO2 - B2O3 - Al2O3 - Ta2O5. It is shown that influenc ultrasonic irradiation brings about reduction of the rolling charge and improvement insulation parameter glass.

Development of professional competence of the future pedagogical teacher

Xamraeva Aziza Farxadovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 619-627

The article examines the structure and content of professional competence as the basic level of education of a teacher.Social realities and the trends in education reflecting them are characterized by the focus on specialists who are competent in their field and who have a professional pedagogical culture. Modern conditions of the educational process contain a new potential for professional development: the variability and flexibility of the educational system contributes to the optimal choice of an individual educational path and permanent professional growth. Building the logic of professional development should proceed from the laws of the educational process and the formation of the teacher's personality.

Isotherms, Differential Heats Of Benzene Adsorption in zeolites LiLSX and NaLSX

Abdurakhmonov Eldor Baratovich; Rakhmatkarieva Firuza Gayratovna; Xudoyberganov Mansur Saburovich; Ergashev Oybek Karimovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 628-639

The study of molecules adsorption of different geometric and electronic structure by zeolites of different composition and structure is of great interest to study the effect on the adsorption of chemical nature of adsorbents surface. Zeolites are porous crystals, so the micropore structure of zeolites is determined with high accuracy, their adsorption properties are physical-chemical constants, which can be calculated theoretically based on the calculation of the potential interaction energy adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbent in zeolites. These data are of great interest for the development of the theory of adsorption forces and intermolecular interactions. However, the calculation of the potential energy of adsorption is difficult due to the complexity of the crystal structure and the potential field in the zeolite channels. The high benzene content degrades the environmental and technological properties of fuels. To select a highly efficient sorbent for dearomatization of fuel, studies of regularities of benzene adsorption in various zeolites are necessary. The isotherm, differential heats of benzene adsorption in zeolites LiLSX and NaLSX at 303K were measured using the adsorption calorimetry method. The adsorption isotherm is quantitatively reproduced by VOM theory equations.

Development of social responsibility among students of pedagogical universities

Uzakov Akram Avazovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 640-651

The article discusses the definition of responsibility, defines the structure and its components. And also an analysis of the works of specific authors on the problem of responsibility, a variety of approaches and the ambiguity of the characteristics of this category. The functions of responsibility are considered: sense-forming, normative-regulating, directing, coordinating and mechanisms of perception of responsibility, a heuristic mechanism, an evaluative mechanism, a mechanism of due attitude, a reference mechanism, a motivational mechanism - a mechanism of self-control. Cognitive, motivational, volitional, activity-based components are considered

Development Of The Professional Creative Competence Of The Future Teacher

Abduvalieva Dilsora Nodirjon Kizi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 663-678

The article deals with the concept of formation and development of the future teacher's creative competence. And also considered the development of creative competence of the future teacher is a natural process of qualitative changes in components and includes a theoretical substantiation of the concept of "creative competence", its meaningful and structural analysis. The levels and the main line of development of creativity, which serve as stages of enrichment of the creative potential of the individual, are considered. Understanding creativity as a special type of human activity of an unregulated, productive, transformative nature, it should be recognized that creativity must be considered as one of the general human abilities - the general ability to create.

Temperature change in the density of states and band gap of a semiconductor

Dadamirzaev Muzaffar Gulomkodirovich; Sharibaev Nosir Yusupjanovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 679-684

In this work, the temperature dependence of the density of states is investigated using a mathematical model. The temperature broadening of the allowed bands in semiconductors is estimated. A convenient formula for calculating the temperature dependence of the bandgap of silicon is obtained using the approximation. Comparison of the experimental curve of the temperature dependence of the band gap and the curve according to the obtained formula for silicon showed agreement.

Development Of Information Culture Of Students

Komilova Ziroathon Murodjon Kizi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 685-694

The concept of "information culture" appeared in the scientific literature relatively recently. The main reason for its appearance is the increasing role of information, information technology and information activities in the life of society. However, the difficulty of defining this phenomenon immediately became apparent, since this concept arose on the basis of two universals: "information" and "culture", which are not unambiguously interpreted in the scientific literature

Semantic and pragmatic aspects of motion modifiers in discourse.

Uzokova Shakhnoza

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 695-703

This article provides a detailed description of the concept of modifier in linguistics. It is also mentioned in the artistic discourse that the modifiers of action are placed in a prepositive and postpositive form, and in some cases they are used as input. There are also examples of remote modifiers that are rarely used in English and Uzbek. In general, the semantic and pragmatic aspects of motion modifiers in discourse are analyzed in detail.

State Award And Its Historical And Legal Analysis

Abdullaev D.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 704-708

This article provides a historical and legal analysis of the emergence and development of state awards as a type of legal incentives. Certain legal rules for the awarding of state prizes in the countries of the world are disclosed. The author's definition of the concept of "state award" is given in the meaningful, functional-legal, information-legal aspects. It was concluded that it is necessary to unite the spiritual and legal organizers of this legal incentive.

Mathematical Modeling of Ink Transition of Print Product

Ulbosin Eshbaeva; Anvar Djalilov; Fazliddin Turaev; Safaeva Dilafruz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 709-717

This article describes information about static simulation, a preliminary analysis of ink perception by offset printing method on papers, including synthetic polymers. The optimal choice is obtained based on the study of the model of ink perception during offset printing on printed materials, which allows predicting the ink perception of printed materials. The results of the study can facilitate orientation in determining the composition of experimental paper in its production.

Information and technological support of the educational process as a basis for the development of professional competencies among future teachers

Egamberdiev Ilkhom Yigitalievich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 718-731

The article discloses the educational, developmental and educational functions of a didactic complex of information support.The technological approach in education involves a clear statement of learning goals and methods of their guaranteed achievement, and the competence-based approach as an output result implies a certain level of formation of professional competencies.Main aspects and features of the practical implementation of the indicated stages design of information technology of education in the formation of professional competencies among university graduates The essence of information technology of education has been disclosed Analyzed scientific and scientific-methodical literature on the problem of higher professional education, made it possible to highlight certain directions in the interpretation of the essence of the concept of "information technology of education".

The basic principles of increasing the density of multi-story residential development

Saidov A. A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 732-740

The article discusses the principles of increasing the density of residential buildings by including various types of residential buildings with high floors (16-18 floors) while ensuring a standardized duration of insolation of apartments. The necessary distances between the facades of the houses to ensure sanitary standards in the apartments and the functional requirements for the organization of courtyard spaces are determined

The Field Of Rice In The Republic Development Prospects And Challenges

B.I. Qalandarov; M.Y. Xayitov; M.A. Ergashev; M. Axtamov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 741-755

The article obtained hybrid seeds of rice using local and foreign varieties and samples for resistance to diseases and pests, shedding and lodging in field conditions, depending on biological and valuable economic characteristics, and determined the salt tolerance of the ridges on the basis of marker proteins. However, in the primary source nursery, the ridges were studied on valuable economic indicators and 10 ridges as early maturing ridges and 9 ridges as middle and late ridges were selected for use in future research as generations.

Oratory in teacher professional training importance of art

Khalikov Azam Abdusalomovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 756-762

This article analyzes the fact that the ability to speak in the teaching profession is an art, one of the leading problems in the research work of well-known scientists, its current state, the need for development, from a modern point of view. The author highlights the importance of mastering the secrets of the art of public speaking in the pedagogical activity of the teacher, highlighting ways to further improve it.

Development of professional competence in future teachers in the study of special disciplines

Khasanov Muzaffar Sadikovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 763-774

The substantiation of the content of education is one of the most important and traditional problems of didactics. Taking into account the social essence and pedagogical affiliation of the educational content, it can be defined as a pedagogical model of a social order addressed to the educational system. This model has a multilevel hierarchical structure. At the highest level - the level of general theoretical representation, the content of education is fixed in the form of generalized systemic knowledge about the composition, elements, structure and functions of social experience transmitted to students. At the level of the academic subject, an understanding of the individual parts of the content that carry specific functions in education is developed. Therefore, approaches to solving the problem of the content of education depend on the social order, the goals of education and training

Characteristics Of Attracting Investments In The Services In The Territories

Khankeldieva G. Sh; Shanazarova G. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 775-780

In this article, the ongoing process of economic reforms in the country, along with changes in the service sector and the creation of new jobs, the ongoing tradition of sustainable economic growth has provided the creation and development of objective conditions for increasing employment. Free economic zones, as an important link in the global economy, are showing their positive effect in attracting foreign investment in many countries. Free economic zones exist in different forms in different countries and are united by one feature, namely, the preferential conditions introduced in these regions. Such a favorable environment is one of the most effective ways to attract foreign investment.

The Principles Of Classification Of Composite Sentences

Makxbuba Nomanovna Raimjanova; Rano Kxudoyberdievna Alibekova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 781-787

This article raises the question of how complex sentences are presented in university and school textbooks, what are the basics and principles of their classification, what types of connections exist between the components of complex sentences, are there ways to bridge the gap between school and university teaching. It also talks about the grammatical tradition characteristic of compound sentences of open and closed structures

Improving Methodology Of Action Games In Training Athletes Of Different Ages

Tajibaev Soyib Samijonovich; Mehriddin Junaydulloevich Abdullaev; Niyazov Askarbay Tolybaevich; Niyazova Olga Yurievna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 806-813

This article scientifically analyzes and substantiates the methodology of using movement games in the development of physical and psychological training of 11-12-year-old athletes in the primary training group.

Methods For Forming The Key Competences Of The Student Pou

Avliyakulov A. K.; Khodzhaev N. S.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 814-818

The article deals with the formation of the professional competence of students of technical POU (vocational educational institution), the features of the organization of a practice-oriented educational process.

Peculiarities Of Change In Seismic Properties Of Forest Soils When Fixing Them By Silication Methods.

Vakhitkhan ISMAILOV; Yodgorov Sharofiddin Ismatullaevich; Jonibek BOZOROV; Avazov Shuxrat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 826-830

The paper presents the results of research on the use of silicatization methods to improve the physical and mechanical properties of loess soils during construction in seismically hazardous areas. It was found that the silicatization of loess soils increases their seismic resistance, and under the studied regional conditions, the effect of silicatization is significantly higher. Certain advantages of the investigated methods and the possibility of their widespread use in the preparation of foundations for construction or their strengthening in the built-up area in seismically hazardous areas are revealed.

Designing professionally oriented tasks in teaching higher mathematics

Opaeva Gulbakhar Aymanovna; Baltabaeva Rano Bekbaulievna; Izetaeva Gulbahar Kewnimjaevna; Narbaeva Raziya Dawletbaevna; Qoshqarbaeva Ramiza Muratbaevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 831-844

The introduction of new high technology in the development of the oil and gas complex significantly increases the requirements in the field of basic sciences for graduates of higher educational institutions of engineering profile. Therefore, consideration of a set of professionally oriented tasks in a mathematics course should not only establish connections with special disciplines and illustrate the effectiveness of mathematical methods, but also accumulate mathematical knowledge into a single whole, and correspond to the process of forming the basic personality characteristics of a future engineer. In this regard, this article is aimed at revealing the creative activity of students in teaching mathematics in the study and solution of professionally oriented problems and examples are given. To solve the tasks, the following methods were used: theoretical (analysis of psychological, pedagogical, scientific, methodological, scientific and technical literature on the problem of research); empirical (observation of students 'activities in the educational process; analysis of students' independent, control work; questionnaires); statistical (processing the results of a pedagogical experiment, their quantitative and qualitative analysis). The selection criteria and the functions of the POP in teaching mathematics of future engineers as a means of promoting the formation of students' creative activity have been developed and justified. The main stages, conditions and means of research and solutions of the postgraduate study have been identified in order to form students' creative activity. The materials presented in the article make it possible to develop and justify models and pedagogical conditions for the formation of creative activity of future engineers, to use in practice the methods of selection and research of postgraduate courses in teaching mathematics students of engineering specialties; The above technology helps to determine the features of the formation of creative activity of future engineers in solving the POT (professionally oriented tasks) in the study of technical processes and real phenomena as a means of integrating mathematical knowledge

Modeling The Process Of Developing The Professional Competencies Of Cadets In Higher Military Institutions

Umarov Farkhod Umirovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 845-854

Modeling the development of professional competencies of a cadet of a higher military educational institution, represented by structural and functional schemes, reveals the mechanism of implementation of the educational process in a higher military educational institution with the function of managing, modifying and evaluating the readiness of cadets for independent military professional activity.

A Cross-Sectional Study To Establish Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms For Orthognathic Surgery In Kerala Population

Dr. Rasha Nasim; Dr. Roopesh Ramakrishnan; Dr. Zuhair M. Alkahtani; Dr. Sivadas Ganapathy; Dr. Vaishnavi Vedam; Priyanka Saluja

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 863-874

Aim: The aim of the investigation is to establish soft tissue cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery in the population of Kerala and to compare the values obtained with Legan and Burstone soft tissue cephalometric analysis.
Materials and methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for a total of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) of age group 18- 25 years, selected according to the inclusion criteria. All lateral cephalometric films were traced digitally and Legan and Burstone analysis was done using Nemoceph NX Orthodontic Cephalometric Software (version 6). The values obtained were statistically analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0) and tabulated. The change in the values of different parameters were compared with the standard values of Legan and Burstone soft tissue analysis.
Results: The study revealed almost all the values as statistically significant hence necessitating the importance of this study. The norms are discussed under facial form and lip position.When the values derived for facial form from Kerala population was compared with original Caucasian norms all the values obtained were found to be significant except lower vertical height depth ratio with a highly significant difference for vertical height ratio and lower face- throat angle. When the lip position and form was compared with the Caucasian norms, all the values were significant except the vertical lip- chin ratio with highly significant values for the upper lip protrusion, lower lip protrusion, mentolabial sulcus, maxillary incisor exposure and inter labial gap. Thus a different set of soft tissue cephalometric norms was necessary for Kerala population which can aid the clinicians for diagnosis and treatment planning and the present study has formed a norm which could be used for future reference for patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.
Conclusion: COGS (Cephalometrics for Orthognathic surgery) can be used as the cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery across the world in order to know the variation from normal and to bring these values to normal or near normal by orthognathic surgery.
Clinical significance: This present study has helped to form a new norm for this population for orthognathic surgery using COGS (Cephalometrics for Orthognathic surgery) which could be useful in future for knowing the variation from normal and to bring these values to normal or near normal by orthognathic surgery.

Comparison of peri implant soft tissue and crystal bone status of dental implant placed in pre diabetic, diabetic and non-diabetic individuals

Dr. Pradnya Rajendra Khatavkar; Dr Krishna P Biswas; Dr Pritesh Gangde; Dr. Amit Kumar Mishra; Dr Rashmi Laddha; Dr Reshma Avhad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 875-879

Background: The present study was conducted to compare peri implant soft tissue and crystal bone status of dental implant placed in pre diabetic, diabetic and non diabetic individuals.
Materials & Methods: 60 patients were divided into 3 groups. Group I were pre diabetic (HbA1c 5.5 to 6.4%), group II were patients with poorly controlled type 2 DM (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) and group III were healthy individuals (HbA1c < 5.7%). In all patients, peri-implant GI, PD and plaque index (PI) were measured.
Results: In group I, there were 12 males and 8 females, in group II were 10 males and 10 females and in group III, 9 males and 11 females. The mean plaque index in group I was 2.7 in group II was 3.1 and in group III was 0.5, gingival index was 2.9 in group I, 3.4 in group II and 0.6 in group III, probing depth was 4.1 in group I, 4.8 in group II and 1.2 in group III, crestal bone loss on mesial side was 3.6 mm in group I, 4.2 mm in group II and 0.7 mm in group III and crestal bone loss on distal side was 3.7 mm in group I, 4.0 mm in group II and 0.8 mm in group III. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Chronic hyperglycemia increases the risk of peri-implant diseases, there a good glycaemic control is necessary to prevent it.

The Moderating Effect Of Corporate Governance On The Relationship Between Dividend Policy, Capital Structure, And Firm Value: Evidence From Indonesian Manufacturer Companies

Munajat Mubaraq; Sri Mangesti Rahayu; Muhammad Saifi; Ari Darmawan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 880-889

This study aims to determine The Moderating Effect of Corporate Governance on the Relationship between Dividend Policy, Capital Structure, and Firm Value. This research uses samples of secondary data of 64 companies after purposive sampling, which was obtained from manufacturing companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI) between periods of 2014-2018. This study uses the inferential analysis method using WarpPLS Software. This study found that there is a significant positive relationship between dividend policy and firm value. On the other hand, there is no significant positive relationship between capital structure and firm value. The corporate governance variable shows a significant moderating effect between dividend policy on firm value and an insignificant moderation effect between capital structure and firm value. The effect of corporate governance as a moderator is one of the authenticity of this study.

Anti-Corruption Education For Sunday School Children As A Form Of A Non-Penal Policy To Eradicate Corruption

Yanti Amelia Lewerissa; Nancy Silvana Haliwela; Lusy. K. F. R. Gerungan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 890-895

Anti-corruption education for Sunday school children is a form of non-penal policy to eradicate corruption. The purpose of this study was to analyze how the form of non-penal policies to eradicate corruption committed through formal church education, namely Sunday school by instilling anti-corruption values in Sunday school children (ASM). The research method used is normative juridical research using a conceptual approach and a statutory approach. The data collection technique used was literature study and then analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that religious institutions through Sunday School Teachers (GSM) can play a role in tackling corruption through character education that contains anti-corruption values which are taught to Sunday school children every time they go to church. Anti-corruption values such as honesty, justice, discipline, responsibility, hard work, courage, independence, simplicity and care can be clearly explained to children through the method of telling stories about Bible characters, playing and singing together. By introducing and instilling anti-corruption values from the start to children, especially Sunday school children, through religious messages conveyed by GSM, children are expected to have anti-corruption characters from an early age so that they can form individuals with anti-corruption characteristics and high integrity.

Phytochemicals And Antioxidant Of Methanol Extract Of Gracilaria Salicornia, Halimeda Gracilis, Halimeda Macroloba, And Hypnea Asperi From Tidung Island Coastal Region

Retno Widowati; Sri Handayani; Suprihatin .; Indra Lesmana Rahayu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 896-907

The research aimed to find out the content of active compound of simplicia and the ability of methanol extract of Gracilaria salicornia, Halimeda gracilis, Halimeda macroloba, and Hypnea asperi as the antioxidant. Phytochemical testing of macro algae simplicia was conducted qualitatively to determine the presence of the active compound, i.e. phenolic, flavonoids, tanin, saponin, steroid, triterpenoid, alkaloid, and hidroquinon. The test method of antioxidant activity is the capture of free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhidrazyl (DPPH). The active compounds which belongs to macro algae that are tested are flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. The results of examination of antioxidant activity showed the highest percentage of free radical capture of DPPH methanol extract of G. salicornia was 7,228%. The result of univariate ANOVA in antioxidant activity, indicating that there was an effect of concentration on free radical capture of DPPH (p ≤ 0,05) and did not show the interaction between species of macro algae and concentration. The highest percentage of interception DPPH free radical of methanol extracts of each macro algae tested i.e. G. salicornia, H. asperi, H. gracilis, and H. Macroloba respectively

Comprehensive Study Of Shadow Various Samples And Selection Of Promising Varieties

Sattorov M. A; Saitkanova R. U; Mirzaeva I. T; Otamirzaev N. G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 908-918

According to the results of the research, the average biological yield of controlled shade of Uzbek-2 variety was 30.1 ts / ha, Uzbek-6 variety - 32.8 ts / ha. The highest yields in the selected cultivar samples were observed in the samples of Competition-58/14 and Competition-64/15 and Competition 73/18 and amounted to 38.6-40.3-40.8 ts / ha

Analysis Of The Relationship Between Heat Balance And Drying Speeds Of A Solar-Air Collector.

N.Yu. Sharibaev; MaxmudovBekzod Mirzaaxmado’g’li

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 919-925

In this article, you can see the heat balance of the solar-air collector, which serves to dry the fruit, the relationship between the drying speed and the drive speed used in the device, as well as the analysis of the material balance of the dried product. In addition, the dependence of the size of the product to be dried on the drying rate was analyzed and a diagram was constructed. lgan.

Features Of Self-Oscillatory Processes In A Strongly Compensated Silicon With Nanoclusters Of Impurity Atoms

N.F. Zikrillaev; E.B. Saitov; O.B. Tursunov; A.J. Khusanov; K.K. Kurbonaliev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 935-939

Investigation of the features of the transition of self-oscillations of current from one type to another in highly compensated silicon doped with impurity atoms of manganese, zinc and sulfur is of great interest from the point of view of studying both the mechanisms of self-sustained oscillations of the current and the physics of nonequilibrium processes. Based on the results obtained and the analysis performed, it has been established that the observed self-oscillations of the current in strongly compensated silicon are associated with nanoclusters of primus atoms. A model of a strongly compensated semiconductor is proposed to explain the mechanism of self-oscillations of the current in strongly compensated silicon, taking into account the multi-charge character of nano-clusters of atoms.
It was found that the proposed model is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results.

Marketing And Information Support In Public Sector

YuldashevaSaodat Arislanovna; Giyosidinov Bobur Bakhtiyorvich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 940-947

The scientific article analyzes important aspects such as methods of marketing research in public transport enterprises, the role of information and their impact on the enterprise and the population, the prevention of traffic congestion and environmental degradation on urban roads.

Preparing Future Primary School Teachers For The Implementation Of Developmental Education

SultonovaUlbosin Mamadalievna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 962-975

A distinctive feature of the current stage of development of higher pedagogical education is the change in the target, content and technological aspects of training future teachers. The change in the goal-setting apparatus is due to the acceptance of the student as a subject of his educational activity, and, consequently, the change in the paradigm of relations between the teacher and the student in the educational process from the subject-object to the subject-subject (personal); meaningful and technological transformations should ensure the achievement of new goals. The problem of professional training of a teacher is of particular importance today also in connection with the rapidly changing political and economic transformations in the country, where the teacher is assigned a social and cultural role.

Photovoltaic Effect In Silicon With Schottky Micro-Barriers Created On The Basis Of Nickel Impurity Atoms And Spectral Characteristics

E.B. Saitov; N.F. Zikrillayev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 982-992

The paper shows the possibility of self-organization of microparticles of impurity nickel atoms in silicon under certain thermodynamic conditions. It was found that the concentration of microparticles in the volume is distributed almost uniformly. It was found that upon additional annealing, self-ordering of microparticles of impurity atoms in the silicon bulk and the formation of Schottky micro-barriers occur. The study of the I – V characteristics of these samples showed that at the points where the microscopy of nickel atoms formed, it has a diode character. The obtained experimental data show the possibility of creating photocells (PV) based on compensated silicon by the impurity of nickel atoms. To study the fundamental electrophysical parameters of photocells, modern methods and instruments were used, such as an MIC-5 infrared analysis microscope, Oxford Instruments ZEISS EVOMA 10 REM analysis, XIA-200 atomic force microscope, and X'PertPowder diffractometer. Micro- and nanoclusters found in silicon are explained by the accumulation of concentration of nickel atom clusters. It has been established that the overgrown clusters of impurity nickel atoms lead to an improvement in the electrophysical parameters of photocells.

Effective Technology For Obtaining Carrot Dye

AstanovSalih Husenovich; AbduqodirovAbduahad Toshmurodovich; RaupovaIroda Barakayevna; Makhmudov MaxmudIdrisovich; KasimovaGuzal Karimovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 993-1002

A resource-saving technology for producing natural dye has been developed. The technology is based on the formation of phase separation in the volume of carrot juice. The technological mode is selected taking into account the maximum conservation of biological active substances of raw root crops. The technology is combined with a natural dye to produce carrot powder and transparent juice used in the food industry. With a modulated juice phase separation unit and a solar drying unit, metrit developed the technology to produce a high-quality powder-shaped dye.

Introducing Innovative Technologies To Increase Energy Efficient Buildings

KamalovaDilnoza Zayinidinovna; YusufovSardorbek Azimboyo’gli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1003-1010

Energy efficiency and energy conservation are priority areas of energy policy in most countries of the world. First of all, this is due to the exhaustion of non-renewable fuel and energy resources, the absence of real alternatives to their replacement, the presence of risks and significant costs in their production and transportation

The Role Of Cultural And Architectural Monuments In The Development Of Patriotism Among Young People (On The Example Of Historical And Architectural Monuments Of The Republic Of Karakalpakstan)

Pazylova M; Dauletbaeva . A; Aytbaeva A; Tangirbergenova M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1011-1018

This article provides information about some cultural and architectural heritage sites in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, and highlights the important aspects of the development of love for the motherland among young people of these historical architectural sites.

The Study Of Shukur Khalmirzayev’s Life And Works

Sayyora Khalmirzayeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1019-1023

This article presents a systematic analysis of the study of life and work of ShukurKhalmirzayev, the outstanding representative of Uzbek literature of the XX century with honorary title of “People’s writer”. In fact, since he was a multifaceted writer, the article reveals his contribution to the development of various genres of prose - novel, short story, novel, essay, as well as drama and journalism. It is pointed out that ShukurKhalmirzayev created a new school in the genre of story in Uzbek national literature. He was emphasized as the owner of a rare talent as a result of a consistent analysis, study of the stages of formation of the writer’s work, his contribution to domestic and world literature.

The Role Of Legal Education In Reforming The Education System.

Akayeva N. A; Saydalikhodjayeva N. F; Khodjayeva D. Yu; Shonazarova N. Q.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1024-1031

The article reports the processes of improving the legal culture of young people. The role and significance of legal education and upbringing in the formation of the legal consciousness of an individual, as well as scientific and theoretical values.

“The Life Of Haji Muhammad Shahdi”

JamahmatovKaromiddin Aynilloogli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1032-1037

The article represents clear biography of Haji Muhammad Shahdi, being one of the great poets among those who were bilingual on their literal creative works including poetry, was in active position on literal poetry in Kokand and Uratepa. The datas, in his rich literary heritage owning autobiographical character has been scientifically corresponded.Along with his personal qualities, some information about his father and mastershas been referenced. Some of the reasons for getting different nicknames has been explained.

National And Cultural Lines In Uzbek Dance

Hulkar Hamroeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1038-1046

the article analyzes the use of household items in the art of Uzbek dance, their formation in modern choreographic works, their role and functions in the process of creating artistic imagery in dances, national charm, compositional techniques. The dance has a national color, which is embedded in the socio-cultural life of the Uzbek people and reflects the character and way of life of the people. It is extremely important to study the dialectical principles of the art of dance, which gives a person aesthetic pleasure, pleasure and peace of mind, romantic inspiration, in connection with the national character and centuries-old traditions, spiritual values of the people. It is well known that social realities, including the art of dance, develop in sync with the times. Like other forms of art, artistic generalization as a figurative image is a spiritual wealth that enriches human spirituality, cultivates aesthetic taste, teaches to understand the concepts of beauty, promotes national values.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1047-1057

Since the advent of public health (MPH) in the 17th century, its success has depended on close engagement with society. In the field of health, bioethics professionally bridges the gap between institutional and public policy, creating a link between achievements, responsibilities, and what needs to be done when the area of ​​responsibility prevails as the guiding principle of ethics. In this context, since public health and bioethics incorporate social and subjective determinants in their analysis, it is recommended that public health action be undertaken using an expanded and integrated view of the relationship between human and health. The essence of public health ethics concerns the moral rationale for policies, programs, and laws that protect and promote public health. Since public health includes broad social programs and public policies, issues related to justifying paternalistic interventions, equitable distribution of resources, and responsibility for health. Certain patient care measures (such as vaccinations) also contribute to public health, and difficult ethical questions can and do arise among practitioners.


Primov Muxidin Narzullayevich; Abdullayev A’zam Abdiyevich; Raxmonov Abdurauf Muxammedovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1047-1051

This article explores the role of forming ecological culture in the new conditions of developing Uzbekistan. Currently, Uzbekistan’s efforts to develop proposals for the rational use of water resources, providing clean drinking water, the treatment of household waste, the negative consequences of the Aral Sea problem and improving environmental legislation have a connection to the formation of a high ecological culture. One of the main factors in the formation of an active civic position is a rational attitude to the environment, the preservation of natural resources for future gene-rations in improving the ecological culture of the population.

Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Towards Endodontic Management Of Radix Cases

Anubhav Chakrabarty; Lt. Col. Sonali Sharma; Maj. Sourabh Sharma; Maj. Sumit Sharma; Maj SGP Sudhir Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1052-1058

Background: The main objective of root canal treatment is the thorough mechanical and chemical cleaning and shaping of the root canals. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards endodontic management of Radix cases amongst clinicians of varied experience including general dentists, specialists and Endodontists.
Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted on 267 participants of both genders. A well - formulated questionnaire of 13 questions was handed to all participants. They were divided into 4 groups. Group I were undergraduate students, group II were postgraduate students, group III were experienced Endodontists and group IV were other specialists.
Results: More than 15 years experience was seen in 29%, maximum RCTs done were 41-50 by 22%, no of Radix till date were >30 by 37%, Radix Ento molaris is more common by 80%, 1st molar is associated with Radix in 96%, 76% not maintaining data base, 55.8% feel that accurate diagnosis is management of Radix, 75% feel multiple RVG is pre- operative management, 19% feel CBCT is necessary. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: The initial diagnosis is of utmost importance, to facilitate the endodontic procedure and to avoid treatment failures. There is a need to improve knowledge and awareness in the management of Radix cases.

Assessment Of Cases Of Type I Diabetes And Oral Health Status In Children- A Clinical Study

Garima Dayal; Vipin Aggarwal; Charu Aggarwal; Mandira Gulati; Ejya Mathur; Abhishek Mathur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1059-1063

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic systemic metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels. The present study was conducted to assess cases of type I diabetes mellitus and oral health status in children. Materials & Methods: 82 children age ranged 8-16 years of both genders were selected. Diagnosis of dental caries decayed, missing, and filled surfaces/decayed and filled surfaces was done. Blood samples were collected and HbA1c values measured. Results: There were 14 controlled diabetics and 68 uncontrolled diabetics. The mean dfs score in diabetics was 0.612 and in uncontrolled diabetics was 0.431, mean plaque score was 0.71 and 0.89 in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics and mean gingival score was 0.056 and 0.215 in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). Conclusion: No difference in dfs score, plaque score and gingival score in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics was observed.

Evaluation Of Traumatic Dental Injuries In Visually Impaired Children

Garima Dayal; Charu Aggarwal; Vipin Aggarwal; Mandira Gulati; Tushyata Chandhok; Mohit Bhatnagar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1064-1068

Background: Visually impaired children suffer from many health problems which include orofacial trauma, dental caries, and periodontal disease. Out of these, orofacial trauma is the most common health hazards. The present study was conducted to assess traumatic dental injuries in children. Materials & Methods: 64 visually impaired children age ranged 4-14 years of both genders were recruited. The cause of the injury and the type of TDI was classified, according to the system described by Ellis classification.
Results: The main cause of injury was fall was 24, cycling in 10, sports injury in 16 and accident in 14 children. Ellis class I fracture was found in 10, class II in 18, class III in 12, class IV in 8, class V in 4, class VI in 1, class VII in 2, class VIII in 5 and class IX in 4 children. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: There was higher prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in visually impaired children.

Assessment Of 120 Cases Of Pleural Effusion Underwent Medical Thoracoscopy

Jagpoornima Katoch; R. S. Negi; S. K. Sharma; Sunil Sharma; Malay Sarkar; Sanjeev Prabhakar; Ranjit Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1069-1074

Background: The present study was conducted to determine 120 cases of pleural effusion underwent medical thoracoscopy.
Materials & Methods: 120 patients who underwent medical thoracoscopy in 79 Males and 41 females were recruited. Diagnostic pleural aspiration was done and the pleural fluid was analyzed for sugar, protein, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Adenosine deaminase (ADA), gram-stain, Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, culture, CBNAAT, and cytological analysis. Patients with unhelpful results of pleural fluid analysis (Light’s criteria) underwent medical thoracoscopy and pleural biopsy.
Results: 98 (81.7%) had pleural effusion on (CE-CT) thorax as 6 (5%) had mass lesion on left side where 6 (5%) had lesion on right side, 10 (8.3%) had other findings like passive collapse, consolidation, atelectasis, mediastinal lymphadenopathy. 13 (10.8%) patients had edematous mucosa on FOB, 19 (15.85%) patients had external compression on FOB, whereas 77 (64.2%) had the normal study on bronchoscopy, whereas 11 (9.2%) had other findings like anthracotic patches. 38 (31.7%) had inflammation, sago grain like nodules, adhesions on thoracoscopy, 25 (20.8%) had inflammation and adhesions, 51 (42.5%) had inflammation with nodules/masses/plaques, 2 (1.7%) had necrotic/ulcerative/other lesions on thoracoscopy. Conclusion: Medical diagnostic thoracoscopy should be considered in all patients having undiagnosed pleural effusion and fit for medical thoracoscopy

Securing Medical Data using Extended Role Based Access Control Model and Twofish Algorithms on Cloud Platform

T.Jayasankar , R.M.Bhavadharini , N.R.Nagarajan , G.Mani , S. Ramesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1075-1089

A great deal of data is generated and collected by devices connected to healthcare systems on the Internet of Things (IoT). This data is distributed in real time, is unstructured in nature, and it is also a big problem to store and process in IoT applications. Since cloud computing is so common, many healthcare providers store these EHRs in cloud systems. Unauthorized access to these medical records is nevertheless still an issue. In order to avoid unauthorised access to this medical data in the public cloud networks, many access management models, along with cryptographic techniques have been used. This article proposes Enhanced Role Based Access Control (ERBAC) and Twofish algorithm to protect IoT health data in health systems from a public cloud storage perspective. The authors believe that the proposed system will significantly aid in the efficient storage of medical data in IoT applications and will provide secure storage of medical data in the cloud based on these role-based access policies. Additionally, a clustering strategy is introduced into the paper to reduce the waiting time for retrieving relevant medical data. The clustering of clinical data is the rational underlying approach for discovering secret examples from a wide variety of clinical data. Clinicians have rendered a professional decision on the disease probability using these cases. Clustering categories, the data set of separate collections based on comparability of information in the database is larger than other collections.Thus, this work proposes a clustering method that uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) with a genetic algorithm (GA) and proposes another clustering strategy called clustering calculation, based on the calculation of the advance of a swarm of molecules. It uses worldwide improvements in PSO calculation to fill the lack of the grouping strategy.

Impact of Biological Pandemic in Critical Infrastructure Services – Are We Heading for a Cyber Pandemic?

Annamalai Alagappan , Leo John Baptist , Sampath Kumar Venkatachary , Ravi Samikannu , Jagdish Prasad , Anitha Immaculate

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1090-1111

As the world reels from the effect of the pandemic, people and organisations across have greatly been impacted by the virus. Numerous lessons are being learnt across all front. The impact has left numerous people connecting to workplaces from home across the globe. This new norm has also left many vulnerable areas in the field of security. This paper aims to highlight security issues and their impact on society at large. The catastrophic cybersecurity issues over the ages have been discussed and envisioned in today's digital world, which paves the way for a cyber pandemic making it a reality.

“Thermodynamic And Transport Properties Of Aluminium Ammonium Sulphate In Aqueous N, N-Dimethyl Formamide And Aqueous Dimethyl Suphoxide At Various Temperatures A Comparative Study.”

Pratibha G Raundal; Shaukat Patel; Sayyed S Kasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1112-1121

In this investigations, conductance measurements of aluminium ammonium sulphate in various proportions of aqueous DMF and aqueous DMSO mixtures containing 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 % of aqueous DMSO have been carried out at different temperatures to evaluate limiting ionic association constant, conductance’s, Walden products and solvated radii of the ions. Viscosity measurement of the aluminium ammonium sulphate solutions in aqueous DMF and aqueous DMSO mixtures were carried out at different temperatures to evaluate viscosity A and B-coefficients values. The density data for all the solutions were analyzed in limiting apparent molar volume (фvo) and experimental slopes (Sv) obtained from Masson equation. The viscosity data of solution were analyzed in term of A and B coefficient obtained from Jone-Dole equation.

“Comparative Study Of Temperature Effect On Viscosity And Apparent Molar Volumes Of Potassium Aluminium Sulphate In Binary Mixture Of Aqueous DMSO And Aqueous DMF.”

Pratibha G Raundal; Maqdoom Farroqui; Sayyed S Kasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1122-1133

Viscosity B coefficients and apparent molar volumes (фv) for potassium aluminium sulphate in pure Dimethylformamide (DMF) and pure Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and also aqueous Dimethylformamide (DMF) and aqueous Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were studied from density (ρ) and viscosity (η) at various temperatures as 308.15, 313.15, 318.15 and 323.15 K with help of bicapillary pycnometer and Ubbelohde viscometer instruments respectively.

“Analysis Of Joint Distributions Of Queue Sizes By Using Mobile Network”

Ompal Singh; Akanksha .; Rudraman .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1134-1140

This paper represents a number of stochastic decomposition properties for the general holiday model with respect to queue size and incomplete work, then consider an entire service system with multiple holidays, analysis of vacation cycle, queue size, incomplete work, waiting time In FCFS, LCFS and ROS systems and time dependent processes. The rule to eliminate the holiday period, dependent on each holiday model, should approximate the process of future arrivals.

Prevalence Of Facultative Anaerobic Bacteria In Bacterial Vaginosis As A Risk Factor For Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Bijoylakshmi Dewasy; Anjana Singh; Hanoon P Pokharel; Tara Kafle

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1141-1153

Introduction: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition characterized by raised vaginal pH and milky discharge. This condition is associated with an alteration of the normal vaginal flora by a mixed flora of aerobic, anaerobic and microaerophilic species. This condition is simple to treat, however It can lead on to complications like miscarriage, pre term delivery, low birth weight baby, premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, postpartum endometritis, vaginal cuff cellulitis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Objective :To find the prevalence of anaerobic organisms in women suffering from bacterial vaginosis. Methodology: Hospital based Prospective cross-sectional study has been conducted in the Department of Microbiology. Patients with Bacterial Vaginosis, Visited in Obstetrics & Gynaecology, department of Birat Medical College and Teaching Hospital. Total number of cases included in the study was 613. A high vaginal swabs (HVS) was collected. Amsel’s criteria, Nugent score and culture were performed.
Results: The examination of 613 High Vaginal Swab of pregnant and nonpregnant reproductive age group women with symptomatic and asymptomatic vaginal discharge. The prevalence of an anaerobes in BV ware Gardnerella vaginalis 172(28.1%) based on Amsel’s criteria, Nugent score and culture. Mobiluncus Spp.384 (56.8%) based on Amsel’s criteria and Nugent score. The highest number of an anaerobes in BV cases was seen among 25-39 Years age group 216 (35.2%) and least number of an anaerobes in BV cases were seen in patients with age groups 40-59 Years 163 (26.6%) and 15-24 Years 156(25.4%). Conclusion: This finding suggests that the colonization of facultative anaerobes is also more important in vaginal ecology. So, similar studies must be carried out to improve the health status of women and preventing the risk posed towards BV. It is concluded that anaerobic bacteria are important pathogens in the causation of Bacterial Vaginosis along with other organisms.

Serum Calcium-Magnesium Ratio In Patients With Senile Cataract At A Tertiary Care Hospital In Puducherry Population

Ramachandran Kaliaperumal; Ramesh Venkatachalam; Prithiviraj Nagarajan; Satheesh Kumar Sabapathy; Kumar Rangarajalu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1154-1160

Background: Cataract is a leading cause of visual impairment and the senile cataract is
the most common type. The role of Serum calcium to magnesium ratio (Ca-Mg ratio) in
the pathogenesis of age-related or senile cataract remains unclear.
Objectives: The objective of the present study is to estimate serum calcium, magnesium
and their ratio levels in Senile cataract patients compared to normal healthy individual
without cataract and to find out association of serum magnesium and calcium-magnesium
ratio with risk of senile cataract.
Subjects and methods: This case-control study consists of 90 Age-related cataracts (ARC)
as cases and 90 age and gender matched normal healthy individuals without cataract as
controls (age group above 45 years). The ARC patients were sub-grouped into nuclear
cataract (NC), cortical cataract (CC), posterior sub-capsular cataract (PSC) and mixed
cataract according to WHO cataract grading system. Serum calcium was determined by
Arsenazo III method and serum magnesium by xylidyl blue method using Hitachi 902
Results: The study shows significantly decreased concentration of serum magnesium and
increased concentration of calcium-magnesium ratio (p<0.001) in ARC when compared to
control. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of serum
magnesium with calcium was observed. Serum calcium-magnesium ratio was statistically
identified as risk factors in ARC patients by using Multivariate logistic regression analysis
(odds ratio, 5.177; 95% confidence interval, 0.483–2.805; p=0.006).
Conclusion: Decreased serum magnesium concentration and increased serum calciummagnesium
ratio were significantly associated with a high risk of cataract formation in
patients with age-related cataract.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1161-1170

In this paper, we present an outline of some factors impact while buying mutual fund. We deliberate level of satisfaction with respect in investors referred here as mutual fund. In precise, our motivation is to responsiveness of investing mutual fund. An efficient financial sector mobilizes savings and allocates it to those investments which yield the highest rate of return. Savings are the difference between income and consumption of mutual fund industry. An increase in the volume of real domestic savings means that resources that would have been used for consumption are released for investment. India has high level of saving rate because of high level of saving motives. Everyone seems to understand the basic principle of investment. Investment means the purchase by an individual of a financial or real asset that produces a return proportion to the risk assumed over some future investment period, for achieving this investor has to decide on how and where to deploy his/her saving. Saving motive is a desire to reserve certain mixture of income for future. The main objective of investor is to invest in different speculation avenues that deliver expected returns and help to chance the risk in future. There should be some motives for making investments. Employees give more importance to create more stand-in to meet the risk in future.We have categorised investors opinion regarding major deficiencies in the working of the mutual fund industry. We have given the opinion from the investors that can help in the deficiencies mutual fund. This means that retail investors will opt for mutual funds. Mutual funds saw record resource mobilization as investors lined up to take advantage of the stock market boom. The study was descriptive in nature. A structured questionnaire was distributed to all respondent. It was divided into two parts. The first one is demographic information; the second part was framed to know the infrastructure, Customer satisfaction and performance in mutual fund. In this Excel and SPSS statistical tool was used to analysis the data and findings were presented through graphs and charts with interpretation.


Dr.Vanishree C.T., Dr.parulkumari Bhati, Dr.Allampradhu Gudda, Dr.D Asokk

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1171-1184

Employee association is among the main aspects of workplace growth, competitiveness and efficacy. Strong relationships with workers benefit from deeply dedicated, inspired and trustworthy staff through organisations. Each company's performance depends on the personnel's talents and capabilities and its ability. The efficacy of company performance can mainly be affected by the way hiring managers build a good working atmosphere growing meets the feelings duties of people. To allow any companies to thrive smoothly, a sound partnership is important. The word "Community Affairs" represents the marriage of management and staff, it is needed to construct a healthy atmosphere in the organisation because of an easy contact between being a staff member as well as the staff. A staff should have optimistic and essential input for the improvement of the work results. It's very crucial to be grateful to them and loyalty. Accountability which add value to the organization as well as the organisation". The following study document should analyze the impact that the corporate policy has on company organization’s Healthy Industrial combination rather than how firms overcome the intrinsic central operational with the competing competitive stresses related with the efficiencies and lengthy efficiencies of the employment contract workers.


Dr. Allampradhu Gudda., Dr.Vanishree C.T., Dr D Asokk, Dr.parulkumari Bhati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1185-1199

Employee Remuneration promotes the pursuit of operational and simple organisational priorities by ensuring that a certain organisation has a trained and empowered employee. The efficient rewards scheme improves job satisfaction and the level of success, thus increasing the productivity of the business. Each customer requires its very own despite the beneficial, but is still an essential motivational component and draws new workers to the firm. Private companies now experience and try to optimize the utilization of social and economic infrastructure to prevent big social challenges. The Human Resource Management departments were some of the most valuable assets which significantly affect the organization’s achievement. In order to ensure better and reliable outcomes for the workers and businesses, the paper analyses the effects of remuneration on the work of the workers and their relationships. The work focused on analyzing and recognizing how to submit, how to improve the recompense procedure for workers and how necessary it is to consider the success of shareholders and customers.


Dr D Asokk, Dr. Allampradhu Gudda, Dr.parulkumari Bhati, Dr.Vanishree C.T

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1200-1212

The participation of workers in decision making plays an important role in businesses as it influences quality and competitiveness. The engagement of workers is part of a corporate activation mechanism. Participation in group settings is the emotionally and physically participation of individuals who inspire employees to volunteer and accept responsibility for collective purposes. When workers are quickly engaged in decision-making, providing a healthy work place, growing their dedication to decision-making and happiness and also increasing the customer's morality, as they feel acknowledged, are a part of its Organisation. community, and the immediate outcome of all that quality of personnel. The paper suggested that workers be provided with the requisite expertise and sufficient preparation to encourage ingenuity and advancement in decisions and behaviors in order to increase the competitiveness of their company. This research aimed at assessing the effects of employee engagement on corporate success as well as the regulating influence of corporate engagement on corporate social responsibility and corporate productivity.

The Barriers of Policy Implementation of Handling Covid-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

Sitti Aminah; Hotnier Sipahutar; Tomo HS; Josep .; Tini Apriani; Siti Maemunah; Agustinus Hartopo; Muhamad Ismail

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1222-1241

The study aims to describe and analyze the implementation of policies for handling Covid-19 and its obstacles. The review uses qualitative methods with data collection techniques based on literature studies sourced from journals, online media and print media, reports from agencies, survey results, and expert input in focus group discussions. The study found that policy implementation was less than optimal due to the slow response of the Government at the beginning of the pandemic, causing the policy to handle Covid-19 to be late, inconsistencies in policies to restrict activities across countries, and procedures made it difficult for local governments to propose the implementation of large-scale social restrictions in their areas. Barriers to policy implementation include bureaucratic, structural constraints, the sub-optimal organizational performance of the Covid-19 Task Force in the regions; weak coordination between central and regional governments; unsynchronized regulations between ministries. Second, barriers to public communication, namely misalignment of statements between public officials, invalid socialization, and weak efforts to overcome misinformation and fake news from Covid-19. Resource constraints, limited health personnel, personal protective equipment, medical masks, expensive Covid-19 test costs, and unequal laboratory availability. Furthermore, not all local governments are obedient to implementing the Covid-19 handling policy and the low level of citizen compliance in the disposition aspect. Finally, government officials have not adopted a crisis leadership style for swift and decisive decision-making and action. The recommendations proposed are increasing the role of the Ministry of the interior in improving central and regional coordination, synchronizing regulations between ministries, as well as revising rules regarding the formation of a Covid-19 Handling Task Force, preparing officers and completeness of personal protective equipment as well as the availability of medical masks, and ensuring affordability of test prices Covid-19 for residents. Law enforcement regarding the spread of fake news and citizen non-compliance by establishing local regulations that impose sanctions.

Real-Time Measurement Of Psychological Impact Due To E- Learning; Among The Undergraduate Dental Students During Covid-19

H.M. Owais Nasim; Azeem Ul Yaqin Syed; Laraib Qamar; Saba Saleem; Zainab Javaid; Ayesha Khalid; Muhammad Sohail Zafar; Nausheen Aga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1242-1251

Objectives: To assess the psychological factors in undergraduate dental students towards elearning
in clinical skills education compared to traditional teaching methods and their
relationship with performance during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: In this study, survey conducted among 494undergraduate dental students of all four
sessions from different dental universities within the Pakistan. Total 494 undergraduate
dental students responded to a 28-question online survey to identify e- learning is more
convenient and practical than traditional learning and to measure it 5- point Likert Scale used.
To measure level of psychological impact, Hamilton Anxiety Scale used due to e-learning
among undergraduate dental students.
Results: The majority of undergraduate dental student’s responded e-learning is not
convenient and practical than traditional learning system. The majority of undergraduate
dental students reported very severe level of psychological impact due to e-learning and closing
of institutions during COVID-19 pandemic. Results are statistically significant and analyzed
on IBM SPSS version 23. There are 82% students responded having problem with e-learning
system and among them 58 % have very severe anxiety and 24% have severe anxiety. So the
results shows increased percentage of anxiety due e-learning.
Conclusion: Dental students expressed a higher level of comfort and effective learning in a
recognizable, conventional classroom circumstance. Teaching with traditional system
improves student’s critical thinking skills and formulates opinions or arguments by engaging in
live discussions. This study reveals that students face challenges in using the e-learning
resources because of incompetency in the IT skills, lack of motivation and access to proper
internet. The most important issue identified by this study is maintaining an effective
interaction with dental students in e-learning system of teaching to fill the gap between the
teacher and students. There should be further flexibility workload and learning time tostudents to reduce the level of anxiety among the dental students.

Case Preferences In Choosing Consious Sedation Versus General Anesthesia Amongst Pediatric Dentists: A Research Survey

Dr. Sravanthi Veeramachaneni; Dr. Sandeep Dande; Dr. Tulluru Ajay Mohan; Dr. Mohammed Muzammil Khan; Dr. DilipKumar. S; Dr Shilpi Verma; Dr. Priyanka Parhad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1252-1257

Aim: Purpose of our research was to assess the preference of pediatric dentists to carry out
treatment with either conscious sedation or with general anesthesia.
Methodology: 50 children were selected for your study who did not have any previous
medical conditions. Patients requiring complete dental treatment were treated under GA,
those requiring one or two procedures were under conscious sedation. The two groups of
patients were evaluated in terms of vital signs, duration of the treatment procedure, patient
behavior, recovery time and comfort experienced by the dentists and the anesthesiologists.
Results: Dentists in sedation group were anxious, uncomfortable and restless during
implementation of dental treatment. During dental procedure under sedation, some
interruption has been noted in few cases such as vomiting during the procedure (3 cases).
Those who vomited, during the procedure, their heads were turned to one side, the
procedure was discontinued immediately (to prevent aspiration), and the patients were
referred for treatment under GA.
Conclusion: Dental treatment under CS can be successful with little or no complications if
the cases are well selected by qualified trained dentist.

Dietary Habits And Periodontal Health In Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Study

Arwa Abdullah Alsyefi; Dr. Mohammed Alasqah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1258-1270

Aim: The purpose of our research was to highlight the importance of diet as well as
associated dietary habits in people; with the changes in oral environment leading to
alterations in the periodontal health of an individual.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 enrolled subjects who
underwent periodontal examination and treatment. A questionnaire was given to them,
which was related to self-reported medical history, medication, physical activity and dietary
habits and usual intake. Periodontist assessed the periodontal status of the participants and
a clinical dietician analysed their dietary habits. Subjects were the periodontally examined
and diagnosed according to the stage and grade of the periodontal disease. The collected
data recorded through questionnaire and periodontal examination was analysed
Results: 81.8% participants did not have any apparent illnesses. 14.5 % of the participants
were taking medications for their diseases. Maximum study participants took sweet snacks
daily (60.9%) as well as caffeinated beverages daily (86.3%). They also took fried foods
(35.4%) as well as chips and junk food (34.5%) twice a week. The average Body Mass
Index of the study participants was 35.8kg/m2. 80% of the subjects had been diagnosed
with chronic periodontitis. 22.7% of participants had stage 1 periodontitis whereas 27.2%
of the subjects had stage 3 periodontitis.
Conclusion: It is imperative to reduce the consumption as well frequency of sticky and
refined sugars in the diet, so as to limit the damage to the oral tissue especially the
periodontium. Good oral hygiene also helps to maintain this homeostasis inside the oral

Preference Of Orthodontic Treatment Versus Orthognathic Surgery In Class Iii Malocclusion Cases: A Research Survey

Dr. Afreen Kauser; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Ankita Khandelwal; Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr. Sourabh Ramesh Joshi; Dr. Fawaz Abdul Hamid Baig; Dr. Anil Managutti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1271-1276

Aim: The purpose of our research was to evaluate the preference of treatment strategy
amongst the dental professionals about class III malocclusion correction.
Methodology: A questionnaire survey for over a period of 1 year amongst 260 dental
professionals working for over 5 years. They were asked about their preference of
treatment strategies for carrying out correction of class III malocclusion cases. Their
experience of relapses, patient satisfaction as well as difficulty in handling such cases was
also recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out for assessing the data
recorded with the help of SPSS 25.0.
Results: Dental professionals were of divided opinion regarding the treatment strategy for
class III malocclusion. However, most of them were of the view that orthodontic treatment
had more relapses as compared to orthognathic surgery combined with orthodontic
therapy, which was statistically significant as well (p=0.035).
Conclusion: Most of the survey participants were of opinion that combined treatment with
surgery first approach; will improve the facial profile of the patients drastically.

Relevance Of Antibiotic Overuse: Covid 19: Super Gonorrhea: A Review

Dr. Srikanth Reddy Karra; Dr. Thummala Lakshmi Vengamamba; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Fawaz Abdul Hamid Baig; Dr Ambika K Nandini; Dr. Asfar Zeya; Dr. Mahendra Azad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1277-1281

Uncontrolled use of antibiotics to treat Covid-19 has unfortunately led to a revolt in
cases of super gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted infection (STI) which may even
become incurable. "Gonorrhea "superbug" had been reported by several countries,
including France, Japan and Spain, and this year also in the UK and Australia. The WHO
states that cases of gonorrhoea may become even more resistant to the most common
recommended treatment like azithromycin. These are extensively drug-resistant
gonorrhoea with high-level resistance to the current recommended treatment for
gonorrhoea like (ceftriaxone and azithromycin) including resistance to penicillin,
sulphonamides, tetracycline, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. New cures for gonorrhea
are urgently needed as people who are infected with it will infect others and accelerate
microbial resistance.