Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Volume 9, Issue 8

Volume 9, Issue 8, Autumn 2022


SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF AR IN MARKETING OVER CONSUMERS.

RITIKA NANDI; VEMULAKASH .; HARSHITA REDDY

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1-8

Augmented reality has been part of web3.0 where the future is heading ergo, every field is adapting it. After the pandemic  it’s have been a boon to brands , companies , even social media platforms  as they have created marketing channel with AR through innovative interactive techniques that influencing in the decision  making processthroughout the buying journey for seeking economically relevant consumer attention .with the help of systematic  literature review we have gone through various articles and had garner up  insights on AR apps  ,tools techniques , imposed by the social media platforms with the collaboration of brands to make consumer experience swift  and  relationship between brands and consumers .Finally , the article offers  a research agenda for additional investigating into emerging  Augmented reality in marketing practices as its lot more to be discover . 

ADAPTOGENIC ACTIVITY OF AJASWAGANDHADHI LEHYAM AND ITS EFFECT ON CORTISOL LEVEL IN MALE WISTAR RATS

Cynthia Shankari; K Prabhu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 9-13

Stress can be either acute or chronic. Stress is associated with altered hormonal secretions of cortisol. Cortisol is a steroid hormone, which is released during stress. Adaptogens are herbs that improve the responses to stress. In traditional medicine, the Ajaswagandhadhi Lehyam is found to reduce stress induced damage and thereby reduces oxidative stress, facilitating fertility in male Wistar rats because of its radical scavenging activity and also due to the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids.

UNDERSTANDING TOTAL REWARDS FOR EMPLOYEES

Yeggidi Shravan; S. Varshitha Sai Priya; D. Sai Pranay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 14-19

The concept of total rewards and related concepts such as rewards and recognition, performance-based rewards have always been gaining prominence in webinars, podcasts, corporate surveys and scholarly discussions. However, the use of these concepts has led to heterogenous and proliferating interpretations viz. social rewards, psychological rewards, and spiritual rewards. The article refers to literature on total rewards used in organizational settings to develop terminology and typology of total rewards which would leave little room for overlapping of other related concepts, thereby leaving no room for confusion. The terminology aims to offer precise definition of the concept and relationships between related concepts. The typology aims to offer parsimonious classification of categories of rewards in terms of need satisfaction, in turn expanding knowledge about total rewards. Taking terminology and typology together would help in understanding total rewards, uncover total rewards as a reconceptualization of previous conceptualizations of compensation and benefits, and provide a conceptual base for future work on total rewards.

The Role of Media in Oral Hygiene Awareness

Dr Deepak Moses Ravindran; Dr Balaji S.K; S. Janani; Ishwarya S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 20-27

As a result of the Coronavirus pandemic and the rapid, growing use of digital media and smartphones, opportunities for using various digital applications have increased tremendously. Effective communication is a key factor in bridging a link between the patients and professionals, with the basic triad of proliferation of modes, speed of communication and reflexivity of knowledge, which serves as a base for better comprehension.
The success of media is reliant upon the following main goal: message received by target group, allowing for change in the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of people to behave accordingly.

The Moderating Effects of Religious and Spiritual Copingon The Relationships of Religiosity and Spirituality With Depression Among Medical and Health Science Students.

Usman Jaffer; Che MohdNasril Che Mohd Nassir; Rahmah Ahmad H. Osman; Abdul LatifAbd. Razak; Nasreen Allie; Mohamed Ayaaz Ahmed; Mohamad AfiudinJalaludin; NursyuhaidahMohd Kadri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 28-40

Introduction:Depression is a global mental health issue. Vulnerability for this condition increases in the university student population, specifically medical and health science disciplines. Previous evidence showed that religiosity and spirituality were inversely linked with depression. They have also been predominantly treated as one construct. Still, the mechanisms of these relationships are vague.
 
Objective: This study aims to investigate moderating roles religious and spiritual coping played on the relationships between religiosity, spirituality and depression among medical and health sciences students.
 
Methods:A total of 151 medical and health science students were recruited from various universities across Malaysia. Beck’s Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II) was used to measure depression and depressive symptoms, the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was used to measure religiosity, and the Spirituality Scale (SS) was used to measure the beliefs, intuitions, lifestyle choices, practices, and rituals representative of the human spiritual dimension.Whilstthe brief scale of religious coping (RCOPE) and spiritual coping questionnaire (SCQ)were used to assess positive and negative religious and spiritual coping respectively.
 
Results:Negative religious coping played a moderating role in the relationship between religiosity and depression. Similarly, negative spiritual coping also played a moderating role between spirituality and depression.
 
Conclusion:These findings give insight into this population. It also provides avenues for psychoeducation and intervention. The ramifications of these findings may be applicable at the society as well as the government and policy making level in Malaysia.  

A Review on the Influence of Mathematics Education on Millennial Engineering Students

Ravindar B; Ravi Kiran G; Geetha M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 41-46

One of the most important areas of human endeavour that mathematics serves is the field of engineering. There have been new avenues of mathematical study inspired by recent advances in the engineering realm. There are several instances of this, such as control theory, signal processing, and coding theory. Given the inherent mathematical nature of engineering, it is clear that mathematics play an essential part in engineering curriculum. There has been a significant shift in the focus of mathematics education for engineers in the previous two decades due to both changing needs in the engineering field and the insufficient mathematical skills of engineering students. There has been a shift to using more contemporary methods and tools in the mathematics instruction given to engineering students as a result of recent advances in technology and computing. The purpose of this study is to offer light on the curriculum, teaching, and measurement-assessment practises necessary for a successful mathematics education in engineering for millennial students.

A study of Pilgrims Satisfaction in Telangana State With Reference to Yadagirigutta and Basara

P. Sugunakar Reddy; C. Dattatreyulu; C. Balarama Krishna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 47-57

Abstract. Tourism in India plays an important role which not only contributes in the country’s GDP, but also in the generation of national income, providing job opportunities, raise in the foreign exchange and mostly transformation of regional economy. Though, there are different types of Tourism in India, spiritual (pilgrim) tourism plays an important role in India. Pilgrim Tourism in India and State level covers the most important pilgrim centres like Vaishno Devi Temple, Amarnath, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Mathura, Golden Temple, and Tirumala, Simhachalam, Annavaram, Yadadri, Basara, etc. Pilgrimage is a means to the accumulation of personal spiritual merit which can be applied to the attainment of happiness and wellbeing in this life, or to personal salvation in the afterlife. One can refer to pilgrimage as the total set of symbols, history, rituals, legends, behaviour, deities, location, specialists, or whatever, that centre on those sites. The Central and State Governments are concentrating on the developments of Spiritual (Pilgrim) Tourism by providing more funds for the development of the particular Spiritual sites. The Governments are mostly focusing on the providing of the basic amenities for the pilgrims who visit the place, which in turn attracts the pilgrims from all over the world and country which is a real booster for the development of the particular place. Keeping in view, the present article presents about the Demographic profile of the pilgrims who visit the pilgrim centres, and Pilgrim satisfaction towards the Yadagirigutta and Basara.

A Study on the Structural Causality of Marketing Attributes on Purchase Intention through Brand Attitude

Lee Seung Kwon

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 58-61

The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural causal relationship between the SNS marketing attributes of luxury brands on brand awareness, brand involvement, and brand attachment. To this end, a survey was conducted on 427 large Internet communities and SNS users. The results of the empirical analysis are summarized as follows.
First, among the SNS marketing attributes, information, reliability, and latestness had a significant positive (+) influence on purchase intention.
Second, among the SNS marketing attributes, information, interactivity, playfulness, and latestness had a significant positive (+) influence on brand recognition. Reliability, interaction, and latestity had significant positive (+) effects on brand involvement. In addition, in brand attachment, playfulness and latestness had a significant positive (+) influence.

BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

Ms. Sophy; Dr. Anand Thirupathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 62-68

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease. It encompasses a spectrum of conditions associated with lipid deposition in hepatocytes. It ranges from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. The disease is mostly silent and is often discovered through incidentally elevated liver enzyme levels. This study was to analyze the distribution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with reference to age, gender, and socioeconomic status, to look for clinical features A total of 3762 residents were included in the present study including 2328 males and 1434 females with a mean age of 46.37 ± 14.28 years (range 20–92 years).   Measurements were taken for assessment of BMI and blood samples were collected for estimation of fasting blood glucose, Triglycerides, Cholesterol, Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase, Total bilirubin, HDL and LDL.  All the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients studied are either overweight or obese and 92% of them are glucose intolerant or diabetics. The fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, serum uric acid, ALT and ALT/AST ratio values are significantly increased in NAFLD patients compared to controls. Uric acid and ALT/AST ratio are showed best overall discriminatory capacity among all biochemical parameters for NAFLD. NAFLD can be seen in both male and female patients associated with Insulin resistance syndrome and oxidative stress. The ALT/AST ratio is the better biochemical marker for diagnosis of NAFLD.  More large-scale prospective studies can validate our observations, help physicians in early identification of patients who may benefit from therapeutic interventions, and even help them formulate more effective treatment algorithms.  

Pathogenesis, diagnosis, complications and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Ms. Sophy; Dr. Anand Thirupathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 69-83

Number of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) cases is increasing over time due to alteration of food habit, increase incidence of metabolic syndrome, and lack of exercise. Liver biopsy is the test for diagnosis and staging of NAFLD, but nowadays several biochemical markers, scoring systems, and imaging studies are available to diagnose and stage NAFLD which is linked to end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular cancer, and elevated cardiovascular- and cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Therefore urgent diagnosis and management are required to avoid complications related to NAFLD. This study summarizes the latest evidence on the epidemiology, natural history, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NAFLD.

ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED CONSTITUENTS FROM COCCINIA GRANDIS BY SULPHORHODAMINE (SRB) ASSAY ON DU-145 AND PC-3 CELL LINES

Shaik Aminabee; V. Deepthi; S. Haribabu; Shaherbanu .; S. Karthik; M. Tejaswi; P. Naga Sai; Atmakuri Lakshmana Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 84-102

Aim: To study the anticancer activity of isolated compounds from root of Coccinia grandis whole plant by SRB assay method on DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: Anticancer activity of isolated constituents of Coccinia grandis was performed on SCC-29B and Ishikawa cancer cell lines by the Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC) Mumbai, India. Cell line had been developed within RPMI 1640 medium that contains 10% fetal bovine serum and 2 mM L-glutamine with the help of SRB assay along with the absorbance had been recorded on an Elisa plate reader at a wavelength of 540 nm with 690 nm. Results: Isolated constituents particularly kampferol showed LC50, TGI and GI50 activity at >80, 69.7 and <10μg/ ml on DU-145 and >80μg/ ml of GI50 activity on PC-3 cell lines. Conclusion: Kampferol from Coccinia grandis has showed potent anticancer activity on DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines.

Monkeypox: A comprehensive review on transmission, clinical features and management of human monkeypox

Shaik Firoz; Ramu Samineni; Y. Ratna Sindhu; C. Radhika; M.S. Srikanth; Penumala Prudhvi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 103-119

An Orthopoxvirus-based zoonotic illness known as monkeypox causes a small pox-like illness in humans was discovered in 1970. New outbreaks in Sudan and the United States of America have sparked new study revealing environmental variables leading to the extended geographical distribution of the human monkeypox virus ((MPXV), which was formerly restricted to West Africa (WA) and the Congo basin (CB). The current 2022 multi-nation monkeypox outbreak is the biggest outside of Africa in recorded history. An example of a developing zoonotic disease that has been considered to have high pandemic potential for decades because to the recent rise in the number of human outbreaks. Healthcare practitioners worldwide are attempting to get familiar with the varied clinical manifestations and therapy of this virus as public health organizations seek to limit the current outbreak. In light of the current outbreaks worldwide, we provide updated information on monkeypox for healthcare professionals in this review. Despite the fact that the smallpox vaccine protects against MPXV, the prevalence is rising due to new non-immune generations. The likelihood of animal-to-human transmission is growing as a result of environmental conditions increasing the frequency of interaction with prospective hosts. Greater potential for transmission through globalization, and environmental factors all increase the threat of MPXV to previously unaffected nations. The frequency of human monkeypox has substantially increased in rural DRC thirty years after widespread smallpox immunization efforts stopped. It is becoming more and more important to provide health workers with appropriate diagnostic testing, vaccines, and antiviral medication. In order to more accurately quantify the public health burden and create measures for lowering the risk of infection spreading farther, monitoring and epidemiological analysis must be improved.

Histopathological study of sinonasal and nasopharyngeal lesions in a tertiary care hospital: A 5 year retrospective study

Patel KU; Gor S; Kokani MJ

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 120-125

Introduction: A variety of inflammatory, non-neoplastic and neoplastic masses involving nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx are commonly encountered in ENT department occurs amongst all age group patients. This study was undertaken to note the various histopathological patterns of nasal lesions, their classification and relative distribution of various lesions with regard to age and sex in our setting.
Aims:

To evaluate role of histopathology in diagnosis of nasal lesions.
To evaluate the incidence, age at the occurrence and sex ratio among the patients with nasal lesions.
To compare the result of our study with other studies.

Materials and Method: A retrospective 5 year study of 51 cases was conducted at the Department of Pathology GMERS Medical College & Hospital, Valsad, from January 2017 to December 2021. Patients between the ages of 1 to 80 years were enrolled into the study. Histopathological examination was done on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histopathological diagnosis was correlated with detail of relevant clinical findings and investigations.

Relationship Between Subcalcaneal Fat Pad Thickness And Plantar Heel Pain: A Case Control Study

Dr. BN Roshan Kumar; Dr. NB Mahesh Kumar; Dr. TY Prasanna; Dr. RA Ashwin Annamalai; Dr. KM. Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 126-136

Background: Heel pain is common in active young and old adults. Plantar pain usually develops due to degeneration of heel fat pad. Loss of elasticity and changes in thickness of fat pad are considered to cause plantar heel pain.
Objectives:

To compare sub calcaneal fat pad thickness and its compressibility between the patients with and without current plantar heel pain.
To assess correlation of heel pad parameters with age and BMI.

Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted in the Department of orthopaedics at Raja Rajeswari Medical College and Hospital. Heel pad compressibility index, heel pad thickness in loading (HPTL), heel pad thickness in unloading (HPTUL) were considered as primary outcome variables and demographic variables, anthropometric variables, were considered as Study relevant parameters. Heel Pain was considered as Primary explanatory variable.

Chameleon-Like Relationships: Psychoanalysis Of My Feudal Lord

Shalini Sharma; Dr. Rabindra Kumar Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 137-144

The research paper explores the psychology behind impassive and traumatic relations in Tehmina Durrani’s autobiography My Feudal Lord (1991) in the light of Freud’s Psychoanalysis of conscious and unconscious mind. It also discusses the role of id, ego and super ego to shape the personality of the major characters. My Feudal Lord is a narration of Tehmina Durrani’s distressing and ghastly experiences when she was married to Ghulam Mustafa Khar. The thrust of the paper is to eke out the stark depiction of vacillation in chameleon-like relationships and the psychology behind them. A true  marriage, one of strong social bonds that cherish love and trust in the couple and subsides animal instincts but in a mismatched  marriage these instincts become dominant in support of id that lead the individual as well as society towards declination.

Study Of Maternal And Perinatal Outcomes Among Referred Obstetric Cases To A Tertiary Care Centre

Dr. Aarti G Suryawanshi; Dr. Ramdas G Narwade; Dr. Jayshree Mulik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 145-151

Background: India accounts for a fifth of annual global maternal deaths. The referral system is an essential component of any health systems which is particularly important in pregnancy and childbirth for providing access to essential obstetric care. The 3-tier health care delivery system was conceived in such a manner that the patients in need of a higher level of expertise and care could be referred accordingly from primary to secondary directly to tertiary level centre. Hence the present study was aimed to study the maternal and perinatal outcomes among referred obstetric cases.
Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at tertiary care centre during the study period from Jan 2019 to Jan 2020. Study was conducted on all referred obstetric cases to the hospital. Thus such 1067 cases were studied. Detailed history of the patients who had been referred from different centres was taken, taking note of the referring centre and reason for referral. All collected data were filled in a predefined proforma. All data was collected and compiled in Microsoft excel. Appropriate test was applied for analysis under SPSS software version 21 and P value <0.05 was taken as significant.

A Clinical Study Of Functional Outcomes Of Bimalleolar Ankle Fractures

Dr. Billa Mahender Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 152-160

Background: About 9% of all adult fractures are ankle fractures. The primary method of therapy for such injuries is open reduction and internal fixation. However, problems might arise after surgery, and the results are not always as expected. To assess the functional results of bimalleolar ankle fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation, this study was conducted. The present study aimed to analyze the surgical management of bimalleolar ankle fractures reported to our tertiary care hospital.
 Methods: Clinical and radiological examinations were performed on the patients who arrived at the casualty and outpatient departments. All instances underwent closed reduction and plaster of Paris immobilization. Check x-rays were taken and planned for surgery accordingly. Planning for reduction and selecting the right implants are both aided by high-quality radiographs. In a few situations, radiographic images of the opposite ankle are obtained for comparison.
Results: The overall function was found to be excellent and good in 40% of cases with scores of > 81% poor scores were found in only n=2(6.66%) of all the cases details depicted in table 3. Excellent results were found in most cases of SER followed by good results. N=2 cases with poor results in this category of fractures. In PER cases results were excellent and good no case of poor results. The same pattern is seen in SAD cases. However, in PAB cases one case was with fair results.
Conclusion: supination external rotation is the most common type of injury in cases of bimalleolar ankle fractures and this was also associated more commonly with dislocations and complications. Pronation-External Rotation type produced Excellent and good results with minimal rate of complication.

Non-Descent Vaginal Hysterectomy Vs Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Benign Gynaecological Conditions: A Comparative Study

Ishrath Fatima Bemat; Bemat Ilyas; Khan Amreen Kausar; Mohd Shafee Haneef; Jawwad Hashmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 161-168

Background: Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure most commonly performed in the practice of gynaecology. Non-descent vaginal hysterectomy (NDVH), which is an art of gynaecological surgeons, has established its place in the gynaecological surgeries. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) has a steep learning curve, requires modernized OT set-up including special endoscopic instruments and may not be available in all centres. Non-decent vaginal hysterectomy is a viable alternative in such a scenario. Hence these two surgeries have been compared in this study.
Methods: A total 50 patients undergoing hysterectomy for various benign indications, were included in this study. They were divided into two groups of 25 each. One group underwent TLH and the other NDVH. Demographic profile and other peri-operative events were compared and statistically analysed.
Results: NDVH group experienced more pain and required a greater number of analgesic doses. The intra-operative blood loss was more in NDVH group and duration of surgery was significantly higher in NDVH group. Two most common complications in the post operative period were fever and hematuria.

Maternal Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A And Uterine Artery Doppler In Prediction Of Preeclampsia

Shreya Thind; Ripan Bala; Sangeeta Pahwa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 169-177

Introduction: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder and is a major contributor of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Identifying women, who are at risk is important to prompt gestational management. Uterine artery waveform and biomarkers like pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) may reflect the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.
Aim: We aim to find out whether abnormal uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and low serum PAPP-A in the first trimester can be used to predict preeclampsia.
Material And Methods: Antenatal women at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation visiting Sri Guru Ram Das Universty Of Health And science, Amritsar were enrolled after informed consent. Uterine artery Doppler was done with the early anomaly scan at 11-13+6 weeks. Serum levels of PAPP-A were analyzed. The women were followed up at intervals up to delivery. Incidence of preeclampsia was noted.
RESULTS: The incidence of preeclampsia was 26%. The mean uterine artery PI among those who developed preeclampsia was 2.03, which was significantly higher than the unaffected group (p=0.001). The first-trimester uterine artery PI as a screening tool showed a sensitivity of 84.67% and specificity of 75.68 % .The mean PAPP-A MoM of the affected group was 0.91 which was lower than the unaffected group (p=0.028). The first trimester PAPP-A as a screening tool showed a sensitivity of 15.38%, specificity of 91.89%.
Conclusion: Both the tests were concluded to be good predictors of preeclampsia. Identification of high-risk factors, screening, and surveillance are  important for timely  prediction of  preeclampsia and initiation of preventive therapy.

Study Of Prevalence Of Protein Energy Malnourishment In Children Of 1 To 5 Years Age

Dr. Hemalatha Addi; Dr. Yalla Thirumal Reddy; Dr. Naveen Gandla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 178-183

Malnutrition is the major health burden in developing countries. Protein energy malnutrition is the underlying cause for child morbidity and mortality.  Under-nutrition continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries and various factors are involved in determining the nutritional status of the children. Objectives of this study was to assess the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) among children (1-5 years) . 150 Children of age group 1 to 5 years, both male and female were included in study. Nutritional status of the children in less than five years were expressed by weight for age. Weight for age classification of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) and GOMEZ was calculated. 38.66 % children were normal. 25.33% had Grade 3 malnutrition. 26.66 % had Grade 2 malnutrition,9.33% had Grade 1 malnutrition. PEM is a critical problem with many determinants playing a role in causing this vicious cycle of undernutrition.

Safety of Puncture in Deep Inspiration During Supracostal Access for PCNL

Dr. Devendra Choudhary; Dr. Om Kant Sharma; Dr. Hanuwant Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 184-187

Introduction: PCNL is most common procedure for renal calculi. Safety of PCNL puncture is very important to avoid complications. Also it should be the best target calyx punctured in best possible direction through the kidney parenchyma. Usually supracostal puncture is done at full expiration for fear of chest complications.
Method: Retrospective analysis of 300 cases of supracostal puncture done at deep inspiration is done in this study.
Results: It has shown similar complication rates like any other approach, Chest tube insertion in 1%, blood transfusion rates of 6.3%, similar length of hospital stay of average 2.02 days. Early chest tube insertion when chest complication is suspected is found to give early recovery. Conclusion:  Precautions to be taken are: Remain in lateral  part of intercostal space, remain just at superior border of lower rib and initial direction of needle to be kept vertically downwards till it passes well beyond the rib.

Ophthalmology Virtual Learning During COVID-19 Pandemic: Undergraduate Students’ Perspective

Dr. Vidhya MJ; Dr. Sai Sushma Y; Dr. Pradeep Kumar SM; Dr. Pallavi RB

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 188-193

Aim: Our study aims at analysing the undergraduate students’ perspective of online ophthalmology classes during the Covid 19 pandemic.
Settings and Design: The study is a descriptive cross-sectional observational analysis conducted in the month of June 2021 at Medical College, Karnataka, India. 
Materials and Methods: An online self-completion questionnaire containing 13 questions was sent through Google forms. 346 medical students of third and final year, who have completed or undergoing online ophthalmology classes were included in the study. Most of the questions were semi open question. Link to the questionnaire was sent through the WhatsApp group and was available to them for a period of two weeks.
Results: The online survey questionnaire was responded by 237 students.166 students (70%) did not have any online learning experience before the pandemic. Majority of the students preferred problem-based learning 92 (27.62%) over other methods. Benefit of reading the study material at own pace was perceived as the prime advantage of online classes.  Poor internet connectivity was opted as the major hurdle (170-35%) of the online classes. Multiple choice questions were the most preferred method of online assessment (150 -41.32%). 105 students (44.3%) felt that the ophthalmological clinical skills were learnt better by attending clinical postings. Majority of the students (166-70%) favoured classroom teaching over online classes for fruitful learning.
Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced newer teaching methods in ophthalmology.  Most students, even in the era of the internet showed a preference to classroom teaching and clinical postings for a better learning experience.

Assessment Of Upper-Extremity Inter-Limb Girth And Volume Variance To Standardize Diagnostic Cut-Offs For Detection Of Upper Limb Lymphoedema In Indian Women Population

Dr. KM Annamalai; Dr. MS Satish; Dr. Jafar Khan; Dr. M Janarthinakani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 194-201

Background: Due to its diverse appearances and challenges in clinical evaluation, secondary lymphedema is frequently underreported and undertreated. Normative-determined criteria from western population have high sensitivity and specificity for detection of mild lymphedema in western women. It is uncertain if these requirements apply to Indian women, whose body types differ from those of Western women. The purpose of this study was to define the typical upper extremity inter-limb variation in a sample of healthy Indian women and to establish statistically based diagnostic cut-offs for both circumference and volume measures.
Methods:Descriptive research design was adopted. Six hundred and thirty one healthy Indian women, between the age the age of twenty to seventy years, participated in this study. At 5 cm intervals, the upper limb circumference was measured from wrist to above. Each segment of the limb depicted a frustum or truncated cone as a result of the measurement levels dividing the limb into parts. By combining the volumes of the segments individually, the ultimate volume was calculated. Diagnostics cut-offs for lymphoedema were derived by calculating three standard deviations plus the mean difference between the limbs.
Results: Significant differences were revealed by the paired t-tests between the dominant and non-dominant circumference and volumetric measurements. Regression analysis found a strong correlation between Age and BMI with the inter-limb circumference and volume difference. The diagnostic cut-offs ranged between 5% for the age 20-25yrs to ≤10% for the age upto 70yrs.
Conclusions: The threshold values provided by this study, taking arm dominance and population specificity into consideration, are likely to be appropriate for accurate diagnosis of changes in limb volume, helping in early detection of lymphoedema and increasing the probability of early intervention. This study delineates the percentage of ≤10% inter upper limb difference to be considered normal and acceptable as non-pathological.

The Functional Outcome Of Displaced Distal End Radius Fractures Treated With External Fixator Using Principle Of Ligamentotaxis

Dr. Nishant Singh; Dr. RB Uppin; Dr. SK Saidapur; Dr. Gangadhar Bhuti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 202-206

Aims: To Assess the Functional Outcome of displaced distal end radius fractures treated with external fixator on the basis of Modified Gartland & Werley score.
Material and Methods: From January 2020 to December 2020, this study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital after obtaining institutional ethical approval. During this period, adult patients with distal end radius fractures were classified on the basis of Frykman’s classification, and 30 cases were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and treated with external fixator. They were assessed using Modified Gartland & Werley score.
Results: Results with External fixator were found to be excellent with good union rates. The Modified Gartland & Werley Score were as follows: Excellent-12 cases (40%), Good- 15 cases (50%), Fair-2 cases (6.6%), Poor-1 case (3.3%).
Conclusion: External fixator is a simple, effective, and relatively complication-free technique. The anatomical repair of the articular surface, along with the surrounding injury to soft tissue & articular cartilage determine the eventual functional outcome of distal end of radius fracture healing.

Knowledge And Awareness Of Causes Of Stress And Coping Strategies Adopted By Undergraduate Students - A Survey

Priyan. I; Yuvaraj Babu. K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 207-217

INTRODUCTION: Coping with stress is the process by which a person consciously attempts to master, minimize, tolerate, stressors, problems in life.  Stress and coping are branch medicine, anthropology, management, etc. Nowadays many instruments for measuring coping are found. One of the most dominant in literature is the coping styles questionnaire. One of the most dominant in literature is the coping styles questionnaire. To reduce the stress as positive reappraisal, social support. Academic related stress is due to high academic work, high frequency of exams, lack of learning materials. Stress does not have an equal effect on people but can definitely need for its abatement coping was also seen as conscious and volitional.

ESTIMATION OF STATURE FROM TOTAL UPPER LIMB LENGTH IN UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT POPULATION

Binigha. M; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 218-226

Introduction: Stature is a useful anthropometric parameter which is used to identify the bodily uniqueness of the person. Anthropometry is a basic tool in anthropology based on biological aspect. By knowing the length of anthropometric parameters we can estimate the stature of an individual. Stature estimation is useful for developing anthropometric databases. This technique helps in estimating the stature from bone length of unidentified body parts during mass disaster, accidents and also it help in identifying the victim in murder cases. The main task in forensic science is to identify an individual. Stature estimation is useful for identifying individuals in forensic science. The aim of this research study was to evaluate the stature from upper arm length in undergraduate student’s residents.

Quantitative Evaluation of Normal Sucking range among Term Neonates. A prospective observational study.

Ramya Chandran; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Vanitha Jayaraj; Aravind Ganesh; Divyalaxmi P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 227-234

Background: In normal term neonate rate of suck and swallow, and quantity of milk intake per suck will be increased gradually. Harmonized and safe way of oral feeding is depending on the maturity of nervous system, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. First indicator of neurological problem is feeding difficulty in infant period. Though several researches evaluated the patterns of suckling among preterm and term newborns, only a few studies have been conducted on the quantitative evaluation of sucking in term babies. Henceforth, the present study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the normal sucking range among term neonateduring breastfeeding.

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM USING HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE

Preethi Raj M; Yuvaraj Babu. K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 235-242

INTRODUCTION: Forensic investigation has a difficult task in identifying the gender in an unidentified skull. Though males have a 2% larger size of head compared to females, proper measurements and formulae are needed to identify.
AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the gender using head circumference.

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXILLARY TUBEROSITY WITH REFERENCE TO PTERYGOMAXILLARY FISSURE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

Deepasakthi .; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 243-251

Introduction: Maxillary tuberosity is present at the inferior aspect of the infratemporal surface of the maxilla. It is a spherical structure, more prominent after the development of the third molar. The pterygomaxillary fissure in vertical descends at right angle and is inferior to orbital fissure. Accurate localisation of maxillary tuberosity is imperative while negotiating the maxillary tuberosity oroantral communication.
 
Aim: The core aim of the study is to analyse the morphometricity of maxillary tuberosity with reference to pterygomaxillary fissure and its clinical implications.

Effect Of Oromotor Stimulation In Preterm Infants In Intensive Care Unit

Alice Jeba J; Prathap Suganthirababu; Shivaprakash sosale; Vignesh Srinivasan; Vanitha Jayaraj; Divyalaxmi. P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 252-262

Purpose:Oromotor interventions are used to stimulate thefeeding process orally among infants of preterm. To find the impact of oral motor mediationamong preterm infants alongwith suckling of non-nutritive and conversionperiod ofkangaroo mother care from tube feeds to spoon feeding of partial/full and breast feeds of partial in pre-term infants.
Methods:This study of randomized controlled trail was directed in the neonatal unit of level III at Tertiary Care hospital, Bangalore, from May 2019 - August 2019. One hundred infants(28-37weeks) were randomized as intervention group (n=50) and control (n=50) group. Both the groups were further subdivided into very preterm(28.0-31.6 weeks) (n=25) and moderate to latepreterminfants (32.0- 36.6 weeks) (n=25) regarding their gestational age. Preterm newborn who were in intervention group received five minutes of premature infant oral motor intervention (POMI), two times consecutively for ten days along with routine care and in control group with routine care only, which includes nonnutritive sucking and kangaroo mother care. Then transition duration was evaluated between both the groups from gavage to spoon feed of partial or full and partial breast feeds.

Estimation Of Stature Using Measurements Of Inter Acromial Distance

Bharath. R; Yuvaraj Babu.K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 263-270

Aim:
The aim of this study is to establish the relationship between stature of different people and their inter acromial distance and to develop a regression equation formula from two variables in both males  and females.
 
Introduction:
Stature  provides numerous features of  a population. It is a vital characteristic of an individual. It is used in forensic anthropology. Stature represents the distance between top of the head and bottom of the feet. Height is one of the steps for identification. There is a significant correlation between stature and different body measurement. Inter Acromial distance is the distance between the two bony landmarks,acromial processes of the scapula on both sides. Lateral point on the lateral border of the acromial process when a person stands in normal anatomical position with arms hanging by sides.

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF STYLOID PROCESS IN DRY HUMAN SKULLS AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS ON EAGLE’S SYNDROME

Dev Arora; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 271-279

Background: The word styloid is the resultant of the greek word which states ‘pillar’. There is a slender pointed structure in the temporal bone of the skull present at the front of the mastoid process. Styloid process rests amongst the internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) of the head and neck. The styloid process has 3 muscles (styloglossus, stylopharyngeus and stylohyoid) and 2 ligaments (stylomandibular and stylohyoid ligaments) attached to it. The regular extent of styloid process is 20 – 30 mm, if greater than 30mm this will be regarded as the “elongated styloid process” and when symptoms like chronic cervical pain, neck pain, pain in opening and closing of mouth, pain in rotation of head occurs; that is called Eagle’s syndrome. Eagle’s syndrome can remain undiagnosed for a very long time as it can be correlated with many other disorders like third molar impaction and other teeth and mouth related disorders.

Neurodevelopmental Outcome Of Very Preterm And Moderate To Late Preterm Babies At The Corrected Age Of First Year

Alice Jeba; Prathap Suganthirababu; Shivaprakash Sosale; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Vignesh Srinivasan; Nivya Sebastian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 280-290

Background: Preterm newborns are more prone to exhibit neurodevelopmental delays than neonates born at full term gestational age. The aim of this study was to examine the gross motor, fine motor, personal-social, and language development of severely preterm and moderate-to-late preterm infants at one year of age.
Methods: A randomised controlled study with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessment was done in a tertiary care neonatal centre in Bangalore, India, from May 2019 to November 2020. The early intervention group included 50 preterm infants born between 28 and 37 weeks gestational age, while the control group included 50 preterm newborns. Premature children with known congenital disorders that affect neurodevelopment were excluded from the study.

ESTIMATION OF STATURE USING ARM SPAN

Vedha .R. Nair; Yuvaraj Babu.K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 291-299

INTRODUCTION
One of the most important body measurements in humans is height. Arm span was found as one of the most reliable measurements for stature estimation. It may differ from region to region, ethnicities, and races. This is very helpful for forensic investigation of dismembered bodies, amputations, stature loss, etc.
 AIM
To Estimate stature using arm span.
 MATERIALS AND METHOD
60 samples (29 males & 31 females) were collected within the age limit between 18-20 years. The arm span and height of the subjects was measured. The data was tabulated and analysed using the statistical software SPSS version 23.

FUSED C6 AND C7 CERVICAL VERTEBRA AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS - AN ANATOMICAL VARIATION

Dhivya sarathi; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 300-306

Introduction: Vertebral column is called a spinal column which protects the spinal cord, provides attachment to muscles, supports the trunk (etc). Fused C6 and C7 bones cause loss of neck movement, high risk of fracture due to which it leads to nerve compression causing the forelimbs to be affected ( paralysis and anesthesia). The intention of this osteology based study was to estimate the C6 and C7 bone and its clinical implications.
Materials and Methods: The given study was led at  the Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. The study was conducted by examining 27 dry human C6 and C7 bones.
Results: Out of 27 C6 and C7 bones one fused C6 and C7 bone was observed. This may lead to shortening of cervical spine, lowered hairline, osseous malformation leading to sensations like pain, burning sensations, cramps (etc). The uncal bone was fused in the superior surface of C6 bone and from lateral view it was observed that the superior articular and inferior articular facet was completely fused.

Effect Of Open And Closed Kinematic Chain Ankle Exercises On Improving Proprioception And Balance A Systematic Review

Thanthoni S; Pavithra S; Prathap Suganthirababu; Kumaresan A; Vignesh Srinivasan; Priyadharshini Kumar; Divyalaxmi P; Aravind Ganesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 307-315

Background: The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of open and closed kinematic chain ankle exercise on improving balance and proprioception.
Aim:This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of open and closed kinematic chain ankle exercises on improving proprioception and balance. The study emphasizes the effect of balance, proprioception.
Methods:The objective of the study was approached with Systematic review study design and database used to look for articles include Cochrane Library Trials, PubMed Central, PEDro, Rehab data, Research Gate, and SAGE Journals. We collected 134 articles between the year1989to 2020 and analysed stratergiocally using PRISMA guideline and 3 were selected for analysis based on its relevance with selection procedures.
Result:The studies included investigated the prevalence of reduced balance, proprioception,open and closed kinematic exercises .
Conclusion:The study showed that there mightis an marginal effect of open and closed kinematic chain ankle exercise on improving proprioception, balance and further studies are needed to prove its significance.

Gender Determination Using Odontometric Measurement Of Mandible

Jessly Daniel; Yuvaraj Babu.K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 316-324

Introduction:
Teeth is the best mineralised body tissue against various destructive agents. Teeth are extensively used for reconstructive identification. They are useful in the determination of gender by using different odontometric techniques and is usrful in case of major catastrophes when bodies are often damaged beyond recognition. male teeth have been found to be larger than those of the female.
 
Aim:
The aim of the research is to determine gender using odontometric measurements of width of mandibular 2nd inter premolar distance
 
Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 60 people (30 males and 30 females) and age groups from 18 - 20 years. The measurements of width between the 2nd mandibular premolar.  All the measurements were taken using a Digital Vernier Caliper. For one person, an average of three different values were taken. After collecting the data, it was uploaded in Excel sheet and then uploaded in SPSS software version 23.
 
Result: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was done. The p value was 0.009 that is less than 0.05. That is gender determination can be done using odontometric measurements of the mandible
 
Conclusion: From the present study it was found sexual dimorphism can be determined using mandibular 2nd inter premolar width,

MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF DRY HUMAN SPHENOID BONE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

Fathima Hinaz.Z; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 325-332

Introduction: Many foramina and fissures are located in the sphenoid bone that carries nerve and blood vessels of the head and neck. Sphenoid bone is an unpaired centrally situated bone. In the cranium it lies anteriorly and to the middle cranial fossa its contribution is large. Also contributes to the posterolateral wall of the orbit and the lateral wall of the skull. Foramen spinosum is a very small foramina situated at the edge of the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa. In the greater wing of the sphenoid bone foramen of spinosum is one of two foramina present. The foramen rotundum is a circular opening in the sphenoid bone that connects the pterygopalatine fossa. The foramen rotundum is a spherical opening positioned in the floor of the skull.

Effect of Low- Level Laser Therapy in the management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - A Systematic Review

Jannani T.P; Prathap Suganthirababu; Kumaresan A; Vignesh Srinivasan; Divyalaxmi P; Aravind Ganesh; Swetha Hari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 333-339

Carpal tunnel syndrome is by far most noticeable kind of peripheral compression neuropathy (CTS). The great majority of cases are idiopathic, with median nerve compression caused by nonspecific tenosynovitis. The goal of this research is to test the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the intervention of CTS. The study intended to undertake a thorough review. Studies were gathered using databases including PubMed Central, Google Scholar, Rehab Data, Research Gate, and SAGE Journals. Reviews and case study were not included, but clinical research and randomized controlled trials were. Using keywords, 134 manuscripts were screened, 118 were discarded, 16 were included, and three were eventually retrieved for analysis. The study looked at the feasibility of LLLT in treating CT syndrome. Pain incidence alleviation and increased functional performance in persons with the syndrome of carpel tunnel was investigated in this study.

ESTIMATION OF STATURE FROM MORPHOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF EXTERNAL EAR IN FEMALES

Soumya sri. S; Yuvaraj Babu. K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 340-347

INTRODUCTION : Stature estimation is taken as an important framework in person identification and also in forensic examinations. Human ears are always an important determining feature of the face and its construction demonstrates various signs of age and sex
 
AIM : Aim of the present study was to  estimate stature using measurements of external ear in females.
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was done among 50 females students studying Dental in a college, within the age group 18 to 20 years. the measurements of both external ears and also the height of subjects was measured. The data collected was  tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software (version 23) and a linear regression equation was calculated using the data.
 
RESULT: The linear regression equation was calculated using the formula y = a+bx to be, For Female Right ear, height (y)   = 120.33 + 4.39 X1; Right ear, breadth(y)  =  120.33 + 5.41 X2 The (r) value was 0.532, it had moderate correlation. For Female Left ear, height (y)   =   120.08 + 3.96 X1;   Left ear breadth (y)   =   120.08 + 6.35 X2. The ‘r’ value was 0.559, it had moderate correlation.
 
CONCLUSION : The present study concludes that there was moderate correlation among females between stature and ear measurements, it was found to be statistically significant hence, ear measurements can be used at moderate level to estimate stature in females.

MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF SPHENOIDAL TUBERCLE IN DRY HUMAN SPHENOID BONE AND ITS ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS

Padmalochini Sudharsan; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 348-355

Introduction: Sphenoid bone is an individual bone in the cranium which is unpaired. Its shape resembles a butterfly or bat shaped containing a central body. Sphenoidal tubercle is the bony projection present within the anterior aspect of the infratemporal crest. The purpose of this research work is to bring out the morphometrical variations of sphenoidal tubercle in dry sphenoid bone and its anatomical deviations.
Materials and Methods: The osteometric study was did in 42 dry processed cranial cavity of unidentified gender. Also skulls having large breakage and developmental defects were rejected. Good selected bones were collected from Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals for estimation. Statistical analysis was performed in the SPSS, using a paired sample ‘t’ test.
Results: Morphological analysis shows that sphenoidal tubercle represent a different morphology and measurements. Morphometrical analysis shows that the average of right sphenoidal tubercle and left sphenoidal tubercle is 3.901 and 3.394.
Conclusion: Since the groove for maxillary artery and groove for maxillary nerve are situated nearer to the sphenoidal tubercle, it is a remarkable landmark in anatomical structures. This key landmark could be regarded as a criterion for the surgical methodology to the infratemporal fossa.

Effectiveness Of Kinect Based Games On Balance And Gait In Geriatrics: A Single Case Study

Keerthana A k; Kumaresan A; Prathap Suganthirababu; Vignesh Srinivasan; Priyadharshini Kumar; Aravind Ganesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 356-364

Background:
Every year, about 20% of the elderly in the United States suffer from balance issues. 68 percent of these patients have an unbalanced state and fear of fall. Balance problems are particularly frequent among the elderly, and they increase the chance of falling and constitute a serious health risk. Balance problems can significantly restrict everyday activities and are linked to depression and a lower quality of life.
Aim: The aim of this research isdetermining the effectiveness of kinect based games on balance and gaitin geriatrics.

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF ANTERIOR CLINOID PROCESS AMONG SOUTH INDIAN SKULL

M.Sathya Kumar; Yuvaraj Babu.K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 365-371

INTRODUCTION :
In the cranial cavity, the anterior clinoid process (ACP) is a small a bony projection in the lesser wing of Sphenoid in its posterior border. Surgically removing this is an important procedure for the proper treatment of any aneurysms related to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and for tumours in that region. Very few studies have reported dimensions, various surgical approaches and anatomical variations of this.
AIM :
The aim of the study is to make morphometric measurements of ACP in the dry cranial cavity of South Indian adult skulls.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
The study was conducted on 23 dry adult South Indian skulls of unknown age and sex. Basal width, length and thickness of ACP were measured using Vernier caliper. The data were tabulated and related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test was done using SPSS software.

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MACEWEN’S TRIANGLE AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

Priyanka. R; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 372-378

Introduction: In case of mastoiditis, otitis, and other neurovascular conditions related to the auricular region, it is important to approach through surgical methods. The infectious condition of mastoid antrum i.e., mastoiditis is a highly risky clinical condition which may spread into the cranial cavity and/or head and neck regions. The reasons for this mastoiditis condition are chronic suppurative conditions of otitis media. Hence, the drainage of the infected mastoid is very important. The drainage is achieved through a suprameatal triangle.
Materials and Methods: 15 died and processed skulls of human origin were procured from Anatomy Department, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College. Digital vernier caliper was used for the collection of data for morphometric analysis of macewen’s triangle. The study adopted the rank test of Wilcoxon for biostatistical investigation with p < 0.005 is fixed to be significant for current data analysis.

The Impact Of Clinical Pilate Exercise On Balance And Functional Mobility In Idiopathic Parkinson Disease Patients: A Case Study

Pavithra S; Kumaresan A; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Aravind Ganesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 379-385

Physiotherapy has been recommended for a 68-year-old retired farmer (female) who has been diagnosed as initial idiopathic Parkinson's disease. A summary of the major outcomes is included in the case study, as well as documentation of her intake assessment through a 5-week follow

Stature estimation using Odontometric measurements of the mandible

Joshitha Subramanian; Yuvaraj Babu.K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 386-393

Introduction: Stature is the height of a person in the upright posture. In the identification of unknown human remains, stature estimation may be done from human or skeletal remains in which other methods of identification are not possible in the primary investigation. Several studies had been done to correlate relationship of a person’s height to the odontometric parameters.
 
Aim: To estimate stature using odontometric measurement of distance between right and left second premolars of mandible
 
Materials and methods: The sample size chosen for the study was 60, which included 30 females and 30 males. After obtaining informed  consent intermandibular distance of right and left 2nd premolar  was measured using a digital vernier calliper and the height of subjects was measured using standard height measuring frame. The measurement was tabulated and linear regression equation was calculated using SPSS software.

MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SUPRAMEATAL SPINE IN DRY HUMAN SKULL OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

Rasveya. S; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 394-401

Introduction: Henle’s spine is also called, spina supra-meatalis, meatal spine, spine supra-meatica, spine meatus is a bony minor eminence which is present front to supramastoid cavity. JACOB HENLE has mentioned suprameatal spine as a dependable guiding structure for the localization of the foramina during surgeries. As it has a key position it could be an important anatomical landmark or could have clinical importance. So this study has aimed to study and assess the morphometric alterations of suprameatal spine in the dry processed human skull of south indian population.
Materials and Methods: The work was done using 65 dry processed human skulls obtained from Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College. The length of the suprameatal spine was measured in vernier caliper. Results are tabulated and analyzed in SPSS. The study adopted the rank test of Wilcoxon for biostatistical investigation with p < 0.05 is fixed to be significant for current data analysis.
Results: There is no significant difference between the right and the left spine of Henle. The significant value is 0.575. It is evident in which there is no major significant difference regard to the length of right adjacent side and left adjacent side of the mastoid region. It was hard to find an undamaged Henle’s spine because of its size and delicacy. Only few specimens were studied, the study is done in a small geographical area. It has to be done in a wider population with more number of specimens.
Conclusion: The length of the spine is studied hence it will be of clinical importance. It will add up information to the surgeon on the anatomical position of Henle’s spine

EFFECTS OF DANCE-BASED MOVEMENT THERAPY ON BALANCE AND PREVENTING FALL IN CEREBELLAR ATAXIA: A CASE STUDY

Thanthoni S; Kumaresan A; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Aravind Ganesh; Rajkumar Krishnan Vasanthi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 402-409

Background: Individuals with cerebellar ataxia in its later stages frequently have major balance and immobility issues. There are currently no effective rehabilitation programmes for people with cerebellar ataxia that can assist them improve their motor impairment.
Objective of the study:

To determine the efficacy of dance-based movement therapy on balance in subjects with cerebellar ataxia, as well as to determine the effects of dance-based movement therapy on preventing falls in cerebellar ataxia subjects.
To determine the effects of dance-based movement therapy on balance in subjects with cerebellar ataxia, as well as to determine the effects of dance-based movement therapy on preventing falls in cerebellar ataxia subjects.

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM USING CEPHALIC INDEX

Rupa devi R; Yuvaraj Babu.K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 410-416

INTRODUCTION
Cephalometry is used for classification of sex and race of a person whose identity is not known. Skull is most important reliable bone for sex differentiation Cranial index also referred to as cephalic index is measured to categorize head shapes. The cephalic index is ratio of the maximum width divided by its maximum length multiplied by 100.
 
AIM
To verify if cephalic index can be used for sexual dimorphism.
 
MATERIALS AND METHOD
A group of 60 individuals were selected: 30 males and 30 females. After getting informed consent measurements were taken with the help of spreading calipers. All measurements were taken by a single observer to avoid error, three values were recorded and the average value were taken as the main value. SPSS software was used to analyze the data and related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test was done
 
RESULT
Wilcoxon signed rank test was done, the p value was 0.192 (p>0.05). So, it is statistically not significant, hence sexual dimorphism cannot be determined using head circumference
 
CONCLUSION
Cephalic index is a very useful parameter for various anthropometric studies, from the present study we conclude that the Cephalic index is not reliable parameter for sexual dimorphism.

MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF EMINENTIA ARCUATA IN DRY HUMAN SKULL OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

Jeswin Immanuel; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 417-424

Introduction: Eminentia arcuata is a crescent like raised projection observed at the middle cranial fossa on anterior surface of petrous part of the temporal bone. TheArcuate  eminence, in anatomical term referred as the “eminentia arcuata” shows the site of the superior semi-circular canal of inner ear.
Materials and Methods: The research work was carried out in Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College. No sampling bias is used. The disadvantage of this study is that skulls from different geographical regions are not included. The parameters included are length and breadth of Eminentia arcuata on left lateral and right lateral side. The measurements are taken with a digital sliding vernier caliper.
Results: Length along with the breath of Eminentia arcuata on the left and right  side was  found to be nearly the same. This work was done to analyse the clinical implications and morphometric examination which found that length breath of Eminentia arcuata in most of the cadaveric skulls were nearly the same.  In another research there was a controversy going on whether the Eminentia arcuata is formed by sulcus and gyri of the brain or by superior semi-circular canal.
Conclusion: On taking that research it is clear that the brain sulcus and gyri are just brain tissues which cannot cause Eminentia arcuata and its formation is by the superior semi-circular canal which is a bony structure of the inner ear.

Tibialis Posterior Muscle Endurance among Physiotherapist with Flatfoot - An Observational Study

Goutham V; Ramana K; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Prathap Suganthirababu; Aravind Ganesh; Rajesh G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 425-432

Background: The flattening of the foot's medial arch is known as acquired flatfoot. It's one of the most common problems seen among adult health-care providers.
 
Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the tibialis posterior muscle endurance among physiotherapist with flatfoot.
 
Methodology: The observational study included 60 physiotherapists who met the inclusion criteria. The single legged heel rise test and the foot posture index were used to evaluate each individual with flatfoot.
 
Result: Normal BMI participants had an average of 23.9333 repetitions in their dominant leg and 23 repetitions in their non dominant leg, overweight participants had an average of 15.2857 repetitions in their dominant leg and 14.1071 repetitions in their non dominant leg, and obese participants had an average of 7.11765 repetitions in their dominant leg and 6.17647 repetitions in their non dominant leg in a single legged heel rise test.
 
Conclusion: Participants with flatfoot and a BMI of Overweight, Obese had lower tibialis posterior muscle endurance than flatfoot people with a normal BMI, and the participants had higher tibialis posterior muscle endurance in their dominant leg than in their non dominant leg, according to the findings. 

MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF HOOK OF HAMATE IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATION

S Pragya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 433-442

Introduction: The hamate carpal bone is a three-sided designed bone which forms the portion of the distal carpal row of the wrist. It has a hook-like process called the hook of hamate. The hamate bone has a large articular surface which contributes to the incomplete ball and socket type of joint allowing some movements. The aim of the study was to analyse the morphological and morphometric properties of the hook of hamate bones among the South Indian population.
Materials and Methods: Total of 24 dry processed hamate bones procured at the Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College was used to carry out the study. The length, breadth and the diagonal length of right and left hamate bone was taken measurement with a digital sliding vernier caliper. The values obtained were tabulated, evaluated using statistical analysis. The data was interpreted for any structural variations between right and left sides.
Results: Right diameter of hook of hamate was greater than the left, right diagonal length was greater than left diagonal of hook of hamate and right width greater than left width of hook of hamate bone. All the three pairs were statistically significant indicating p value less than 0.05.
Conclusion: Morphometric knowledge of the hook of hamate is utmost important for surgical approach on those regions. Apart from that it will also help in other fields such as orthopaedic surgery, evolutionary studies etc.

Comparative study of stretching versus strengthening exercise for anterior shin splint

Pavithra M; Ramana K; Prathap Suganthirababu; Kumaresan A; Vignesh Srinivasan; Aravind Ganesh; Rajesh G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 443-449

Aim:This study aims to demonstrate that stretching exercises in the anterior jaw splint are more effective than strengthening exercise.
Objective:The goal of this research is to see how stretching and strengthening exercises affect athletes.
Methodology:20 subjects based on addition and exclusion criteria, study system: Individual of SCPT. Materials: mat, towel, steps. Sample technique: Random control technique. Study Design: Pilot Study. Sample mode: Convenient model: Outcome measures: NPRS, MTSS (intermediate tibial pressure syndrome level). The intervention was given for 4 weeks, 5 days / week. The NPRS and MTSS baseline analysis was performed before the intervention began. Lessons were given at 4 weeks of intervention, followed by a follow-up test to investigate the long-term effects of the intervention. Because the difference between post-test I and post-test II was considerable, the results were delayed.when the SD values were compared.
Conclusion:Therefore, it has been concluded that stretching exercises are more effective than strengthening exercise in reducing the NPRS and MTSS of athletes. 

Does Wii Based Intervention Cause Meaningful Improvement in Functional Balance in Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease – A Systematic Review.

G. Alagumoorthi; DR. D. Beulah Jebakani; DR. Kumaresan A; S. Rathish; Prathap Suganthirababu; Vignesh Srinivasan; Priyadharshini Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 450-470

Background
People suffering from Parkinson's disease with an unknown reason, have increased functional dependency due to falls and their quality of life is also reduced. Commercial gaming like Wii games are commonly used for rehabilitation of balance inorder to prevent falls.
 Objective
Wii, a portable videogame is a cost-effective balance training tool, however, evidence for meaningful improvement is inconclusive. This systematic review is to explore this evidence for the meaningful change in functional balance.

Efficacy of self-monitoring virtual feedback exercises for upper motor neuron facial palsy. A double blinded randomized control study.

Vignesh Srinivasan; Nithiyah Maruthey; Prathap Suganthirababu; Kumaresan A; Surya Vishnuram; Aravind Ganesh; Nivya Sebastian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 471-479

Purpose:
Upper Motor Neuron Facial Palsy is common in those who have had a stroke. Electrical stimulation and other available therapeutic options for UMN facial palsy have been the subject of several research papers. The purpose of this study is to see how effective facial retraining exercise using self-monitoring virtual feedback via a mobile application  for treating UMN facial palsy.
Materials and Method:
An experiment was carried out with the help of 82 volunteers. Based on the selection criteria, all of the participants were separated into experimental and control groupsThe experimental group was given electrical stimulation and face retraining exercises with self-monitoring virtual
feedback via an android application, whereas the control group was given electrical stimulation and conventional exercises.House-Brackmann facial grading score was measured pre and post to the intervention by a blinded assessor who was unaware about group allotment.

Qualitative and Quantitative Dermatoglyphics and the Estrogen Exposure in Breast Cancer Risk: an Epigenetic Context.

Lavanya Prathap; Prathap Suganthirababu; Kumaresan A; Vignesh Srinivasan; Jagatheesan Alagesan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 480-490

Background – The lastingness of dermatoglyphics suggest epidermal ridges as a bio-signature for studying the epigenetic insults in the prenatal period. Approaching the preventive measures in epigenetic viewpoint aid to reduce the incidence of carcinoma.  Objective – To inquire the association of qualitative and quantitative dermatoglyphics and the estrogen exposure in spotting out breast cancer risk in an epigenetic context. Materials and Methods – We performed the study among 150 females in three groups. The outcome of dermatoglyphic variables includes six or more whorls, Mean finger ridge count, A- B Subtotal ridge count, ATD angle and pattern intensity index. The variables of reproductive and genetic factors are increased menstrual age, Nulliparity, First Full Term Pregnancy >30yrs, and Positive Family History. The statistical procedure used are odds ratio and the level of significance using P- value. Results - Increased menstrual age is significantly associated with six and more whorls (P<0.0001), Mean finger ridge count (P<0.04), A-B Ridge count (P<0.0001), ATD angle (P<0.0001), Pattern intensity index (<0.0001). Nulliparity is significantly associated with the ridge count (P<0.0001), ATD angle (P<0.001), full term pregnancy >30yrs is associated significantly with A-B ridge count (P<0.01), ATD angle (P<0.02), pattern intensity index (P<0.05).Positive Family History is associated significantly with all the variables. Conclusion: To encapsulate six or more whorls are associated with high frequency with positive family history, Mean finger ridge count, and pattern intensity index is related in high frequency with menstrual age and ATD angle is linked in high frequency with nulliparity when compared with other reproductive factors.

Fluctuating asymmetry of dermatoglyphics and the lifetime estrogen exposure in breast cancer risk – an epigenetic perspective

Lavanya Prathap; Prathap Suganthirababu; Kumaresan A; Vignesh Srinivasan; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Deepthi Ganesan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 491-499

Background: Through an epigenetic mechanism, a woman's total lifetime oestrogen exposure accumulates changes in her DNA methylation pattern. These changes can influence the developing fetus and the resulting epigenetic aberrations is said to be reflected in the dermatoglyphic patterns.  Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is the difference of dermatoglyphic patterns between the right and left hand. Aim: To explore the association of FA of dermatoglyphics with the reproductive factors in an epigenetic perspective to identify breast cancer risk. Methods: The participants are grouped into three based on the selection criteria as a breast cancer, high risk and control group. The data are collected through digital photographic images. The variables include FA of the finger ridge count (FRC) of Thumb, Ring Finger, and the A-B Ridge Count. The variables of reproductive factors includes increased menstrual age, Nulliparity and first full-term pregnancy >30yrs, and Positive Family History.  Result: Among the reproductive factors involved in the study, The FA thumb is strongly associated with increased menstrual age, FA ring finger is strongly associated with nulliparity and FA subtotal ridge count is observed to be strongly associated with increased menstrual age at significance level of p<0.0001. Age at first full term pregnancy is not significantly associated with any of the dermatoglyphic variables Positive family history is significantly associated with all the dermatoglyphic variable with p<0.0001.Conclusion: FA of dermatoglyphics aids to identify the in-utero epigenetic aberrations of a females linked to breast cancer risk.

Fluctuating Asymmetry of Hand Dermatoglyphics in Female Breast Cancer Population

Lavanya Prathap; Prathap Suganthirababu; Kumaresan A; Vignesh Srinivasan; Aravind Ganesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 500-507

Background: Breast cancer being a common cancer in women among reproductive age, effective screening criteria should be in practice to keep apart the high risk population for breast cancer and thereby prevention of the disease..  The present study identifies the FA of digital and palmar dermatoglyphic variables specific for breast cancer, which can be utilized to set apart the population at risk, take preventive and early therapeutic measures. Methods: The participants are grouped in to 50 each based on selection criteria. Data collected in the form of digital photographic images of the digits and palm of the right and left hand and the variables are analyzed visually with assistance of computer. The Student t’ test is applied to examine the quantitative variables and to measure the FA between dermal ridges of the right and left hand. Results and Conclusion: The typical dermatoglyphic variables that can be utilized to insulate the high risk population includes FA Thumb, FA Ring finger and FA A-B ridge count. The overall observation of the results obtained from the study demonstrated a substantial divergence in the fluctuating asymmetry of dermal ridge patterns of healthy participants from the high risk and breast cancer group and the patterns followed in high risk and breast cancer group helps to categorize to some extent the familial origin of chest malignant neoplastic disease.

AWARENESS ABOUT CRYPTOCURRENCY AND ITS FUTURE IN INDIA AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS - A SURVEY

Raja kumar; Lavanya Prathap; V.Vishnu priya; Preetha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 508-526

Aim: The study aims to look at college students' perceptions about cryptocurrencies and its future in India.
Background: Bitcoin, Litecoin, Etherum, and Ripple are examples of distinct types of cryptocurrency. In 2008 the invention of bitcoin was introduced by an unknown person or a group which is named Satoshi Nakamoto.
Methods and Materials :The survey on awareness about the cryptocurrency and its future in India among college students was conducted using google form link in the  year 2020 . We have distributed our survey to 100 college students. SPSS software was used to collect, tabulate, and statistically analyze the replies.
Result: From the obtained data it is evident that 91.74 % are  aware of cryptocurrency whereas 8.26  % are still not aware about the cryptocurrency. From the study population 73.39 % agreed cryptocurrency has a future in India and only 8.40 % agreed it'll be useful in future.
Conclusion : The findings suggest that the majority of the college students are aware of cryptocurrency but they lag in the knowledge of its usability. Very few participants only agreed that cryptocurrency has a future in India. It is the duty of the Government and crypto agencies to enhance its usage in India for safe and secure use of this virtual money.

Factors Influencing Physiotherapy graduates in Choosing Neurological Physiotherapy for Postgraduation in their Professional Career: A Survey Study

Rajashree P; Prathap Suganthirababu; Kumaresan A; Vignesh Srinivasan; Divyalaxmi P; Lavanya Prathap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 527-532

Background: Factors influencing physiotherapy students in choosing neurological physiotherapy as a career.Objective: The study aimed to identify the factors influencing physiotherapy students in choosing neurological physiotherapy as a career.Methods: The survey study was done on the year 2021 at saveetha college of physiotherapy and other physiotherapy colleges in Chennai. A questionnaire comprising of 16 questions, was administered for neurological physiotherapy students. Students were asked questions pertaining to the importance of four central motives productive, knowledge, social, and personal background for selecting neurological physiotherapy as a career and Likert scale was used to measure the outcomes.  Results: A total of 138 physiotherapy students out of 120 were participated in the survey. The results show that the top four factors, which influenced students to choose neurological physiotherapy as a career and the “productive” factor topped the list.

Prevalence of Agoraphobia In Post Neurological Illness Patients During Covid-19

Rajameena R; Vignesh Srinivasan; Prathap Suganthirababu; Kumaresan A; Divyalaxmi P; Lavanya Prathap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 533-539

Objective: Agoraphobia is generally been defined as a fear of appearing in public places, particularly the places which are too empty or too crowded. In many situations this anxiety leads these people to avoid certain situation or requires a accompany when he travelling outside the home or staying alone in home. Agoraphobia can be observed in any gender of any age group. Methods: Patients with neurological illness who came to the outpatient department and inpatients from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital were included in the study, according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were explained about the study and their informed consent was obtained. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical committee. The participants were given the Agoraphobia Scale (AS) and their responses were documented by the therapist. The outcome measure was statistically analysed. Findings: The interpretations of Agoraphobic Scale (AS) reveals that there is an increased incidence of agoraphobia among the age group 38 to 48 years. It is also observed that female neurologically ill patients have increased incidence of agoraphobia compared to male neurologically ill patients. Incidence of agoraphobia in male neurologically ill patients is noted between 48 to 58 years. Conclusion: It is concluded that agoraphobia is prevalent in neurologically ill patients during covid-19 pandemic affecting their psycho-social behaviour and their ability.

A survey on problems faced by physically challenged people during the corona pandemic

S. Bhavesh; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 540-549

INTRODUCTION: The Covid- 19 pandemic has caused many drastic changes in the lines of the general population. Moreover, the people with physical disabilities were affected more, as they commonly encounter day to day life challenges in their life, such as barriers to mobility, reduced access to healthcare services, and high depression.
AIM: The study aims to create awareness and survey the problems faced by the physically disabled people during the Covid- 19 pandemic.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted survey through online mode with the help of google forms through an e-questionnaire.The survey was conducted among the general population with a second of 101 responses. The obtained results were statistically analysed using SPSS software version 23.
RESULTS: Most of the general population have an awareness of the problems faced by the physically challenged people during the corona pandemic. Most of the population found this survey was useful.
CONCLUSION: Because of the lack of access to hospitals, drastic changes in lifestyle and social  habits, no physical activity were all noted. From the present study, it is evident that most of the people are aware of the various problems faced by physically challenged people during COVID.

Tecoma stans Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract its Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity Against Colon Cancer (HT-29)

Priyanka Sivasubramanian; Lavanya Prathap; Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 550-559

BACKGROUND :-
Colon cancer is known to be the third most deadly and fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. In this research we study the anti-cancer properties of the plant leaf extract of Tecoma stans. There has always been a need for anti-cancer agents, since the commercially available synthetic drugs have their own limitations due to undesirable side effects. AIM :- To analyse the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Hydroethanolic leaf extract of Tecoma stans in colon cancer cell lines.
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS :-
Human colon cancer cell line (HT -29) was brought from NCCS, Pune, India. Cell viability test and Gene expression analysis were carried out for P-I3 and Akt mRNA Gene expression using MTT and PCR respectively. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools.
RESULT :-
Results suggest that maximum reduction of cell proliferation was at dosage of (100-500 μg/ml) of the Hydro ethanolic leaf extract of Tecoma stans used in the study when compared to untreated group. At doses of 300 g/ml and 400 g/ml, the cancer cells were severely suppressed and mRNA expression of P-I3 and Akt was significantly reduced as compared to control.
 
CONCLUSION :-
The research carried out revealed that leaf extracts of Tecoma stans have diverse pharmacological spectrum and contain anti-cancer behavious. Research on this plant is increasing day by day because of its potent pharmacological uses. However further investigations involving the isolation on screening models of constituents are needed for further confirmation of various potential of Tecoma stans

In vitro examination of the role of exercise-induced serotonin replication in the prevention and advancement of liver cancer via the intrinsic apoptotic signalling pathway.

Ashfaaq Ahmed; Lavanya Prathap; Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 560-568

Background: Serotonin is an important mediator of variety of physiological processess including fibrogenesis,steatosis,cell proliferation. It functions as a neurotransmitter and vasoconstrictor. In this study we explained the influence of physical exercise which induces serotonin in modulating liver cancer and its functions as a neurotransmitter that inhibits the growth of tumors in a concentration dependent. Hence they are less likely to develop liver cancer through an intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway through three  genes ( Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, p53).
Aim: To analyze Influence of exercise induced serotonin replica in prevention and progression of liver cancer through intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway.
Materials and methods:
Human liver cancer cell line (HEPG2) was brought from NCCS, Pune, India. Cell viability test for seratonin and Gene expression analysis were carried out for The p53, Bcl-xl, Bcl-2 mRNA gene expression using MTT and PCR respectively. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools.
Results: The p53 mRNA gene expression is increased on induction of 2mM, 4mM dosage of serotonin. Bcl-xl, Bcl-2 and % of cell viability decreases on induction of serotonin. Hence the compound has anti - cancer activity.
Conclusion: The results of the study concluded that people who exercise regularly have endogenous secretion of serotonin that inhibits tumor growth through modulating apoptotic and signaling pathways and hence they are less likely to develop liver cancer.

IDENTIFICATION OF ENDOGENOUS OVEREXPRESSION OF CATALASE, AS A INHIBITOR OF EMT SIGNALLING THE PROGRESSION OF BREAST CANCER.

Kaviya. S; Lavanya Prathap; Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 569-577

 
BACKGROUND: Tumor is an abnormal cell growth that spreads to other organs. Breast tumor develops in the tissues of the breastRegular exercise can help to lower the chance of developing breast tumor. For the year 2020, the expected incidence of tumor patients in India was 679,421 (94.1 per 100,000) for males and 712,758 (103.6 per 100,000) for females.. AIM: To analyse the endogenous over the expression of catalase as an inhibitor of EMT signaling in breast tumor through molecular docking.
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
            The molecular docking analysis is a bio informatic study conducted in a private dental college. The endogenous substance catalase which is secreted after post exercise is used as our target protein. The interaction of catalase with the proteins relevant to breast tumor namely Vimentin, Beta-catenin, Ecadherin are included for docking analysis. The protein structure is retrieved using protein data bank, Protein protein docking done using patch Dock server followed by visualisation of protein-protein interaction using pymol.
 
RESULT:
             The surface representation of catalase with Vimentin, Beta-catenin and Ecadherin showed good shape complementarity.The results showed that Catalase forms strong interaction with Vimetine, Beta catenin, Ecatherine proteins in terms of hydrogen bond interaction, hydrophobic and non bonded interaction. Through this interaction these proteins might control the overexpression of catalase activity in breast tumor.
 
  CONCLUSION:
           From the obtained result it can be concluded that catalase may have a protective role against breast tumor through its interaction with Vimentin, E-Cadherin, Beta-Catenin. The present study has suggested a possible mechanism of catalase in the inhibitor of EMT signaling in breast tumor.

ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS GLUTATHIONE AS REGULATOR OF WNT/BETA CATENIN SIGNALLING RELEVANT TO BREAST CANCER - A MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDY

Prithiksha N; Lavanya Prathap; Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 578-592

Background: Breast tumor is the most common tumor in women and the second leading cause of tumor death in women, after lung tumor. As people get older, their chances of developing breast tumor increase. Breast tumor is a major health concern in developed countries. Glutathione is an endogenous antioxidant that helps maintain quality of life and may help prevent breast tumor. The role of endogenous glutathione as a regulator of Wnt/beta catenin signalling in breast tumor will be studied using molecular docking.. Materials and Methods: The molecular docking analysis is a bio-informatic study executed in a dental college. The endogenous substance Glutathione which is secreted after exercise is used as a target protein. The interaction of glutathione with proteins relevant to breast tumor namely Beta catenin , MYC are included for docking analysis. The protein structure is retrieved using protein data bank, Protein protein docking done using patch dock server followed by visualisation of protein- protein interaction using pymol. Results: The surface representation of Glutathione with Beta-catenin,MYC complex showed good shape complementarity. The number of structurally aligned residues indicates anticipated binding free energy for the top-listed solutions. Conclusion: The findings suggest that exercise-induced endogenous glutathione may operate as a regulator of wnt/beta catenin signalling in breast tumor. The exercise may help maintain gene expression balance by modifying the Wnt/beta catenin signalling system, as well as operate as a protective factor in preventing, controlling, and aiding as an additional therapy for breast tumor with a favourable prognosis.

Role Of Exercise Induced Dopamine Replica On The Expression Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Apoptotic Signalling In Human Melanoma Cell Line (A375)- In-Vitro Study

Aashiq Mohamed P; Lavanya Prathap; Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 593-603

Exercise has been implicated in modulating dopamine in a major amount as neurotransmission, increasing blood flow, etc. The role of exercise in tumor risk reduction, there is now convincing and vital evidence that exercise reduces melanoma and also other tumors. This has to be practiced in each and every place where tumor has grown. The goal of the study is to study the impact of exercise induced dopamine replica in modulating the apoptotic signaling pathway in human melanoma.
The melanoma cell line of human cell (A375) was brought from NCCS, Pune, India. Cell viability test and Gene expression analysis were carried out using MTT and PCR respectively. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools using ANOVA and Duncan’s  test.

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF LINEAR MEASUREMENTS IN MANDIBULAR BONE USING DIGITAL ORTHOPANTAMOGRAPHS IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

D Khushi jain; Lavanya Prathap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 604-616

INTRODUCTION : As age and stature are dependent in the inquiry level of dimorphism, body remnants, and sex reliably plays a significant role, sex identification is a preliminary phase in forensic examination.. Panoramic radiographs, or orthopantomographs, have a wide range of clinical radiological applications in dentistry.
AIM : The aim of the study is to identify sexual dimorphism of linear measurements of mandibular bone using digital orthopantomographs in south indian population
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Digital panoramic radiography were used in a study.The study was done in the south indian population on 50 radiographs in both the genders. Panoramic radiographs with intact dentition were included and that with fracture or deformation were excluded.  PMI and MCW are radio morphometric methods. PMI is calculated by measuring the distance between the inferior margins of the mandible and the mental foramen. MCW is calculated by measuring the distance between two parallel lines at the mental foramen's limit. The measurement was carried out using adobe photoshop. Statistical analysis using SPSS was done to determine the gender from the linear measurements.
RESULT: Linear measurements for Mandibular Cortical Width (MCW) and Panoramic Mandibular Index(PMI) were taken. The p value for MCW left is 0.479 which is statistically not significant and p value for MCW right is 0.014 which is statistically significant. The p value for PMI left and right is 0.419  and 0.457 respectively which is statistically not significant between gender
CONCLUSION: The study was done on both the side of the mandible and thus the linear measurement of mandibular bone on digital orthopantamographs is done on the south indian population. From the study it is concluded that PMI can be more preferably used for the measurements and the identification.

PRO-APOPTOTIC ROLE OF TECOMA STANS IN MELANOMA CELL LINE (A-375) - AN IN VITRO STUDY

Danda Nishitha; Lavanya Prathap; Dr. Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 617-627

Background :   Vigorous growth of cells leads to cancer. Tecoma Stans, a flower which consists of anti - cancer properties. One of such anti - cancer properties is the pro - apoptotic role in melanoma cell line (A-375). This is an in vitro study. The intervention is a hydroethanolic extract of Tecomastans on the melanoma cell line. The gene expressions chosen for this study are P53, caspase 3 and caspase 9. Aim of this study is to assess the pro apoptotic role of Tecomastans in melanoma.
 
Materials and methods : Human skin cancer (A - 375) was brought from NCCS, Pune, India. Cell viability test using MTT assay and Gene expression analysis for P53, caspase 3 and caspase 9 were carried out using MTT and PCR respectively. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools using ANOVA and Duncan’s  test.
 
Results : The study suggestin MTT assay, the percentage of cell viability is observed to decrease on induction of Tecoma Stans.Caspase 9, mRNA  gene expression decreases on induction of dosages 300mg/ml and 400mg/ml of Tecomastans. P53 gene expression increases on induction of dosages 300mg/ml and 400umg/ml of Tecomastans. Caspase 3 gene expression doesn’t show any significance on induction of dosages 300mg/ml and 400mg/ml of Tecomastans.  
 Conclusion : Tecomastans consists of pro apoptotic property which is one of the anti cancer properties in melanoma when acted on the gene expressions P53, caspase 3 and caspase 9.

In vitro evaluation of the anti-cancer efficacy of Tecoma stans hydroethanolic leaf extract against a liver cancer cell line (HepG2).

Prateek Veerendrakumar.S; Lavanya Prathap; Dr. Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 628-637

Flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones, tannins, and traces of saponins and amino acids were found in Tecoma stans. The presence of phytochemicals has been recorded in almost all sections of the plant (leaves, root, flower, seed, fruit, bark) and hence the plant's usage in medical domains. Cancer, along with cardiovascular illnesses, is one of the main causes of death worldwide. The goal of this study is to see if tecoma stans hydro ethanolic leaf extract has anti-cancer properties against liver cancer.
Human liver cancer cell line (HepG2 ) was brought from NCCS, Pune, India. Cell viability test and Gene expression analysis were carried out for Wnt and beta catenin mRNA Gene expression using MTT and PCR respectively. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools

In Silico Analysis To Identify The Inhibitory Potential Of Endogenous Superoxide Dismutase On Apoptotic Markers Relevant To Breast Cancer.

Gopika. G.G; Lavanya Prathap; Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 638-648

Breast cancer arises when certain breast cells start to grow abnormally they  divide and replicate at a greater rate than normal cells. Regular exercise helps to reduce breast cancer by 10 to 20 percent. AIM: To analyse the inhibitory potential of endogenous over expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on apoptotic markers in breast cancer through silico analysis.
    The molecular docking analysis is a bioinformatic study. The endogenous substance SOD which is secreted after exercise is used as a target protein. The interaction of SOD with proteins relevant to breast cancer namely Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax are included for docking analysis. The protein structure is retrieved using protein data bank, protein protein docking done using patch dock server followed by visualisation of protein -protein interaction using pymol.

COLON CANCER AND THE MOLECULAR DOCKING INTERACTION OF ENDOGENOUS GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE ON APOPTOTIC MARKER

Jayavarsha. v; Lavanya Prathap; Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 649-658

Background: In both men and women, colon tumor is the third highest cause of tumor death.. It  is located at the digestive tracts lower end. Daily workout may prevent the tumor by inducing endogenous glutathione peroxidase. Nearly 1 million patients receive a diagnosis of colorectal tumor. Over 50,000 people die from this tumor annually.
Aim: To analyse the role of endogenous glutathione peroxidase on apoptotic markers through molecular docking interaction.
Materials and Methods: The molecular docking analysis is a bioinformatic study conducted in private dental college. Exercise induced endogenous glutathione peroxidase is used as target protein The interaction of glutathione peroxidase with protein relevant to colon tumor namely Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Bax are included for docking analysis. The protein structure is retrieved using protein data bank, protein protein docking done using patch dock server followed by visualisation of protein - protein interaction using pymol.
Results: The surface representation of glutathione with  Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Bax complex showed good shape complementarity. It shows the positive interaction between glutathione peroxidase with Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax proteins and might have a protective role against colon tumor.
Conclusion: The results concluded that exercise-induced glutathione peroxidase endogenously has interaction with Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, Bax protein and might have a protective role against colon tumor. Exercise is good for both mental and physical health. Regular physical activity improves your overall health.  It can improve memory and also reduce the risk factors of chronic diseases.

Sensory nerve conduction velocity changes in low level laser therapy irradiated diabetic neuropathy induced wistar rats

Prathap Suganthirababu; Lavanya Prathap; Kumaresan A; Vignesh Srinivasan; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Praveenkumar Kandakurti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 659-673

Background: Management of Diabetic neuropathy with physiotherapy is very limited and extensive research has to be done to address this problem conservatively in a physiotherapy perspective. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of various dosage of low level laser irradiation on sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of experimentally induced diabetic neuropathy in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: We performed a randomized controlled trial using simple random sampling method in a CPCSEA Approved, Biomedical Research Unit & Laboratory Animal Centre, Chennai, India. The study carried out in two phases, in the phase I the selected experimental rats are treated with single dose on Alloxon 150mg/kg body weight after 12 hours of fasting. In the Phase II the samples with confirmed neuropathic status were divided into seven groups (six rats in each group) and irradiated with low level laser therapy with various dosages Results: The SNCV result analysis within the groups showed that laser dosage of 3,4j/cm2 are having more sensory regenerative effect as compared with 5-8j/cm2 dose and control group also did not show significant effect. The findings of the present study suggests nerve regeneration through nerve conduction velocity reports. Conclusion: It is evident from the results that an increase in nerve conduction velocity with selective dosages of laser proves that laser has neuroregenerative effects and by analyzing the results it can be concluded that low level laser of 3&4j/cm2 is found to be effective in regeneration of SNCV of experimentally induced diabetic neuropathy as compared with control group and with the dosage of higher energy with 5-8j/cm2.

MOLECULAR DOCKING ANALYSIS ON THE IDENTIFICATION THE ACTIVATION OF ENDOGENOUS BETA ENDORPHIN ON THE REGULATION OF NEURO INFLAMMATORY SIGNALLING RELEVANT TO INFLAMMATORY MEDIATED TUMOR

Akshetha.L .S; Lavanya Prathap; Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 674-684

BACKGROUND: Beta-endorphin is an opioid neuropeptide which has an important role in paracrine communication of brain messages. Beta-endorphin is the link that is missed between the neuron and the wall of the arteriole, it is a fundamental neurotransmitter. When you exercise, a chemical is released by the body called beta-endorphins which interact with the receptors in your brain to reduce the perception of pain.
The molecular docking analysis is a bioinformatic study conducted in a private dental college. The endogenous substance Beta-endorphin which is secreted after exercise is used as a target protein.The interaction of beta-endorphin  with the proteins relevant to inflammatory mediated tumor namely IL-6,TNF-alpha, MMP are included for docking analysis. The protein structure is retrieved using protein data bank, protein protein docking  done using patch dock server followed by visualization of protein-protein interaction using pymol.

In Silico Identification Of Human Mir-26a-1 From Hypertension Genome Sequence

Ridha Azimudin; Lavanya Prathap; Auxzilia Preethi K; Sushmaa Chandralekha Selvakumar; Dr. Durairaj Sekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 685-693

Hypertension is a non-communicable condition that affects about half of the world's adult population. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), also known as non-coding RNAs, govern biological processes such as Proliferation and apoptosis are two processes that can be employed as treatment targets in the treating of diseases like hypertension. The current study aims in identifying miRNAs in hypertension from genome sequences found in public genomic databases.
In this study, we have used the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) web portal to identify miR-26a for hypertension using a bioinformatics approach and RNA fold was used to create the secondary structure.

Evaluation Of Palatal Rugae Patterns And Gender Determination With Malocclusion In Indian Population

Tahoora Taskeen .L; Lavanya Prathap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 694-705

Introduction: Palatal Rugae Is The Array Of Transverse Ridges Which Is Present On Anterior Region Of Hard Palate, Either Side Of Median Palatal Raphe. Rugoscopy Which Promotes Sex Determination And Identification Of Individual Due To Its Perenity And Stability As It Is Not Altered During Growth. Thus, The Study Aimed To Analyze The Association Of Rugoscopy And Dental Malocclusion Along With Gender Determination. Materials And Methods: The Study Setting Was  Organized  In A Dental College, 17 Dental Casts Were Collected And Segregated As Malocclusion And Normal Occlusion And The Rugae Patterns Were Determined Based On Classification Of Kapali And Thomas And Kotze And The Collected Data Was Calculated In Spss Version 23.0. Results: The Results Suggest That In Individuals The Maximum Number Of Rugae Were Seen Among Men With Mean Value 70. Based On The Occlusion, The Dominating Pattern Was Fragmented Rugae (20%) And Curve( 25%) Whereas In Malocclusion The More Predominant Pattern Was Primary And Wavy. Based On Gender Wavy (Mean-27) And Secondary Rugae (Mean- 32) Was Predominantly Found For Females Whereas In Males Primary Rugae (Mean-28) And Wavy (Mean- 31) Was Found Predominant. Accordingly The Most Predominant Pattern Observed Among The Individuals Was Secondary Rugae (Mean- 55) And Wavy (Mean- 58). Conclusion: Thus The Predominant Pattern Among Individuals Was Secondary Rugae And Wavy And Based On Gender Females Had Predominant Secondary Rugae And Males Had Primary Rugae And Wavy Pattern.

The effect of exercise-induced dopamine replica in colon cancer cell line (HT-29) prevention via apoptotic signaling pathway

N.Vishal Prakasam; Lavanya Prathap; Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 706-715

During exercise we release a lot of hormones and neurotransmitters. Dopamine is one among the hormones which is released in several parts of the mid brain during exercise. It is said that exercise can help to avoid many diseases and even cancer.. In 2020 the number of cases diagnosed were 104,610 all around the world .In this study we analysed the role of endogenous dopamine replica over gene expression of Apoptotic and tumor suppressor gene against colon cancer prevention.
Human colon cancer cell line (HT -29) was brought from NCCS, Pune, India. Cell viability test and Gene expression analysis were carried out for apoptotic and tumor suppressor gene using MTT and PCR respectively. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools using ANOVA and Duncan’s test.

TECOMA STANS HYDRO ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT ON LUNG CANCER CELL LINE A-549.

Faaizah Fathima; Lavanya Prathap; Dr. Selvaraj Jayaraman; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 716-728

Background: Tumor is a disease caused by abnormal cells dividing out of control. Lung tumor is a type of tumor that primarily affects smokers. Coughing, wheezing, chest pain, and other symptoms of lung tumor include these. Tecoma stans, popularly known as yellow bells, flowering perennial shrub endemic to the United States that belongs to the Bignoniaceae family of trumpet vines. It possesses antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and trypsin inhibitor effects, among other things.
Aim: to investigate on the lung tumour cell line A549, Tecoma stans hydroethanolic leaf extract has an antioxidant and anti-proliferative effect.

A SURVEY ON PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES DUE TO INTAKE OF HARD AND SOFT CANDIES

Indugayathrie VT; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 729-743

AIM
The aim of this study is to assess whether chocolates i.e hard and soft candies consumption leads to increased risk of dental caries.
INTRODUCTION
Hard and soft candies have high sugar content .Consumption of these chocolates has a high risk of  dental caries due to the presence of bacteria . These baterias use the sugar present in these chocolates as a medium of growth and releases acid during the breakdown of these sugars leading to dental caries.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
 A cross sectional study was done using the online platform ,a questionnaire was formed and circulated . In this questionnaire the subjects' addiction level on chocolates were assessed. About hundreds participants' responses were recorded who were below the age of 23.
RESULTS
 When the final results were analysed, we found that most of the participants were mildly addicted to chocolates, and due to this prevalence of dental carries also increased.
CONCLUSION
So there is an association with the prevalence of dental caries and consumption of chocolates.

Difficulties Faced By Dentists During COVID Pandemic-A Survey

Mithil Darshan Vora; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 744-756

To assess the hardships faced by dentists during covid pandemic.
Introduction: COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The primary clinical appearances are respiratory in nature. Dental practitioners are among the most elevated hazard categories for transmission of covid since numerous dental methods have the potential to transmit the disease.
Materials and Methods:
A cross sectional survey via an online questionnaire of 11 close ended questions was done. It was circulated via Google forms. The questionnaire contains questions on demographic details also. Data was collected and tabulated in excel sheet and statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. A total of 133 dentists responded to the study.
Results:
Most of the dentists reported that they were worried about operational and financial challenges to run their practice during Covid-19 pandemic.  53.4% of the dentists were male while 46.6% of the participants were female. Most of the dentists agreed that they are at higher risk of contracting covid-19 than other medical professionals. Most of the dentists agreed that they may be the major cause of transmitting the infection to their patients.

Osteometric analysis of infraorbital margin with individual to maxillary teeth in South Indian dry skulls

A.Ruhina Hussaini; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 757-765

In relation with infraorbital margin (IOM), infraorbital foramen (IOF) is the major land mark for proper injections for local anaesthetics. The Infraorbital nerve and vessels passes through the floor of the orbit . The nerve passes through infraorbital groove and then passes the infraorbital canal .The infra orbital foramen is situated on maxilla 1cm below infraorbital margin.
The present study aim to  analyse infraorbital margin with individual maxillary teeth through osteometric measurements.

A survey on prevalence of diabetes mellitus due to junk food intake in young individuals.

Sneha Harshini S; Mrs.S. sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 766-777

The aim of the present study was to assess knowledge and awareness about the prevalence of diabetes mellitus due to consumption of junk food among the general population.
 
INTRODUCTION:
Junk food is also known as fast food due its ease of making and consumption. It is also called HFSS , High fat, salt or sugar. It’s concise packing and attractive colours draw children's attention.
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A cross-sectional study in the form of a survey was conducted among the parents of the victims in particular along with the general population. Through the online platform the survey was done by distributing the questionnaire. Around 100 responses were collected, data was circulated, results were collected and statistically analysed through SPSS software.

A Survey on problems faced by Dentists treating patients with Cardiac problems

Sukanth R; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 778-788

Cardiovascular disease tends to have many complications and also has many impacts over the dental health so the dentists treating the patients must take up special considerations and many precautions must be taken while any kind of treatment is given. Cardiovascular drugs do not work in the way we need it to work while we administer them with some other kinds of drugs and may lead to mild to potential fetal drugs. The first line of defense that should be taken is with the dental treatments in referral and finding of cardiovascular disease. Hence dentists face many problems in treating patients with cardiovascular disorders. Even dentists may face problems in the behavior of their patients due to their hypertensive nature. The upcoming would make us clear whether dentists really face problems and how they overcome while treating a cardiovascular patient.

OSTEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF UPPER FACIAL SKELETON USING CRANIOMETRIC POINTS ON NORMA LATERALIS

Vishaka S; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 789-801

Osteometry is the study and measurement of the human or animal skeleton, particularly in an archaeological or anthropological context, employing craniometric points on the norma lateralis.
Aim:
The aim of the study is to perform osteometric analysis of the upper facial skeleton using craniometric points on norma lateralis.
Materials and Methods:
The morphometric parameters involved in this study are Fronto malar temporale,basion,nasion,prosthion,zygion.The morphometric parameters are measured using spreading caliber.
Results:
The present study has observed that the mean distance between fronto malar temporal to Prosthion, Basion to Nasion, Basion to Prosthion and Zygion to Prosthion on right and left side.
Conclusion:
The present study concludes by finding out the distance between important craniometric points on norma lateralis. The study’s findings can be translated to aesthetic surgery,facial surgeries,for correction of craniofacial deformities.The study can be used to make an attempt to find out the ethnicity and race of skeletons. Anthropologists, anatomists, radiologists, and forensic scientists may find this study useful..

Formulation Development and Characterization Of Third Generation Cephalosporin Loaded Dry Injection and Dry Syrup: A Mixed Solvency Concept To Minimize Toxicity And Maximize Bioavailability

Raghvendra Singh; Dr. Gopal Rai; Pradeep Vikram; Dr. Vikas Pandey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 802-829

The objective of present work was to explore the novel application of mixed solvency technique in the formulation of dry dosage forms of poorly soluble drug and to minimize the toxic effects of solubilizers by reducing the concentration of individual solubilizer (used for solubility enhancement).
In the present study, poorly water insoluble drug cefixime was selected. Cefixime was tried to solubilize by using solubilizers which were physiologically compatible in an attempt to prepare its parenteral formulations (dry injection for reconstitution of cefixime) as well as oral liquid formulation (dry syrup).
In the present work, the procured cefixime drug sample was characterized by various characterization tests. Open capillary method was used to determine the melting point and it was found to be 218-225º C. Spectrophotometric method was used to analyze the drug which showed its peak at 288 nm. Further characterization of drug was done by FTIR spectroscopy. The characterization report of the procured sample of drug was found to be in concordance with that reported in the literature and was thus used for further studies.

Design and Characterization of Fast Disintegrating Film for Phenobarbital

Bhambere Deepak S; Laddha Umesh D; Dashputre Neelam L; Kakad Smita K.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 830-839

Epileptic seizures often cause transient impairment of consciousness, leaving the individual at risk of bodily harm. Therapy is symptomatic to which available drugs inhibit seizures. Phenobarbital exerts maximal antiseizure action at doses below those required for hypnosis. Phenobarbital is slowly absorbed from oral route, onset of action occurs within 30-60 mins, duration of action persist for 12-16 hours, 20-45% bound to plasma protein and only partly metabolized in the liver. Mouth dissolving films of phenobarbital can be used for emergency treatment of status epilepticus (SE) in all class of patients without need of trained persons. In the present work, an approach to develop and evaluate quick disintegrating films of Phenobarbital. Suitable film formers and plasticizers were selected based on optimization studies. Effect of superdisintegrants in formulation of mouth dissolving films at different concentrations has been investigated. Films were prepared by solvent casting method. The prepared films were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, in vitro disintegration & dissolution time, in vitro release rate study and stability study. The best formulation was found to be F3 showing 96.57 % drug release in 14 min, following first order kinetics. X-Ray diffraction studies show change in crystalline nature of drug in formulation.

FACTORS AFFECTING CONVERSION OF LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY INTO OPEN CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Dr. Jahnavi. Kolli; Dr. Pradeep Goyal; Dr. Kudrat Thukral; Dr. Shaurya Pratap Kushwaha; Dr. Ayush Mishra; Dr. Yogesh Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 840-850

Aim: To study the conversion rate of laparoscopic cholecystectomy into open cholecystectomy in study conducted among 50 patients in our hospital.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the department of General Surgery at Maharishi Markandeshwar University Solan. Patients were admitted from OPD.  History of the patient, general physical examination and clinical examination was done, ultrasound abdomen was done in 50 patients and sonographic findings were noted and posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patient with ultrasound proved symptomatic cholelithiasis, acute cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, empyema gall bladder, mucocele gall bladder, gall stone pancreatitis were included in this study.  Patients with gall bladder carcinoma, CBD calculus, dilated CBD with deranged LFT, history of bleeding diathesis, having severe cardiopulmonary compromise were excluded from the study.

CHALLENGES FACED BY SMALL SCALE ENTREPRENEURS IN KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT

J. Jenifer; Dr. J. Divya Merry Malar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 851-858

Entrepreneurs is a key element of growth and development prospects for all countries. A nation how so ever rich in material resources, cannot prosper if its resources are not put to productive use. For this purpose, energetic entrepreneurs are needed who can contribute effectively for national prosperity. The only solution is promotion and development of entrepreneurship, as it aims at making an individual a job provider and not a job seeker. This paper examines the main challenges faced by the entrepreneurs are financial problems, production problems, labour and government related problems and how to overcome the barriers while starting their enterprise. This study was descriptive in nature and it includes surveys, facts and findings. Data was collected using a developed and validated questionnaire. The study chooses entrepreneurs in Kanyakumari district and the respondents were selected randomly. The collected data was analysed using Likert’s Five point scale Technique.

A Clinical Study of Chronic Maxillary Sinusitis

Sushant Kumar; Santosh Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 859-865

Background and objectives: Sinusitis is an exceptionally common disease more so maxillary sinusitis. The objective of the study was to do a comprehensive clinical study of chronic maxillary sinusitis.
Methods: This was a descriptive time bound study conducted between 2020-2021, at the Department of ENT, DMCH, Darbhanga. A total of 70 patients with diagnosis of chronic maxillary sinusitis were included in the study. Among these Inferior meatal antrostomy was performed in 30 patients, Middle meatal antrostomy in 30 patients and Caldwell-Luc’s operation in 10 patients. All patients were followed up for a period of six months and improvement in signs and symptoms were documented.
Results: Chronic maxillary sinusitis was commonest in the age group between 20 and 40 years with male preponderance (M:F=1.8:1). The commonest clinical features were nasal discharge (57%), headache (57%), maxillary sinus tenderness (85%), and purulence in middle meatus (50%). X-Ray paranasal sinuses (Water’s view) showed air-fluid level in maxillary sinus in 57% of patients. Staphylococcus aureus (48.5%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the common organisms cultured from maxillary antrum of these patients.
Conclusion: Middle meatal antrostomy was an effective surgical treatment for chronic maxillary sinusitis when compared to Inferior meatal antrostomy and Caldwell-Luc operation

A Study of Role of Diethylcarbamazine in Allergic Rhinitis with Eosinophilia

Santosh Kumar; Sushant Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 866-873

Background and Objectives: Although not as glamorous as its surgical counterparts, the management of allergic rhinitis constitutes a large proportion of the day-to-day practice of the general otolaryngologists. In addition to its primary effect, inhalant allergy of the upper respiratory tract might affect the development and clinical course of other disease states such as sinusitis, otitis media, and asthma accounting upto half the patients encountered in an otolaryngological practice. Diethylcarbamazine an antifilarial drug used in the treatment of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia was used in this study to know its role in allergic rhinitis.
Method: A Descriptive study was conducted for one year at Department of DMCH Darbhanga. Selected Patients were administered Tab Diethylcarbamazine 5mg/kg body wt BD for 21 days and their effect on symptom control, blood eosinophilia and nasal   eosinophilia wasstudied. Results: About 100 patients were recruited. 78 patients had eosinophilia either in blood, nasal smear orboth which accounted to significant amount. After treatment with Diethylcarbamazine blood Eosinophilia decreased significantly in both blood and nasal tissue and blood eosinophilia only group. Nasal Eosinophilia decreased significantly in both blood and nasal tissue and nasal tissue only group. Symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, nasal pruritis, eye watering and eye itching improved significantly in all 3 groups after treatment. Pharyngeal itching improved only in blood & nasal eosinophilia and blood eosinophilia group. No improvement in Anosmia in all 3 groups.
Conclusion: Eosinophilia was associated in significant number of population and Diethylcarbamazine is useful in reducing the symptom scores in patients of allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia. It also reduces the eosinophil scores in both blood and nasal tissue. Diethylcarbamazine can be used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia as an adjunctive drug.

Effectiveness of video assisted educational program towards the prevention of child abuse among mothers of school age children in Karad city

Utkarsha Kamble; Sushama Shete; Mahadeo Shinde; Afsana Mulani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 874-879

Abused and neglected children are exposed to multiple stressors in addition to experiences of abuse and neglect and possible sequel may manifest at different points in a child's development 1.
Objectives:

To assess the existing level of knowledge regarding child abuse among the mothers of school age children before video assisted educational programme.
To assess the existing level of knowledge regarding child abuse among the mothers of school age children after video assisted educational programme.

Purposive sampling technique was used Total 60 mothers with school age children of selected area in Karad city, Maharashtra, India selected for the study.
The Major Findings: Data on sample characteristics revealed that out of 60 mothers of school age children. Majority 33% belonged to age group 26-28 years. Maximum mothers 52% having one child. Majority mothers 38% were educated up to under graduated. Majority of mothers 37% belong to income group 15,000-20,000/- per month. Majority mothers 41% having child of age group 10-12 years. The pre-test knowledge the mothers regarding child abuse 29 (48%) mothers had average knowledge, before administering video assisted educational programme. The post-test knowledge of the mothers regarding child abuse: It was notified that majority of 44 (73%) mothers had good knowledge regarding child abuse after administering video assisted educational programme. The mean pretest 11.6 and SD 3.845 and Post Test 23.2. And SD 3.502.
Conclusion: The video assisted educational programme was effective.

Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle exercise on urinary incontinence in elderly patients

Sahas Y Awale; Dr. Tukaram B Zagade; Dr. Mahadeo B Shinde

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 880-887

Background: Urinary incontinence is associated with weakened pelvic floor muscle support due to aging process. Pelvic floor muscle exercise is non pharmacological and non-surgical treatment to reduce severity of urinary incontinence. It helps to strengthening the pelvic floor muscle. This will be helpful to prevent fecal and urine leakage and improve the quality of life in elderly people.
Aim: to evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle exercise on urinary incontinence in elderly patients.
Materials and Methods: A quantitative approach was used to conduct study among 90 elderly patients which were selected by non-probability convenience sampling technique according to inclusion criteria of the sample from Krishna Hospital, Karad. Quasi-experimental one group pre-test, post-test research design was used. The data were collected by self-structured scale on level of urinary incontinence. Informed consent was obtained. The data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistics that include both descriptive and inferential were used to analyze the data.
Result: The pre-interventional means score was 16.311 where as post-intervention mean score was 0.6111 and the values revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in level of urinary incontinence between pre-test and post-test with corresponding p value <0.0001.
Conclusion:The researcher concludes that pelvic floor muscle exercise was effective to reduce the level of urinary incontinence in elderly patients. Pelvic floor exercise is cost-effective and should be first choice of treatment for urinary incontinence.

Study on role of C-reactive protein as a prognostic marker in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction

Dr. Makarand Mane; Dr. Priyanka M Mane; Dr. Bammidi Rohit Kumar; Dr S R Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 888-897

Limited data is available about C Reactive protein (CRP) and its significance in mortality and morbidity in Acute Myocardial infarction (AMI) in diabetic patients. The aim of current study is to examine whether CRP levels are associated with for long-term all-cause, cardiovascular, and cardiac mortality in AMI patients with diabetes and those without separately.
Methods: This is a cohort study on 100 patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction out of which 50% are diabetics and 50% are non-diabetics.
Results: The CRP level cut off was taken as 7 mg/L in our study. The patients were divided into two groups, Diabetics and Non Diabetics. In diabetic patients with AMI, 96% of patients have crp levels more than 7 mg/L. In non-diabetic patients with AMI, 88% of patients have crp level more than 7mg/L. The mean CRP in diabetic group was 51.80 mg/l as compared to 15.78mg/l in non-diabetic group which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Diabetic patients who died in hospital presented with higher plasma levels of CRP on admission as compared to non-diabetic patients.
Thus, this study reveals that CRP can be used as a prognostic marker in diabetic patients with AMI.
Conclusion: In diabetic patients with AMI CRP levels are higher on admission, CRP value is an independent predictor of long term, all cause, cardiovascular and cardiac mortality after AMI.

Effectiveness of planned teaching programme on knowledge regarding effects of sugar sweetened beverages on health among nursing students

Alphonsa Sebastian; Dr. Prakash Naregal; Mahadeo B Shinde

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 898-905

Background: Sugar sweetened beverages are the largest source of added sugar in the diet today. Drinking high amount of Sugar sweetened beverages such as soda-can have various adverse impacts on health, ranges from increased chances of tooth decay to a high risk of heart disease and metabolic disorders. The current study aimed to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on knowledge regarding effects of sugar sweetened beverages on health among 1st year Basic B.Sc. Nursing students in a selected Nursing college, Karad. Methods: An evaluative research approach was used for the study. The study was carried out in selected nursing college by one group pre-test post-test design. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used for selecting 80 1st year Basic B.Sc. nursing students. On the 1st day Structured knowledge questionnaire was used for collecting data and planned teaching programme on effects sugar sweetened beverages on health was conducted and followed by post-test on the 7th day. The data collected, tabulated and analyzed in terms of objectives of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: The mean pre-test knowledge score was 13.3 and post-test knowledge score was 19.4 and paired‘t’ test value was 9.5 (p<0.01) showing significant increase in the knowledge scores. Chi-square test results show that there was a significant association between knowledge scores of nursing students with the monthly income of the family.
Conclusion: Health education programs and awareness for public should be increased on effects of sugar sweetened beverages.

Dysmenorrhea prevalence among adolescent girls and its effects on life quality

Shivaji Pawar; Mahadeo Shinde; Pratiksha Deshmukh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 906-909

Background: Dysmenorrhea is major problem in females of reproductive age. The main symptom of Dysmenorrhea is pelvic pain before or during menses, it lasts for 1-3 days in the females. Dysmenorrhea can be divided in 2 types, primary dysmenorrhea & secondary dysmenorrhea. The symptoms like as pain in lower back, nausea, vomiting, headache, diarrhea and fatigue can be seen in the girls who are suffering from this problem.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out among 100 adolescent school going girls in the age group of 13-17 years. The simple random technique was used. Pretested tool was used to check the quality of life of the dysmenorrhea girls. This study was used in Krishna Mahavidyalaya Rethare Bk. The recorded data was compiled and data analysis was done using SPSS Version 20.0.
Results: In the present study a total of 100 girls participated in the study of age group between 13-17 years. The dysmenorrhea was reported in 70(70%) of the total girls, whereas absent in 30 (30%) adolescent girls. The quality of life of dysmenorrhea girls was poor.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that prevalence of dysmenorrhea was reported to be 73% among college-aged women, dysmenorrhea is a prevalent health issue that can negatively impact.

A hospital-based outcome assessment of Primary TKR in Severe fixed flexion deformity of knee compared with TKR in knees without fixed flexion deformity (FFD): A comparative study

Dr. Anurag Chandrakar; Dr. Shashimant Chavan; Dr. Rupesh Kumar Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 910-916

Aim: The aim of the present study was to know the functional outcome of Primary TKR in Severe fixed flexion deformity of knee compared with TKR in knees without fixed flexion deformity (FFD).
Methods: This was a prospective study of the Department of Orthopaedics, Shri Shankaracharya Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India for the period of 1 year. Patients with and without severe flexion deformity of knees underwent primary TKR. Total of 120 knees were taken for the study with 90 with FFD of more than 30 degree and 30 were without FFD which were kept as a control. This study includes both inflammatory and non-inflammatory arthritis.
Results: In 100 patients, there were 30 bilateral cases and 90 unilateral cases with a total of 120 knees. 66 knees were inflammatory arthritis and 34 with non-inflammatory arthritis. There were 45 females and 55 male patients. Average age of the patients was 59.6 years (28-75 years). Average follow up was 1.5 years (1-3 years). In Primary TKR in FFD - Average FFD was 44 degree, Pre-operative average KSS-pain score was 27.5 and functional score was 15, post operatively KSS pain score was 82.7 and function score was 79.1. In Primary TKR in no FFD - Pre-operative average KSS-pain score was 31 and functional score was 24, post operatively KSS pain score was 85.3 and function score was 80.2.
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in postoperative KSS- pain and functional score, in patients with no FFD was comparable with patients with FFD. TKA is successful in correcting flexion deformity, although the amount of correction obtained depended on the degree of preoperative flexion deformity.

Histomorphological spectrum of salivary gland tumors in a tertiary care hospital: A retrospective study

Dr. Kamini R. Patel; Dr.Sharad Gor; Dr.Mayur J Kokani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 917-921

Introduction: There is a wide spectrum of salivary gland lesions with morphological and clinical diversity which is a difficult task for histopathological interpretation. There are three major salivary glands-parotid, submandibular, and sublingual as well as minor salivary glands distributed throughout the mucosa of the oral cavity. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease may develop within any of these.
Aims: (1) To study the histopathological features of salivary gland lesions, (2) To study the prevalence of salivary gland lesions in tertiary care hospital, (3) To evaluate the incidence, age at the occurrence, and sex ratio among the patients with salivary gland lesions, (4) To compare the result of our study with other studies.
Material and Method: It was a retrospective study of 29 cases of salivary gland tumors, diagnosed on histopathological examination over a period of 5 years (January 2017 to December 2021) in the Department of Pathology, GMERS Medical college & Hospital, Valsad. Histopathological examination was done on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Result: In present study, out of 29 cases, 24 cases (82.76%) were benign and 05 cases (17.24%) were malignant. Most common benign tumor of salivary gland was pleomorphic adenoma followed by Basal Cell adenoma. Most common malignant tumor of salivary gland was mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Conclusion: Histopathological study of salivary gland lesions is the most important method in establishing the final diagnosis and subtyping. Salivary gland tumors are relatively less common and they exhibit a wide variety of microscopic appearances even within one particular lesions.

Degenerative Lumbar Spine findings on MRI in Young Adults presenting with Low Back Pain

Dr. Shrinidhi Kulkarni; Dr. Apurva Vohra; Dr. Monica Satyam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 922-928

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the MRI findings in young adult patients presenting with low back pain suggestive of degenerative lumbar spine disease.
Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Radio-Diagnosis of Pacific Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study and written informed consent were obtained before the start of the procedure. Bio-data, Clinical detail and level of physical activity were obtained and recorded.
Results: Of the 100 patients (52 males and 48 females; age range 18 to 39 years, median [IQR] 33 [14-23]) who were evaluated, 80 (80%) [42 males and 38 females] were found to have lumbar spine diseases. Fifty-six (56%) patients had gradual onset of pain whereas 44 (44%) had sudden onset; 82 (82%) patients had severe pain and most of which were burning in nature (n = 74, 74%). Majority of the patients had radiating pains (n = 62, 62%) that was frequently aggravated by bending down (n = 43, 43%) and alleviated by lying down (n = 90, 90%). The median duration of pain was 4 weeks, with a minimum duration of 1 week and maximum of 14 weeks.
Conclusion: Pain lasting more than 10 weeks is the most common clinical presentation among patients with LBP. Disc protrusion and disc desiccation are the most common findings in patients who present with severe LBP of acute onset in this study. LBP which is radiating in nature is the most common finding in patients with disc protrusion in this study.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A NATURALLY OCCURRING Ca2+ DEPENDENT MIDGUT GLAND AGGLUTININ IN THE RUSTY MILLIPEDE TRIGONIULUS CORALLINUS

ANITHA C; BASIL ROSE M.R; AROKYA GLORY P.T

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 929-942

Objective: To study the physico-chemical characteristics as well as the binding specificity of the agglutinin in the extract of the midgut gland from the rusty millipede, Trigoniulus corallinus.
Methods: The presence of agglutinin was investigated by hemagglutination assay using mammalian erythrocytes.   After selecting the tissue (midgut gland) and the erythrocyte (rabbit) based on high HA titre, the correlation between biochemical parameters of midgut gland agglutinin such as protein, calcium and water content and HA titre was assessed. The influence of physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+) and chelators (di- and tetrasodium EDTA and trisodium citrate) on hemagglutinability was tested. The sugar specificity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition assay with different sugars and glycoproteins.
Results: Physico-chemical analysis of the midgut gland agglutinin exhibited that the activity was optimum at pH 6.5, temperature 35oC and in the presence of calcium ions. The agglutinin activity was sensitive to di and tetra sodium EDTA and trisodium citrate. Hemagglutinability was inhibited by sugars: α-lactose, D-galactosamine, dextrose, GluNAc, D-galactoseand glycoprotein: lactoferrin. A single agglutinin was found when agglutitinability vanished after cross adsorption.

OIL DEGRADING EFFICACY OF MICROBES ISOLATED FROM OIL CONTAMINATED WORKSHOP SOIL OF MANKADU, KANYAKUMARI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

Jenisha M. J; Jenifer J; Dr.Brisca Renuga F

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 943-953

The main petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) found in motor oil, such as asphaltenes and aliphatic and aromatic resins, are thought to be significant environmental and health hazards. Used engine oil contaminated soil samples were collected from the subsurface soil layers at a depth of 5 to 30 cm from four different service stations and motor garages located at Mankadu in the Kanniyakumari District. Using tributyrin agar (TBA) and rhodamine agar media, the microbial colonies were separated using mineral salt agar medium and then tested for lipolytic (lipase/esterase-producing) activity. Using drop collapse assays, emulsifying activity, oil surface tension decrease, and surfactant adhesion experiments, the effectiveness of lipolytic activity was assessed. The time for complete lapse of oil by the biosurfactant was observed on 48 hours to a period of 60th days. Four Proteus and one Pseudomonas were among the five bacteria that were isolated from the soil. The screening tests confirm the presence of biosurfactant. Pseudomonas sps showed the most highly significant lipolytic activity, followed by Proteus. Pseudomonas and Proteus species are excellent common species detected in oil-contaminated soil, according to the current research.

Removal of ElectroEncephaloGram Signal artifacts and Signal Enhancement using Savitzky–Golay filter and SVM

SandhyaKumari Golla; Suman Maloji

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 954-965

EEG has become the most commonly used signal for diagnosing and treating neurological conditions. These recording are frequently corrupted by various types of noise. Using various signal processing approaches, the artifact is typically removed as a preprocessing task. The Savitzky-Golay filtering approach was proposed in this article for removing noise from EEG signals. It is capable of lowering noise while preserving the shape and height of waveform peaks. The proposed noise reduction approach was tested using real-time EEG recordings of  publicly available databases like mental arithmetic data and sleep data .The parameters like   Signal to noise ratio (SNR) and mean absolute error (MAE) are used to evaluate the filtered signals.  The results shown that the Savitzky-Golay (SG) filtered signals  applied to the support vector machine and got good accuracy when compared to the maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform.

The Study of DDOS Attacks and Classification Performance Using Machine Learning Techniques

Devulapalli Sudheer; Mohanteja Kesarla; Anupama Potti; Gangappa Malige; Dhruva Manasa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 966-978

Monitoring the traffic of the network for social media servers has become important task to avoid malicious traffic. DDOS attacks can crash the server by denying the service with malicious traffic. Various Machine Learning (ML) models has developed to identify the real traffic and malicious traffic based on network parameters. The aim of the research work is to study the performance of the various machine learning models on DDOS datasets. The feature selection methods are evaluated with ML models. The study concludes the high performance has achieved by using PCA feature selection technique on DDOS classification datasets.

USING SATELLITE TO IMPROVING AN INDIAN AGRICULTURE ECONOMY

Dr. K. S. MOHANASUNDARAM; Mr.V.J.FREADY BLESSON; Dr.R. JAYAKARTHIK

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 979-986

            Agriculture is an important part of India's economy and at present it is among  the  top  two  farm  producers  in  the  world.  This sector provides approximately 50 percent of the total number of jobs available in India and contributes [1] around 18.1 percent to the GDP.  Agriculture is  theonly  source of  living  for  almost  two-thirds  of  the  employed  class  in India. As being stated by the economic data of financial year 2019-20, agriculture has acquired 6.2 per cent India’s GDP.  The  agriculture sector  of  India  has  occupied  almost  43percent  of  India's  geographical area.  Here i propose how we can use satellite source to improve our Indian agriculture Economy. 

Effect Of CPAP, CPAP With Lifestyle Changes And CPAP With Pranayama On Sleep Pattern In Obese Diabetic Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Shah VK; Badade ZG; Banerjee A; Rai S; More K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 987-998

Background: The prevalence at an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 5 or more occurrences per hour was greater in males (9%-38%) than in the general population. The prevalence of this trait rose with age, reaching as high as 90% in males and 78% in women among the elderly. Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated to metabolic dysregulation independent of obesity and OSA, and sleep fragmentation is a major consequence of OSA. 
Method: Inpresent study246 subjects received polysomnography (PSG) and among them 192 assessed for CPAP titration. 78 participants were removed due to inclusion criteria, CPAP intolerance, refusal to participate, those who can't afford treatment, etc. The remaining 114 subjects were 61 obese non-diabetics and 53 obese type 2 diabetics. These 53 obese diabetic subjects were divided into 3 groups: CPAP group, CPAP with Lifestyle changes and CPAP with Pranayama group. Follow-up was done after six-month.
Result: All study groups had lower AHI scores. Sleep efficiency % increased across all trial groups. All research groups' stage I and Stage II sleep % were decreased and demonstrated increase in time in Stage III. All groups experienced more REM sleep, Improved SPO2 % and lower Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores.
Conclusion: The sleep pattern improved across all the different sleep stages. Using CPAP in conjunction with these two interventions not only enhances the success rate of treating OSA, but also shortens the overall time necessary for therapy.

Effect of CPAP, CPAP with Lifestyle changes and CPAP with Pranayama on Anthropometric evaluation in obese Diabetic subjects with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Shah VK; Badade ZG; Banerjee A; Rai S; More K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 999-1008

Background: The incidence of OSA among persons who have type 2 diabetes may vary anywhere from 8.5% to 86%. Obstructive sleep apnea is more common in people of South Asian heritage who have type 2 diabetes (OSA). People of South Asian descent who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes tend to be overweight, and this obesity has been associated to obstructive sleep apnea. 
Method: In present study 246 subjects received Polysomnography (PSG) and among them 192 assessed for CPAP titration. 78 participants were removed due to inclusion criteria, CPAP intolerance, refusal to participate, those who can't afford treatment, etc. The remaining 114 subjects were obese non-diabetics (61) and obese type 2 diabetics (53). These 53 obese diabetic subjects were divided into 3 groups: CPAP group, CPAP with Lifestyle changes and CPAP with Pranayama group. Follow-up was done after six-month.
Result: We found BMI, Waist Circumference, Hip Circumference and Neck Circumference were decreased in all three-study groups after six months of interventions. It was very highly Significant (p<0.001) in all groups. We have also found a positive correlation with AHI and Anthropometric evaluation.
Conclusion: The pattern of sleep improved across the all-different stages of sleep. Using CPAP in conjunction with these two interventions not only improves the success rate of treating OSA, but also shortens the overall time necessary for therapy.

Photonic Crystal Tweezers For Tumor Detection Using Artificial Intelligence

Sunil Sharma; Dr. Lokesh Tharani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1009-1015

This paper is proposed for early tumor detection by photonic crystal tweezers with the use of a support vector machine (SVM) and artificial intelligence (AI)-based K-nearest neighbor (KNN) technique. Tumors are very serious and can cause more serious problems with human cells when infected. Previously, photonic crystal tweezers were used to detect tumor cells and proved very effective in many types of tumor detection. Among different AI techniques like     K- nearest neighbor (KNN), Adoptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Fuzzy KNN (FKNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and probabilistic neural network (PNN); SVM and KNN observed accuracy of 96% and 92% respectively while the sensitivity is important observed by these two techniques are 32,358 nm/RIU and 11,258 nm/RIU was observed to be 1.251 and 1.337 for tumor cells, respectively. Majorly the research is supposed to offer advantages early detection of infected tumor cells by implication of tweezers with AI. 

A LITERARY SURVEY ON CONCEPT OF PRABHAV (SPECIFIC PROPERTY) WITH CLASSICAL EXAMPLES

Dr. Ankita Wadhwa; Dr. Satej T. Banne

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1016-1023

As indicated by Ayurvedic pharmacology the medication activity is credited to specific standards in particular Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka and Prabhava. It was found that drugs and the living body share a composition known as Panchabhutika, and that, when used responsibly, drugs have the potential to affect several aspects of the body. The enormous investments in research are pointless and fruitless if the Ayurvedic concepts are not correctly understood and translated in internationally accepted language. Therefore, it is crucial to reestablish Ayurvedic ideas in modern contexts by employing methods made possible by technological progress in the new millennium. Many of the Ayurvedic ideas contained in the Samhitas may appear simple at first glance, but their brief presentation makes them quite challenging to grasp. Certain ideas need to be investigated, according to how well they can be put into practice. This includes one such concept which is known as Prabhava. To understand these criteria, a methodical approach must be actively fostered. The purpose of this survey is to highlight the concept of Prabhava and its relevance in the modern era.

AUGMENTING THE QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE IN 5G NEXT-GEN VANET ARCHITECTURE IN IOV FRAMEWORK

Mrs. B. Hidayathunisa; Dr. A. Shaik Abdul Khader

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1024-1031

Quality of Experience is one of the core structures of the transport system. With the aid of emerging of the Fifth Generation (5G) Mobile Communication Systems and software well-defined networks, the recital of Vehicular Networks could be heightened and fresh applications of vehicular networks obligatory by upcoming vehicles can also be realized such as video sharing of road condition through internet, watching the speed and position of vehicles, applications like infotainment and so on.  In order to encounter the requirements of intelligent transportation systems, new vehicular network architecture shared with 5G mobile communication technologies, software defined network and Internet of Vehicles is proposed in this paper. Moreover, Internet of Vehicles based fog cells have been projected for dispensing the complex processing of cloud data center down to the edge of the network.  This permits the flexibly in covering vehicles and avoids regularly delivery between vehicles and Road Side Units (RSUs). Based on the wished-for 5G software definite vehicular networks, the transmission deferral and throughput are analyzed and likened. Replication results specify that there happens a smallest transmission delay of 5G software well-defined vehicular networks considering diverse vehicle densities.  Moreover, the throughput of fog cells in 5G software clear vehicular networks is healthier than the quantity of traditional transportation management systems.

“Right Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Diagnosed in Pregnancy – A rare presentation.”

Dr Pankaj Gharde; Dr Pramita Muntode Gharde; Roshani S Manekk

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1032-1036

Diaphragmatic hernias (DH) are known to complicate pregnancy and high mortality rates have been reported due to delay in surgical intervention. The reported mortality rates in presence of strangulation ranged from 22 to 80% and almost one third of the reported cases, did not have any symptoms. A literature review suggests that, out of 43 cases of DH diagnosed during pregnancy, only six cases of right-sided BH have been reported until 2020. Prolonged maternal malnutrition affects the intrauterine growth of the foetus and increases the morbidity and mortality of both the mother and foetus, leading to maternal weight loss, electrolyte imbalances, and vitamin deficiency. In the present case study, 21-year-old primigravida female with right-sided congenital BH was diagnosed during pregnancy, 7 days after the initial presentation of symptoms of acute obstruction. On exploration ischemic bowel was noted and it was associated with foetal loss.

AN INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF DISEASE IDENTIFICATION USING MEDICAL DEEP LEARNING MODEL

Visu P; Smitha P S; Muruganathan V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1037-1045

Diagnosis is an area of utmost importance in medical treatment. A person can be cured only when the doctor properly diagnoses the disease and gives the appropriate treatment. However, wrong diagnosis, wrong treatment even when the disease is correctly diagnosed, and wrong treatment can cause side effects and delay the cure. Sometimes it can be life-threatening. It is important for us to know how allopathic doctors, who are now called modern doctors, diagnose disease. They first note down the patient's complaints in order. In this paper, an innovation development of disease identification was proposed using medical deep learning model. The complete and correct information they can provide helps in proper diagnosis. Only after that the doctors examine the patient's body. Testing is not just about checking pulse and blood pressure. All body parts will be examined like abdomen, nervous system-brain function, muscle, skeletal system. Urinary tract and sexual organs will also be examined by the appropriate doctor. Thus, after doing a full body examination, they find out what the patient is suffering from.

A Simulation of Fracture Resistance and Stress Distribution of Endocrown Post-Endodontic with Different Materials and Types of Luting Cement: Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Muhammad Kadafi Hasibuan; Trimurni Abidin; M. Sabri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1046-1057

Aim: The purpose of this finite element analysis (FEA) was to compare and evaluate the fracture resistance and stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth restored with endocrown in different materials and types of luting cement.
Material and Methods:Four endodontically treated teeth first mandibular molar restored with an endocrown was modeled by using CAD software and imported into an FEA software. The models were duplicated and the first model received restoration in lithium disilicate with RelyXUltimate (3M ESPE USA) cement, the second model in lithium disilicate with Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray Noritake), the third model in zirconia with RelyX Ultimate (3M ESPE USA) and fourth model in zirconia with Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray Noritake). Stress distribution under axial (90o) and non-axial degree(0o and 45o) by loading 225 Newton (mastication force) and 600 Newton (biting force) were analyzed. Results were determined by colorimetric von mises of maximum total deformation, equivalent elastic strain, and equivalent stress on a tooth, cement, and restoration.The results indicated that zirconia endocrown with Rely X and Panavia F.20 cement has better fracture resistance than the other model.The critical area of total deformation and the equivalent elastic strain was on the occlusal and the equivalent stress was in the cement-dentin interface.

Effect Of Hyperbaric Pressure in Diving Simulation To Fracture Strength And Fracture Pattern On Different Post System of Endodontically Treated Teeth: An in-vitro study

Debora Natalyna; Trimurni Abidin; Wandania Farahanny

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1058-1069

Introduction: Hyperbaric pressure is a condition of environmental pressure that is greater than 1 atmosphere experienced by divers. Hyperbaric pressure can damage the teeth, as well as restorations. The use of fiber posts in post-endodontic restorations has limitations in adapting the shape of the post to the root canal which can cause the thicker of resin cement so that the risk of void formation will be greater. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric pressure on fracture resistance and fracture patterns in different post systems.
            Materials and methods: Forty extracted single root mandibular premolars were decoronated 2 mm above the CEJ and endodontic treatment was done. The teeth were divided into four groups: SFP1 (Single prefabricated fiber post with 1 ATA air pressure), SFP4 (Single prefabricated fiber post with 4 ATA air pressure), AFP4 (Anatomic fiber post with 1 ATA air pressure), AFP4 (Anatomic fiber post with 4 ATA air pressure). All posts were cemented with dual cure resin cement with total etch adhesive system. The core and crown were made clinically with direct composite resin and then carried out a thermoycling process for 200 cycles. Groups B and D was put in to hyperbaric chamber with pressure changes from 1 ATA to 4 ATA for 24 cycles. The fracture test was performed using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM) with static load was applied to the axial tooth at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred and the fracture pattern was observed. The data obtained was tested with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), while for fracture patterns with categorical data were tested using Kruskal Wallis Test. 

A Study of Mechanical Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs) to regenerate heart functionality

Sanyogita Shahi; Shirish Kumar Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1070-1080

Mechanical left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are a type of medical device used to assist the function of the left ventricle, the main pumping chamber of the heart. LVADs work by helping the left ventricle to pump more effectively, increasing the amount of blood that is pumped to the body. This helps to improve the symptoms of heart failure, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and edema. In some cases, LVADs can even be used to help regenerate heart functionality. This can happen when the LVAD helps to restore the ability of the ventricle to contract and pump blood, or when the LVAD helps to strengthen the heart muscle over time, allowing it to regain strength and pump more efficiently. In patients with end-stage heart failure, this study will investigate whether mechanical left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) can regenerate and restore heart functionality. To this end, the study will focus on the benefits and drawbacks of LVADs, the various types of LVADs available, the effectiveness of LVADs in treating heart failure, and the current state of the technology. Additionally, the study illegalizes the safety and efficacy of LVADs and the long-term effects of LVAD therapy on a patient’s quality of life.

Rare Case Of Suspected Oro-Facial-Digital Syndrome In Adolescent Indian Siblings In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Western Maharashtra

Nikita Ravindra Khot; Shiji Chalipat; Sanjay Chavan; Meghna Khetan; Sharad Agarkhedkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1081-1085

Oro facial digital syndrome (OFDS) is a rare congenital disorder which includes a range of clinical anomalies, involving deformities of the oral cavity, face and limbs along with systemic features. The case is a 12-year old Indian girl who had  the classical features of OFDS with sensorineural hearing loss and vertebral abnormalities. Interestingly, her younger sibling also had some of the peculiar features of OFDS.This case report highlights the importance of prudent clinical and radiological findings which aid in early diagnosis of unsuspected and rare conditions as learned in this case, as it may help improve quality of life of the patient.

Prevalence of Clinical Skin Conditions seen in Pediatric Outpatient Department

Sanjana Challagalla; Revathi Yeleswaram; Shradha Salunkhe; Sharad Agarkhedkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1086-1093

Background: Dermatological manifestations (DM) in a developing country like India, where living conditions are poor and a variety of causes contribute to the various skin disorders, especially in children.
Aim: The aim of our study was to estimate the incidence rates of pediatric skin diseases in Pune region.
Materials and Methods: The data from departmental registries were evaluated for 260 children for 18-months period which served as a single group. The collected data comprised of all pediatric out patient department (OPD) patients aged two months to fifteen years who presented with a dermatological manifestation. The diagnosis was documented at the pediatric OPD. Mean and standard deviation were computed for quantitative factors such as age, while frequency and percentages were used to report qualitative variables such as gender and diagnoses of various skin conditions.
Results: Infections was seen in 55% of the cases, followed by allergic reactions (25.4%) and other dermatoses (19.6%). Out of 66 patients of allergic reactions, seborrhoeic dermatitis was the most common with 39.5%, followed by eczema (25.9%) and urticaria seen in 16.6. Xeroses was most common from other dermatoses which was seen in 14% of the cases. Infections such as pityriasis was seen in 52 cases, followed by tinea capitis in 20 and tinea pedis in 21 cases.
Conclusion: Patterns of skin problems serve as an indicator of community development and the quality of health care accessible. Our research provides preliminary baseline information for future epidemiologic and clinical research.

Medical Data Science And Processing Using Statistical Analysis In E-Healthcare For Covid-19

Dr.M. Rajeswari; Dr.D. Brindha; Dr. Krishnapriya K S; Ms. Megha K K; Mr.Vaduganathan D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1094-1118

  Data Science is one of the dominating fields in the today’s world. It plays its role in all the fields such as Agriculture, Healthcare, Education, Banking, and Entertainment. Data becomes the fuel of the Industry in 21st Century. This data is growing exponentially as the new data is getting generated from various sources such as YouTube, Face book, Mobile devices and Twitter in each and every millisecond of time. This data needs to be handled effectively which could not be done by the traditional data handling techniques/methods/tools. This invites many researchers to apply various data handling techniques using data science. E-healthcare system is considered as a digital healthcare system to perform disease prediction and analysis. Data Science techniques are predominantly adapted in E-healthcare system for the prediction of plenty of diseases such as various cancer prediction, heart diseases, autoimmune diseases, allergy and respiratory system diseases and so on. In addition to these disease prediction techniques, COVID’19 pandemic situation has made the researchers to make use of data science methods in E-healthcare systems. Hence, certain methods such as disease prevention and predictive medicine is useful in COVID-19 pandemic after performing pre-processing which involves huge volume of structured, unstructured and semi-structured data. Also, visual exploratory analysis technique using data science helps even the rural people to get the insight of understanding the COVID with respect to various symptoms, no. of COVID cases in each day, recovery rate & death rate and all the other details. This chapter discusses the impact of COVID-19 and its analysis using data science in E-healthcare system. Framework used for analysing the COVID-19 dataset using Software Engineering in connection with data science technique is also discussed. It provides a clear understanding of performing the disease prediction in a step-by-step manner. Results are shown using visual exploratory techniques.

SUSTAINABLE BIMETALLIC NANOPARTICLES: MAKEOVER AND BIOLOGICAL ASSET

Mr. Vaibhav Rajendra Suryawanshi; Dr. Itishree Vaidya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1119-1128

The green synthesis of nanoparticles is one step toward the sustainable development. Green tea extract was used as a source for synthesizing bimetallic Au-Ag Nanoparticles. These bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized by UV spectroscopy and TEM examination, which revealed the particles have core and shell structures. Bimetallic NPs have shown promising antibacterial, antifungal  and antioxidant activity.

Vasudhaiva Kutumbhakam: A Holistic Understanding Of The Universal Spirit Of Oneness In Rural India

Urvashi Khandal; Rajshri Gaur; Dr. Lakhan Raghuvanshi; Dr. Rayaz Hassan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1129-1135

Sanskrit, the language of the Gods, is the origin of many modern Indian languages and concepts. One such Sanskrit idea is 'VasudhaivaKutumbakam,' which mean s the world is one.Thus, 'VasudhaivaKutumbakam' counts the entire universe as a family, and all animals and humans who live on it are members of the same family. While it is an old principle, it is more relevant to contemporary than ever before. A far more methodical form of Indigenous society was found during the Vedic period. The Vedas are also known as 'ancient sages' or 'viziers' as they were used as a source of knowledge by the rishis (sages) and are known as the world's oldest texts. Indian Culture has always been delightful, syncretistic, powerful, and colorful, with a systematic approach to the world and remarkable divine consistency. Humans cannot encounter a more particular vision of universalism than that of VasudhaivaKutumbh, which is promoted by Indian Culture and nations that the entire world is considered a solitary family. The article focuses on how the idea of Indian Vedas, such as 'VasudhaivaKutumbakam,' including its core principle of unity, remains appropriate and effective in addressing conflicts around the world in the modern era. The idea of 'VasudhaivaKutumbakam,' is an essential aspect in promoting a sustainable model of providing social justice through peace and non-violence, as expressed in 'United Nations' sustainable goals.

Preparation And Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory Ointment From Aeglemarmelos Leaves: An Observational Study.

Kedar Umeshchandra Joshi; Sandipkumar Patil; Mayur Umeshchandra Joshi; Anuya V Babar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1136-1143

Background: Aegle marmelos commonly known as Bael belongs to family Rutaceae, which is widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its medicinal properties. This study aims to Prepare and evaluate anti-inflammatory ointment from aeglemarmelos leaves.
Materials and Methods: The leaves of the plant were properly washed with tap water and rinsed with distilled water. The rinsed leaves were hot air dried for 3 days. The dried leaves of aeglemarmelos plant were crushed into powder using a mortar and pestle and stored in an airtight glass container at 4 ° C until use. A 10 g powder sample was separately immersed in distilled water and ethanol (100 mL) at room temperature for 1.5 hour for three times. The extract was then filtered, concentrated to a final volume of 50 mL concentrated extract was dried using hot plate. The anti-inflammatory properties were studied via different means.
Results: The extracts Ph was reported to be 6.8-7 which is considered as neutral. It was light green in colour and aromatic in odour. The ointment was non-irritant in nature and smooth in consistency
Conclusion: Aeglemarmelos showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the models studies, it can be a promising anti-inflammatory agent.

Time Spent On Social Media And Its Impact On The Academic Performance By Youngsters

Dr.P.Pon Meenakshi; Dr. Suriakala; Ms.Manju M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1144-1154

Social Media is the simplest terms refer to the internet marketing and digital marketing that promote a product or service. Most social media platforms have built in data analytics tools, which enables companies to track the progress, success and engagement of a advertisement campaigns. Social media marketing including current and potential employees, journalist, bloggers, general public level of a strategic level. Internet marketing offers anybody over a certain age with access to a computer and access to an internet connection, the  opportunity to go into business for themselves with little or no start up cost. They could either sell their own products and services in which case they will be doing a business as a merchant. This research  revealed that  the use of social networking sites in educational institutions and opined that the sites had become accessible via the Internet in the light of usability for teaching and learning..

A Computational Methodology Towards the Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

J. Jeyachidra; P. Aruna; D. Christy Sujatha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1155-1165

Diabetic retinopathy is an eye-related neurological disorder, the diabetic patient eye damaged by blood vessel in the retina area of the eye. Computational methodology is a proper way for detecting and predicting the diabetic retinopathy disease. The aim is to identify and detect the Diabetic Retinopathy, so this present work focusses on detection of Diabetic Retinopathy. This work proposed the novel WMD-MSVM -Weighted Mahalanobis Distance based Multiclass Support Vector Machine oriented; upon Diabetic Retinopathy diagnosis system for the purpose of feature selection, also ROI extraction method being utilized to fetch features from Diabetic Retinopathy images. From the results, it is clear that the performance of WMD-MSVM on instance selected training dataset yields improved detection accuracy compared with the performance of WMD-MSVM on full-training-dataset. There is an improvement of around 1% of detection accuracy in case instance selected dataset. This proposed work is benefit for diabetic patients to gain the proper treatment by physicians at an early stage for Diabetic Retinopathy. This computational approach to detect   the diabetic which results the best solutions for ophthalmology. The diabetic image analysis and machine learning approach considered as a challenging research area that aims to provide a computational approach to assist in the early diagnosis and detection of Diabetic Retinopathy problems.

Study Of Diagnostic Accuracy Of CBNAAT In Bronchial Washings Of Sputum Smear-Negative And Sputum-Scarce Patients With Presumptive TB

Dr. Sukumar KN; Dr. Nandish C; Dr. Spurthi K; Dr. Hasna Erattengal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1166-1172

A rapid, accurate, and reliable diagnostic test is needed for these patients so that early anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) can be started for preventing the transmission of TB and the clinical severity of the disease. Moreover, unnecessary treatment can be avoided in patients who do not have TB with the avoidance of additional expenditure on medication. Patients who are clinically suspected to have pulmonary tuberculosis, including those who have symptoms of cough with or without expectoration for >2 weeks, weight loss, fatigue, hemoptysis, and loss of appetite with sputum smear-negative for PTB were included for the study. Among the 80 cases studied, the total number of PTB cases diagnosed was 58 (72%). The total number of PTB cases being CBNAAT +ve was 52. The total number of PTB cases having positive LJ culture was 58 cases. The total number of cases, of other diseases diagnosed, was 22, which included 2 cases of malignancy (1-squamous cell carcinoma, 1- adenocarcinoma), 4 cases of fungal (mucormycosis and aspergilloma) pneumonia, and 16 cases of bacterial (Klebsiella, pseudomonas, CONS) pneumonia. The sensitivity of CBNAAT was 87.93%, specificity was 95.45%, positive predictive value 98.07%, Negative predictive value-75%.

A Study On The Clinical Profile Of Patients Who Are Clinically Suspected To Have Pulmonary Tuberculosis At A Tertiary Care Centre

Dr. Sukumar KN; Dr. Nandish C; Dr. Spurthi K; Dr. Hasna Erattengal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1173-1179

The initial step in the diagnosing of PTB is by sputum microscopy and chest radiography under the National Tuberculosis elimination program (NTEP) in patients with presumptive Koch. Examination of the sputum smear is very simple and remains very economical as only minimum training of the technician is needed, and is available in most of the healthcare facilities, free of the coast and is less cumbersome to the patients because of the availability of the results on the very same days. Patients who had less than 1 ml of sputum were defined as having poor sputum- scarce disease. A confirmed case of pulmonary tuberculosis was one in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) grew on mycobacterial cultures by solid or liquid culture medium, which was taken as the gold standard. Patients of either gender aged above 12 years of age, that had suspected pulmonary tuberculosis on clinical or radiological grounds, were included in the study. Smear-positive cases, those with disseminated or extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients were excluded from the study. Majority of the study subjects had a cough, 81.3% had expectorations, 82.5% subjects had a loss of appetite, 68.8% had a loss of weight, 36.3% subjects had dyspnea, 18.8% subjects had hemoptysis, 63.8% subjects had evening rise in temp.

Comparison Of Postoperative Analgesia Between Levobupivacaine And Ropivacaine In Caudal Anaesthesia In Paediatric Patients Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgeries: A Prospective, Randomised, Blinded Study

Dr. Ranganath Channappagoudar; Dr. Dinesh L Naik; Dr. Mahindra Kalashetty; Dr. Sangamesh R Nainegali; Dr. Zohra Khader; Dr. Rudrani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1180-1187

Levobupivacaine has also been evaluated as a less toxic substitute for bupivacaine and has been found to produce a quantitatively similar neural blockade. So far few data are available concerning the use of levobupivacaine in children. Ropivacaine, a recently introduced bupivacaine analogue drug, is less neurotoxic and cardiotoxic than bupivacaine. Ropivacaine is less lipophilic; hence, it is less likely to penetrate large myelinated motor fibers, resulting in a relatively reduced motor blockade and longer postoperative analgesia and has a greater degree of motor sensory differentiation, which could be useful when motor blockade is not desired. In this randomized, prospective, double blind, single hospital study ninety (90) paediatric patients aged 1 to 10 years undergoing lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. Twenty three patients were excluded as they did not meet the inclusion criteria and seven patients refused to participate.This study was conducted on 60 patients undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. The mean postoperative duration of analgesia was 321.37 ± 24.25 minutes in group L and 309.75 ±23.68 minutes in group R. The difference in the mean duration of analgesia was statistically insignificant (p -value was > 0.05 at all specified intervals).

A Study On The Relation Of Head Circumference And Chest Circumference With Gestational Age

Dr. Narendra Krishnarajapete Siddashetty; Dr. Srinivas Pagadpally

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1188-1194

At birth HC is larger than ChC by about 2.5cm. By 6-12mnths of age, both are equal. After1st year of life, ChC tends to be larger by 2.5cm. By the age of 5 years, it is more or less 5cm greater in size than the HC. In undernourished Indian children, it may not equal to HC even by the end of the 2nd year. All the singleton live born babies born in the hospital were examined within 48 hours of birth. Gestational age was calculated by enquiring into 1st day of mothers last menstrual period and will be subsequently confirmed by New Ballard Score. If any disparity of more than 2 weeks between gestational age by enquiring LMP and by NBS, were excluded from the study. Their gestational ages ranged from 29 to 42 weeks. The mean head circumference of the babies analyzed was 33.64 cm, with the standard deviation of 1.40 cm. It was found that HC was correlated well with the gestational age. It gave a correlation coefficient “r” value of 0.680 (p<0.0001). The mean chest circumference of the babies analyzed was 31.85 cm, with the standard deviation of 2.19 cm. It was found that chest circumference was correlated well with the gestational age. It gave a highest correlation coefficient “r” value of 0.763 (p<0.0001).

Birth Weight And Gestational Age: A Clinical Descriptive Study

Dr. Narendra Krishnarajapete Siddashetty; Dr. Srinivas Pagadpally

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1195-1199

Birth weight has been universally used as a measure of intrauterine growth, largely because of relative ease of its measurement and of its correlation with gestation.3. Weight is the most widely used single clinical indicator of growth. Fetal weight is the one single clinical factor of greatest interest to the neonatal pediatrician. All the singleton live born babies born in the hospital were examined with in 48 hours of birth. Gestational age was calculated by enquiring into 1st day of mothers last menstrual period and will be subsequently confirmed by New Ballard Score. Babies were weighed naked immediately after birth on lever actuated weighing scales to the nearest 50 g. The weighing machine was checked periodically by known standard weights. In the derived normogram based on birth weight and gestational age it was observed that there is a linear relationship of the birth weight with increasing gestational age. The birth weight increased linearly with the increasing gestational age upto 39 weeks, after which it started declining.

Speciation Of Cons Isolated From Blood Culture And Their Correlation With Common Pathogenicity Attributes

Dr. Deepa Hanamaraddi; Dr. Manjunath Hosamani; Dr. Sughosh Kulkarni; Dr. Ashwita Alva; Deepti .S. Patil; Dr. RD Kulkarni

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1200-1208

Purpose: Bacteremia is considered as a major cause of hospital acquired infections. The longer hospital stays and instrumentation on patients has led to increase in incidence of bacteremia. The common source being the normal commensal of the skin, anterior nares and the ear canals of the patients. The common commensal being Coagulase negative staphylococci have not been considered as pathogen for true bacteremia, but because use of intravascular devices and prolonged hospital stay has led these bacteria as a major causative agent. The aim of this study is to know the CoNS species distribution, its biofilm activity and to understand the various pathogenicity attributes causing bacteremia.
Material and Methods: A minimum of 50 CoNS species were collected from positive blood culture samples and identified along with its antibiogram assay. Production of slime was demonstrated by Tissue culture plate method. Other pathogenicity factors were analysed to clinically correlate the true bacteraemia.
Results: Out of 47 isolates, 68.08% were Methicillin sensitive CoNS and 32% were Methicillin resistant CoNS. 53.1% demonstrated slime production and 46.8% were negative for slime production.
Conclusion: CoNS are the major cause for nosocomial infections causing true bacteremia. The identification of CoNS species along with its anti-biogram pattern and its ability to produce biofilm, helps in the better management of cases and to prevent the infections.

The Mediating Roles Of Religious And Spiritual Coping Between Religiosity, Spirituality, And Depression Among Medical And Health Science Students.

Usman Jaffer; Che Mohd Nasril Che Mohd Nassir; Rahmah Ahmad H. Osman; Abdul Latif Abd. Razak; Nasreen Allie; Mohamed Ayaaz Ahmed; Mohamad Afiudin Jalaludin; Nursyuhaidah Mohd Kadri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1209-1223

Introduction: Depression is a global mental health issue. Vulnerability for this condition increases in the university student population, specifically medical and health science disciplines. Previous evidence showed that religiosity and spirituality were inversely linked with depression. They have also been predominantly treated as one construct. Still, the mechanisms of these relationships are vague.
 
Objective: This study aims to investigate mediating roles religious and spiritual coping played on the relationships between religiosity, spirituality and depression among medical and health sciences students.
 
Methods: A total of 151 medical and health science students were recruited from various universities across Malaysia. The BDI-II, DUREL, Spirituality Scale (SS), RCOPE and SCQ were the measures used in this study.
 
Results: Religious coping (Positive) was responsible for full mediation between religiosity and depression. Positive spiritual coping partially mediated between spirituality and depression, while negative spiritual coping had a slight partial mediating effect.

KNOWLEDGE REGARDING COVID VACCINE AMONG ADULTS IN SELECTED RURAL AREAS OF THE PUNE DISTRICT

Ramesh Bidari; Shende Asavari; Shinde Mrumika; Shinde Revati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1224-1228

INTRODUCTION: A week after, on March 7, COVID-19 cases topped 100,000. The WHO proclaimed COVID-19 a pandemic a few days later, on March 11. COVID-19 developed fast from a potentially fatal infection limited to Beijing to either a worldwide health crisis practically overnight. In India, the Covid-19 vaccination drive started on January 16, and during the first phase, frontline and healthcare workers were vaccinated against the disease. While the logistics of such a programme have been a challenge in a country as large as India, currently over 100 million people have already been given the shot.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: To assess the knowledge regarding COVID vaccine among adults& to find out the association between knowledge and selected demographic variables.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A non-experimental Descriptive design carried out among 100 adult. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used and was statically analyzed after collecting the data through structured questionnaire was prepared for data collection. Ethical clearance was taken from the Institutional ethics committee. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics
RESULT: The present study result showed that Knowledge regarding Covid Vaccine among the Adults. Majority 40% were of ordinary knowledge, 35% were of good knowledge, and just 25% were of low knowledge.
CONCLUSION: The present the study's goal is to determine how well people know about the COVID vaccination the adults from selected rural areas of Pune District.

A STUDY ON E-TRAINING PROCESS INSELECTED IT AND ITES COMPANIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CHENNAI

M.M. Shanmugapriya; Dr.D. Venkatramaraju

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1229-1235

            Employee E-Trainingis a cycle where individuals master expertise, information, disposition, and conduct required to proficiently play out the gig. It is a specialty of expanding the information and abilities of a representative for making a specific showing. The intention is to foster the capacities of the individual and fulfill the current and future labor supply need. Preparing need must be coordinate with the need of the individual and assist him with filling toward the path which drives him to progress. To adapt to the adjustment of inward and outside climate the representative should be prepared. Preparing abbreviates the time expected for representatives to arrive at their productivity level. They increment the quality and the amount handled and lessens the inactive time. A powerful arranged very much oversaw preparing program increment and efficiency, cost control, lower worker turnover and better human relations inside the firm. In this study it is to figure out the preparation viability among ITES area. An example size of 70 was gathered from an organized poll. This study was determined by utilizing factual devices like chi-square, one-way Anova, Correlation.

Survivors Turn Artists – Hope From 1947 Partition

Ayushi Khera; Dr. Tanu Kashyap; Dr. R.K. Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1236-1245

Partition 1947 has been the most traumatic events in the history of Indian sub-continent; people underwent a lot of sufferings and agonies during the time. The bloodbath that took place was totally incomparable and unimaginable. There was mass migration and flurry of rapes and abduction of women and children, besides hatred and scare hovering all around petrifying not only the human beings but also the air, and hence the degree of sufferings that the people underwent was astonishingly unbearable. Apart from the trauma that the people at large underwent, there were many who came out successful and unwavering, who tried their level best in re-building and reshaping their lives despite all the odds besides the toxic pains and agonies that they went through. The primary focus of the present paper is to put focus on the survivors who rebuilt their lives from the ashes/ruins and made themselves successful despite the hardships that they faced.

“ANALYZE THE SELECTED FACTORS CONTRIBUTING FOR OVERWEIGHT / OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN AT SELECTED SCHOOLS IN NAVI MUMBAI- CASE CONTROL STUDY”

Sakshi Singh; Mrs. Deepa Reddy; Dr. Rita Lakhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1246-1257

Background& Aim of the study: Indian data regarding current trends in childhood obesity are emerging. Lifestyle changes and worldwide nutrition transition are important factors for the obesity epidemic. Current eating habits include the consumption of fast foods, sugary drinks, baked food, soft drinks, etc. These eating habits with decreased physical activity, lack of sleep, and lack of social leisure activities will lead to childhood obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the selected contributing factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity among school children aged between 13 to 16 years, in Navi Mumbai.Material and Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 300 school children in that 74 cases (overweight/obese) and 74 control (non -obese children) aged from 13 to 16 years were selected by using purposive sampling technique. For the present study, two different schools were selected in Navi Mumbai such as NMMC School and Swami Vivekanand School. The conceptual framework of the present study was based on web of causation theory. D. Y. Patil school of Nursing ethical committee approval was taken for this study. Observational tool (weighing machine & measuring tape) was used to measure the weight and height of the school children and interview tool of risk assessment tool was used to analyse the selected contributing factors such as food habits, physical activities, sleeping patterns, medical history & social leisure activities.  The tool was modified based on validity and reliability. The collected data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by SPSS version. Frequency percentage distribution, odds ratio and chi-square test was used in this study. Results: Result revealed that out of 300 school children, 22% were overweight,3% school children were obese, 10% wereunderweight,and 65% were healthy. It was observed that nutritional factors like Bake food (OR=10.8, CI: 95%), Fast Food (OR=6, CI: 95%), Sugary drinks (OR=10.5, CI: 95%), soft drinks (OR=5, CI: 95%) were more likelihood of causing obesity & were significant factors. Physical factors like muscle & bone strengthening exercises (OR=0.092, CI: 95%), and aerobic activity (OR=0.11, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing overweight. In leisure factors, Students played outdoor games (OR=0.2, CI: 95%), and performed their hobbies (OR=0.15, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing obesity. Conclusion:Since school children obesity is rising at an alarming rate, the selected contributing factors determinants of obesity need to be addressed among school children. Eating fast food, soft drinks, baked food, and untimely meal were associated as risk factors for overweight/ obesity. While very less physical activity-exercise, lack of sleep & social leisure activities was also associated with overweight/ obesity. In order to prevent overweight and obesity, it is necessary to create awareness among schoolchildren about healthy eating practices and desirable lifestyles.

“EFFECTIVENESS OF CARTOON VIDEO DISTRACTION IN ALTERING THE BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE TO VACCINATION PAIN AMONG TODDLERS IN SELECTED HOSPITALS IN NAVI MUMBAI”.

Mrs.Nimi Susan Thomas; Mrs. Deepa Redyy; Prof. Dr Rita Lakhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1258-1268

Background & Aim of the work: Vaccination is a public health measure used to fight infectious diseases. One of the most frequent and painful procedures performed on children is receiving a vaccine injection, especially when no pain medication is used. The researcher employed cartoon video as a distraction method in the current investigation. The study aims to discover whether cartoon videos could benefit toddlers (1 to 3 years old) in reducing their behavioral response to vaccination pain, who visit the pediatric outpatient department inselected hospitals in Navi Mumbai.
Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling was used to collect data using a quasi-experimental post-test group design. The study's 82 samples, of both sexes and between the ages of 1-3 years, were divided into experimental (41 samples) and control (41 samples).A randomized number generator was used to avoid bias in selecting the sample groups. The demographic interview questions and the FLACC Revised scale were employed as the study's instruments for assessing and observing the toddler's behavioral response to the process. Descriptive (frequency, percentage distribution) and inferential statistics were used in the data analysis (X2 and Mann-Whitney U test). 
Results: The study's findings showed that while comparing the pain score among the groups, the experimental group experienced a pain score of 6.12 ± 1.926, while the control group experienced a pain score of 8.00 ± 1.466, with a difference of 1.88. The intergroup comparison of pain among the experimental and control group showed a Mann-Whitney U test value of 0.000**, which strongly showed a statistically highly significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01) with higher values in the control group as compared to the experimental group. An analysis of the relationship between pain intensity and demographic factors revealed a statistically significant relationship between children's prior experiences and their attitudes toward medical professionals. Hence the study has proven that cartoon video distraction is an effective distraction technique.

Effectiveness of Intradialytic Stretching Exercises on Reduction of Muscle Cramps Among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis at A Selected Hospital, Navi Mumbai.

Anjalidevi k Yadav; Dr. Rita Lakhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1269-1279

Literature proves that various sets of intradialytic stretching exercises are a useful strategy for preventing and treating muscle cramps during hemodialysis. Hence, the researcher decided to evaluate the effectiveness of a set of intradialytic stretching exercises on the reduction of muscle cramps among patients undergoing hemodialysis at a selected hospital, Navi Mumbai. The research design used for the study was a quasi-experimental one-group pretest and post-test group design. A non-probability purposive sampling technique is used to select 50 samples according to the inclusion criteria. The same samples are used in both experimental and control groups at two different times. Intradialytic stretching exercises were performed when the respondents suffered from muscle cramps during hemodialysis. The muscle cramp was assessed with the help of a Numerical Pain Scale, a Modified Ashworth Scale, and a Penn Muscle Cramp Frequency Score.The study results reveal that the mean difference between the experimental and control groups is as follows: the numerical pain score is 1.14, the modified Ashworth score is 3.98, and the Penn muscle frequency score is 0.66. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test scores for each scale are 6.459, 6.249, and 5.291, respectively, which is significant at 5% with a p-value of 0.000. Hence, intradialytic stretching exercises are effective in the reduction of muscle cramps during hemodialysis compared to the control group of respondents.

“A quasi-experimental study to assess the effect of cold application on pain and bruise associated with subcutaneous injection of low molecular weight heparin among ICU patients at selected hospitals, Navi Mumbai”

Jenny Varghese; Dr. Rita Lakhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1280-1291

LMWH has been a promising drug because of its predictable anticoagulant response in the treatment and prophylaxis of thromboembolic phenomena. Among its local complication, the reported incidence rates of bruises is 26.6% to 88.9% and pain is 93.7-98.7%. Nurses limit the areas that can be injected by avoiding repeated injections in the bruised area.  The primary goal of the study was to determine how cold application affected ICU patients pain and bruises caused by subcutaneous injection of low molecular weight heparinat specific hospitals' in Navi Mumbai. A quasi-experimental post-test-only design with Non Probability sampling technique was used to select 50 samples with split body image.  Cold application utilizing frozen gel packs was used  for 3 minutes before and 5 minutes after the subcutaneous  injection of LMWH. The pain was assessed using numerical pain rating scale and  the bruise was assessed by using bruise assessment scale. The respondents of the experimental side had a mean pain score of 2.80±0.81. The respondents of the control side  had a mean pain score of 4.62±0.85. The results of the Wilcoxon test showed that the pain intensity of the experimental side was significantly lower compared to the control side(P < 0.05)at 48 and 72 hours; the  respondents of the experimental side had a mean bruise score of 0.20±0.61 and the  respondents of control side  had a mean bruise score of 1.56±0.84. Friedman's test shows that at 78.00 and 10.00 in the control and the experimental side, the level of significance at 5% level is 0.000 and 0.007 respectively. In clinical practice, a cold application utilizing frozen gel packs for 3 minutes before and 5 minutes after the injection of LMWH is effective. 

“A quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of ice massage at hegu point on arteriovenous fistula puncture-related pain among hemodialysis patients in a selected hospital, Navi Mumbai.”

Prachiti D Vayangankar; Dr Rita Lakhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1292-1302

In India, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is presently the third most prevalent non-communicable disease. Kidney function is reduced progressively and irreversibly as a result of CKD. The most popular treatment for chronic renal disease is hemodialysis (HD). An arteriovenous fistula (AVF)is the most typical vascular access point for those who need to undergo hemodialysis. However, HD patients always have severe concerns about the pain that is associated with AVF cannulation. The researcher aims to assess the effectiveness of ice massage at the Hegu point on AVF puncture-related pain among hemodialysis. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the AVF puncture-related pain scores in HD patients with and without Hegu point ice massage and to correlate the AVF puncture-related pain scores with selected biographical variables.

Customer Relationship Management

Dr. JyotiRanjana; Abhinav Varma Nadimpalli; Lahari Lanka; Rahul Tej

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1303-1311

Today, organizations are confronting a forceful rivalry and they need to put forth Attempts to get by in a serious and questionable commercial center. Individuals have understood that overseeing Customer connections is a vital factor for their prosperity. Client relationship the board (CRM) is a methodology that can assist them with building durable associations with their clients and increment their benefits through the correct administration framework and the use of client centered systems. Drawing nearer to clients and successfully reacting to their necessities is an extraordinary method to support their devotion and empower further business relationship. The errand of getting and holding clients requires much more noteworthy expertise and exertion. The business needs to guarantee that the assistance functions as the client really needs it to, and the clients need to work together in their way and not to be constrained it in big business' manner. Most organizations consider them client centered and accept that in being so they are adjusting the client.

Synthesis Of Iron Nanoparticles From Halophila Ovalis Seagrass And Their Antioxidant Activities.

Wajeeha Alisalih; Pitchiah Sivaperumal; Gayatri Devi; S. Muthamizh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1312-1319

Ecological biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) are gained much interest among researchers. In present investigation, iron nanoparticles were synthesized via green synthesis method using Halophila ovalis seagrass extract, having the capacity of reducing iron ions to iron nanoparticles. Synthesis nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS anlysis, Distribution of the elements were characterized by Elemental mappling in SEM analysis. Antioxidant activities of synthesis nanoparticles were measured against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), TAA and TAP.

SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES FROM SUAEDA MONOICA AQUEOUS EXTRACT AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

Vipra Sharma; Gayatri Devi. R; Pitchiah Sivaperumal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1320-1329

BACKGROUND: The study's main aim was to synthesize copper nanoparticles utilizing the aqueous extract of Suaeda monoica plant (Salt marsh), a mangrove plant. The nanoparticles synthesized are of small size and high stability, leading to further analysis of the antibacterial activity of gram-positive (S.mutans) and gram-negativeKlebsiella species, Salmonella typhi) bacterial strain using the disk diffusion method. The study is done to analyze the antibacterial activity of the biologically synthesized copper nanoparticles against various pathogenic bacteria.

‘PERCEPTION AND SELF-USE OF KABASURA KUDINEER AMONG HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS – A COMPARATIVE STUDY’

Dr. Yazhini; Dr. Vaishnavi. S; Dr. Soundarya; Dr.Vinith Kumar; Kumara raja. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1330-1341

Introduction:KabasuraKudineerChooranam is a formulation that is used traditionally by Siddha practitioners for treating common respiratory ailments like flu. The usage of KabasuraKudineerChooranam is increased during Covid -19.Aim: To understand the attitudes and self-use of kabasurakudineer among health care professionals in ChennaiMaterials and Methods:The descriptive online cross-sectional survey using snowball sampling was carried out among health care professionals in Chennai. A pretested and well-structured questionnaire consisting of closed-ended questions was employed to assess perception and usage of KabasuraKudineer.The estimated sample size is 456.The differences in the attitude, belief and usage of KabasuraKudineer among health care professionals was compared using the Chi-square test. Spearman correlation was used to correlate between medical, dental and nursing professions. Results:Only 28 health care professionals have heard of kabasurakudineer before covid 19 and it was positively correlated between all the three groups.Most of them does not like the taste of KabasuraKudineer and only few had prescribed kabasurakudineer to their patients. Conclusion:There is a better view of Kabasurakudineer among the medical professionals which might be because of that they are routinely taking care of COVID-infected patients followed by the nursing professionals and dental profession.

THE PERFORMANCES OF THE TURKISH FEMALE WRESTLING TEAM IN THE 2022 SENIOR EUROPEN WRESTLING CHAMPIONSHIP IN TERMS OF SOME COMPETATION COMPENENTS

Rafet ÜNVER

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1342-1353

The importance of women in social and economic life in the world is constantly changing and comes to the same level as men. This change is also observed in the sports field. This situation is valid for Turkish women. It is possible to see women both in the world sports arena and in Turkey in sports branches such as wrestling, boxing and weightlifting,  where power and strength are at the forefront. In addition to being at the top of the international federation member countries in terms of the number of licensed female wrestlers, Turkish female wrestlers  have also achieved many international successes. One of these, and perhaps the most important, is the 2022 Senior Famale European Wrestling Championship. In this study, the individual and team competition performances of the Turkish Women's National Wrestling Team, which won the European Team Champion were analyzed in terms of some competition components.

The Effects of High-Intensity Functional Training on Aerobic Capacity, Metabolic Adaptation and Neuromuscular Responses in Young Female Volleyball Players

Ömer Faruk Bilici; Tuba Kızılet

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1354-1367

The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) program on aerobic capacity, metabolic adaptation and neuromuscular responses in young female volleyball players. 22 licensed female athletes (16.41±1.29 years old) who played volleyball actively for at least two years in the regional women's volleyball league voluntarily participated in the study. Participants were divided into two groups as experimental (EG; n=11) and control group (CG; n=11) by random sampling method. CG only participated in routine volleyball training for 12 weeks. CG only participated in routine volleyball training for 12 weeks. In addition to volleyball training, EG participated in the 12-week HIFT program, which included sprinting, plyometric, functional body weight, resistance and aerobic exercises two days in a week. Measurements were taken before and after the training program as pre-test and post-test. Anthropometric measurements (height, body weight, body fat percentage, body mass index) of the participants were taken. Metabolic (Lactate) and aerobic capacity measurement (Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) of the participants were taken with the Yo-yo Intermittent Recovery (level-1)  Test protocol. Moreover, neuromuscular tests (Counter Movement Jump (CMJ) and 10x20m repetitive sprint fatigue index) were applied. Statistical analysis of the data obtained was done using the SPSS 22.0 statistical package program. As a result of the study, a statistically significant difference was observed in the CMJ and Yo-yo Intermittent Recovery (level-1) Test in CG, and in the CMJ, 10x20m repetitive sprint fatigue index, Yo-yo Intermittent Recovery (level-1) and VO2max tests in EG at the end of 12-week HIFT program (p<0.05). In addition, when EG and CG were compared, it was determined that there was a statistically significant difference in the favor of EG between the CMJ test and 10x20m repetitive sprint fatigue index post-test mean values (p<0.05). As a conclusion, it can be said that 12-week HIFT is a training method that can positively affects the aerobic capacity, jump force and neuromuscular responses of young female volleyball players. Therefore, HIFT can be used to improve the performance of young female volleyball players and added to their annual training regimen.

Effect Of Quartz Tungsten Halogen And Light-Emitting Diode Curing Units On The Polymerization Of Microfilled And Nanofilled Composites: A Comparative In-Vitro Study

Vathsalya Shetty; Anil Richhawal; Abhijeet Khade; Ashish Mandwe; Heeresh Shetty; Sanpreet Singh Sachdev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1368-1379
DOI: 10.48047/ejmcm.v09.i08.1368

Introduction
Various factors such as the type of light source, irradiance power, exposure time, curing tip distance, degree of conversion, and type of fillers influence the polymerization of light-cure resins and ultimately, the final properties of the restoration. The present study aimed to compare the efficiency of light-emitting diode (LED) and Quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) curing lights and their effect on the polymerization of microfilled (MF) and nanofilled (NF) composite resins.
Materials and Methods
A total sample of n=80 was divided into eight groups (n=10 each) comprising of two types of MF and NF composites each, cured by QTH and LED. The depth of cure, rise in temperature during curing, and the Vicker’s hardness number (VHN) at various depths were evaluated.
Results: The depth of cure was significantly more (p<0.05) in the NF composites as compared to that observed in the MF composites. The temperature rise was found to be significantly more (p<0.05) in samples cured with QTH than in LED. The VHN were found to be significantly higher at 1mm and reduced as the depth of cure increased to 2 mm and 3 respectively.
Conclusion: LED light curing units are more efficient as well as biocompatible as compared to QTH units. NF composites exhibit a greater depth of cure and surface hardness as compared to the MF composite. The rise in temperature during curing is dependent on the curing unit but not the type of composite.

Comparison Of The Traditional Suturing Technique Versus Continuous Non-Locking For Repair Of Episiotomy Using Polyglactin 910.

Pankaj Prakash Salvi; Vidya Gaikwad; Jaya Sravani Ankem; Swati Ghonge

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1380-1387
DOI: 10.48047/ejmcm.v09.i08.1380

Introduction: The present study was designed with the primary aim to compare the Traditional Suturing Technique versus Continuous Non-Locking technique for Repair of Episiotomy Using Treated Polyglactin 910.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 postnatal women complying with study inclusion criteria were included and randomly divided into two groups viz. traditional suturing technique using polyglactin 910 (Group A) and continuous non-locking technique using polyglactin 910 (Group B). A detailed clinical evaluation was done for all the subjects. Appropriate and relevant investigations were done.
Results: Regarding the pain assessment by VAS score and episiotomy healing by REEDA score both the groups were not significant (p-value >0.05), hence no difference was noted among them. However continuous non locking technique consumed less number of suture materials and less time as its p- value was <0.05, which was significant.
Conclusion: According to REEDA score and VAS score, there was no significant difference in episiotomy healing and pain assessment respectively. Continuous Non-Locking Technique of the episiotomy wound had less perineal pain on day 1, consumes less number of suture materials and less time, hence it was economically better when compared to Traditional Suturing technique.

INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT CAPACITY FOR IRRIGATION WORKS IN VIETNAM

Bui Anh Tu; Le Thi Tam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1388-1393

The article presents some causes affecting the efficiency of investment project management of irrigation works in Vietnam. Project management includes three main stages: planning and coordinating the implementation. The main content is managing the schedule, time, and costs and monitoring the project work to achieve the goals. In addition, the article also analyzes the crucial factors that determine the success of investment project management of irrigation works, including peripheral environment; project manager; project team members; organization; intrinsic factor; system response.

AN INCENTIVE EOQ INVENTORY MODEL WITH PRICE DISCOUNT

M. Babu; R. Kamali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1394-1407

This article looks at the problem of a supplier placing an order and providing a consumer a discount. This study's objective is to develop a decision-making procedure that will assist retailers in selecting between a regular order policy and a special order policy. The three possibilities in the created model are the optimal special order quantity is calculated with both regular and additional quantity benefits, while the optimal special order quantity is determined only with additional quantity benefits and the optimal order quantity is computed without taking advantage of price savings. This study finds the ideal solution, illustrates the theoretical conclusions using a variety of numerical examples, and then runs a sensitivity analysis of the ideal solution with respect to the key parameters.

Aftermath Of COVID-19 Pandemic-A Comparative Retrospective Single Center Study During The First, Second And Third Wave Of COVID-19 In Tertiary Care Institute In North India

Atul Rana; Dr. Nitin Kumar; Santosh Minhas; Monika Jindal; Aleeza Pal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1408-1415

Background: At the onset of Covid-19 pandemic, it was an unknown entity in terms of risk status of the pregnant women for fetomaternal outcome. Both fetus and pregnant women were considered as groups under special concern due to their unique physiological characteristics.
Method: A retrospective study was conducted in department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology along with Paediatrics department in Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College and Hospital, Solan on pregnant females admitted to the Covid-19 Ward/ ICU over a period from August 2020 till 31st March 2022. Participants were included into 3 waves of pandemic based upon time of presentation and these 3 groups were further studied for the various fetomaternal parameters such as maternal age, symptom status, need for respiratory support, maternal mortality, abortions, still births, gestational age and weight of newborn and other morbidity and mortality in newborns.
Results: A total of 171 pregnant were included in the study, of whom 47, 64 and 60 were seen in 1st, 2nd and 3rd waves respectively. Majority of subjects were asymptomatic in 1st, 2nd & 3rd wave, (p=0.30). Age wise distribution of the patients showed majority subjects in the age group of 20-30 years (p= 0.94). LSCS rates in 3 waves were not different significantly (p = 0.67). Maternal mortality rates and need for respiratory support were in similar proportions in all 3 waves (p=0.71) and (p=0.73) respectively. No significant difference was seen in maternal morbidity and neonatal outcome.
Conclusion: The study showed nosignificant difference between the waves of Covid-19 pandemic in terms of fetomaternal outcome except no maternal mortality in 3rd wave.

A Retrospective Study To Evaluate Pregnancy Outcome In A Positive High Vaginal Swab Culture

Gazal .; Aleeza Pal; Nitin Kumar; Monika Jindal; Santosh Minhas; Atul Rana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1416-1425

Background: Upper vaginal tract infection during pregnancy manifesting in the form of Vaginitis, vaginal discharge, has emerged as a major health problem responsible for preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), preterm labour, neonatal and puerperal sepsis. Preterm deliveries come with their own challenges, both for the mother and new-born. High vaginal swab culture positivity during pregnancy for common pathogens, namely Group B Streptococcus, Klebsiella Pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus may predict the predisposition of the mother to PPROM, chorioamnionitis and subsequent neonatal complications.
Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze feto-maternal outcome of 200 expectant mothers who were admitted for safe confinement after 28 weeks of gestation and were tested for high vaginal swab (HVS) culture & sensitivity, dividing them into two groups, based on the results of their HVS culture i.e., sterile versus nonsterile cases.
Results: 98 patients tested positive for various microorganisms, out of which 60 samples showed mixed flora, 20 Gram positive Cocci, 15 Gram Negative Bacilli, and 3 showed growth of Candida. The most common organisms isolated in high vaginal swabs were Diphtheroids (31%), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (8.10%), Escherichia coli (7.10%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.10%) and Candida albicans (3%). The rest 102 samples were sterile. A significant association was found between maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) & increased neonatal morbidity with positive HVS. However, the results of positive HVS culture showed no significant association with other adverse maternal outcomes such as puerperal sepsis and preterm labour.
Conclusion: Ascending intrauterine infections remain an important cause of preterm labour, PPROM, chorioamnionitis, etc. and eventually poor neonatal outcome. Timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics can go a long way in treating the same. But larger studies are needed to prove the same and to make high vaginal swab a useful screening tool for all antenatal patients to prevent complications and overall improvement of feto-maternal outcome.

Association Of BMI And Lipid Profile In Overweight Young Adults After 3 Months Of Yoga Practice

Jay Prakash Singh Rajput; Asha Gandhi; Sanjiv K Bansal; P.N Singh; Nimarpreet Kaur; Deepti Dwivedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1426-1433

Background: Many studies have applied aspects of Yoga to different health conditions. Obesity is a major health problem and the 5th leading risk for death globally. Reasons for these health problems are improper lifestyle and stress, which cause hormonal and chemical imbalance and disturb the proper coordination of metabolic and biochemical functions. So, the aim and objective of the present study is to assess the beneficial effects of 3 months of yoga practice on BMI, and lipid profile as well as correlate BMI with lipid parameters in overweight medical students between the age group 18-24 years.
Material and Methods: This prospective follow-up study included 50 Medical students having overweight of either sex (male & female) as per the inclusion criteria. Their BMI, and Lipid Profile were estimated before the start of yoga, after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of yoga practice, and their mean values were compared from baseline by using student t-Test, and correlation was done by using Pearson correlation test.
Results: Statistically significant decreased mean values of BMI, TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL were recorded when compared from baseline. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis between the BMI, TC and TG at three levels of yoga practice was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Yoga therapy is useful to overcome the complications of obesity. It is one of the non-pharmacological and cost-effective therapies to maintain better health by regulating BMI and other biochemical functions of the body.

AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF EFFICACY OF DIGITAL MARKETING TECHNIQUES ON TOURISM ENTREPRENEURS

Dr.B. Nagarjuna; Dr Mohd Aarif; Dr.H. Shamina; Dr. Pravin Dnyaneshwar Sawant; Dr.Jaywant R. Bhadane; Geetha Manoharan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1434-1445

As more advanced internet technologies have been available, more channels for communicating with certain demographics of people have become available. In today's world, digital marketing has evolved to the point that it is an essential component of every kind and size of organisation. The increasing significance of digital marketing has had an effect not only on the method in which businesses sell their goods and services to new customers, but also on the way in which they sell those goods and services to customers who are already in their customer base. In the travel industry, where customers have easy access to a range of information on the most current bargains and lowest price, there has been a desire for digital marketing like it has never been felt before. Digital marketing is now an incredibly essential aspect that plays a significant role in defining the amount of success that any given firm operating in the tourism industry achieves. It is possible that a number of factors, such as developments and growths in communication and transportation, developments and growths in educational standards, the advancement of a class with changed attitudes regarding lifestyle and spending habits, and increased levels of stress and strain in everyday life, are to blame for the increased proclivity that people have toward tourism.. The guidelines for marketing have been rethought completely across the board ever since the introduction of internet technology. The study aims to measure the efficacy of digital marketing on the tourism industry through the satisfaction of the stakeholders of the industry in Tamil Nadu. The study is an empirical study which has been carried out in Tamil Nadu with 100 tourism entrepreneurs. The stakeholders of the tourism industry like hotels, travels and hybrid (offering tour package with boarding, lodging and travel) are considered as sample respondents. They are selected using the convenient sampling technique.

A STUDY ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING

Dr.G. Manokaran; Dr. T. Satheesh Kumar; Dr.A. Jayanthi; Dr. Jaywant R. Bhadane; Hitendra Ramraoji Aher; Geetha Manoharan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1446-1460

Customers have access to a previously unimaginable variety of activities and adventures when they purchase online. An incredible market place has been created by the proliferation of goods and services available for purchase on the internet at a wide variety of price points. The vast majority of customers have readily embraced the convenience of purchasing online, yet some customers still have concerns over a variety of potential dangers. Online buying is discouraged as a result of the hazards involved. The literature study uncovered the fact that a great deal of research has previously been conducted on online purchasing, with the primary emphasis being on the level of risk that customers perceive to be involved. The main objectives of the study was to identify various types of perceived risk related with online shopping. The study is qualitative and empirical, done in Chennai city during the month of August 2022. 300 sample respondents are selected from the city using the survey method. The customers buying products in online market have been purposively selected for the study. The information from the respondents were collected through the Google forms. The respondents level of perceived risk related to the online shopping and their intention to buy in the market are collected using the Likert scale. The data were analyzed using non-parametric test and a regression model. It is concluded that the perceived risks are significantly influencing the purchase intention but the privacy is not up to the mark to influence.

PERCEPTION TOWARDS BLENDED LEARNING AT THE TIME OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Kommabatla Mahender; Dr Manish Kumar Jaisal; Parnab Ghosh; Dr. Rohit Bansal; Dr pratima Mishra; Geetha Manoharan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1461-1473

Blended learning mixes offline learning activities and resources with online learning activities and resources. The goal of blended learning is to minimise the time spent sitting in class, which is a significant advantage for a College / university. It might aid university officials with enhancing programmes that have low enrollment, reducing expenditures, and fulfilling staff teaching responsibilities. The study is focusing on the perception of the college students towards the online learning program during the pandemic. The blended learning is the unavoidable and safety method of teaching learning process during the pandemic. It is a qualitative study made in Chennai city. The students of higher educational institutions (Arts & Science and Engineering colleges) are considered as samples. 250 sample respondents are selected from the study are using simple random technique. The Google forms was circulated and collected the primary data. Assessment is a very important instrument for measuring the degree of knowledge that a student has in relation to the topic in which they are enrolled in any level of education. Teachers are able to give the lecture and measure student learning via the use of unique and inventive approaches when they use blended learning strategies.

A STUDY ON ENTREPRENEURIAL ATTITUDE AND INTENTION AMONG VARIOUS CATEGORIES OF STUDENTS

Dr. Madhavi G.M; Balakrishnan S; Dr.S. Sekar; Mr. Atul Babasaheb Gaware; Dr. Pravin Dnyaneshwar Sawant; Dr. Dipa Banerjee

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1474-1488

The expansion and development of the economy, as well as the innovativeness and quality of products, are both directly influenced by entrepreneurship, which plays an essential part in both of these areas. The promotion of capital formation, the establishment of large-scale job opportunities, the facilitation of balanced regional development, and the effective mobilization of capital and talent are some of the primary contributions that entrepreneurship provides to the economic growth of a country. Small and medium companies (SMEs) and entrepreneurial supply give an alternative answer for the expansion and development of economies that are unable to engage in capital-intensive and technologically advanced sectors. The aims of the study are to find out demographic characteristics of the various categories of the student respondents and to study the extent of awareness and the participation in entrepreneurial training programmes and to measure the relationship between the awareness and intention of the students towards the entrepreneurship.  The study is qualitative in nature which has been conducted in Chennai city with the students studying higher educational institutions. 250 respondents are selected using simple random technique. The students from arts & Science College and engineering colleges in the Chennai City are purposively taken as sample for the study. The information are collected from them through Google forms.  The data are analyzed with the help of SPSS.The researchers concluded that the awareness programmes and effort for making them practice during the college studies will have big impact on their intention to start the own businesses.

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) PRACTICES IN BANKS: A STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KOTTAYAM DISTRICT, KERALA

Dr. D. Niranjani; Dr Preeti Mishra; Dr. Shivangee Tiwari; Vinay Kumar Yadav; Dr.S. Sekar; Geetha Manoharan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1489-1500

The process of gaining new customers, keeping existing ones, and growing existing ones is referred to as customer relationship management (CRM). A paradigm change has occurred in marketing, away from an emphasis on acquisition and transactions and toward an emphasis on relationships. This movement is represented by either customer relationship management or retention marketing. The two most important aims of customer relationship management (CRM) are to (1) build long-term and lucrative connections with selected customers and (2) become closer to these customers at every point of interaction with them. An attempt has been made by the author of this paper to present the meaning of customer relationship management (CRM), as well as information regarding how Indian banks have transitioned from a focus on transactions to a focus on relationships, factors that created a strong need on the part of Indian banks to adopt CRM, the IDIC framework in banking, and relationship marketing strategies that assist a banking firm in bonding with its customers. The study has been carried out with the following objectives to study the CRM practices followed in the banks and to measure the satisfaction of the employees towards the RM practices followed in their banks. This is an attempt to know the CRM practices followed in the private sector banks. 200 sample respondents are selected from the private sector banks working in managerial cadre in Kottayam district. The respondents are selected using simple random technique. The data have been collected from the respondents through Google forms. It is concluded from the result that the less experienced employees are highly satisfied towards the CRM practices in their banks 

A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF MICRO SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (MSMEs)

Sudarshan E; Dr.R. Indumathy; Dr.S. Sekar; T. Rajamanickam; Geetha Manoharan; Dr. S. Shahul Ameed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1501-1514

            The MSME sector is the sector that is most in demand, the most active, and the most dynamic. It also provides a considerable contribution to the total industrial output, employment, and exports of the nation. Due to the fact that it includes more than 80 percent of all enterprises in the economy, the labour intensity of this sector is much higher than that of any other large company. This is the case since it is the sector that incorporates the most companies. The sector of micro, small, and medium-sized companies is an important one for the economy of India. At the present time, the microenterprise industry accounts for the overwhelming bulk of the MSME industry. This shows that new people are being welcomed into this business, and that they are being given the chance to generate money and become financially independent via the many programmes that this industry offers. As a direct consequence of this, the major focus of this paper will be dedicated to an analysis of the financial performance of the MSME sector. The sector of the Indian economy known as Micro, Small, and Medium-Sized Enterprises (MSME) has become a powerful pillar of the economy and is making major contributions to the economy of the whole country. The study is trying to measure the performance of the MSME units in Chennai city with the following objectives to measure the financial performance of the sample MSME units. The performance of the MSME are measured in empirically. The study is also in descriptive in nature. It is has been carried in Chennai city during the month of September 2022 with 100 sample units. The survey method is used to collect the data from the entrepreneurs of the MSMEs. The sample size consists of 64 micro units, 26 small units and 10 medium scale units. The performance of the sample units are measured and compared in finance, marketing and human resource aspects. The data were collected using questionnaire. It is concluded that the performance of HR depart in the medium scale unit is better.

Estimating the Negative Emissions: The Potential of a Portfolio of Technologies within the Planetary Boundaries

Deepika Pandoi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1515-1526

A changing planet has underscored the need for a new paradigm for guiding human activity. To that end, scientists have introduced the planetary boundaries framework which outlines a safe operating space for humanity. They identify nine biophysical processes that are integral to the stability of the Earth system. Central to the framework is the concept of the precautionary principle. Each planetary boundary is associated with a threshold past which nonlinear feedbacks are likely to occur to that process. The purpose of this research is to estimate an upper bound for the rate of CDR while staying within those biophysical limits. Constraints that define three planetary boundaries—blue water, green water, and land-system change—as well as a limit on overall energy use are used to maximise the negative emissions from a portfolio of technologies. The overall goal of this study is to provide an alternative framework for modelling carbon dioxide removal that produces portfolios of NETs that are distinctively different from those of IAMs.

“Knowledge regarding importance of drug regimen among Tuberculosis patients attending clinic at Sub-district Hospital, Karad.”

Ms. Komal More; Mrs. Anagha V. Katti; Mr.Mahesh Chendake; Mrs. Afsana Mulani; Mrs. Sushama Shete

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1527-1534

Background: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculi. The disease primarily affect the lungs and cause Pulmonary Tuberculosis. In India, Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem. So the present study aimed to assess knowledge regarding Tuberculosis and importance of drug regimen.
Objective- To assessknowledge regarding Tuberculosis and importance of drug regimen among Tuberculosis patients attending clinic.
Design: A quantitative approach using pre experimental one group pre-test post-test design. 
Methodology:  A community Based study was conducted in rural area of Karad Taluka, Maharashtra. Data was collected from 60 subjects selected with Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents. A structured knowledge questionnaire was administered to assess knowledge of tuberculosis and importance of drug regimen among tuberculosis patients .Data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results:  Overall knowledge score of sample was 14 (23.3%) are having good knowledge , 33 (55 %). average knowledge and 13 (21.6 %) samples were having poor knowledge regarding tuberculosis and importance of drug regimen The mean pre-test knowledge score (10.6 ± 1.1).
 Conclusion: There is need for TB awareness campaign , use of mass media and social media and awareness workshops should be held in schools and colleges so that the young generation is well informed about the disease.

A STUDY ON ATTRIBUTES, CHOICE OF BUSINESS AND PERCEPTION ON SUCCESS OF ENTREPRENEURS

Dr.B. Nagarjuna; Yashi Srivastava; Sonali Singh; Dr.S. Sekar; Dr. Pravin Dnyaneshwar Sawant; Geetha Manoharan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1535-1546

Women moved to urban areas, where they had access to education and were economically independent. The position as a woman who earns an income is no longer looked down upon. The importance of women business owners as contributors to India's economic growth is becoming more widely recognized throughout the country. In contrast to the more developed nations of the globe, however, the percentage of female entrepreneurs is very low in India. When compared to other countries, India is among the least developed in the world. There are barely 4.5 percent of the country's female population that engage in self-employment, according to records. Women entrepreneurship development is a vital aspect of human resource development. Women have begun to exhibit increased interest in starting their own businesses because it gives them the ability to be their own boss, the possibility to confront the difficulties they want to face, and the potential to make more money, all of which exceed their responsibilities to their families. Additionally, the growth of technology gives women the ability to acquire more relevant credentials and ideals in order to satisfy the requirements of entrepreneurship. In today's fast-paced world, the efforts of female business owners are an essential component of the overarching mission to achieve continuous economic growth and social advancement. The study is an attempt to know the entrepreneurs’ business attributes and their business choices and perception towards their business.  The study aims to study the attributes and choice of women entrepreneurs in Chennai city. It is a descriptive study made with 300 entrepreneurs doing small businesses in the study area. Convenient sampling method has been used in selecting the sample respondents. A well-structured interview schedule was framed to know the respondents’ profile and business choices and their interest to start the business. The primary data have been analyzed with the help of SPSS. 

Clinicopathological Profile Of Significant Cervical Lymphadenopathy In Childern

Pramod Jog; Apurva Jonnalagadda; Sharad Agarkhedkar; Y Naga Akhil; Sindhuja Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1547-1559

Aim:  clinicopathological profile of significant cervical lymphadenopathy in children
Material and methods: This study was retrospective and descriptive. Data has been taken from the case files of all patients seen at the Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pune(2021-2022). The age ranged from 1 month to 12 years.The Health Research and Ethics Committee of the Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital, Pune approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent.
Results: 50 patients, 72% IP and 28% OP, presenting the symptoms associated with lymphadenopathy were included in this study out of which 62% were male and 38% were female. The median age of presentation was observed to be 6.9 years. Swelling in neck as one of the symptoms was present in majority of patients (90%). Fever (70%), cough (70%), loss of appetite (40%), and sore throat (36%) were the other major symptoms shown by the patients. More than one symptom was shown be 68% of the patients. Majority of cases had lymph node of size 1-2 cm (76%), firm consistency (84%) and mobile (66%). The mot common site of inflammation was anterior cervical (48%) followed by posterior cervical (34%). Tenderness of lymph node was absent in 79% of the cases. Associated findings included tonsillitis (24%), ear infection (16%), hepato/spleenomegaly (16), orodental infection (6%), skin lesion and rash (4% each). Blood counts evaluation showed neutrophilia in majority of cases (56%), followed by leucocytosis (52%), anaemia (32%), lymphocytosis (24%) and eosinophilia (8%). ESR was normal in 64% of the cases.  Throat culture resulted in 50% of cases showing normal commensals while as streptococcus and staphylococcus was found in 33% and 16% of cases respectively. Cytological examination revealed reactive lymphadenitis in 46% cases, tubercular lymphadenitis in 32% cases and Suppurative lymphadenitis in 12% cases. However, 4% cases yielded inadequate aspirate. Mantoux test was negative in 66% of the cases. A total of 23 patients were sent for X-ray, out of which 12 (24%) showed normal X-ray findings.
Conclusion: The above results present the repertoire of evaluations with respect to the detection of lymphadenopathy in children. This study also emphasises the importance of considering various strategies in proper and early detection to ensure timely management of lymphadenopathy.

A STUDY TO Estimate Quality Of Life AMONG Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

Selvi Benoy; Sherin Sara Viju; Sherin Sherly Jacob; Sherin Varghese; Mahesh Chendake; Samir K. Choudhari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1560-1564

Introduction: The main goals of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are to increase survival and relieve symptoms. Quality of life measurement deteriorates quickly after diagnosis. Professionals in the fields of health and social services are placing an increasing emphasis on maintaining and enhancing patients' quality of life as an important outcome or objective
Material and Methods:  This was a non-experimental, quantitative, survey based research conducted among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients and totally 60 samples was selected by Simple Random technique. The samples included in this study were who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Ethical permission was obtained before the data collection. After obtaining permission from the setting, the samples were asked their willingness to participate in the study and informed consent was obtained.  Socio-demographic data such as age, gender, marital status was collected and Quality of life was assessed by using the structured questionnaire.
Results: Results shows 8 (13.4%) samples were having low quality of life, 43 (71.6%) samples were having moderate quality of life and 9(15%) were having high quality of life.
Conclusions: study concluded that patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome had relatively average and low level of Quality of life and there was no any significant association found with demographic variables. 

Oral Hygiene Practice And Knowledge In Dental Students In Visnagar: A Comparative Study

Dr. Riddhi Sureshbhai Goswami; Dr. Dhaval Niranjan Mehta; Dr. Niral Sunil Thaker; Dr. Patel Bindiya Yatik; Dr. Chavada Raksha Prakashsinh; Dr Hitesh B. Patel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1565-1575

Background: Oral health is traditionally defined as an oral status that is free of diseases, which not only makes people look beautiful, but also contributes to the normal function of mouth. Aim: To evaluate self‑reported oral hygiene practice and knowledge in dental students of Narsinhbhai Dental College and Hospital, Visnagar. Method: This cross‑sectional study was conducted on total 391 voluntarily participated students of Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College, in the month of October 2020. It included 151 students of pre-clinical group, 166 students of clinical group, 74 students in the group of interns. A total of 15 questions were designed to evaluate the oral hygiene practice and knowledge, in the format of multiple choice questions. Result: In this study most of the students brush their teeth twice daily for 2 min most of the students visited the dentist only when problems arise. Majority of students considered oral health as important as general health and believed that oral health affects
the general health too. Students were also aware of the harmful effects of tobacco while only few of them were overindulged in them. Conclusion: In this study, it was observed that oral hygiene practice score and knowledge score was greater in the group of interns followed by the group of clinical students and pre-clinical group of students as year increases, knowledge score and oral hygiene practice score increases and knowledge increases, oral hygiene score increases.

The Initial Presentation of Distal RTA with Hypokalemic Quadriparesis in a male patient with Delayed Diagnosis of Primary Sjogren's Syndrome

Dr. Prateek Harsh; Dr. Govind Shiddapur; Dr. Nidhi Rana; Dr. Nikhila Phadnis; Mohith Prakash Kondapalli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1576-1581

The exocrine glands are affected by Sjögren's syndrome, a systemic autoimmune illness characterized by lymphoplasma cell infiltration.[1] reduction of glandular activity over time. A secondary form that is linked to various autoimmune illnesses exists in addition to the primary form, which affects the exocrine glands with or without systemic involvement (scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and connective tissue diseases, etc.) Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA), which can be overt or latent and is caused by tubulo-interstitial nephropathy,it is the characteristic extra-glandular sign of primary Sjögren's syndrome.[2] Salivary or lacrimal gland biopsies are used to diagnose Primary Sjogren Syndrome

Assessment Of Knowledge Regarding Management Of Palliative Care Among II Ndyear GNM Students.

Mrs. SushamaShete; Miss Utkarsha Uday Kamble; DR Vaishali Mohite; Mrs. Nitanjali patil; Mrs. Anagha katti; Mrs. AfsanaMulani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1582-1589

 After physicians, the nurses are the most beneficial palliative care team members who address the physical, functional, social, and spiritual dimensions of care.1Objectives: 1. To assess the existing level of knowledge regarding  management of palliative care  among the II ndyear GNM Students. 2. To determine the association between pre-test knowledge score regarding management of palliative care  among the II nd year GNM Students.  .  Materials And Methods: An descriptive approach with one group pre-test. Purposive sampling technique was used Total 60 among the II ndyear GNM Students of Krishna institute of nursing karad .city, Maharashtra, India selected for the study

Surgical Intervention For Ovarian Endometriosis With Kissing Ovaries And Fertility Outcome.

Dr. Hemant Deshpande; Dr. P. Harshitha; Dr. Rajendra Shitole; Dr. Pratap Pharande

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1590-1595

Introduction: Endometriosis is a state of chronic inflammation in the pelvis and is characterised by endometrial-type tissue outside of the uterus. Although exact prevalence of endometriosis is unknown, it roughly affects 2 to 10% of the female population, but 30 to 45% of females with infertility [1] Pelvic endometriosis commonly involve the ovaries, and bilateral involvement occurs in one third to one half of cases [2,3 ]. Ovarian endometrioma rarely exceeds 10–15 cm in diameter [2,3].
 
Case summary: A 25 Female, Nulligravida with married life of 3 years presented to the OBGY OPD   anxious to conceive since 1.5 years. She also complains of intermittent Pain in lower Abdomen during menses since 1 year, aggravated during menses and relieved on medication.. She had a history of irregular cycles lasting 3-5 days between 28-60 day intervals with dysmenorrhea.Per abdomen was soft, non tender with no other significant findings. Speculum examination revealed white foul smelling discharge. On per vaginal examination, B/L fornices were found to be full but with no tenderness. White discharge noted as well. Radiological investigation was advised and a 3D ultrasound was done. Patient had mild adenomyosis with B/L bulky ovaries and multiple endometriomas with left hydrosalphinx. Patient was posted for a video 
hysterolaparoscopy during which B/L endometriomas noted with kissing ovaries appearance. Bowel was adhered to the endometriomas and left hydrosalphinx noted along with endometriotic patches on POD. B/L endometriomas drained and hydrosalphinx excised. Adhesiolysis done. Patient withstood the procedure well and discharged two days later and asked to follow up in the OPD after full recovery for further infertility evaluation.
 
Conclusion: Endometriosis affects day to day life of a woman and fertility by making the in vivo environment harmful for an oocyte or an embryo. Theoretically, surgical treatment of endometriosis could create a more favorable environment for successful conception and relief of symptoms.
 

A Study To Assess The Effectiveness Of Self-Management Education On Quality Of Life (Qol) In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd), At Selected Hospital

Tukaram B. Zagade; M. B. Chedake

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1596-1609

Background of the study: COPD is predicted to be the most common cause of death globally including India by 2020. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. Symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, mucus (sputum) production and wheezing. It's caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most often from cigarette smoke. People with COPD are at increased risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and a variety of other conditions.Aim and objectives: The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of self- management education on Quality Of Life (QOL) in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), at selected hospital, Karad. Methods: Research design adopted for the study is quasi experimental nonequivalent control group design. Non probability purposive sampling technique is used to select the 60 COPD patients for experimental and control group. Quality Of Life (QOL) assessed through modified St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and Self-management education was conducted as an intervention. After 15 days post test was conducted. Results: The data reveals that there was a significance difference in the mean pre test and post test Quality Of Life scores of COPD patients in all components as well as the total QOL in experimental group whereas there is no improvement in the QOL of COPD patients in control group.   Conclusion: Self management educational interventions was effective in increasing Quality of Life of COPD patients and the study finding that there was a significant difference in the pre test and post test Quality Of Life scores of COPD patients in experimental group regarding self-management education among COPD patient.

“A Study To Evaluate The Effectiveness Of Structured Teaching Programme On Knowledge Regarding Cardiac Rehabilitation Program Among Staff Nurses At Selected General Hospital In Karad”

Tukaram B. Zagade; M B Chedake

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1610-1636

Cardiac rehabilitation is the restoration of a person to optimal state of function in 6 areas; physiologic, Mental, Spiritual, Economic and Vocational. Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge of staff nurses regarding cardiac rehabilitation.To evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme (STP) on knowledge regarding cardiac rehabilitation program.To find out the relationship between the Pre-test knowledge score and Post-test knowledge scores Material & Methods: An evaluative approach and one group pre test post test design was used to evaluate the knowledge regarding cardiac rehabilitation program among staff nurses in selected hospitals, Karad. The study was carried out in Krishna Hoapital & Medical Research Center, Karad and 60 staff nurses were selected by non probability purposive sampling technique. statistics. Reliability of the tool was tested and validity was ensured in consultation with guides and experts in the fields of medicine and nursing.
 Results: In pre test, out of 60 subjects, majority 39(65%) of the respondents had inadequate knowledge, only 21(35%) had moderate knowledge but none of them had adequate knowledge.
In post test, majority of them 39(65%) of the respondents had adequate knowledge regarding cardiac rehabilitation program among staff nurses, 21(35%) had moderate knowledge but none of them had inadequate knowledge.
Conclusion: The findings revealed that there is adequate level of knowledge of staff nurses regarding cardiac rehabilitation program.

Assess 1st Year B.Sc. Nursing Students' Knowledge Of Plastic's Adverse Effects On The Environment And Human Health To Create An Information Booklet

Rajashri B Karale; Dr. Mahadeo Shinde; Dr. Vaishali Mohite; Dhananjay Kamble

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1637-1645

Background: In the current study, we surveyed nursing students who were in their first year of the Basic Bachelor of Science programme to determine how much they knew about the use of plastic and the negative effects it has on both the environment and human health. Our goal was to compile this information into a booklet.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive survey research design was used to assess the knowledge of one hundred students in the first year of a basic Bachelor of Science in nursing programme regarding the use of plastic and the adverse effects it has on both the environment and human health. In this particular study, the selection of the sample was accomplished by the use of the convenient sampling technique. In addition to receiving ethical clearance from the Ethical committee at the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Deemed to Be University in Karad, we also received informed consent from all of the subjects. A well-structured questionnaire was given to respondents in order to evaluate their level of awareness concerning the use of plastic and the negative effects it has on both the environment and human health. The findings indicated that the majority of students, 61%, have average knowledge, 23% possessed good knowledge and 16% possessed bad awareness on the use of plastic and the adverse effects it has on both the environment and human health. There was no significant association found between demographic variables such as age, sex, religion, parent education, family income, Diet and parent occupation and knowledge score, with the exception of the opinion of the participant regarding awareness regarding plastic can cause severe health problem. Chi-square = 95.902, p<0.001.
Conclusion: The outcomes of the study indicate that the majority of the students possessed knowledge that was on par with the national average about the use of plastic and the negative effects it has on the environment. As a result, there is an urgent requirement to create an information booklet

The Impact Of School-Based Programme On Teenagers' Understanding Of The Adverse Health Repercussions Of Alcohol And Smoking

Prakash Naregal; Vaishali R Mohite; Prabhuswami Hiremath; Shivaji H Pawar; Ajit A Pawar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1646-1658

Background: Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes are the two most prominent high-risk activities that are prevalent among adolescents in this era. The prevention of unhealthy behaviours in adolescents, such as drunkenness and smoking, is one of the most difficult tasks facing nurses in the 21st century. This is especially true when the adolescents are exposed to the habits of others around them in their environment. The adolescent years present an ideal window of opportunity to educate young people on the hazards posed by high-risk behaviours like smoking and drinking, as well as to instil in them the values and habits that will assist them avoid engaging in such dangerous pursuits in the future. The first goal is to determine whether or not the students at the selected school are aware of the negative impact that smoking and alcoholism have on one's health.

To evaluate the efficacy of health education programmes taught in schools regarding the harmful effects of smoking and drunkenness on one's body.
To determine whether or not there is a correlation between the level of the adolescent students and the sociodemographic factors that were chosen.

Effect of health education on mothers' understanding of nutritional needs of children with fever

Prakash Naregal; Vaishali R Mohite; Mahadeo Shinde; Ajit Pawar; Prabhuswami Hiremath; Samir K Choudhari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1659-1666

Background: Fever is a typical symptom of common childhood health concerns, leading parents to seek medical attention for their children.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of health education on mothers' understanding of how to best care for their children while they are ill with a fever.
Methods: The study used a one-group pre-and post-test strategy for research. The mothers of children aged six and up admitted to the paediatric ward of a selected Karad tertiary care hospital constitute the study population. It was permissible to pick a sample of moms of children with fever using a non-probability purposive sampling technique. One hundred childbearing women were chosen from the Krishna hospital in Karad. In order to gather information, a formal questionnaire was used. The purpose of the pre-test was to gauge mothers' preexisting knowledge on the topic of food for children with fever. After 7 days of pre-testing, we repeated the knowledge quiz to see how much of the initial knowledge gained from the structured health education had stuck.
Result: After receiving systematic health education, 60% of moms improved to a sufficient level of knowledge. For mothers, the mean pre-test score on diet knowledge was 5.83; the post-test score was 14.6, and the paired "t" test value was 13.9. This improvement was statistically significant at the 0.0001 level.
Conclusion: Most mothers lacked information about what to feed their children with fever prior to receiving health education, so it's important that ongoing health education programmes emphasise the importance of a healthy diet for kids when they're sick. This will help prevent further complications and ensure that kids stay healthy in the long run

Effectiveness of sacral massage on sacral area for labour pain among Primigravida mothers

Dr. Nitanjali Patil; Priyanka Mohite; Dr. Mahadeo Shinde; Afsana Mulani; Angha Katti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1667-1674

Introduction: Pregnancy is a beautiful and natural state for every woman. There are nine transformative months of suspense. The labor pain is intense, but the memories of pain decreases over time. Labor is an emotional experience that encircles both psychological and physiological processes. The best method for delivering a healthy fetus is labour, which is characterized by regular frequent, painful uterine muscle contractions that increase in frequency and intensity.
Objectives: To assess the level of pain in primigravida mother’s and to assess the effect of sacral massage on sacral area for labour pain among primigravida mothers.
Methods: Descriptive approach was used. Study setting, Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Karad. 40 primigravida. Selected by convenient sampling technique. Tool used for study Socio-demographic variables and Visual Analogue Scale. Data collected after permission from the concerned authority. Informed content was obtained. Collected data was analyzed in the term of objectives for the study using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: Maximum 77.5% of mothers were from 21-25 years, 35% were graduate and above. 60% were employed. 57.5% were having monthly income Rs.13,161/ to 26,354/. 35% were from Upper lower socioeconomic class. Maximum 92.5% were having severe pain, 7.5% were having moderate pain, no one with severe pain. Mean 8.22, median 8 and SD was 1.25. There was no statistically significant association seen except monthly income Chi-Square value 26.212 and p-Value=<0.0001.
Conclusion: Primigravida suffers with more of labour pain during 1st stage of labour. Present study concluded that 92.5% mothers were having severe pain. Also they have inadequate knowledge of pain relief measures during labour.

Effectiveness Of Demonstration On Burping Knowledge Among Primipara Postnatal Mothers

Lekshmi Sudhish Nair; Dr. Mahadeo Shinde; Dr. Vaishali R Mohite; Namrata Mohite

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1675-1680

The act of burping a baby after they have been fed is an essential step in the process. Burping helps to expel some of the air that babies have a propensity to swallow while they are being fed, which in turn improves their ability to take in food and prevents difficulties. The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not watching a demonstration improved participants' knowledge of proper burping techniques and whether or not such knowledge was connected with demographic factors.
Methodology: Methodology for this study consisted of administering a pre-test to one group and then a post-test to the same group. 60 first-time and/or postpartum mothers were chosen for this study using a straightforward random sample method. The preliminary examination was carried out by means of an organised questionnaire, and a demonstration was carried out for each sample.
Result:  The findings showed that none of the moms had good knowledge prior to the exam, but 60% (n=36) of the women had average knowledge, and 40% (n=24) of the mothers had low knowledge. Following the demonstration and the post-test, it was discovered that 34 (56.67%) of the participants had good knowledge. There were 26 people with average knowledge and 0 people with bad knowledge out of the total population. There was no correlation whatsoever between the scores on the knowledge and practise tests and age, religion, domicile, occupation, education, socioeconomic level, the age of the infant, or the type of diet.
Conclusion: On the basis of the findings and the results of the study, it is possible to draw the conclusion that the level of knowledge and practise among primipara postnatal moms on the burping technique employed for the newborns significantly improved

Assessment Of Adolescents' Eating Habits And Their Effects On BMI At Adarsh Junior College

Tushar Joshi; Dr. Nutan Potdar; Indrajeet B Jadhav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1681-1684

Background: The time of sprout growth known as adolescence is one in which the need for greater energy is present, and eating habits have a significant influence in the overall maintenance of one's health. In this study, we are going to investigate the relationship between eating habits and BMI. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which adolescent eating habits influence body mass index. For the purpose of this study, an evaluative research approach was utilised. A research design consisting merely of a one-group posttest was used. The research was carried out at Adarsh Junior College in Malkapur, which is located in Karad. In order to pick 121 students from the 11th and 12th grades, a technique called non-probability purposive sampling was utilised. After laying out the goals of the research project and answering each participant's questions, we obtained their informed consent. The data were gathered through the use of a standardised questionnaire. After that, the data were tabulated, and computations were carried out making use of both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings showed that the majority of teenagers, 56.19%, have healthy eating habits, with 34.71% having normal BMI, 18.18% falling into the underweight category and 3.3% falling into the overweight category. While 13.22% and 2.47% of the population, respectively, are either underweight or overweight, 43.81% of the population has poor eating habits or among those people, 28.09% have normal body mass index. According to the findings of the study, there is not a significant relationship between BMI and eating Habits. According to the findings, the effects of both groups on the BMI level of adolescents are practically identical.

The Impact Of Structured Health Education On Mothers' Knowledge Regarding Preterm Infant Care At Home

Dr. Prakash M Naregal; Dr. Vaishali R Mohite; Dr. Prabhuswami Hiremath; Ajit Pawar; Samir Choudhari; Dr. Mahadeo Shinde

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1685-1692

Background: Premature newborns (born before 32 weeks, excluding extremely preterm babies) are at risk for short- and long-term issues, including impairments and growth and mental development obstacles. Preterm babies have fluctuating temperatures, breathing problems, and feeding issues, making them challenging to care for. The study aimed to determine if structured health education improved mothers' understanding of premature baby care at home.
Objectives:

Evaluate mothers' knowledge of premature baby home care.
Evaluate the impact of structured health education on mothers' understanding of premature newborn care.
Find the association between mothers' home care knowledge and demographic characteristics.

Material & Method: This study used a quantitative pre-experimental one-group pre-test post-test design in Krishna hospital, Karad. It includes 30 premature baby mothers selected using purposive sampling. Using a structured interview schedule, data was collected, structured health education was provided, and pre- and post-test knowledge scores were assessed.
Result: Maximum mothers had average pre-test knowledge, the survey found. Post-test results for mothers were high. Mean post-test score was 26.46 with an SD of + 1.97, considerably higher than pre-test score of 11.96 with an SD of + 2.72. The t-test value was 24.07 and p-value was 0.05, which is significant. There was no connection between mother's home care knowledge and demographic characteristics.
Conclusion: After health education, moms' understanding of home care for premature babies improved, which can reduce morbidity and mortality rates.

ANALYZE HOW DIFFERENT LEARNING STRATEGIES AFFECT FIRST-YEAR NURSING STUDENTS

Dr. Mahadeo Shinde; Sangeeta Patil; Namrata C Mohite

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1693-1697

Background of the subject: Every student should realize the significance of teaching and learning throughout their lifetime. Understanding the many approaches to education that nursing student’s take is of the utmost importance. Learning will have an effect on students' skill practices, most of which involve students working in clinical settings.
Aim: A study was conducted with the purpose of determining the preferred method of education among nursing undergraduates.
Material and Method: A descriptive study was conducted on 90 nursing undergraduates for the purpose of identifying different learning styles among the participants. A sample chosen using methods of sampling that were easy to carry out. A questionnaire that was self-prepared was used to identify different types of learning styles. Tool that has been validated by an expert, and approval to perform the study has been obtained from an ethics committee. The questionnaire asks about a variety of learning modes, such as reading and writing, listening to audio recordings, just observing visuals, perceiving information visually and learning through kinesthetism. Samples were chosen based on the inclusion criteria of the study and data collection and analysis were carried out in accordance with the objectives of the study.
Result: The outcomes of this study, which included 90 samples, found that 81 (90%) of the students surveyed were between the ages of 16 and 20 years old. According to the current economic climate, 77 out of 85 students are male. 449 (54.44%) of the students had an income between 5,000 and 50,000 dollars. according to the tilt scale 51 (or 56%) are in healthy enough shape to learn. The majority of pupils prefer learning styles such as reading and writing, which accounts for 28.15 percent. When it comes to learning styles, 28.15 percent of pupils prefer study styles such as writing and reading. 22.5% of students prefer learning by audio, 23.78% of students prefer learning through visual perception, and 22.67% of students prefer learning through a kinesthetic teaching technique. Significant value with respect to the age group of 16-20 years old; value = 0.0207.
Conclusion: A good healthy environment was required for each and every member in order for there to be conductive learning. The role of the nurse educator emphasises paying attention to a variety of varied and novel learning methods. Students in the nursing programme should have knowledge and work to improve clinical practice.

An Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of A Comprehensive Nursing Intervention Package For Gestational Hypertension In Hospitalised Pregnant Mothers

Lekshmi Sudhish Nair; Dr. Mahadeo Shinde; Dr. Vaishali R Mohite; Namrata Mohite

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1698-1704

Background: Hypertensive disorder, commonly known as Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), is more common during pregnancy. It is a factor in both mother and per initial mortality and morbidity, and it is a risk factor for the illness. If women who are at risk for gestational hypertension are identified early, it is possible that some of the problems of the disease can be avoided. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not a "Nursing Interventional Package" is useful in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension in prenatal moms who are receiving care in speciality hospitals.
Methodology: Methodology consisted of an evaluation method to study, with a one group, pre-test and post-test research design being utilised. In this particular investigation, the Nursing Intervention Package on Gestational Hypertension in Antenatal Mothers served as the independent variable, while the incidence of Gestational Hypertension in Antenatal Mothers served as the dependent variable. The moms who met the inclusion criteria had been diagnosed with gestational hypertension, but the expectant mothers who did not meet the exclusion criteria had severe gestational hypertension. After receiving interventions, mothers were evaluated according to a check list to identify whether or not any signs or symptoms were present. These interventions included both physical and mental support.
Results: Results showed that on day one, the level of severity of symptoms ranged from mild (ten percent), moderate (thirteen percent), severe (sixty one percent), and profound (four percent). As a result of the treatment, on the third day, the patient's symptoms improved to a mild 20 (33%) level, with moderate 35 (58%) and severe 5 (8%). The value of the paired test that was calculated is 24.5. This is an indication that the score is statistically significant at levels of p less than 0.05. Therefore, an all-encompassing nursing intervention package is excellent at improving the condition of an ANC mother who is afflicted with gestational hypertension.
Conclusion: The conclusion is that a comprehensive nursing intervention package was delivered to expectant moms who were diagnosed with gestational hypertension.

Evaluation Of Outcomes Of Proximal Humerus Fractures In Adults Treated With Locking Compression Plate

Dr. Pathik Vala; Dr. Jaykumar R; Dr. Avi Rangwala; Dr. Smit Dave

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1705-1712

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and functional outcome of proximal humerus fractures in adults treated with locking compression plate.
Methods: Range of motion, time to radiological sign of union, and validated outcome measures-i.e., Oxford, UCLA and NEER’S score-were assessed in a prospective study of fifty patients (thirty-eight men and twelve women with a mean age of 42.44 years) of proximal humerus fractures treated with open reduction internal fixation with locking compression plate. The duration of follow-up was 6 months and standardized radiographs of the shoulder were evaluated.
Results: All fractures went for union clinically and radio-logically. The average time for union was 12.76 weeks (average 10.58 weeks for two-part fractures, 12.78 weeks and in three-part fractures and 14.28 weeks in four-part fractures). The average NEER’s score out of 100 was 81.1 (minimum score 48, maximum score 95) with excellent results (score 90-100) in 5 patients (10%), 30 patients (60%) showing satisfactory results (score 80-89), 12 patients (24%) with unsatisfactory results (score 70-79) and 3 patients (6%) had a poor result (score <70). As per the UCLA Score out of 35, the average score was 27.48 (minimum score 15 and maximum of 34) showing good/excellent results (score >27) in 31 patients (62%) and fair/poor results (score <27) in 19 patients (38%). Post-operative shoulder arthritis was assessed by using Oxford score. The average score out of 48 was 40.02 (minimum score18, maximum score 47) showing satisfactory joint function and no signs of arthritis (score 40-48) in 36 patients (72%), mild to moderate shoulder arthritis (score 30-39) 10 patients (20%), moderate to severe arthritis (score 20-29) in 2 patients (4%) and severe arthritis (score 0-19) in 2 patients (4%). The complications observed were, shoulder stiffness in 5 patients (10%), radiological features of avascular necrosis of head of humerus in 3 patients (6%), plate impingement in 1 patient (2%) and infection in 1 patient (2%) which resolved uneventfully with help of antibiotics. No patient suffered non-union or varus malunion.
Conclusion: Observations of fifty cases of proximal humerus fractures treated with locking compression plate shows the advantages of stable internal fixation, early mobilization, and functional restoration, combined with unlikely secondary loss of reduction. Accurate

Efficacy Of Prunus Pursica On Plaque Accumulation And Gingival Inflammation: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

Robina Tasleem; Alanod Alhaid; Abdulmajeed Almuaddi; AbhinandanRavsaheb Patil; Ayesha Bhavikatti; Manure Md. Javeed; Shaeesta Khaleelahmed Bhavikatti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1713-1724

Background: Medicinal use of a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers is known as herbal medicine, botanical medicine, or phytomedicine. The usage of herbs goes beyond the realm of traditional medicine, but this practice has a long history. Almost one fourth of pharmaceutical drugs are derived from botanicals. One such product is peach scientifically called as "Prunus persica".
Aims: to evaluate the astringent and anti-inflammatory property of Prunus Persica in comparison to chlorhexidine gel.
Settings and design: Randomized, Parallel Group Trial
Material and methods: The present research is a randomized control trial using mouth wash prepared from peach extract for a period of 28 days. The participants were given a random assignment to either the positive control group or the test group. A modified 

Evaluation Of Color Stability Of Denture Base Material In Pre Measured Polymer Monomer Ratio With Hand And Rationed Mixed.

Thaslima Nandhini J S; Dr. Vikraman Rakshagan; Christopher VarushaSharon; Mahesh Ramakrishnan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1725-1735

Aim and objective: To test the colour stability of acrylic denture base material that had been manually blended and rationed before being submerged in artificial saliva.
Materials and Methods: The study groups consisted of group 1 which included handmixed specimens and group 2 comprising pre-measured specimens. The color stability values of these specimens were obtained from Konika Minolta Spectrophotometer. Both the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 1 week and color stability were again obtained and compared using independent T-test.
Results: It showed that color stability values obtained from the spectrophotometer were better in pre-measured specimens. However, the obtained p value was 0.05 which makes the study non-significant.
Conclusion: Pre-measured samples provide better color stability in the long run of the denture.
Clinical Significance: Measured values of polymer and monomer in the cold cure denture base material during manipulation of the material  provide better color stability signifying its long run.

Heroic Traits in the Characters of Haruki Murakami and Fyodor Dostoevsky

Varnika Raizada; Dr. Tanu Kashyap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1736-1740

The psyche of a person who is not following the conventions of the society is a curious place to delve in. There are questions about right and wrong which follow the study of such characters. This paper will bring out a comparative analysis of Crime and Punishment and Kafka on the Shore by Fyodor Dostoevsky and Haruki Murakami respectively. Both the writers have portrayed characters who have denounced the rituals and rules of the society, forming a separate niche for themselves. Nakata and Kafka Tamura from Kafka on the Shore and Raskolnikov from Crime and Punishment are the characters whom we will look at through the lens of Friederich Nietzsche's theory of the Ubermensch. These characters fought their own battles, for themselves and the society as a whole. It is crucial for a critical society to understand the background which would have influenced a person to commit certain actions in his life.

The Analysis Of The Customer Behaviour And Marketing Impact In Latest Trends

Dr. Jyothi Rajana; Pandala Hari Prasad Goud; Chitteti Bharath Kumar Reddy; T Vinay Venkata Ranga Sai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1741-1744

Marketing you are able to market your product, brand or service of the paper, magazines, television, radio, backyard signage and online. Find out more about how you can make the advertising of yours profitable. Private selling or even telemarketing - helpful private marketing depends on excellent interpersonal and communication skills, great products as well as the capability and service understanding to market merchandise advantages to potential customers.

IMPACT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON OLD PEOPLE IN INDIA: AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

Mr. Suresh Kashinath Ghatge; Prof. (Dr.) Anuradha Parasar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1745-1762

Background – There has been a significant impact of COVID-19 on the global economy and public health. Various countries have made unmatched efforts and awareness to ensure containment of this deadly virus. In order to make it possible, several routine activities have been affected which changed behavioural patterns of the common public. A lot of countries have imposed lockdown, social distancing, use of masks and sanitizers, frequent hand washing, vaccination, and other preventive measures. Elderly citizens have been the most vulnerable group which has been affected by the pandemic.
 
Objective – Considering the above arguments, this study is aimed to study the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on elderly people in India, especially their daily life, physical and mental health, social life, and preventive measures taken by them.
 
Methodology – An empirical survey was conducted as part of descriptive research. A self-structured questionnaire was sent through Google Form to collect survey data online. Total 126 responses were collected to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on elderly. All the survey participants are elderly to meet the inclusion criteria. SPSS version 22 was used to analyse the survey data.
 
Result – The finding of the study suggests that there was a significant impact of COVID-19 on daily life and overall health of elderly in India (p<0.05). However, the best part is that all of the survey respondents have followed all security measures suggested by the government, such as double dose of vaccination, social distancing, masks and sanitizers, and avoiding social gatherings.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ORAL MICROBIAL FLORA OF PATIENTS WITH PERIODONTITS AND HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL.

Dharahaas Chinthagumpala; Dr. R.V. Geetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1763-1770

Aim: This study aims to determine the changes caused by microbes in patients with periodontitis
Background: Periodontitis is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. The disease is a consequence of destructive host immune responses to pathogenic bacterial species resulting from the dysbiosis of oral microbiota
Objective: To comparatively analyze the oral microbial flora of healthy individual and patients with periodontitis
Materials & Method: Salivary samples of healthy individual and patients with periodontitis will be collected and will be analyzed in the Microbiology Laboratory for presence of any microorganisms. The findings will be compared to arrive at a conclusion on the diversity of the microbial profile between the two groups.
Results: The oral microbes included Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Candida Albicans, Enterococcus and Lactobacillus.
Conclusion: Knowledge of the difference in the microbial flora of healthy individual and patients with periodontitis can help aid in more specific treatment options and prevent recurrence of the disease.

MECHANISM OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HESPINDIN INCORPORATED HALLOSITE NANOTUBES AGAINST STREPTOCOCCUS HALLOSITE

DHARAHAAS CHINTHAGUMPALA; Dr. Dhanraj Ganapathy; Dr. S. Rajeshkumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1771-1785

Biomedical science has long been on the lookout for new diagnostic and therapeutic mediums. The most recent development is the use of nanomaterials in such applications, which has given rise to the field of nanomedicine. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are tubular clay nanomaterials that are formed by rolling aluminosilicate kaolin sheets many times. The aluminol and siloxane groups on the surface of HNT help to generate hydrogen bonds with the biomaterials that adhere to it. These qualities make HNT useful in a wide range of fields, including environmental sciences, waste-water treatment, dye removal, nanoelectronics and nanocomposites fabrication, catalytic research, glass coatings or anticorrosive coatings, cosmetics, stimuli response, and forensic sciences. Drug delivery, gene delivery, tissue engineering, cancer and stem cell separation, and bioimaging are just some of the few applications of HNT's unique features in biomedicine and nanomedicine.Hesperidin is a plant chemical that is classified as a “bioflavonoid.” It is found primarily in citrus fruits.Hesperidin is most often used for blood vessel conditions such as hemorrhoids, varicose veins, and poor circulation (venous stasis).The efficacy of hesperidin-halloysite nanotubes for wound healing was studied in this study in-vitro.

POTENTIAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY FROM METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF HALOPHILA OVALIS

Amba. E; Gayatri Devi. R; Pitchiah Sivaperumal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1786-1795

Seagrasses play an  important ecological role in fisheries production, sediment buildup and stabilization. It has direct value to people as food, feed, green, manure, and medicine. Seagrass species have been found to be potential sources of antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agents as well as anti-cancer substances by phytochemical investigations. The main aim of this study is to prepare Halophila ovalis extract powder and to determine the antioxidant activities of methanolic plant extract.
The antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Halophila ovalis was investigated by TAA, DPPH and H2O2 assay.
The study revealed that methanol extract of Halophila ovalis has greater antioxidant activity. Flavonoid content was found highest in methanol extract of Halophila ovalis. It showed high radical scavenging activity.

“A Quasi- Experimental Study To Assess The Effect Of Cold Application Priorto Intramuscular Injection Administration On Painamong Adults In Selected Tertiary Care Hospital Of Navi Mumbai”

Mrs Manasi Rahane; Mr AtharvaNakhawa, MS.GayatriSahu; Ms Krutika Birari, Ms PratimaParhad; PratikshaPawar, Ms Neha Barge; Ms Neha Shikhare, Ms Leema Varghese

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1796-1810

Pain is highly unpleasant and very personal sensation. Every human being in the world has experienced some type or degree of pain during intramuscular injection. Among many non-pharmacological measures, application of cold reduces the ability of pain fibres to transmit pain impulses and reduce the pain associated with various types of injection. The main aim was to assess the effectiveness of cold application on the level of pain during intramuscular injection.
Objectives of the study wereto assess pain score after intramuscular injection administration in control group, to assess pain score after intramuscular injection administration in experimental group, to assess the effect of cold application on the pain scores in the experimental group, to find association between the pain scores of experimental and control groups, to find association between the pain scores with selected demographic variables of experimental and control group.
Method used for this study was a quantitative approach using quasi-experimental post-test only control design. A non-probability purposive sampling technique had been used to select 30 subjects, out of which, 15 were assigned to experimental group and 15 to control group. Study was conducted at OPD’s of Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital, Nerul, Navi-Mumbai.

Antimicrobial And Anticancer Activity Of A Noveld- Mannose Specific Lectin From The Flower, Ipomoea Pes-Caprae

Nightingale Sheebaa; Vinoliya Josephine Mary; ArokiadhasIswarya .; BaskaralingamVaseeharan .; Mary MettildaBai .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1811-1830

            In the present study, a 35 kDa D-mannose specific lectin was purified from the flower extract of Ipomoea pes-caprae (IPL) by lactoferrin-Sepharose 4B in the econo column (Bio-Rad). Physico-chemical analysis revealed that lectin was stable the pH ranges from 6.5-9.5 and temperature ranges from 0°C-60°. The lectin was highly specific for rabbit erythrocytes. UV spectral analysis of lectin documented a characteristic peak at 230 nm and FTIR spectrum showed the IR absorption peaks correspond to amide I and II bands, carboxylic and O-H groups in the lectin. Antimicrobial activity of lectin was tested against four Gram positive bacteria, four Gram negative bacteria and four fungal pathogens. It was observed that the lectin was more effective with a maximum zone of inhibition of 22 mm and 19 mm against B. subtilis andA. flavus respectively.Moderate activities were observed against all the bacteria and fungus tested ranging from 12 mm to 18 mm. The IPL lectin was checked for its antiproliferative and cytotoxicity effect against three cancer cell lines and also with normal fibroblast cell line by MTT assay. The result shows MCF-7 was more sensitive to IPL with lowest IC50 value of 161.01 µg/ml and exhibit low toxicity against normal cells with IC50 value of 374.36 µg/ml. As a result, this research opens up new possibilities for lectin pharmacology.

Investigation of the wear rate of materials under different design conditions

Upender Punia, Ramesh Kumar Garg, Ashish Kaushik,Anmol Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Attri, Shefali Trivedi, Sumit Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1831-1837

In industries,the wear of material is a topic of great concern, as it directly as well as on a large scale, affects product life cycle and cost estimation. Here, the approach for the study is to study the wear rate of material depending on various experiments performed. These experiments are done using various fillers, reinforcement, and changing process parameters. Results explain improvements and variations in properties. However, alteration leads to various mechanical changes, and this paper mainly focused on the effect on the wear rate of material under different design conditions. Materials for studying wear rate are mainly PLA and ABS polymer used in the fused deposition method of 3D printing. This paper is explained using various images and results, and conclusions are drawn by integrating them all.

Characterization and Comparison of oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis patients

Dr. Rajashekar Danda; Dr. Madas Ravichandra Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1838-1846

Background: The aim of our research was to evaluate the oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) in blood samples of patients with Psoriatic Arthritis compared to healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: Our study involved 40 patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and 40 generally healthy subjects matched by age and gender to the study group patients. In this study we have evaluated the haematological and lipid profiles in healthy control and patients group. We have also assessed the concentration/activity of antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT) and total antioxidative status (TAS), and lipid oxidation products: Malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated. Serum ADA, hsCRP, SUA, and ESR were evaluated for patients and controls. The extent of disease severity was assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Quality Of Life Index (DLQI) and patients were grouped into having mild, moderate and severe disease using these scores.
Results: Comparison among healthy control and psoriasis patients; there were no statistical differences concerning age, body mass index, and fasting serum glucose level. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide end products (NOx) and hsCRP levels (p<0.001) was noted in Psoriasis patients as compared to controls. The concentration of GPx, CAT, and SOD was significantly higher in patients with Psoriatic Arthritis compared to healthy subjects.
Conclusions: Systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress can be relevant for assessment of psoriasis severity, for prediction of the outcome of therapy and of the development of co-morbidities. Our findings revealed that an imbalance of oxidative stress and antioxidant factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Therefore, treatment based on antioxidant strategies might be beneficial in psoriasis management.

MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF CAUDATE AND QUADRATE LOBES OF THE FETAL LIVER

Dipin Kumar Yadav; Manisha Nakhate; Sunita Bharti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1847-1855

Background: Liver is largest gland of the body, situated in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity. It occupies whole of the right hypochondrium greater part of epigastrium and extend into the left hypochondrium reaching up to the left lateral line. Liver is divided into right and left lobe by attachment of falciform ligament anteriorly and superiorly; by the fissure for the ligamentum teres inferiorly and by the fissure for the ligamentum venosum posteriorly.The caudate lobe is situated between the ligamentum venosum, porta hepatis and the groove for the inferior vena cava. Whereas the quadrate lobe is situated between ligamentum teres hepatis, fossa for gallbladder and porta hepatis. The caudate lobe is also known as the posterior hepatic segment.
Objective: This study aimsto correlate the length and width of the caudate and quadrate lobes of the liver with the Gestational age (GA) of the fetus.
Methods: This study was conducted on 131 formalin-fixed fetuses with the gestational age ranging from 12 to 36 weeks in the Department of Anatomy D Y Patil medical college in the collaboration with the OBGY Department of D Y Patil Hospital, Nerul, Navi Mumbai. Caudate and quadrate lobes of the liver were dissected and measurements of length, width, and circumference were taken with the help of vernier caliper, measuring scale, and thread. 
Results: In this study, the length of the caudate lobe and the width of the caudate lobe was 10.62±3.22 mm and 6.945±2.391 mm respectively after calculating mean and standard deviation. The length and width of quadrate lobe was 14.775±4.636 mm and 7.555±2.763 mm respectively. The circumference of caudate and quadrate lobes were 40.886±11.647 mm and 48.74±14.008 mm respectively for the total sample size. Calculation of the length, width, and circumference of the caudate and quadrate lobe was found to be statistically significant with the gestational age of fetuses.
Conclusion: From this study we can conclude that there is a significant correlation between the length, width and circumference of the caudate and quadrate lobe with the gestational age.

A Study To Assess The Attitude Towards The Usage Of Selected Devices In Technology Among The Teenagers In Selected Schools Of Navi Mumbai.

Ms.Ann MariaThomas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1856-1865

 Technology is a significant and unavoidable way for the modern world which enables the life of humans to become easier. Apart from this it enables us to explore knowledge as well as providing entertainment equally for both adults and children. Moreover, the consequence of this technology, today is that, once you have a broad wide influence, you can’t avoid the consequence. Some will be genuine, others not, but how you handle them is critical. The purpose of this study is to assess the student’s attitude of using selected devices of technology. A descriptive study was undertaken in different schools covering 200 students in Navi Mumbai. Data was collected by using a structured questionnaire consisting of a 5-point Likert Scale.
The study reveals that 26.5% of samples were agreeing while 24.2% were neutral and 20.5% were disagreeing however 14.7% had a strongly agreeing attitude and 13.9% had a strongly disagreeing attitude towards the effect of technology in their life.

THE ECONOMETRIC METHODS AND MODELS USED TO ANALYZE THE FACTORIAL INFLUENCE OF THE GROWTH OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

Dr. Chakravarthi, P.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1866-1873

The most accurate artificial indication of how the national economy has changed is the gross domestic product (GDP). The state of the national economy as well as its dynamic evolution are both analysed using this macroeconomic indicator. We use GDP evolution in the forecasting research. In these circumstances, we may be able to pinpoint the causes of economic development and their effects. Employees, labour productivity, technological level, investments, foreign direct investment, imports, exports or net exports, total consumption, and other factors all have an impact on GDP evolution. The data series and graphical display may be examined. Utilizing econometric techniques and metrics that represent dependency, meaning, and correlation intensity, detailed analysis is carried out. As a result, we forecast economic trends. For the study and forecasting of economic growth, the authors researched and put out a few econometric models. Our adaptation of various econometric models to macroeconomic research is innovative.

Evaluation Of Therapeutic Effect Of Rapid Maxillary Expansion On Obstructive Sleep Apnea In Adults: A Systematic Review

Dr. Niti Dharmendra Shah; Dr. Santosh Kumar Goje

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1874-1883

A systematic review is conducted for adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea treated with Rapid Maxillary Expansion. The objective was to evaluate the effects of various types of rapid maxillary expansion on the upper airway passage and which amongst the two types of RME is most effective in correction of OSA in adult patients. The data were obtained by clinical studies, we meant any study conducted with patients, either retrospective or prospective. The studies showing the outcomes of rapid maxillary expansion on obstructive sleep apnea in adults were included. The quality of each article was scored using an adapted version of 3 methods previously used by Fudalej and Antoszewska 25 Cozza et al26 and Chen et al27. PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct like databases were used for to extract various studies. From the available data, we can conclude that increase in the Nasal Width is seen more in Surgically Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion than in Miniscrew Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion. Change in Nasal volume/area is more evident in Miniscrew Asisted Rapid Palatal Expansion than in Surgically Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion and similarly change in nasopharynx area is more pronounced in Miniscrew Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion than in Surgically Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion. Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) decreases in both the groups i.e. Miniscrew as well as Surgically Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion in same amount inferring that there is improvement in breathing.

A Hospital-Based Study To Assess The Predictive Value Of Preoperative Complete Blood Count Components On The Occurrence Of Surgical Site Infection After Surgery

Dr. Neetu Goyal; Dr. Indu Menon; Dr. Pragya Shakya; Dr. Pooja Arora

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1884-1891

 
Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether a set of routine preoperative blood tests including WBCC, CRP, Creatinine (eGFR), albumin and hemoglobin predict the risk of SSI either alone or in combination.
Methods: The observational cohort study was designed to evaluate the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. The preoperative blood test parameters hemoglobin, creatinine, albumin, CRP and white blood cell count were collected in those patients considered to have an indication for preoperative blood testing as per clinical standards. A total of 200 patients were included in the analysis for the RCT and hence assessed for the availability of preoperative levels of the blood parameters of interest.
Results: A complete set of preoperative WBCC, CRP, albumin, creatinine and hemoglobin measurements was present for 48 of 100 patients (48%). The 100 patients with preoperative blood tests available were older, had higher ASA scores, had more secondary diagnoses, were more likely to be women. The 30-day SSI rate was higher in patients with preoperative blood work than in the group without (5.8% vs. 4.5%, p=0.044).
Conclusion: This study demonstrates strong associations between the levels of routine preoperative blood parameters and the risk of SSI. However, none of the blood parameters examined in this study showed striking predictive abilities in terms of surgical site infections and hence, the decision to postpone procedures to optimize patient factors that impact preoperative blood results cannot be generally recommended at a defined cut off.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF TOTAL AND BIPOLAR HIP ARTHROPLASTY IN FRACTURES OF THE PROXIMAL FEMUR IN ELDERLY PEOPLE

Alimov Aziz Pulatovich;Sapaev Ziynat Egamberdievich;Shukurov Esondavlat Minziyevich; Masharipov Kadambay;Kamalov Bakhtiyor Khayitovich;Akbarkhonov Zhavakhir Zhamoliddinovich;Kadyrov Raufkhon Rakhmonovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1892-1901

As is known, for fractures of the femoral neck over the age of 60, the operation of choice is hip arthroplasty. It should be noted that after surgical treatment the number of complications and unsatisfactory functional results remains very high and reaches 30%. All patients in the preoperative period underwent Multiline computed tomography and X-ray densitometry studies. All 67 patients underwent hip arthroplasty. For comparison, patients were divided into 2 groups with this injury using total and bipolar arthroplasty in this age aspect. Total arthroplasty was performed in 32 patients, bipolar arthroplasty in 35 patients.  End prosthetics for fractures of the proximal femur in elderly patients is the most optimal method of surgical treatment in terms of the fastest restoration of the support ability and function of the lower limb in this category of patients. The use of femoral components with a bipolar head MERIL (India) in old age helps to reduce the volume and duration of surgery in patients with concomitant somatic diseases.

FEATURES OF THE STATE OF THE CELLULAR AND HUMORAL COMPONENTS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLOARTHRITIS AFTER COVID-19

Abdurakhmanova Nargiza Mirza-Bakhtiyarkhonovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1902-1907

The article presents data from our own studies on the study of the state of the immune status in patients with ankylosing spondylitis who have undergone COVID-19. In patients, a detailed immunogram was studied, as well as scales of disease activity. According to the results of the research, a sharp suppression of the cellular link of the immune system was revealed in patients with ankylosing spondylitis who underwent COVID-19, compared with the group who did not have coronavirus infection.

A STUDY ON TREATMENT OF BREAST ABSCESS: USG GUIDED VS INCISION AND DRAINAGE

Dr. Priti Shah,Dr. Varsha Viswambharan,Dr. Digvijay Jadhav Dr. Shivangi Shahi, Dr. Vijay Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1908-1915

Background: The traditional treatment for breast abscess consists of incision and drainage of pus along with anti-staphylococcal antibiotics. However, this method is associated with a increase time to heal, regular dressings, difficulty in breastfeeding difficulties, and the occurrence of milk fistula.
 
Aim and Objective: To compare the different procedure used for the treatment of breast abscess.
 
Material and Methods: The present study was conducted among the women with breast abscess to assess the clinical outcomes and adverse events between the traditional Incision & Drainage therapy and the USG guided aspiration of the abscess, at the surgical department of a tertiary care Institute in Pune, Maharashtra, India. In the present study, we recruited 25 patients in I & D group and 25 patients in USG guided group

USE OF INTEGRATIVE TECHNOLOGY IN THE PROCESS OF CONNECTING LESSONS OF THE NATIVE LANGUAGE WITH LITERATURE LESSONS

Ibragimova Umida Yuldashevna; Ibragimov Yuldash Matkarimovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1916-1920

The article examines the use of interdisciplinary integration technologies in teaching the life and work of Alisher Navoi at the stages of the education system, shows the use of the native language, fine arts, music, information and communication technologies to increase the activity of students.

OPINIONS AND FUTURE PLANS OF ORTHODONTIC RESIDENTS IN GUJARAT

Dr Manan J Shah;Dr Ajay K. Kubavat;Dr Khyati Patel; Dr Alpesh Vaghela;Dr Zalak Patel;Dr Mansi Mehta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1921-1930

Aim: The main aim of the study is to explore current orthodontic residents' opinions, demographics, their plans for the future. Objective: To evaluate the current perceptions of orthodontic residents on their future plans and to evaluate the interest between males and female on their future plans.
Materials And Methods: 98 residents of department of orthodontics from various colleges of Gujarat participated in the questionnaire study. Questionnaire was sent using google forms and necessary data were recorded. The participants opinion regarding their future orthodontic plans and goals were tabulated. Results: Most of the residents are willing to open their own dental clinic (71.4%) or a multi-speciality clinic (73.5%) after their post-graduation. Comparison between male and female showed statistically significant differences on planning to join military services, going abroad after postgraduation and working solely as a consulting orthodontist.
Conclusion. Residents are willing to open their own dental clinic or a multi-speciality clinic after their post-graduations. Moreover, majority of residents are willing to keep up with the technological advancement and artificial intelligence. Interest for conducting research significantly lowers over the period of residency which could be looked into. And lastly, there are areas where male and female have their differences regarding their career options. The data could be of the significant help as baseline data to conduct the same study at a national level. Changes in the curriculum keeping in mind the resident’s interest with necessary skill and training can be incorporated.

A Questionnaire Survey On The Perception Of Orthodontic Treatment According To Age Between Medical And Non-Medical Professionals In Gujarat

Dr. Zalak H. Patel;Dr. Ajay Kubavat;Dr. Sanjeev Jakati;Dr. Khyati Patel Dr. Mansi Mehta;Dr. Manan Shah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1931-1938

Aim: Estimate the overall frequencies of positive perception towards orthodontic treatment among medical and general population. Objective: To compare the percentage of interest in orthodontic treatment between medical and non-medical professional and according to age. Material and method: 60 medical and 60 non-medical professional participated in the study. Questionnaire was given to them and necessary data was tabulated. The medical and non-medical professionals’ perception towards orthodontic treatment was recorded. Statistical analysis: chi-square test and fischer’s exact test. Result: The overall rate of positive response towards orthodontic treatment of medical group was 75% while 51.7% was found for non-medical group. According to age younger group i.e 20s and 30s showed better perception towards orthodontics treatment than the middle-aged group. conclusion:  study concludes that awareness is still required for both the medical and non-medical professional for orthodontic treatment and middle-age population has to be taken in consideration when it comes to awareness for orthodontic treatment.

Visual Classification On Profile Photographs And Lateral Cephalometric Analysis For Evaluation Of Anterior Malar Projection In The Population Of North Gujarat.

Dr. Mansi Mehta; Dr. Khyati Patel; Dr. Ajay Kubavat; Dr. Alpesh Vaghela; Dr. Manan Shah;Dr. Zalak Patel .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1939-1948

Objective: to compare the association between visual classification of profile images and lateral cephalometric analysis of anterior malar projection in the population of North Gujrat.
Method: The study comprised the pretreatment data of 100 North Gujarat natives aged 15 to 25 who sought orthodontic treatment. On the basis of visual evaluation of negative and positive vector relationships, the individuals were separated into two groups of 50 each. Group A consisted of 50 individuals (25 males and 25 females) with a positive vector association. Group B consisted of 50 individuals (25 males and 25 females) with a negative vector connection. Statistical analysis was conducted using version 20 of the SPSS software. The statistical significance thresholds were set at P .01 and P .05. Sella-Nasion-Orbitale (SNO) angulations were measured to determine the subject's malar eminence's position relative to the cranial base. The student's t-test was used to analyze gender differences and significant differences in SNO readings between groups A and B. The Karl Pearson correlation test was employed to determine whether or not there was a correlation between the age of the subjects and the SNO angulation. The ROC analysis was performed to determine the threshold value of SNO angulation to distinguish between negative and positive vectors.
Results: Negative vector group SNO angulations were smaller than positive vector group SNO angulations by an average of 8.18°, and the difference was highly significant (P0.001). To discriminate between negative and positive vectors, a cutoff value of SNO angle, namely 56o, with 100 percent specificity and sensitivity was determined. There was no statistically significant association between subject age and SNO angulation, nor was there a statistically significant gender difference.
Conclusions: Compared to those demonstrating a positive vector relationship, those exhibiting a negative vector relationship exhibited significantly less malar support. Visual categorization of anterior malar support on profile images using vector relationships is supported by cephalometricanalysis and can serve as a beneficial tool in orthodontics by providing an easy way to classify midface malar support.

Ukraine-Russian War Andit’s Impact On Different Countries: A Literature Review

G Rohith Reddy; G Goutham Raj; E Dhanush; L Srikanth Yadav .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1949-1955

This study examines how the clashes between Russia and Ukraine impacted the work and quality atmosphere of the stock markets in various nations (majorly 6). Regular index data from the Italy, UK, Germany, France, United States, and Spain give a brief idea. Marketing various overlapping pattern of the flow of cash-back across various periods was used to assess efficiency. The findings demonstrate somemultiple fractions of the indexes return series during difficult times. The research disproves the theory of market efficiency and shows that asset values may be predicted during periods of volatility and a world-wide economic crisis. Our research will be useful to benefit managers, investing authorities, and casual investors when deciding how to allocate assets during a crisis.

A Study To Assess The Effectiveness Of Podiatric Care On The Risk Of Falls Among The Elderly At The Selected Rural Village Of Puducherry.

Dr.Malliga.M; kaviarasan. C; Dr.Rajeswari.R; Dr. S. Rathidevi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1956-1964

This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of podiatric care on the risk of falls among elderly at the selected rural village of Puducherry.
Materials and Methods:The quantitative research approach was selected for the study with True experimental pretest and posttest design.60 elderly samples were selected through a simple random sampling method with lottery technique. Priortothedata collection, ethical clearance wasobtainedfromtheInstitutionalreviewcommittee.Informed consent was obtained from thestudy participants. A pre-test was done with structured demographic variables, clinical variables and Modified Berg Balance Scale. The intervention of Podiatric care was implemented to the elderly in the study group. The elderly in the control group received normal routine care.The post test was conducted on 14 th day by using Modified Berg Balance Scale for the elderly in the study and control group.The collected data were analyzed based on the above mentioned objectives using descriptive and inferential statistics

Environmental Damage Of Polymer Products That Have Been Turned Into Assembly After Being Out Of Use

Shixaliyev Kerem Sefi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1965-1980

In this study, the reasons for the decommissioning of polymer materials are shown and recycling methods are analyzed. Polymer materials do not rot, corrode, etc. if their characteristics are taken into account, their recycling is an economic problem as well as an ecological problem that needs to be solved. Taking into account all this, the methods of obtaining purposeful compositions from some polymer wastes have been studied. its destruction mainly occurs as a result of high temperature. As a result, the molecular mass of RS (rubber scrub) decreases. When studying this in an oxygenated and non-oxygenated environment, the maximum stability of RS is observed in the temperature interval of 180°C. Therefore, we adopted the temperature of 180°C to modify road oil bitumen with RS waste. The most effective field of use of polymer materials is the modification of road bitumen

A CLASSICAL OUTLOOK ON CONCEPT OF ANUPANA (ADJUVANT THERAPY).

Dr. Ankita Wadhwa; Dr. Satej T. Banne

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1981-1987

Ayurveda is a science of life which is famous all over the world because of its unique concepts and practicing methods. It is an ancient science which provides both preventive as well as curative treatment. Endorsed prescriptions of various medicines are to be taken with different media of admissions like the glass of hot water, honey, ghee, milk and so on in the treatment of Ayurveda. These substances for taking medications are known as Anupana. Anupana implies what is taken a while later. Acharya Charak has mentioned some of the characteristics for Anuapana. Acharya Sushruta has additionally given various types of Anupana. While treating the sicknesses, Anupana plays a significant part in the therapy. Anupana is a free substance taken a short time later or alongside the chief medications. Certain medication might act only and proficiently when regulated with explicit Anupana. One drug with various Anupana can show different restorative adequacy. The Anupana is professed to disperse the medication all through the body quickest. Anupana ease the aftereffects as well as work with the bioavailability of medication. They can likewise act as synergist specialist for example Yogavahi.

Comparative Evaluation Of Flexural Strength Of Polycaprolactone Polymer And Autopolymerizing Acrylic Resin In Different Thickness: An In Vitro Study.

Dr. Kavan A. Patel; .Dr. J. R. Patel; Dr. Vilas Patel; Dr. Sareen Duseja; Dr. Harekrishna Jayendra Raval; Dr. Neha Liya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1988-1994

Background: Hardly any single clinical procedure is accomplished without the use of any type of polymer which denture bases and teeth, custom trays, impression materials, core build up materials, temporary restoratives, soft liners, cementing/luting materials, and maxillofacial prostheses, etc. In comparison to heat cure acrylic resin, self cure acrylic resin has inferior physical properties owing to lesser degree of polymerization.
Materials and Method: Total 60 specimens were evaluated for flexural strength for both auto polymerizing acrylic resin and polycaprolactone. Evaluation of flexural strength was done with 3 – Point bending tester. For statistical evaluation One way ANOVA and Tukey – Kramer multiple comparison tests were used.
Results: There was statistical significant difference found between different thickness of auto polymerizing resin as well as polycaprolactone group. But there was no statistically significant difference present in flexural strength in 1.5mm, 2mm and 2.5mm thickness between Polycaprolactone group and Auto polymerizing acrylic resin group.
Conclusion: Both auto polymerizing acrylic resin and polycaprolactone shows almost same flexural strength at difference thickness. So, polycaprolactone may be used as an alternative to auto polymerizing acrylic resin.

Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Pain Coping Strategies in Women with Breast Cancer

Dr. Pantea Nabian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1995-2005

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate The Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on depression, anxiety, and Pain Coping Strategies in women with breast cancer.
Methods: The present study is a semi-experimental research wth a pretest-posttest With the control group. For this purpose, 50 people Of women with breast cancer were admitted to the Medical university hospitals of Tehran method Purposive sampling was Selected Randomly in two experimental and control groups were replaced. The experimental group underwent group therapy for 10 sessions of 1.5 hours per week after fully explaining the research and expressing their consent on how to do the work. Demographic statistics, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), and inferential statistics (analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)) were used to perform statistical calculations and data analysis (SPSS 25).
Results: The results showed that Cognitive-behavioral group therapy significantly reduces depression and anxiety in women with breast cancer. Also in the use field of Pain Coping Strategies Between the experimental and control groups, there is a significant difference. 
Conclusion: The results showed that Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy reduces depression and anxiety and increases the use of Pain Coping Strategies in women with breast cancer. 

ADVERSE EFFECTS OF HERBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS –AN OVERVIEW

Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu; Thirumalaikumaran Rathinam; Munish Kumar; Selvam Arjunan .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2006-2013

In the recent past years, although the use of herbal plant products and supplements has increased to a large extent, overall only less than 80% of people rely on them to provide some basic healthcare services. Despite the fact that treatments including these agents have shown promising potential with their efficacy, many of them remain experimental and their use is poorly monitored. As a result, this often led to inadequate information about their mechanism of action and lead to potential adverse reactions, contraindications and interactions with existing pharmaceutical drugs and functional foods. The use of herbal plant medicine and dietary supplements can be risky as they are not subject to review by the Federal Drug Administration. Therefore, safety of herbal plants continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, where it becomes necessary. Owing to the lack of information about medicinal plants, may results in mistaking plants that contain toxins. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major adverse effects arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges related to the misidentification of herbal plants.

ROLE OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AS PRIME IMAGING MODALITY WITH MRI AS PROBLEM SOLVING TOOL IN EVALUATION OF CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA

Dr. Divyajat Kumar; Dr. Rajesh Kuber; Dr. Karthik Mohanan; Dr. Purnachandra Lamghare; Dr. Reetika Kapoo .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2014-2022

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Computed Tomography (CT) as prime imaging modality with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as problem solving tool in the evaluation of Cranio-cerebral trauma.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western Maharashtra from September 2020 to July 2022 and patients with craniocerebral trauma hospitalized were included. The study comprised a total of one hundred patients of craniocerebral trauma which was determined by taking into account 80% of the average of number of cases in the previous 3 years that were hospitalized.
Results: In the present study, the male population predominates, 75 patients, the female population being 25 patients. In this study, age group belonging to 21-30 years old had the highest incidence of craniocerebral trauma in the current study, with 30 cases (40.00%). In the other age groups, 10 patients were (13.33%) in 0-20, 20 (26.66 %) in 31-40, 6 (8.00 %) in 41-50, 3 (4.00 %) in 51-60 and 6 (8.00 %) above 61.  The highest incidence of cranio-cerebral trauma in females occurred in the age period of 21-30, with 10 individuals (40.00%). The other age groups were 9 patients (36.00%) aged 0-20, 2 (8.00%) aged 31-40, 3 (12.00%) aged 41-50, and 1 (4.00%) aged beyond 61.

A CASE OF EALE’S DISEASE

Dr. Aparna A; Dr. Kilari Sindhu; Dr. Renu Magdum; Dr. Garlapati Aditya Ganesh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2023-2027

24-year-old apparently healthy male presented with sudden diminution of vision with confirmed clinical findings of Eales disease in both eyes.
Eales disease is an idiopathic obliterative vasculopathy. It was discovered in 1880, by Sir Henry Eales, who first described the Eales disease in a cluster of young males.[1]. All patients were young and presented with complaints of vomiting, headache, constipation, epistaxis. Eales believed it to be a vasomotor neurosis, lead to rupture of retinal and nasal vessels with consequent haemorrhage.[2] Eale’s disease affects healthy young adults. Male predominance (97.6%) has been reported in majority of cases. The predominant age of onset is between 20 and 40 years. One in 200-250 ophthalmological patients were detected to have Eale’s disease. Retinal changes include perivascular phlebitis, peripheral nonperfusion, and neovascularization. Visual loss is characteristically caused by bilateral recurrent vitreous haemorrhage and its sequelae.[2] It is believed hypersensitivity to tuberculoproteins play an important role in etiology of Eales disease. Corticosteroids remain mainstay of therapy in active perivasculitis stage of Eales disease. Photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment in proliferative stage of Eales disease. Pars plana vitrectomy has shown improvement in visual acuity in cases of recurrent vitreous haemorrhage. Application of endolaser is mandatory at the end of vitreous surgery. Additional procedures such as lensectomy and buckling may be done as and when required. [3]

MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THOVALAI TEMPLE

S.SELVALATHA; Dr.T.G.SEEMA GOPAL .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2028-2031

        The only place in the world where so many different religions have developed and thrived since antiquity is India. It has historically been a place of spirituality and faith. Temple played a significant role in both the daily lives of kings and ordinary people. The residents of Thovalai Taluk practise many religions. The majority of individuals practise Hinduism. The centre and foundation of Hinduism are temples. The inscriptions that are inscribed on the temples gave the temples and the lives of the ancient monarchs more significance. The current research examines the ancient temple inscriptions in Thovalai Taluk.

AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT OF P.KRISHNA PILLAI FROM KERALA

T.SUBHA; Dr.T.G.SEEMA GOPAL .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2032-2037

The main character (Comrade) Krishna Pillai might be viewed as an amalgamation of a number of communist figures renowned for their political integrity and altruism, including P.Krishna Pillai. One of the original members of the Communist Party in Kerala, P.Krishna Pillai, also known only as Sakhavu (comrade), is frequently seen as the model for a communist leader. The division of labour had not yet enslaved the heroes of that era, whose successors frequently exhibit its limiting traits and tendency to produce one-sidedness. But what sets them apart from ordinary people is that practically all of them carry out their activities and live in the midst of current movements and struggles; they choose sides and join the battle, some using words and writing, others using a sword, and many using both. Due to their strength and richness of character, they are complete men.

Prospective Analysis Of Pre-Operative Role Of Rise In Bilirubin In Acute Appendicitis

Dr. Ritesh Kumar Agarwal; Dr. Jagdish Mutreja; Dr. Shashank Rai; Dr. Anshul Sharma .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2038-2050

Aim: To study the diagnostic role of rise in bilirubin in Acute appendicitis.
Materials and method: Prospective analytical study of Pre-operative Role of Rise in Bilirubin in acute appendicitis was carried out in December 2019 – April 2021. All cases coming with uncomplicated acute appendicitis admitted during study period in Sharda Hospital, Gr. Noida, UP. were included in study. Patients withPre-operative diagnosed case of acute appendicitis with age above 18 years were included. The patients with Complicated appendicitis, Negative proved specimen on Histopathalogy Examination, Patients suffering from Positive HBs Ag, Previous history of Jaundice, Chronic Alcoholism (daily intake of >40 ml for male &>20 ml for female),Patients suffering from Hemolytic Disease, Congenital biliary disease, Hepato-biliary malignancy, Recent history of liver trauma, Cholelithiasis, Females with history of oral contraceptive pill, Patients with history of Statins, Pregnancy were excluded from the study. A detailed history, complete physical examination and routine & appropriate investigations were done for all patients.
Results: The mean age of the study population was 29.46±9.81 (18-70) years with majority of the study population belonging to 18-30 years (62.7%) followed by 31-40 years (22.7%) and above 39 years (14.5%). The study population consisted of 78 (70.9%) males and 32 (29.1%) females. The mean Total Sr. Bilirubin (mg/dL), Direct (mg/dL) and Indirect (mg/dL) among study population was 0.98±0.37 (0.29-2.11), 0.77±0.33 (0.28-1.72) and 0.20±0.21 (0.00-1.73). The mean Alvarado Score of the study population was 7.40±0.59 (7-9). The mean Total Sr. Bilirubin (mg/dL) was significantly more among subjects with Alvarado score≥ 7 compared to subjects with Alvarado score7. Frequency Percent Paracaecal 18 16.4% Pelvic 1 0.9% Retrocaecal 89 80.9% Subcaecal 2 1.8% Total 110 100.0% The Pre-operative findings showed that appendicitis was Paracaecal, among 18 (16.4%), Pelvic, among 1 (0.9%), Retrocaecal, among 89 (80.9%) and Subcaecal, among 2 (1.8%) subjects. There was no significant difference in mean TLC (/mm3) between subjects with Abnormal and Normal Bilirubin level. The mean C-Reactive Protein (mg/dL) was significantly more among subjects with Abnormal Bilirubin level compared to Normal Bilirubin level.

Comparative Study Of The Efficacy Of Autologous Prp, Phenytoin Sodium Powder & Conventional Dressing In Healing Of Non Healing Ulcers

Dr. Jagdish Mutreja; Dr. Ritesh Kumar Agarwal; Dr. Vaishali Hooda; Dr. Ashok Bhatnagar; Dr. Shashank Rai .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2051-2063

Aim
To observe the efficacy of autologous PRP and phenytoin sodium powder in the healing of non healing ulcer.
Material & methods
This prospective randomized controlled study included Sample size of 90 patients ( at least 30 in each group). Patients of all age groups with non healing ulcers of more than 3 months duration, irrespective of its aetiology. Debridement of dead necrotic tissue which was done every week after opening the dressing before measuring ulcer size.Every ulcer was tested for culture & sensitivity & treated with specific antibiotics before specific interventions were applied.  The patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups as per their presentation first patient in A, second in B, third in C, fourth again in A, fifth in B & so on.
Results:
Diabetic ulcers (50%) were the commonest, followed by venous (25%), traumatic & pressure sores in the same order.The patients subjected to Group A, that were treated with autologous PRP gel, showed a statistically significant mean reduction in volume of the ulcer (17.86±15.63 cm3) by the end of 3 weeks leading to partial or total granulation in 22 patients & complete re-epithelization in 6 out of 30 cases. The patients subjected to Group B, that were treated with Phenytoin sodium suspension, showed a reduction in the mean ulcer volume (7.32±5.32 cm3) by the end of 3 weeks of treatment which was not statistically significant, leading to partial or total granulation in 70% patients & complete re-epithelization in 13 % out of 30 cases. Almost no healing was seen in 16% of the total cases.The patients subjected to Group C, that were treated with conventional normal saline dressings, showed a reduction in the mean ulcer volume (6.21±6.21 cm3) by the end of 3 weeks of treatment which was not statistically significant when compared to other groups, leading to partial or total granulation in 70% patients & complete re-epithelization in none of the cases.The results with PRP were better than with Phenytoin group.Total healing rate of 20% was seen with PRP group as compared to  zero patients with complete re-epithelization in conventional normal saline dressing group. The results with PRP as compared to Normal saline group. Total healing rate of 13.3% in Phenytoin group as compared to zero patients with complete re-epithelization in conventional normal saline dressing group. The results were better with phenytoin as compared to normal saline group.Autologous PRP gel showed significant reduction in mean ulcer volume of all aetiology when compared to phenytoin sodium suspension. No side effects were documented in any of the three groups.
Conclusion:
Autologous PRP therapy is a safe, efficacious& cost effective method in the healing of chronic non-healing ulcers. There was no risk of adverse effects. Moreover, even phenytoin sodium powder suspension is cost-effective, more efficacious as compared to conventional normal saline dressings in treating chronic non-healing ulcers.

To Study The Clinicopathological Picture Among Children Aged 1-18 Years In Relation To Paediatrics Cervical Lymphadenopathy

Dr. Mandar N Karanjkar; Dr. Shubhangi Misal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2064-2068

Aim: To study the clinicopathological picture among children aged 1-18 years in relation to paediatrics Cervical Lymphadenopathy
Materialand methods: The research was carried out at the Department of Pediatrics. Blood tests for haemoglobin level, total and differential count, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were performed on all patients in the study group. The Mantoux test was performed on all patients as part of their usual workup. Fine needle aspiration cytolology (FNAC) was performed on all patients in the study group after a swab was collected from the most prominent node in patients with the source of infection for culture and sensitivity.
Results: Significant cervical lymphadenopathy is widespread in the 6- to 12-year-old age group (45%), followed by the 12 to 18-year-old age group (33%). In 91 children (91%), the presenting symptom was neck edoema. In 90% and 52% of the youngsters, fever and cough were the presenting symptoms. 31% of children had a history of failure to acquire weight and decrease of appetite. 19% of the youngsters had a history of sore throat. Swelling was painless in the vast majority of instances (93%) and painful in 7%. More than one presenting symptom was found in 70 (70%) of the youngsters. Ear drainage and orodental discomfort were both present in 8% of the youngsters. Six youngsters had a history of interaction with a TB patient. The anterior cervical lymph nodes are the most usually impacted group of lymph nodes (44%), followed by the posterior cervical (33%).
Conclusion: Non-diagnostic hyperplasia owing to reactive lymphadenitis is the most prevalent cause of severe cervical lymphadenopathy in children. Following suitable examinations, the most frequent cause detected is infection. The most prevalent cause of lymphadenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenitis, followed by TB.

ASSESSMENT OF ORIGIN OF SINUATRIAL NODAL ARTERY IN HUMAN CADAVERIC HEART SPECIMENS

Dr. Mrs Megha.A.Doshi; Dr. Mr Shashikant.B. Mane; Dr.Priya.P.Roy .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2069-2073

Background:The sinoatrial node, or pacemaker of the heart, is a small mass of histologically distinct myocardial cells. The present study was conducted to assess origin of sinuatrial nodal artery in human cadaveric heart specimens.
Materials & Methods: 45 formalin fixed adult human cadaveric heart of either gender obtained in Anatomy department were studied. The coronary arteries were dissected and analyzed for the origin of sinoatrial nodal artery and observations were noted.
Results: Out of 45 hearts, 25 were of males and 20 were of females. Origin of sinoatrial nodal artery was from right coronary artery in 27 and left coronary artery in 18 specimens. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Knowing the variations in the blood supply of SA node and study of origin and distribution of sinoatrial nodal artery helps cardiologist and cardiac surgeons to understand the ischemic etiology of sinus node diseases and corrective steps needed.

Recent Advances In Dental Caries Diagnosis: A Review

Gaurav Aggarwal; Artika Gupta; Sunil Malhan; Ravneet Kaushal; Arvind Arora .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2074-2080

Dental caries, a progressive bacterial damage to teeth, is one of the most commondiseases that affects 95% of the population and is still a major cause of tooth loss.Recent years have seen an increase in research activity surrounding diagnostic methods, particularly in the assessment of early caries lesions. The use of technologies as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. In recent years, the early diagnosis of dental caries has gained importance as conservative dentistry is kept in the forefront. Especially in pediatric patients, the dentist should focus on the early detection of dental caries and minimally invasive treatment options. The conventional caries detection methods often fail to detect initial enamel lesions that have not progressed to cavitation. For this reason, various new techniques have been developed aiding early detection of caries. The aim of this review is to give general information about recent caries detection methods and to mention their benefits when used in conjunction with conventional methods.

Management Of Anterior Teeth Discoloration With Bleaching And Macroabrasion: A Case Report

Himanshu Sood; Shefally; Sunil Malhan; Arvind Arora; Gursandeep Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2081-2085

Discoloration of tooth can be extrinsic or intrinsic based on its etiology, site, appearance, and severity. It poses esthetic problem which could be a prime concern for many patients, especially in anterior region of teeth that may be compromised due to previous trauma, caries, or failed restorations. Macroabrasion is a technique for the removal of localized white spots using a high-speed, intermittent high speed turbine finishing diamond tip. It is fast, safe, efficient, and an alternative to enamel microabrasion. Bleaching is a more conservative approach which is noninvasive as compared with other prosthodontic options like crowns or veneers. Among various bleaching techniques hydrogen peroxide is preferred, as it provides better cosmetic outcome with limited side effects. This article aims at presenting a case on macroabrasion method followed by vital bleaching performed on maxillary anterior teeth, after which a satisfactory aesthetic result was achieved.

Endodontic Management Of Tooth With Open Apex Using Mta : A Case Report

Gursandeep Kaur; Rohit Wadhwa; Sunil Malhan; Himanshu Sood; Ravneet Kaushal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2086-2090

Endodontic therapy of a tooth with open apex and necrotic pulp presents multiple challenges during treatment. Microbial elimination from chronic lesions makes treatment all the more difficult. Apexification and pulp revascularization are the treatment options available. Apexification with calcium hydroxide has certain disadvantages and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) may be considered as a promising alternative.

CLOSURE OF MIDLINE DIASTEMA BY DIRECT COMPOSITE RESIN BUILD-UP USING PUTTY INDEX- A CASE REPORT

Arvind Arora; Gaurav Aggarwal; Sunil Malhan; Himanshu Sood; Gursandeep Kaur; .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2091-2094

Maxillary anterior spacing is a common aesthetic complaint of patients coming to dental clinic. Various treatment modalities are available for diastema closure. However, not all diastemas can be treated the same in terms of modality or timing. While excellent aesthetics are possible with indirect restorations, there may be unnecessary tooth structure removed in order to achieve the desired results. Many innovative therapies have been used, varying from restorative procedures to surgery (frenectomies) and orthodontics for closure of diastema. When a larger space closure is needed, orthodontics may be indicated to allow for a more aesthetic outcome. When a small diastema with teeth in proper orthodontic alignment, no preparation of the tooth structure is necessary and direct composite bonding may yield the desired result. The following case report shows a restorative protocol using ssmart composite resin build up using an putty index when addressing the midline diastema.

DENTAL WAXES – A REVIEW

Gursandeep Kaur; Deepika Singla; Bharti Kataria; Rohit Wadhwa; .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2095-2099

Waxes used in dentistry are combinations of two or more natural waxes plus small amounts of additives, such as oils, natural resins, synthetic waxes, and coloring agents. There are different waxes used specifically for clinical and laboratory procedures. The ultimate goal of the combination of waxes and additives is to produce dental waxes that possess a set of given physical properties over a specified range of temperature. Therefore, the successful use of waxes must be with a full understanding of waxes’ characteristics.

DIAGNOSTIC AIDS IN ENDODONTICS: A REVIEW

Artika Gupta; Bharti Kataria; Himanshu Sood; Kunal Sethi; .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2100-2104

In the modern world, there are so many recent advances in diagnosis in conservative dentistry Endodontics. It is enhanced by newer technologies. The style of this improvement is targeted towards increasing the objectivity sensitivity and reproducibility of the pulp tests while decreasing the patient’s discomfort. Methods like Pulse Oximetry, Laser Doppler Flowmetry, Ultrasound Doppler, Dual Wavelength Spectroscopy, Photoplethysmography are being developed and evolved to get adapted to the current clinical setting which may be of great use to the modern endodontist. These new methods fulfill the necessity of choosing the best tools for a good diagnosis. The aim of this review therefore was to assess the utility of some devices and techniques utilized in endodontic therapy to make the correct diagnosis

ENDODONTIC EMERGENICES: A REVIEW

Harleen Kaur; Artika Gupta; Suksham Johar; Bharti Kataria; Ravneet Kaushal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2105-2116

Endodontic emergencies usually result from inflammatory reactions in pulpal or periapical tissues. They constitute a major part of all dental emergencies 1,2 and require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In general, emergencies are unscheduled visits by patients in severe pain, under emotional distress and seeking immediate relief. Although the endodontic emergency is disruptive and often inconvenient, proper management is satisfying to the dentist and much appreciated by the patient; improper treatment is frustrating and stressful.

ENDODONTIC IRRIGATION SOLUTIONS: A REVIEW

Ravneet Kaushal; Harleen Kaur; Gaurav Aggarwal; Rohit Wadhwa; Deepika Singla .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2117-2122

The goal of endodontic treatment is to remove all the vital and necrotic tissues, microorganisms and microbial byproducts from root canal system. This goal can be achieved through chemical and mechanical debridement of root canals. This article narrates the specifics and requirements of the irrigation solutions. Sodium hypochlorite is proposed as the primary irrigants by virtue of its organic tissue dissolution capacity and broad antimicrobial properties. On the other hand, chelation solutions are recommended as auxiliary solutions to remove the smear layer or to hinder its formation on dentin surface. Thus, it's hoped that sealers and root canal fillers can penetrate to dentin tubules and obturate the canals hermetically. There are new studies on traditional irrigants especially on some irrigants that can replace sodium hypochlorite. This article reviews the new irrigants which can be used in future endodontic practice, and their advantages and limitations. Moreover, actions and interactions of recently used irrigants are adverted.

ENDODONTIC SURGERIES-A REVIEW

Kunal Sethi; Bharti Kataria; Rohit Wadhwa; Gursandeep Kaur; Himanshu Sood .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2123-2130

A better understanding of endodontic disease and the causes of treatment failure hasrefined the role of surgery in endodontics. The advent of newer materials, advances insurgical armamentarium and techniques have also led to an improved endodonticsurgical outcome.Endodontic surgery straddles the specialties of endodontics and dento alveolar surgery. With the advent of the operating microscope, newer endodontic filling materials and stem cell therapy, humungous strides have been taken in this area, thus enabling transmutation of peri apical surgery into an avant-garde treatment modality.

HEMISECTION

Sunil Malhan; Suksham Johar; Ravneet Kaushal; Gursandeep Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2131-2135

Advances in dentistry, as well as the increased desire of patients to maintaintheir dentition, have lead to treatment of teeth that once would have beenremoved. In order to carry out this present day mandate, periodontallydiseased teeth with severe bone loss may well be retained by removal ofone or more of their roots. This article describes a simple procedure forhemisection in mandibular molar and its subsequent restoration.

SMILE DESIGNING: A REVIEW

Ravneet Kaushal; RohitWadhwa; Arvind Arora; Shefally; Harleen Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2136-2142

A person's ability to communicate a variety of emotions through the form and movement of their teeth and lips is frequently a determining factor in how effectively they can function in society. Of course, the value placed on a lovely grin is not new. It is critical that the final result is not just determined by appearances. As doctors, our ultimate objective is to create a nice composition in the smile by arranging diverse aesthetic aspects.

MANDIBULAR CANINES WITH TWO ROOTS AND TWO ROOT CANALS: CASE REPORT

Gursandeep Kaur; Harleen Kaur; Sunil Malhan; Arvind Arora; Himanshu Sood .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2143-2146

Usually, the mandibular canine only has one root and one root canal. There has been a noticeable increment in evidence showing variations in its morphology, such as the presence of two roots and two root canals. The aim of this article was to present a case of a mandibular canine with two roots and two root canals. Root canal treatment of tooth #33 with such morphology was performed in a 47-year-old man.  Although mandibular canines with two roots and two root canals are not common, clinicians should always anticipate the presence of possible variations. Therefore, timely diagnosis and meticulous exploration of such mandibular canines allow for planning of an individualized treatment protocol, tailored to their peculiar morphology, focused on avoiding excessive weakening or even perforation of the roots.

METAL INLAYS

Artika Gupta; Himanshu Sood; Kunal Sethi; Romal Preet Singh; Ravneet Kaushal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2147-2150

Metallic inlay restoration provide a good alternative to dental amalgam or gold rstoration.There is uncertainty relative to the longevity of metallic inlay restorations. Recently published long-term research studies reveal general clinical performance trends. These trends are discussed while presenting a ceramic inlay case. Successful clinical use of metallic inlay materials is absolutely dependent on the creation of an uncompromised adhesive tooth/metal interface. Metal inlay restorations perform well in terms of long-term retentionand anatomic contour stability. These restorations all experience limited margin deterioration that does not predispose to marginal discoloration or secondary caries. Patients rarely suffer from postoperative sensitivity secondary to metallic inlay placement. This case report presents a patient in whose tooth a metallic inlay restoration was placed.

MINERAL TRIOXIDE AGGREGATE: A REVIEW

Sunil Malhan; Gaurav Aggarwal; Shefally; Suksham Johar; Artika Gupta; Romal Preet Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2151-2157

Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a unique material with several exciting clinical applications. MTA has potential and one of the most versatile materials of this century in the field of dentistry. During endodontic treatment of primary and permanent tooth MTA can be used in many ways. MTA materials have been shown to have a biocompatible nature and have excellent potential in endodontic use. MTA materials provide better microleakage protection than traditional endodontic repair materials using dye, fluid filtration, and bacterial penetration leakage models. In both animal and human studies, MTA materials have been shown to have excellent potential as pulp capping and pulpotomy medicaments. MTA material can be used as apical and furcation restorative materials as well as medicaments for apexogenesis and apexification treatments. In present article, we review the current dental literature on MTA, discussing composition, physical, chemical, and biological properties, and clinical characteristics of MTA.

NON-SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PERIAPICAL LESIONS

Rohit Wadhwa; Ravneet Kaushl; Sunil Malhan; Arvind Arora; Gursandeep Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2158-2162

Apexification aims to induce apical closure of the open root apex with a hard-tissue barrier, against which a root filling can be compacted. Despite the popularity of the apexification procedure, calcium hydroxide therapy has some disadvantages which mainly includes variability of treatment time, unpredictability of apical closure, difficulties with patient follow-up and delayed treatment. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a potential apical barrier material with goodsealability and a high degree of biocompatibility. The present case report demonstrates the placement of an apical barrier using MTA along with conventional root canal treatment.

POST AND CORE: A REVIEW

Arvind Arora; Deepika Singla; Ravneet Kaushal; Harleen Kaur; Artika Gupta .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2163-2175

A successful endodontic treatment has to be complemented with an adequate postendodontic restoration to make the pulpless tooth function indefinitely as an integral part of the oral masticatory apparatus. Careful postendodontic restoration is required, as the cumulative loss of tooth structure due to caries, trauma, and endodontic procedures combined with the loss of structural integrity contributes to the fracture of the tooth.

RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN POST SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

Suksham Johar; Arvind Arora; Artika Gupta; Himanshu Sood; Ravneet Kaushal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2176-2181

Restoration of an endodontically treated tooth presents a challenge to the restorative dentist. The tooth to be restore has been followed out as part of the endodontic treatment. Depending on the degree of instrumentation, that tooth has lost a significant amount of structural support due to the endodontic access to treat the pulp chamber and root canals.The primary function of an endodontic post is to provide retention for the core and enable full sealing of the coronal portion of the root canal. Traditionally used metal posts do not meet the requirements of modern dental medicine due to some fairly significant drawbacks such as color, corrosion potential, non-adhesive bonding and high modulus of elasticity which can lead to root fracture. Recently, esthetic ceramic and fiber reinforced posts have been manufactured in order to avoid such imperfections. This is due to the fact that, apart from being an esthetically pleasing material, they are also biocompatible, have good physical properties and the capacity of adhesive bonding to tooth tissue and core buildup. Nonetheless, a good clinician should know how to spot the difference between them in order to select and use the appropriate post system in each specific situation.

RECENT ADVANCES IN COMPOSITE RESTORATIONS: A REVIEW

Kunal Sethi; Arvind Arora; Sunil Malhan; Bharti Kataria .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2182-2187

Dental caries (tooth decay) is a prevalent disease. Resin composites have become the most commonly used materials to restore caries due to their direct-filling capability, tooth-coloredesthetics, and photo cure-on-demand property. Patients’ high aesthetic demands drive modern restorative dentistry to move forward toward adhesive, tooth-colored restorations.  The limited longevity of dental composite restorations due to the bulk/marginal fracture and secondary caries as well as possible health risks are the critical challenges faced by such materials. Therefore, developments of resin-based dental composites received considerable attention in academic researches for clinical applications. This article provides an insight that paves the way for tailoring and designing resin-based dental composites for clinical applications.

DENTIN BONDING AGENTS -A REVIEW

Himanshu Sood; Shefally; Gursandeep Kaur; Ravneet Kaushal; Sunil Malhan .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2188-2195

Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. There have been changes in chemistry, mechanism, number of bottles, application technique, and clinical effectiveness.  The first, second and third generations are classified under historical title while; etch&rinse, self-etch and multi-mode adhesives are classified under the title of current clinical practice procedures strategies. The preferred properties of adhesive systems are biocompatibility with dental tissues, improved bond strength to dental tissues, and better resistance to chewing stresses. In recent years, the success rate of restorative treatment of teeth that have suffered from caries or loss of supporting tissue has increased considerably due to the developments in dentin donding systems.

Role Of Community Pharmacists In Providing Oral Health Advice In The Fatehgarh Sahib District In The State Of Punjab In North India

Sunil Malhan; Deepika Singla; Arvind Arora; Gursandeep Kaur; Himanshu Sood .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2196-2201

To determine the frequency of patients seeking oral health advice and willingness of community pharmacists to provide oral health information in the fatehgarh sahib district in the state of punjab in north india .
The practice of community pharmacists has developed over the years from traditional dispensing of medicine to more profound public and professional involvement in health care which is valuable to the community1,16. General healthcare system considers the community pharmacists as healthcare advisers, preventers, promoters and educators2. It was reported that about 26.5% of respondents considered the pharmacist as their first choice of healthcare provider, and in the case of emergency, approximately 37% of respondents identified the pharmacist as their first choice of healthcare provider 3,17.

SMART MATERIALS: A REVIEW

Suksham Johar; Bharti Kataria; Himanshu Sood; Arvind Arora; Gursandeep Kaur; Romal Preet Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2202-2212

Future developments of smart materials for domains such as self-sustainable wireless sensor networks, self-tuned vibration energy harvesting devices, seismic applications etc. is the need of an hour. Such smart materials have the potential to build smart structures and materials. Smart materials are stimuli-responsive which constituted a broad range of materials to exploit vibration control such as piezoelectric, shape memory alloys, electro-rheological fluid and magneto-rheological fluid. Smart materials show a certain amount of analogy with respect to biological systems. For instance, piezoelectric hydrophones, shape‐memory materials with a potential to recollect the original shape and electro-rheological fluids with manipulative viscosity strength etc. Such potential grabbed the attention of research and allow them to think and integrate varied advanced technologies into compact, diverse functional packages with an ultimate aim to develop advanced smart materials and revolutionize the research field of smart materials. This review initially discusses a brief summary of the aforementioned stimuli-responsive smart materials following a complete description of some of the smart materials.

ADULT ORTHODONTICS- A REVIEW

Gurinderpal Singh; Gurpreet Kaur; Anil Prashar; Gurmeet Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2213-2222

Adult orthodontics is becoming a larger proportion of many practices. Orthodontics for the adult patient is concerned with striking a balance between achieving optimal proximal and occlusal contact of the teeth, acceptable dentofacialaesthetics, normal function, and reasonable stability. With the adult, it is more frequently concerned with physiological adaptation and is often symptom related, whereas with the child the dealing is with the signs. In the past three decades, a major reorientation of orthodontic thinking has occurred regarding adult patients. Changed lifestyles and patient awareness have increased the demands for adult orthodontic treatment and multidisciplinary dental therapy has allowed better management of the more complicated and unique requirements of the adult patient population, thereby greatly improving the quality of care and treatment prognosis. In addition to goal clarification, adult patients desire treatment efficiency, convenience in appointment timings and good communication with other health care professionals. Almost 80% of the adult patients require interdisciplinary treatment planning and treatment execution. The purpose of this article is to review the scope, effectiveness and limitations of orthodontic treatment in adult patients.

Applications Of Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Orthodontics

Monika Chhabra; Rajdeep Kaur; Anil Prashar; Gurpreet Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2223-2231

Over the past two decades, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have undergone considerable development. There have been various applications in medicine and dentistry. Their application in orthodontics has progressed slowly, despite promising results. The available literature pertaining to the orthodontic applications of AI and ML has not been adequately synthesized and reviewed. This review article provides orthodontists with an overview of AI and ML, along with their applications. It describes state-of-the-art applications in the areas of orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, growth evaluations, and in the prediction of treatment outcomes. AI and ML are powerful tools that can be utilized to overcome some of the clinical problems that orthodontists face daily. With the availability of more data, better AI and ML systems should be expected to be developed that will help orthodontists practice more efficiently and improve the quality of care.

BIOETHICS AND ORTHODONTICS

Vishal Kumar Sharma; Sukhpal Kaur; Anil Prashar; Gurpreet Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2232-2237

Ethics as applied to medico-dental practice and associated research is called bioethics. From the Journal's inception, contributing authors have explored recurrent themes pertaining to bioethics. This early interest is a tribute to the keen foresight and enduring pride in professionalism that has persisted throughout the evolution of orthodontics.

Bite, occlusion and fixed appliance treatment

Vishal Kumar Sharma; Anil Prashar; Rajdeep Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2238-2241

Maximum bite force is a useful indicator of the functional state of the masticatory system and the loading of the teeth, and its recordings can be performed in a relatively simple way in the clinic. Previous studies have found a change in bite force due to orthodontic treatment, before and after treatment. This article reviews bite force, its measurement and changes by orthodontic treatment by fixed appliances.

Brackets In Orthodontics – A Review

Gurinderpal Singh; Vishal Kumar Sharma; Gurpreet Kaur; Sahil .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2242-2250

Orthodontics is been at great service to mankind. Orthodontics is a field that has been around since the early 18th century. Modern day orthodontists have generations of predecessors to learn their techniques. Technology used in orthodontic treatment continues to progress at an incrediblepace. New discoveries and inventions have allowed orthodontists to bring better experiences to their patients with less of the hassle. If we want tocontinue providing fast, efficient, and effective treatment to our patients, we need to make sure that we stay uptodate with changes in the field.Orthodontic brackets have evolved from Angle’s era to the MBT brackets followed by lingual brackets. These brackets have made the life of theorthodontists much easier. As technology advances many more new materials and designs will be coming forward. The purpose of this article isto review the recent advancements in orthodontic brackets and how the science behind them helps the orthodontist in the daytoday practice.

Drugs influencing orthodontic tooth movement- A review

Gurinderpal Singh; Rajdeep Kaur; Sukhpal Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2251-2258

Orthodontic treatment is based on the premise that when force is delivered to a tooth and thereby transmitted to the adjacent investing tissues, certain mechanical, chemical, and cellular events take place within these tissues, which allow for structural alterations and contribute to the movement of that tooth. Various metabolites like prostaglandins, cytokines and interleukins are involved at the molecular level to affect tooth movement. Molecules present in drugs can reach the mechanically stressed paradental tissues through the circulation and interact with local target cells. The combined effect of mechanical forces and one or more of these agents may be inhibitory, additive, or synergistic. Current orthodontic research aims to develop methods of increasing the tissue concentration of molecules promoting tooth movement, while simultaneously decreasing the concentration of unwanted elements which can produce harmful side effects. This article reviews the various possible drugs that can bring about alterations in the desired orthodontic tooth movement.

Esthetic arch wires – A review

Pancham; Sukhpal Kaur; Sanjeev Soni .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2259-2266

Archwires are the active components of orthodontics appliances and demand for aesthetics led several companies to begin production of aesthetic archwires. So the purpose of this article is to review properties availability and manufacturing of various available aesthetic archwires.
Orthodontic mechanics is based on the principle of elastic energy storage and its conversion into mechanical work through tooth movement. Ceramics and polycarbonates have been used to produce tooth coloured brackets, and research is under way to produce a suitable archwire material, which will combine aesthetics with the required mechanical properties. Since orthodontic treatments extend over a number of months and more and more adult patients were undergoing orthodontic treatment, the aesthetic aspect of the appliance could not be ignored any more. The demand for aesthetics led several companies to begin production, in the late 1970’s, of non-metallic brackets made from polycarbonate or ceramics Aesthetic wires came into being in the mid 2000.

Fixed functional appliances – A Review

Sanjeev Soni; Manmeet Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2267-2272

Functional orthopedic treatment seeks to correct malocclusions and harmonize the shape of the dental arch and oro-facial functions. Conventional orthodontic appliances use mechanical force to alter the position of teeth into a more favorable position. Functional appliances have been used since the 1930s. Despite this relatively long history, there continues to be much confusion relating to their use, method of appliances alter the arrangement of various muscle groups that influence the function and position of the mandible in order to trasmit forces to the dentition and the basal bone. Typically these muscular forces are generate orthodontic and orthopedic changes. It is important to note that functional appliance therapy is to be generally followed by the traditional full banded techniques for optimum results; since they deal more with the gross changes in the intermaxillary relations and arc not designed for precise individual tooth movement.

Functional appliances in contemporary orthodontic practice

Vishal Sharma; Sanjeev Soni; Sahil .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2273-2280

The term functional appliance refers to a large and diverse family of orthodontic appliances designed mainly to correct Class II malocclusion. They were developed primarily in Europe but have been adoptedby orthodontists in many countries. They all work by posturing the lower jaw forward, the stretched musculature and soft tissues creating a force, which is transmitted to the dentition. In addition, the soft tissue envelopesurrounding the teeth is changed. This results in tooth movement, establishment of a new occlusal relationship and reduction of the overjet. The efficiency of these appliances in the correction of sagittal discrepanciesin growing patients has intrigued orthodontists for many years, particularlythe question of whether they significantly affect skeletal growth. There has been a lot of mystery and misinformation associated with their use, often supported by quasi-scientific theories of growth.1 Many of the claims made in association with these appliances are in the form of case reports, or retrospective studies, using unreliable and over-complicated cephalometric analyses, with all the inherent bias associated with these types of study.1 More recently, the results of several large prospective clinical trials have provided the best evidence of what these appliances can do and equally importantly, whatthey do not do.The development and use of functionalappliances was pioneered in Europe early in the twentieth century, at the same time thatfixed appliances were being developed inthe USA. A simple monobloc appliance wasdescribed by Pierre Robin in 1902 for use inmandibular retrognathia and functional jawexpansion, it was the precursor of the applianceused for the treatment of Class II malocclusionsdescribed by Viggo Andresen while working at the dental school in Oslo. The storygoes that following fixed appliance therapy on his daughter he fitted her with a modifiedupper Hawley type retainer with a lowerlingual flange that guided the mandible forwardinto an ideal inter-arch relationship. Theappliance was fitted as a retainer during herthree-month summer holidays to be worn atnight, and it corrected her Class II relationship.Andresen refined the technique and appliance,with the assistance of Karl Häupl, and coinedthe phrase ‘functional jaw orthopedics’ toencapsulate their philosophy of how the appliancesworked. A detailed history on functionalappliances and the personalities involved hasbeen published by Levrini and Favero.1-5

Interceptive Orthodontics-A Short Review

Monika Chhabra; Anil Prashar; Navisha Jain .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2281-2285

The term interceptive orthodontics used in this paper is defined as the prompt treatment of unfavorable features of a developing occlusion categorized as local factors, crowding and displacements of the mandible in closing from the rest position. Interceptive orthodontics is defines as a – phase of science and art of orthodontics employed to recognize and eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. Guidance of the eruption and development of the primary and permanent dentitions is an integral part of the care of pediatric patients. Such guidance should contribute to the development of a permanent dentition that is in a harmonious, functional and esthetically acceptable occlusion. This article aims to provide a simple guide to the correct diagnosis of anomalies and to choosing the most suitable treatment for each case.

Intrusion arches in orthodontics: A review

Monika Chhabra; Rajdeep Kaur; Faizan Ali .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2286-2293

Orthodontic intrusion is a common treatment approach in managing orthodontic esthetic and functional problems, including gummy smile and deep bite. This review presents contemporary reports related to the intrusion, types of dental intrusion, clinical observations, and the tissue reactions after the application of intrusive force, as well as indications and contraindications for intrusion. This paper concisely describes the fixed and removable appliances used for intrusion accomplishment.

Orthodontic pain: From causes to management

Pancham Aggarwal; Gurpreet Kaur; Navisha Jain .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2294-2307

Pain4, which includes sensations5 evoked by, and reactions6, noxious stimuli, is a complex experience and oftenaccompanies orthodontic appointments. This, among themost cited negative effects of orthodontic treatment, is ofmajor concern to patients as well as clinicians ( Oliver andKnapman, 1985 ; Kluemperet al. , 2002 ) and is evident inrecent publications ( Asham and Southard, 2004 ; Keim,2004 ). Surveys performed to determine the experience of  orthodontic7 pain have rated it as a key deterrent8 to orthodontictherapy and a major reason for discontinuing treatment( Haynes, 1974 ; Oliver and Knapman, 1985 ; Brown andMoerenhout, 1991 ; Kluemperet al. , 2002 ). One survey ratedpain as the greatest dislike during treatment9 and fourthamong major fears10 and apprehensions prior to orthodontictreatment ( O’Connor, 2000 ).Pain is a subjective response, which hows largeindividual variations. It is dependent11 upon factors such as

Retainers in Orthodontics- A Review

Sanjeev Soni; Sukhpal Kaur; Manmeet Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2308-2316

Retention is necessary following orthodontic treatment to prevent relapse of the final occlusal outcome. Relapse can occur as a result of forces from the periodontal fibres around the teeth which tend to pull the teeth back towards their pretreatment positions, and also from deflecting occlusal contacts if the final occlusion is less than ideal. Age changes, in the form of ongoing dentofacial growth, as well as changes in the surrounding soft tissues, can also affect the stability of the orthodontic outcome. The aim of this article is to provide an insight into the various modalities of retention and types of appliance used in achieving this objective.

Role of Orthodontist in Cleft Lip and Palate

Pancham Aggerwal; Gurpreet Kaur; Rajdeep Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2317-2326

Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common congenital anomalies occurring round the world varyingwith the race, ethnicity and geography. Cleft lip and/or palate problems tends to worsen as the individualgrows older. Although it occurs as a different entity in itself but its presence can hamper aesthetics as wellas functions by effecting growth, dentition, speech, hearing and overall appearance resulting in socialand psychological problems for the child as well as the parents. Cleft lip and palate is of a multifactorialorigin such as inheritance, teratogenic drugs, and nutritional deficiencies and can also occur as syndrome or non-syndromic cleft. Treatment of Cleft Lip and Palate comprises of different specialists having anindividual insight in a particular case ultimately reaching to a consensus for a successful culminationof the treatment. Although appropriate timing and method of each intervention is still arguable. Anorthodontist plays a role in pre surgical maxillary orthopaedics, in aligning the maxillary segments anddentition, in preparation for secondary alveolar bone grafting and finally in obtaining ideal dental relationand preparing the dentition for prosthetic rehabilitation or orthognathic surgery if required. Therefore, forefficient treatment outcome and refinement of individual techniques or variations of the treatment protocol highly able team of specialists from different specialities is a must, preferably on a multicentre basis.

Skeletal age assessment using hand-wrist radiographs

Manmeet Kaur; Anil Prashar; Gurpreet Kaur; Rajdeep Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2327-2334

The knowledge of the skeletal maturation and the stage of the growth of the patients seeking orthodontic treatment are of great value in planning efficient orthodontic therapy. Cervical vertebrae in the lateral cephalograpm have been recommended as an alternative method. The pubertal growth spurt is a vital period in the orthodontic treatment and should be kept in mind when planning orthodontic treatment in growing children. One of the main objectives of taking hand and wrist radiograph is to determine the amount of growth and this will help in the selection of the appliances required, the course of the treatment and the retention after active orthodontic therapy. This article reviews some methods of skeletal age assessment using hand wrist radiographs.

Skeletal Class II correction using the AdvanSync 2 Appliance (A class II corrector): A Case Report

Monika Narula; Sanjeev Soni; Sukhpal Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2335-2343

Angle’s class II division malocclusion, being the most commonly occuring type of malocclusion, is challenging to treat especially when there is an underlying skeletal discrepancy. Various fixed functional appliances have been developed over the years by different authors for correction of skeletal class II malocclusion due to retrognathic mandible. Among them a fixed functional molar to molar appliance also known as, Advansync2(Ormco Co, Glendora, Calif)  has been used effectively in the recent past. It is a fixed tooth-born functional appliance with an advantage of allowing concurrent use of fixed orthodontic therapy. This facilitates reduction of the overall treatment duration. A case report of patient treated using this Advansync2 class II corrector has been presented along with the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes observed during the treatment. The effects observed were similar to most fixed functional appliances however the treatment duration was considerably reduced in all the cases.

Comparison of amnion membrane and bone graft with bone graft alone in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: A case study

Dr. Chandni; Dr. Vinit Kumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2344-2352

Background: Combination guided tissue regeneration for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects is an accepted treatment modality for many years and has undergone a number of changes. Human amniotic membrane allografts have been used for a variety of reconstructive surgical procedures since the early 1900s. The purpose of this study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane as a guided tissue regenerative material in the treatment of human periodontal intrabony defects.
Method: Thirty six intrabony defects in eighteen systemically healthy subjects having moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to control group (treatment with hydroxyapatite bone graft) and test group(treatment with  hydroxyapatite and amnion membrane). The plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival recession (REC) were recorded at baseline, and were reevaluated at 3 and 6 months. In addition to this, radiographic bone fill was assessed using radiovisiograph. At the test site, hydroxyapatite bone graft and amnion membrane was placed, whereas at the control site, only hydroxyapatite bone graft was placed. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were made at baseline, at 3 and 6 months following surgery.
Results: In the control group, the mean reduction of PPD was 3.11 mm and the mean CAL gain was 3.78 mm. In the test group, the mean PPD reduction was 4.33 mm and mean gain in CAL was 5.55 mm after 6 months which was statistically significant. The mean gain in radiographic defect fill was 53.87% in the test and 50.76% in the control group after 6 months which was statistically significant. A significant decrease in mobility and gingival index was observed. .
Conclusion: Amnion membrane is an effective treatment option for the reconstruction of periodontal intrabony defects as it led to statistically significant improvements in the clinical and radiographic parameters.

Immediate Implant Placement After Extraction of Mandibular molars: Report of 3 cases

Dr Chandni; Dr Rajneesh Parimoo .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2353-2361

Immediate dental implant placement has been an acceptable procedure for at least the past two decades. Commonly, immediate implants have been reserved for the single rooted anterior tooth and single or bi- rooted premolar tooth. Perhaps the most important aspect of any implant surgery in accordance with the successful procedure is implant stability and bone to implant contact (BIC). Removal of molar teeth provides a challenging and intriguing dilemma due to multiple root morphology. In the case of extraction and immediate placement of dental implants preserving alveolar bone proper, particularly that of the labial and lingual plates of bone is essential in providing the optimal environment for maximizing BIC and implant stability. Also, the position of the final restoration must be considered, in relation to intra and inter arch position, occlusion, function and esthetics. Thus, minimal alveolar bone removal should be considered and attained to aid in the above factors in order to provide an acceptable surgical site for successful placement of the dental implant. Finally, and perhaps most importantly when considering immediate molar implant placement, removal of the intra-alveolar septum should be avoided to aid in increasing BIC and allowing the attainment of initial implant stability at the time of placement.

Mobile Dental Clinics- A Review

Dr.Rajbinder Kaur; Dr.Vedika Verma; Dr.Priyanka Sharma; Dr.Ripujit Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2362-2365

Conventional strategies, such as building of dental clinics or, hospitals, or the provision of outreach services by using disposable materials, are neither practical nor effective in rural settings.(4) Mobile Dental Clinic have been proposed as an alternative strategy to supplement the traditional oral healthcare in many regions. They have usually been utilized in school-based oral health programs, providing dental care to the homeless or migrants, and screening programs for the population for various oral diseases. Due to their high mobility, mobile dental vehicle are particularly valuable for the underserved populations living in rural areas. The advance of dental devices enables mobile dental vehicle to be operated in a self-sufficient manner.  Mobile Dental Vehicle providing a variety of dental treatments, including scaling, restoration, and oral surgery. This article discusses the use of Mobile Dental Vehicle in receiving oral healthcare.(2) This review highlights the features of a typical mobile dental clinic.(3)and  confirms  mobile dental system is a viable means providing essential dental service and an effective oral health delivery system, especially in a developing country like India(4)

Esthetic Rehabilitation of Traumatically Fractured Anterior Tooth with Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite Post and Core- A Case Report

Dr. Arunima Guru; Dr. Ruchika Goyal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2366-2371

The fracture of anterior teeth caused due to trauma is the most frequent type of injury in permanent dentition, especially among children and adolescents. The most commonly involved teeth are the maxillary central incisors because of their exposed position in the dental arch. Traumatized teeth require a quick functional and esthetic repair. Anterior crown fractures lead to psychological, esthetic, functional and phonetic problems that can affect social relationships and poses a challenge for the dentist to save these teeth. There is a loss of structural integrity, moisture and reduction in dentin toughness in endodontically treated teeth which necessitates special care during the treatment. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth should aim at replacing the missing tooth structure, maintain function, esthetics and protect against fracture and infection.  This clinical case report presents the use of Glass Fiber–Reinforced Composite Post and Core for restoration of traumatically fractured permanent right maxillary central incisor in a 16yearold female patient. Post-retained crowns are indicated for endodontically treated teeth with severely damaged coronal tissue. Metallic custom made and prefabricated posts have been used over the years. However, due to unacceptable color, extreme rigidity and corrosion, fiber posts were introduced. These are flexible, aesthetically pleasing and have modulus of elasticity comparable to that of dentine.

Correction of Malaligned Maxillary Anterior Teeth during Mixed Dentition Period using 2 x 4 Appliance: An Esthetic Makeover

Dr. Arunima Guru; Dr. Shiminder Kallar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2372-2376

The correction of malpositioned teeth in the mixed-dentition is a challenging task. If not done correctly it can be detrimental to the developing dentition and increase the probability of a complex orthodontic treatment in future. Factors such as severity of the malocclusion, patient’s compliance, availability of bone and space, type of treatment appliance used may dictate the success of treatment. The 2 × 4 orthodontic appliance has shown to produce a positive effect with de-rotation of the rotated/ malpositioned teeth and bringing them into correct arch alignment. Use of this appliance also eliminates the detrimental effects to the developing dentition and enhances patient’s smile with confidence. The 2x4 appliance consists of four brackets bonded on permanent maxillary incisors; bands with buccal tubes cemented onpermanent maxillary first molars and a continuous arch wire. It has advantages over conventional techniques such as it provides total control of anterior toothposition, does not require any adjustment, allows precise and rapid positioning of the teeth and is very well accepted by the patient. This article illustrates the use of 2 x 4 appliance for correcting malocclusion in maxillary anterior teeth during mixed dentition period. The results achieved were satisfactory in regard to the esthetic demands of the patient as well as parents.

Botulinum toxin: A review article

Himani Kapila; Anu Sharma; Priyanka Sharma .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2377-2380

Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In large amounts, this toxin can cause botulism, an illness that affects the nerves. Botox has been used since the 1970s in the field of ophthalmology, and in the last 20 years, its use has expanded to various health scopes, especially dermatology.1,2
Botox consists of 7 types of neurotoxins; however, only toxins A and B are used clinically. Botox A is used for several disorders in the field of medicine, particularly in dermatology, for cosmetic purposes.3 The first type of Botox introduced to the market was on a botulinum toxin A. In 2002, it was recommended to be used as a cosmetic treatment for glabellar frown lines by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).2,4,5 The second formulation   of on a botulinum toxin A, which was produced in France, obtained its license to be used for esthetic purposes from the European Union in 2006 and was approved by the FDA in 2009.5,6 Botox type A has become a term used by the society to describe all ingredients used in cosmetic treatments.7 
Botox injections can be used to treat glabellar frown lines, wrinkles around the lips (smoker’s lines) and marionette lines, platysmal bands in the neck, strabismus, blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, hyperhidrosis as well as synkinesis following facial surgery.1,2,9

Child abuse and neglect: A review

Dr.Pragati Poddar; Dr.Sumit Singla; Dr.Abhishek Dhindsa; Dr. Jairaj .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2381-2385

Child abuse, a reprehensible act, pervades all strata of society. It has increased dramatically over the last decade.The awareness regarding the same has been minimal in the developing countries.Dentists especially the pediatric dentists are more likely to encounter cases of child abuse in their clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions.A precocious assessment and diagnosis of child abuse, in a dental practice, could considerably contribute in the identificationof violence cases in an early intervention. The pediatric caregivers and other dental caregivers should be encouraged tocollaborate to increase the prevention, detection, and treatment of these conditions in children.

Systemic antibiotics and periodontitis: An overview

Kanika Singla; Rajneesh Parimoo; Chitra .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2386-2390

Periodontal pathogens frequently colonize oral mucosa, tongue dorsum, tonsils and other domains and may translocate from non-periodontal sites to periodontal crevices. Systemic antibiotic therapy is administered to reinforce mechanical periodontal treatment and support the host defense system in overcoming the infection by killing subgingival pathogens that remain after conventional mechanical periodontal therapy. Combination antibiotic therapy may help broaden the antimicrobial range of the therapeutic regimen beyond that attained by any single antibiotic.

Forensic Odontology And Its Role In Medico-Legal Affairs

Dr. Ruchika Goyal; Dr. Adish Goyal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2391-2395

Forensic odontology is an evolving science with a greater scope of development. It has established as an indispensable science in medico‑legal matters and in the identification of the dead person. Identification of human remains is essential for various reasons including legal, criminal, humanitarian and social grounds. The dental tissues are often preserved even if the deceased person is skeletonized, decomposed, burnt, or dismembered. Various methods have been developed to determine age, sex, and ethnicity of the person, using dental tissues.  This article provides an overview of the conventional forensic methods and also provides an insight into the recent concepts used in this field.

Gingival Retraction- A Prosthodontic Review

Dr. Bhupinderpal Singh; Dr. Sahira Sandhu; Dr. Priyanka Thareja; Dr. Ramandeep Kaur; Dr.Rajbinder Kaur; Dr. Lovedeep Singla .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2396-2401

Fixed dental prosthesis success requires appropriate impression taking of the prepared finish line. This is critical in either tooth supported fixed prosthesis (crown and bridge) or implant supported fixed prosthesis (solid abutment). If the prepared finish line is adjacent to the gingival sulcus, gingival retraction techniques should be used to decrease the marginal discrepancy among the restoration and the prepared abutment. Accurate marginal positioning of the restoration in the prepared finish line of the abutment is required for therapeutic, preventive and aesthetic purposes.1This article discusses the current methods that are applied for displacement of gingival tissues so that adequate amount of unprepared tooth structure can be recorded with least distortion of impression material as well as minimal damage to attachment apparatus of the tooth.2

Interceptive orthodontics – A review article

Himanikapila; Anu Sharma; Priyanka Sharma .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2402-2405

The American Assosiation of Orthodontists (1969) defined interceptive orthodontics as that phase of science and art of orthodontics employed to recognize and eliminate the potential irregularities and mal positions in the developing dentofacial complex. Profitt and Ackermann (1980) defined interceptive orthodontics as the elimination of existing interferences with the key factors involved in the development of the dentition.14%-49% of children are reported to benefit from interceptive management1,2. King et al3 in 2010 concluded that interceptive orthodontics is effective in reducing the malocclusion even though it does not produce finished quality results. 57% of children are present with an anomaly during the transition phase from deciduous to mixed dentition. In view of the greater number of malalignments in the deciduous and mixed dentition there is an increased need for preventive and interceptive orthodontic therapy4 .

Endodontic failures: A review

Dr.Pragati Poddar; Dr.Sumit Singla; Dr.Abhishek Dhindsa; Dr.Shivani Targotra; Dr. Sulekha Manhas; Dr.MrinalKalhuria .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2406-2414

The key factors that help to save a pulpally involved tooth in the dental arch are the the accurate diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases of pulp. However, the root canal system anatomy plays a remarkable role in endodontic success and failure. Other factors such as instrumentation technique, proper mechanical debridement, obturating materials and techniques, irrigants, root canal morphology, root resorption, coronal leakage and follow up period also play an important role for the success of the treatment. Sometimes, despite an ideal root canal treatment, failures do occur. This paper reviews the endodontic failures and the factors associated with it in order to help in increasing the chances of preventing the possible endodontic treatment failures.

Maxillary antrolith: A case report

Dr.Yuvika Mittal; Dr.Tejveer Singh, Dr.Mehak .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2415-2418

Introduction: Formation of calcified bodies in various organs is not uncommon but their occurrence in maxillofacial region is not a routine. Maxillary antrolith refers to a mineralized mass in the maxillary sinus either of exogenous or endogenous origin. Case Report: A case of maxillary antrolith in a 65-year-old edentulous male is presented here who complained of nasal blockage, headache and recurrent attacks of common cold from past many years. Computed tomography revealed right maxillary antrolith formation. Surgical exploration of the maxillary sinus was done and the calcified mass was removed. Histopathological analysis revealed a calcium deposition around a necrotic mass.

Nanotechnology: A Novel approach in dentistry

Ajay Pal Singh Kataria; Gagandeep Arora .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2419-2422

Nanotechnology is the study of manipulating matter on atomic and molecular level, which provides a novel and possibly superior approach for the identification of oral diseases and also in designing of more biocompatible dental materials and techniques useful in dental practice. The present article discusses the use of nanotechnology in dentistry and also the latest innovations in oral health care, nanoincorporated products, and issues of patient safety and occupational health.

Prevalence of oral habits among preschool children of Ludhiana City

Dr Prachi Kakria; Dr Shaila; Dr. Navneet Singh Randhawa .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2423-2427

Aim: To access the Prevalence of oral habits among preschool children of Ludhiana City. Settings and Design: Study was conducted on pre-schoolers of Ludhiana city. Total 1600 parents of preschoolers were given questionnaire regarding oral habits.Methods and Material: In the present cross-sectional study, 1600 questionnaires were distributed to the parents/caregivers. The parents/caregivers were included in the study whose children were 3-5 years of age and with primary dentition and no history of orthodontic treatment.Statistical analysis used: The data collected was subjected to descriptive analysis. Results:The present study showed that the prevalence of oral habits among pre-school children in Ludhiana city was 31.9%. No significant difference was found on the basis of gender and sex (p-value≥0.05).Conclusions: Present study showed that nail biting showed highest prevalence rate and tongue thrusting was least common oral habit.

Oral health problems in children with autism spectrum disorders

Dr Prachi Kakria; Dr.Shinaz Mittal; Dr.Navneet Singh Randhawa; Dr.Tamanna Malik .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2428-2433

Autism disorder (AD) was first identified by Leo Kanner, an American child psychologist, in 1943..The oral hygiene of autistic patients has been found to be poorer than that of non-autistic patients.Some of the common oral conditions seen in patients with ASD are dental caries; periodontal diseases, in particular gingivitis and dental trauma. Other oral health problems seen in autistic children includes bruxism,oro-facial trauma,suft tissue injury.  Preventive dental care like fluoride application,dentalsealents, preventive restorative treatment can be practiced to maintain a good oral hygiene.Oral hygiene maintenance and preventive dental treatment should be emphasized by the dental practioners.

Halitosis- A Review

Dr. Vedika Verma; Dr. Rajbinder Kaur; Dr. Priyanka Sharma; Dr. Jasveer Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2434-2438

Breath Odor can be defined as the subjective perception after smelling someone's breath. It can be pleasant, unpleasant, or even disturbing, if not repulsive. If unpleasant, the terms breath malodor, halitosis, or bad breath can be applied.
Breath malodor should not be confused with the momentarily disturbing odor caused by food intake (e.g., garlic) or smoking because these odors do not reveal a health problem. The same is true for "morning" bad breath, as habitually experienced on awakening. This malodor is caused by decreased salivary flow during the night and spontaneously disappears after breakfast or oral hygiene. A persistent breath malodor, by definition, does reflect some pathology.1

Phonetics in complete dentures

Dr.Sarvesh; Dr. Raksha Singla; Dr. Ranjana Kumari; Dr.Ripujit Kaur; Dr.Avrinder Singh; Dr. Archana Queen .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2439-2444

Speech is a learned function that requires adequately developed nervous system, clear vision and hearing ability. Failure in development of any of these systems or the components involved in the production of speech will result in defective phonation. A prosthesis fabricated for a patient should be mechanically functional, esthetically pleasing and should allow proper phonation . Therefore, a prosthesis should be fabricated in such a way that it does not hinder speech. A clinician may often come across situations where prosthodontic treatment is required to correct the speech. A prosthodontist, therefore must have a good understanding of production of speech and the various components of speech. This review article presents the importance of phonetics in complete denture patients.

Probiotics in Dentistry- Review and Outlook

Dr. Ruchika Goyal; Dr. Arunima Guru; Dr. Adish Goyal; Dr. Shinaz Mittal4 .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2445-2449

The field of probiotics is an evolving field. Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts. Probiotics have been found to be beneficial to the host health by improving the endogenous flora. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gastrointestinal tract, however recently several investigators have suggested use of probiotics for oral health.

School dental health: Review and outlook

Dr. Shinaz Mittal; Dr. Prachi Kakria; Dr. Ruchika Goyal; Dr.Navneet Singh Randhawa .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2450-2457

Schools are great places to allow strong links between health and education. Therefore, supporting all schools to become “Oral Health Promoting Schools” can be very effective model for improving the overall health outcomes of students in developing countries. Thus, health education, including oral health, is in the curriculum for many primary schools as a “Health Promoting Schools” network that exists in few coun­tries which provides a structure for an integrated approach to oral health1,2.School health is an important branch of community health. Children are often the most important victims of dental diseases

Immediate loading basal implants for Full‑mouth rehabilitation in a severally periodontally compromised patient: A case report

Dr. Vinit Kumar; Dr. Chandni .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2458-2462

The aim of this article was to study a case report of full mouth rehabilitation in a patient with periodontally compromised teeth with basal implants. Theses implants were loaded immediately with cement retained fixed prosthesis. Bone loss was measured immediately and after 6 months. 100% result was obtained and not even a single implant loosening occurred. These implants can be loaded immediately because these are placed in thick cortical bone which does not resorb whole life. These implants can be placed in bone deficient region after bypassing the nerve and thus avoiding secondary bone augumentation procedures. 

Road traffic accidents: An overview

Amandeep Singh; Ripujit Kaur; Namita Deka; Manjot Singh; Rajbinder; Shaon Marwaha .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2463-2467

Road traffic injuries have emerged as a significant public health issue in many low and middle income countries in recent years. Approximately 1.3 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes. In India, the number of road accidents in the city rose from 796 in 2020 to 874 in 2021.Road crash injury is common among the young aged population leading to premature deaths. Road traffic accidents can cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Road traffic accidents are a result of an interaction among different factors which include the environment, vehicle and the human being. Traditionally road traffic accidents were considered unpredictable, inevitable and not preventable. But road traffic accidents are indeed predictable and preventable in majority of the cases.This just requires the knowledge of factors contributing and leading to road traffic accidents. There are certain preventive measures which if adopted can lead to decrease in morbidity and mortality resulting from RTA.

Selfitis – An Emerging Psychological Disorder In Youth Population Of Punjab

Deepak Narang; Renu; Ajay Pal; Gagan Arora; Gurpreet Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2468-2472

Introduction - Photography is seen as a powerful means of expression, as a symbolic language to express what cannot be said in words, and as a stimulator of emotions and behaviors about which often are not aware. The term the word "selfie", is declared as the "word of the year" by the Oxford English Dictionary. Selfie fever has taken a new dimension known as ‘selfitis’.
Aim and objectives - To assess the selfitis behaviour and level of the selfie syndrome and find out significant association of selected background variables with selfie syndrome (level of selfitis) among youth population in Punjab.
Methodology - It is a descriptive cross sectional study carried out among the youth population of Punjab from age group 18 - 30  years who visited the out patient department of Deshbhagat hospital, Punjab.
This study was conducted during the year of 2020 among 200 youth population who were selected by using convenience sampling. A Self structured questionnaire on Selfitis behavior scale and structured questionnaire used to collect the data from participants.
Results – The findings showed  that 70% of study subjects suffering from acute selfitis, whereas 20% chronic and 10% borderline. Among them 80% like to take selfies sometimes, 11% rarely and 9% regularly take selfies
Conclusion - The findings demonstrate that the majority of study subjects had borderline level of selfitis basically termed as behavioural addiction. The findings are an issue of concern, as such uncontrolled desire can cause varied psychological consequences that may also lead to selfie-deaths in adolescents.

Children with special health care needs: A review

Dr.Sumit Singla; Dr.Pragati Poddar; Dr.Abhishek Dhindsa; Dr. Jairaj .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2473-2476

The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) recognizes that providing both primary andcomprehensive preventive and therapeutic oral health care to individuals with special health care needs (SHCN)is an integral part of the specialty of pediatric dentistry. Oral health care is the most common unmet need in the children with special needs.The dental condition of children with special health care needs (SHCN) may be directly or indirectlyassociated with their disabilities. Children with SHCN relatively have poor oral hygiene and increased prevalence of gingivaldiseases and dental caries. Parents of disabled children may face problems in providing dental treatment to their children as they might have theburden of medical treatment. The management of children with special health care needs(SHCN) requires specialized knowledge and training, increased awareness, accommodative measures, and resources.

Age dependent addiction among smokeless tobacco users in Punjab population using fagerstorm nicotine dependence scale

Deepak Narang; Renu; Ajay Pal; Gagan Arora; Gurpreet Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2477-2481

Background: Smokeless tobacco e including products that are chewed, snuffed, or placed between the teeth and gum rather than smoked by the user e is highly addictive and has been linked with numerous health outcomes, including cardiovascular mortality, many types of cancer. Smokeless tobacco use has been associated with a number adverse health outcomes in India and across South Asia.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study of patients at a dental hospital in Punjab who undergoing tobacco cessation counselling, was conducted between January and June 2019. Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire to all patients receiving regular dental care regarding their demographic information, data about the use of smokeless tobacco. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the six-item Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Scale, adapted for smokeless tobacco. At baseline, the modified dependence scale was administered to the participants and a saliva sample was collected to measure cotinine.
Results: The subjects for this study included 100 males who were recruited for a tobacco cessation intervention that involved a visit with a dentist and advice to quit smoking during the exam. High nicotine dependence was associated with a younger age of initiation of smokeless tobacco use and with frequency of use, with those who reported daily use having an excess risk of high nicotine dependence of 14% (95% CI: 2%, 27%). The correlation between the total score and salivary cotinine was moderate among the ST users (r = 0.35), Among ST users, the coefficient alpha was 0.39; 
Conclusion: To reduce dependence on smokeless tobacco in India and subsequent adverse health outcomes, interventions should emphasize a combination of policy and public health interventions focused on increasing the age at which a person initially uses smokeless tobacco and decreasing the frequency of use.

Traumatic dental injury and its management

Dr.Sumit Singla; Dr.Pragati Poddar; Dr.Abhishek Dhindsa; Dr.Tushar Korotania; Dr. Jairaj .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2482-2488

Traumatic dental injury is one of the most severe dental injuries, and a prompt and correct emergency treatment while ensuring accurate diagnosis, treatment planning and regular follow up are very important to assure a favourable outcome.The treatment of choice for an immature permanent non-vital tooth with Ellis Class 3 fracture is apexification. The gold standard medicament for apexification is calcium hydroxide although recently considerable interest has been expressed in the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). This case report presents management of a patient with Ellis class 3 fracture in the maxillary anterior teeth amongst which one of the tooth i.e., 21 had undergone avulsion within a month of apexification, which was reimplanted and had a positive outcome on one year follow up.

Role Of Diffusion-Weighted Mri With Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (Adc) Calculation In Chronic Liver Diseases And Fatty Liver

Dr. Vanshita Gupta, Dr. Pratiksha Yadav, Dr. Purnachnadra Lamghare, Nerella Krishna Teja, Dr. Vishal Nandkishor Bakare .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2489-2500

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Diffusion-weighted MRI with Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculation in fatty liver and chronic liver diseases.
Methods: The study was conducted at Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital and Research Centre in Pimpri, Pune from September 2020 to July 2022. There were 25 cases and 25 controls in the study.
Results:. The mean liver ADC value among cases vs controls was found to 901.48±79x10-6mm2/sec vs. 1238±107x10-6mm2/sec respectively concluding that when compared to the Control group, the mean ADC among Case group was significantly lower. The mean ADC liver among F0 was 1238.72±107.611, F1 was 990.00±24.259, F2 was 926.71±37.326, F3 was 898.20±75.80 and F4 was 826.13±61.98 using MRI elastography-based staging and grading. Mean ADC value decreased with increase in staging of fibrosis maximum sensitivity and specificity were reported for the Non-fibrotic (F0) vs Cirrhosis (F4) with 95.8% and 82.5% respectively with a cut-off value of 1043.50. ADC values showed best performance for discriminating non-fibrotic (F0) from cirrhotic(F4) stage. Lower performance was observed for discriminating differentiate low-stage fibrosis (F1 and F2) from high-stage fibrosis (F3 and F4). The comparison of mean ADC liver between Case group and Control group using the unpaired t-test showed mean ADC liver was significantly reduced among Case group compared to Control group.
Conclusion: The findings of our research demonstrate that hepatic ADC values demonstrated good diagnostic performance to discriminate non fibrotic from cirrhotic liver. This crucial in the determining early stages of the illness while there is still a chance that it can be aborted and reversed. Detection of advanced stages played pivotal role, for screening for hepatocellular carcinoma or other forms of malignancy in cirrhotic patients.

“SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SALICYLIC ACID AND LACTIC ACID IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY USING HPTLC”

Kaustubh Naikawadi, Mrs. Jyoti Kadam, Dr. Ganesh Andhale, Dr. Madhuri Shelar, Dr. Sonia Singh, Mr. Makarand Puri .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2501-2512

A simple, accurate and precise high-performance thin layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of Salicylic acid (SA) and Lactic acid (LA) in their combined liquid dosage form has been developed. The method employed thin layer chromatographic aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 as the stationary phase and chloroform: formic acid: methanol (8.5: 1:0.5 v/v/v) as mobile phase. Chromatographic analysis was carried out in the reflectance/absorbance mode at 229 nm. The method was validated with respect to linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation and applied for analysis of SA and LA in combined dosage form. The Rf values were found to be 0.285 ± 1.922 and 0.688 ± 1.094 for SA and LA, respectively. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed a linear relationship in the concentration range 200-1200 ng/band with correlation coefficient 0.9983 for SA and 200-1200 ng/band with correlation coefficient 0.998 for LA. The proposed method can be applied for routine analysis of dosage form containing SA and LA in combination.

CLINICO-ETIOLOGIC PROFILE OF THE CRITICALLY ILL GERIATRIC PATIENTS ADMITTED TO THE MICU: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Dr. S.A. Kanitkar, Dr. Bobba Rohil Krishna, Dr. Nirali Thakkar, Dr Akshata Borle .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2513-2519

Aim: To study the clinico-etiologic profile of the critically ill geriatric patients admitted to the MICU.
Materials and Methods: The present prospective observational study was conducted on 100 patients of age 60 years and above with dysfunction of at least two organ systems, admitted in medical intensive care unit of Dr DY Patil Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune during the period from OCTOBER 2020– SEPTEMBER 2022. When determining the severity of a critical disease, the SOFA score system is utilized, and this evaluation takes place both upon admission and after 48 hours have passed.
Results: Majority of the male and female patients were in the age group 60-69 years followed by 70-79 years and >80 years. The mean TLC is 18069.0 (SD ±9690.35441), mean CRP is 39.76176 (SD ±7.00), mean ESR is 20.82028 (SD ±11.00) and the mean urea is 45.70459(SD ±20.00). The mean direct bilirubin is 3.11292±5.22386, mean ALT is 218.0900±364.13262, mean AST is 185.7400±336.44123, mean ALP is 167.5500±101.13980, mean INR is 1.6261±0.63524 and the mean APTT is 33.9960±9.44580. Majority of the patients were having myocardial infarction (23%) followed by Cirrhosis Liver (18%), chronic kidney disease (17%), Pneumonia (12%), Ischemic Stroke (10%), Hemorrhagic Stroke (6%) and 3% in Bacterial Meningitis & Pyelonephritis. The mean SOFA score at admission and 48 hours were 5.73 ±3.36 and 6.2 ± 4.06 respectively. The mean value of Delta SOFA score was 0.47±3.00.

HYPERTENSION MEDICATION ADHERENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN ADULT HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS

Dr. Abhi Patel, Dr. Sarita Mulkalwar, Dr. Krushal Pabari, Dr. A. V. Tilak, Dr. B. T. Rane .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2520-2528

Background: The inability to effectively regulate high blood pressure makes it the most difficult public health issue in the world. For better blood pressure control, medication adherence is crucial.Treatment adherence can be influenced by various factors like patient behaviour, the presence of comorbid illnesses, awareness of the disease severity, and also factors like patients’ age, gender, and education level. To improve treatment adherence, it is important to comprehend the factors that affect patient adherence.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the level of medication adherence in hypertensive patients and to determine the factors associated with it.
Methods: All adults who were diagnosed as hypertensive patients for more than one month and willing to participate in the study were included in this study, however pregnant mothers and lactating women were excluded. Patients’ medication adherence was noted by using Morisky Green Levine Medication Adherence Scale (MGL).
Results: Out of 217 patients, 78 (35.94%) had high adherence, while 55 (25.35%) had low adherence, patients’ forgetful nature was a major factor (57.60%) contributing to low adherence. High adherence was noted in, females (43.14%); in patints age <30 years (43.33%), with postgraduate education (48.28%), checking blood pressure monthly (51.61%), taking medication for >5 years (49.02%), without any comorbidity (57.47%) and in patients who were aware of complications of hypertension (41.44%).
Conclusion: Patients’ forgetful naturewas more responsible for low adherence than their carelessness.Patients’ education level has a significant impact on medication adherence. Patients’ awareness of their blood pressure level and complications of hypertension makes them more adherent to treatment.

STUDY OF CHANGES IN RETINAL NERVE FIBRE LAYER THICKNESS BY OCT AND ITS CORRELATION WITH VISUAL FUNCTIONS IN CASES OF OPTIC NEURITIS

Dr. Neha Chaudhary, Dr Yurica Moirangthem, Dr Shailaja Anand, Dr Shashi Prabha Prasad .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2529-2538

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate & compare changes in retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFL) thickness in cases of optic neuritis and to correlate it with visual function changes in Indian patients.
Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out at a tertiary care facility over the course of September 2020 to August 2022. The written as well as informed consent was taken from all the patients who participated in the present study.
Results: In the present study, there were more females 53.33% as compared to males 46.7%. Majority of the patients 36.66% in 41-50 age group followed by 13.33% in 31-40 age group. 16.66% patients were in 20-30 and 51-60 age groups. The majority of the affected eyes in the current research, or 60% of them, had vision between 6/36 - 6/18.
Conclusion:  In the current study, the mean baseline RNFL thickness, gradually reduced from 4 weeks to 3 months. The diffuse depression had reduced post the intervention, none of the participants had diffuse or localised depression at 3 month follow up. The optic disc edema in acute anterior neuritis is confirmed by OCT, which is reflected as a thickening of the RNFL even in subclinical cases. The RNFL thickness is a reliable indicator of neurological and visual impairment. 16.6% affected eyes in the present study had intact colour vision and 83.34% had impaired colour vision.

A CASE OF GIANT LIVER ABSCESS

Dr. Nikhila Phadnis, Dr. Govind Shiddapur, Dr. Nidhi Rana, Dr. Prateek Harsh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2539-2543

Liver abscesses can be tricky to diagnose, with varying etiologies. As seen in this case of a 40-year-old male, who presented with pain abdomen and vomiting. A contrast scan revealed a giant hepatic abscess, with an impending perforation. A percutaneous drain was immediately inserted. Over the course of four months, the abscess was drained completely.

CRUVEILHIER BAUMGARTEN SYNDROME - RARE CAUSE OF UMBILICAL HERNIA IN LIVER CIRRHOSIS - ROLE OF RADIOLOGICAL IMAGING

Dr Sanjay M Khaladkar, Dr Satvik Dhirawani, Dr Dileep Reddy Ayapaneni, Dr Sai Sabari Vinay Kumar Parripati, Dr Tejvir Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2544-2554

Umbilical hernia with dilated paraumbilical collateral vein as its content is rare. Diagnosing this condition is extremely crucial as rupture of the herniated umbilical vein during herniorrhaphy in a patient with ascites can be a fatal complication. Here we are reporting a case of a 37-year-old male who presented with complaints of abdominal distension, hematemesis, umbilical hernia with pulsations felt over the herniated sac. On ultrasonography, features of liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension and umbilical hernia with a herniated dilated vessel showing venous waveform on Doppler were seen. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) showed signs of liver parenchymal disease and dilated left paraumbilical vein coursing just beneath the anterior abdominal wall towards umbilicus with herniation through the umbilical hernia. Porto-systemic collaterals from this were then seen to be draining into right common femoral vein. Looking at the clinical and radiological features – diagnosis of Cruveilhier Baumgarten syndrome was observed. 

Assessment of Results of Distal Femur Fracture Fixation with A Lateral Locked Plate

Azeem Jabbar, Samarth Manjunath, Abdul Rasheem, Jayakrishnan S, R.C Krishna Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2555-2558

Background: To assess results of distal femur fracture fixation with a lateral locked plate.
Materials and Methods: Seventy- six adult patients of distal femur fracture of both genders were treated with distal femur locking plate. Parameters such as muller classification, HSS score, average time to union (months), average range of flexion (degree), knee score (mean), functional score (mean) and complications were recorded.
Results: Out of 76 patients, males were 46 and females were 30. Muller typeA1 was seen in 29 A3 in 15, C1 in 20 and C2 in 10 patients. The mean knee score was 96.2, mean functional score was 92.5, average time to union was 3.4 months and average range of flexion was 112.4 degrees. HSS was excellent in 58, good in 12, fair in 6. Complications were wound infection in 2 and 4 and non- union in 1 patient. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: Lateral locking plate was best choice for management of distal femur fractures

A REVIEW ON POLY CYSTIC OVARIAN DISORDER AND TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY IN WOMEN

Mrs. Foram Bhatt Dr.Chintan Aundhia Ms. Nirzari Antani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2559-2569

-Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex disorder for which multiple treatment approaches are required, depending on the reason a patient seeks treatment. Its deal with pregnancy with pcos and how to cure, commonly treatment and medication which are used for pcos, infertility will affect women pregnancy and cure how to give hormonal therapy and alternative remedies for pcos like diet excessive, insulin resistance, pills or surgical , Clomiphene has shown the best results in treating infertility, whereas data are limited regarding the pharmacological treatment of androgenic symptoms. Long-term consequences of PCOS, which include type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, can be treated with antidiabetic drugs and statins. Pcos inflammable to tissue and pathophysiology of pcos

A RESEARCH ON PIPERINE LOADED NANO SIZED-PARTICLES NANO GEL FOR THE TREATMENT OF SKIN CANCER: DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECTS

Mrs.Foram Bhatt, Dr.Arti bagada , Ms.Hiral manani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2570-2593

In this present investigation piperine loaded nanogel for skin cancer was formulated by using piperine, carbopol, sodium tripolyphosphate
Method
Piperine loaded Nanogel is formulated by Ion gelation method using stpp, chitosan and it is evaluated by Entrapment efficiency, particle size analyzer, zeta potential,  effect of particle size,  Fourier- transformed infrared spectroscopy, screening electron microscopy, ex Vivo permeation study, box behnken design, regression analysis, formulation of nanoparticles, incorporation into transdermal nanogel and evaluated by physical examination drug content, extrudability, spreadibility, in Vivo study, washablity, stability study of gel, in Vivo dissolution, drug diffusion study
Result
Stiring time, sodium sulfate concentration, stiring speed, effect influence the particle size and instrument efficiency formulation percentage drug release particle size in a range of 0 to 200 NM where obtained data potential is 3.2 mv which can show good storage time for nanoparticles approx 10 months poly dispersity index was 0.152 which is below 1 was acceptable range Entrapment efficiency was 95% training electron microscopy show spherical shape of nanoparticles obtained Nanogel so 87% of drug release no skin irritation for physical examination  consistency, wash ability, spread ability, drug content, stability study, in vitro drug release, in Vivo drug release, ex Vivo drug release where in acceptable range
Conclusion
Clear nanogel is obtained by physical examination for topical drug delivery system and drug bioavailability enhanced for 30% in market it was enhanced up to 85% current work can be useful for successful preparation and evaluation of Nanogel for treatment of skin cancer

Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) From Marine Actinobacterium Of Actinomadura Sp.T3S5 And Their Antioxidative Potential

Jabeen Nazurudeen, Sivaperumal Pitchiah, Gayatri devi R, Pasiyappazham Ramasamy .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2594-2600

The aim of the present investigationwas plan to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Extracellular Polymeric substances (EPS)from the marine actinobacterium of Actinomadura sp.T3S5. Marine actinobacteria organisms are potentially known for antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, insecticidal and enzyme inhibitory activities. The extracts identified some of the major phenolic compounds, which might be responsible for the antioxidant potential and cyto-protection. This primary study was to examine whether EPS from Marine Actinobacterium of Actinomadura has potentially to show in vitro antioxidant property.The antioxidant potential of Extracellular polymeric substance was tested by DPPH, Total antioxidant assay and scavenging of nitric oxide assay. The antioxidant activity by DPPH method (48%), inhibition of total antioxidant activity(59%), and Nitric oxide (47%). Marine actinobacterium of Actinomadura is greatly suggested for beneficial biomedical applications and in the development of new eco-friendly biomaterial for environmental cleanup. 

ANTI METASTATIC EFFECT OF PERGULARIA DAEMIA ON BREAST (MCF-7) CANCER CELL LINE

Aditya Mantri, Gayatri Devi.R, J.Selvaraj .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2601-2608

Background: Breast cancer develops as a result of genetic mutations or damage to DNA. On average only 35% women with advanced breast cancer are alive five year after diagnosis. However, search for new anticancer drugs for effective treatment is on as the plant- based system of medicine does not pose serious problems. So, the aim of this study is to analyze the antimetastatic effect of Pergularia daemia on Breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines
Materials and Methods: P.daemia was collected, powdered and Soxhlet extracted with 70% ethanol. It was then filtered and solvent evaporated to get a viscous mass, which was then stored at 4C until used.
Results: By optimizing the concentration of treated P.daemia it significantly decreases cell viability. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL show significant decrease in expression with higher concentration of P.daemia treated cells. A significant increase in the Caspase-3 mRNA activity was observed after incubation with the leaf extract of P.daemia.
Conclusion: Pergularia daemia exhibits antimetastatic effect on breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. The active component of P.daemia may promote the antimetastatic effect on breast cancer cell lines.

INFLUENCE OF MYRICETIN AND PIPERINE ON ABSORBABLE SUTURE.

Deepika R,Rubin S John ,Dr. S. Rajalakshmanan eswaramoorthy,Dr. Anju Cecil .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2609-2619

AIM: To find the influence of myricetin and piperine on absorbable  
Introduction
Piperine is an alkaloid present in black pepper (Piper nigrum), one of the most widely used spices.Piperine displays numerous pharmacological effects in which its antioxidant effect is significant.Myricetin is one of the vital constituents of different human food sources and refreshments including vegetables, teas and natural products, and is perceived principally for antioxidant property and hostile to inflammatory. Myricetin is an individual from the flavonoid class of polyphenolic compounds commonly seen in clove.It has high antioxidant activity.
 MATERIALS AND METHODS :
100 mg of black pepper is used to obtain the piperine extract. Myricetin extract is prepared using guava leaves. Both the extracts were taken and PGA and vicryl were cut and immersed in  for 6 hrs followed by air dry .The standards used here were ascorbic acid for antioxidant and diclofenac for anti inflammatory properties respectively.
Results and discussion:
From the data analysed the results stated that myricetin and piperine has good synergistic effect in case of anti inflammatory effect .But interactions of myricetin and piperine has negative effect in case of anti oxidant effect.                    
CONCLUSION
Thus it is clear that combination of   containing piperine and myricetin coated sutures can be helpful in faster healing .SEM analysis and tensile strength was planned for future prospects of the study.

Assessment of Outcome of Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Dinulal PP, Mubashir D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2620-2624

Background: To assess outcome of management of diabetic foot ulcer.
Materials and Methods: One hundred ten patients of diabetic foot ulcer of both genders were enrolled. Parameters such as Wagner's classification, type of operations performed were recorded. Previous history of diabetes, wound healing, ulcers and boils in other part of the body were recorded. D.
Results: Out of 110 patients, males were 65 (59%) and females were 45 (40%). Wagner classification grade 0 was seen in 6, grade 1 in 8, grade 2 in 14, grade 3 in 26, grade 4 in 30 and grade 5 in 26 patients. Clinical presentation was gangrene seen in 20, cellulitis in 30 and ulcer in 60 patients. Bacteria    isolated were staphylococcus aureus in 72, Beta haemolytic streptococci in 16, gram negative organisms in 20 and anaerobic cocci in 2 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Management performed was incision and drainage in 10, amputation in 52, debridement in 26, transmetatarsal in 8, below knee amputation in 4 and above knee amputation in 10 patients. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Complete healing was observed in 68, outcome was unknown in 26 and patient death occurred in 2 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: The management of diabetic foot ulcers remains a major therapeutic challenge which implies an urgent need to review strategies and treatments in order to achieve the goals and reduce the burden of care in an efficient and cost-effective way. Grade 5, presence of ulcers and bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus and gram- negative organisms were major risk factors for the surgical management of diabetic foot ulcer.

Prevalence of Rota virus gastroenteritis among immunised and non immunised children below 5 years

Vidhya Shankari, Shajahan R A, Deepa S N, Anjali Ann Chacko, Ebin Roshan Paul, R.C. Krishna Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2625-2630

Background: To assess the prevalence of Rota virus gastroenteritis among immunised and unimmunised children below 5 years and to assess the prevalence of complications among Rotaviral gastroenteritis.
Materials and Methods: Eighty- six cases of gastroenteritis in children aged less than 5 years were enrolled and demographic data of each patient, immunization history, clinical history and other relevant information was collected. Stool collection was done and sample was processed in special media, Wilson blair and alkaline peptone water. All the samples were tested for Rota virus. Prevalence of complications in rotaviral gastroenteritis assessed using clinical examination and radiological and laboratory parameters.
Results: Out of 86 patients, Rota virus was seen in 46, parasites in 24, bacteria in 10 and unknown in 6 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Among the total 46 children with rotaviral gastroenteritis, 10 were immunised for rotavirus and 36 were unimmunised. The difference was statistically significant(P <0.05). There were 25 males and 21 females among Rota virus positive cases. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05) (Table II). Rota virus positive and Rota virus negative cases, duration of diarrhea was 0-4 days in 5 and 8, 5 days in 7 and 20, 6-7 days in 34 and 12. Vomiting was seen in 30 and 24. Duration of vomiting in days (1) was seen in 10 and 18, (2) in 22 and 12 and (3) in 14 and 10. Fever was seen in 34 and 15 and blood in stools seen in 20 and 10 cases . Dehydration was mild in 14 and 18, moderate in 6 and 10, severe in 10 and 8 and very severe in 16 and 4 respectively. Children with rotaviral gastroenteritis  had higher rate of intussusception presenting in 12 out of 46 children whereas children with non rotaviral gastroenteritis had only one case of intussusception among 40. The prevalence of complications was more in rotaviral gastroenteritis than others. The difference was significant (P< 0.05) (Table III, graph I).Duration of stay in the hospital was 10 days in average for rotaviral gastroenteritis when compared to other infectious causes where the stay was 5 days in average. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05).
Conclusion: There was high prevalence of Rota virus infection in  unimmunised children less than 5 years with gastroenteritis and the prevalence of complications were high among rotaviral affected children. In conclusion, rotaviral vaccination prevents gastroenteritis associated with severe complications which affect the quality of life in children below 5 years.

A STUDY OF ETIOLOGY AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF 6th CRANIAL NERVE PALSY

Dr. A. Aparna, Dr. Renu Magdum, Dr. Sindhu Kilari, Dr. Aditya Ganesh, Dr. Shivangi Bora, Dr. Saranya Burma .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2631-2638

Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical presentation and document the etiological factors in patients with ocular motor nerve palsy involving 6th cranial nerve.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care center in western India from September 2020 to October 2022 and33 consecutive patients presenting with cranial nerves were included in study from wards and opd in a tertiary care center and sample size was calculated according to win pepi method.
Results: The Mean±SD age of the patients were 50±15.7 years and the range were 11-78 years. Majority of the patients were males (51.5%), followed by females (48.5%). Left side was affected among 51.5%, while 48.5% had their right side affected. RTA was the most common in 6th nerve and hypertension (16%) were found as majority among the sixth nerve palsies. Majority of the patients had a visual acuity of 6/9 (15.2%) and 6/24p (12.1%).
Conclusion: Abducens was the most commonly involved nerve while trauma was most common etiology in our study. The most common cause for cranial nerve palsy was vascular i.e diabetes and hypertension. Therefore, early diagnosis and proper management of these systemic diseases can prevent ocular motor nerve palsies and its complications. Our study evaluated ptosis, diplopia, visual impairment, complete ophthalmoplegia, ocular deviation as some of the most common causes for ocular motor nerve palsies.

CORRELATION OF OCT DRIL CHANGES WITH VISUAL ACUITY IN CENTRE INVOLVING DIABETIC MACULAR OEDEMA PATIENTS

Dr. Shailaja Anand, Dr. Abhay Lune, Dr. (Col) O.K. Radhakrishnan, Dr. Yurica Moirangthem, Dr. Neha Chaudhary, Dr. Sudebi Roy, Dr. Varsha Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2639-2648

Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine whether disorganization of the retinal inner layers (DRIL), observed using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT), is predictive of Visual Acuity in eyes with centre involving Diabetic Macular Oedema (DME).
Methods: The Cross-Sectional Observation Study was conducted at Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical college, Pune from June 2020 to May 2022 and 100 eyes of 80 patients were included in the study.
Results: Out of the 100 participants involved in our study, majority of the study participants were males (67.5%). Remaining 32.5% of the patients were female. 100 eyes affected with DRIL (80 patients) were selected for the study. Of the 80 study participants, 60 patients (75%) had unilateral involvement of eye. The remaining 20 participants (25%) showed presence of DRIL in both the eyes. Type II Diabetes was the most common diabetes (72.5%) associated with changes of disorganization of retinal inner layers (DRIL). There was not much difference between the laterality of the involved eye with DRIL changes. As per the ETDRS classification of diabetic retinopathy class, majority of the patients with DRIL had moderate Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (moderate NPDR) (36%), while 24% reported PDR.

ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A RARE CASE OF 12-YEAR-OLD CHILD WITH CONGENITALLY CORRECTED TRANSPOSITION OF GREAT ARTERIES WITH A MIGRATED VP SHUNT

Dr. Priya, Dr. Kaushik Cherukuri, Dr. Arpith Shenava .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2649-2652

Congenitally Corrected- Transposition of Great Arteries is a rare congenital heart disease where double discordance occurs. It may present with associated cardiac anomalies. Children with CC-TGA get diagnosed usually at an early stage in their lives due to these associated anomalies. We report a diagnosed case of congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries in a 12-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain with a history of previous surgery for hydrocephalus. On further examination and imaging, it was found that his shunt had migrated to his peritoneum and coiled. He underwent revision ventriculo-peritoneal shunting and laparoscopic removal of the previous shunt from his abdomen.

FASCIA ILIACA BLOCK VS INTRAVENOUS KETOROLAC AS AN ANALGESIC TECHNIQUE BEFORE POSITIONING FOR SUBARACHNOID BLOCK IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERY FOR FEMUR FRACTURE

Dr. Sandip Baheti, Dr. Arpith Shenava, Dr. Priya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2653-2664

Background: Femur fracture is a common orthopaedic injury that causes a lot of pain and distress to the patients as the periosteum is more sensitive to pain. Proper positioning while giving neuraxial block is important but pain due to overriding of fractured bone ends makes it difficult. Over the years various techniques, drugs and blocks have been studied to reduce this discomfort and make patients more comfortable during positioning. Our study compares efficacy of Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block & intravenous Ketorolac during positioning for subarachnoid block in femur fracture patients.
Method: Prospective double blinded randomized control trial, n=60 patients; computer-based allocation into Group FICB (n=30)- Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block, landmark technique with 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine; Group KETO (n=30)- 0.5 mg/kg Inj Ketorolac (max 30mg) in 100 ml normal saline; 15 minutes prior to subarachnoid block; aged between 18-65 years, ASA class I and II, for elective femur fracture surgeries. VAS was studied till positioning for subarachnoid block and patient positioning, patient satisfaction & time to give subarachnoid block were also noted. The comparison was studied using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact
test as appropriate, with the P value reported at the 80% confidence interval. P<0.05 was
considered statistically significant.

A Study To Assess The Quality Of Life In Elderly Patients Who Have Undergone Hemiarthroplasty Of The Hip

Dr. Mrutyunjaya, Dr. Likhit CS, Dr. Adarsh T, Dr. Nawab Akhtar Khan .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2665-2672

Studies have correlated the results from treating femoral neck fractures with the surgical    technique used, the type of prosthesis used or with the radiological outcomes. However, little   has been defined about quality of life after hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients.
Purposive sampling method was adopted and Pre-injury and Post-operative Observational analysis was done after hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients in relation to physical, psychological, social relationships and environment domains of quality of life. After Exclusion of neurologically ill and grievous comorbid individuals 100 patients with an average age of 70.8 years who underwent hemiarthroplasty in a tertiary care hospital were studied. Patients with Mini Mental Status Examination score more than 24 inferring good cognitive function were only included. Health related quality of life was rated by the WHOQOL-BREF applied before surgery and 6 months after surgery.
The comparison of pre-injury and post-surgery ambulation showed that 30% of them used a walker for ambulation due to fear of fall. WHO Quality of Life BREF score assessment showed that elderly patients didn’t return to their previous pre-surgery quality of life status, where psychological domain being the most affected followed by environmental and social domains. Results showed the need for improvisation of various aspects of post-operative care like designated rehabilitation protocols, fall clinics, psychotherapy, geriatric care for associated comorbidities with implementation of comprehensive speciality care approach apart from good surgical and implant outcome.

A Study On Clinical Profile Of Patients With Ascites Admitted To Tertiary Care Center

Dr. Bhargava Rama Karantha, Dr. Anil Kumar, Dr. Spoorthi AS .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2673-2677

Ascites is the accumulation of free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Ascites is one of the most common complaint amongst the various clinical problems confronting a physician, and ascitic fluid analysis is the most effective way of etiological diagnosis. Traditional classification into ‘exudative’ and ‘transudative’ depending on the Serum Ascites Albumin Gradient (SAAG) is unable to correctly identify the conditions. Hence a more reliable method to classify the same is required. Early diagnosis of Tuberculosis Peritonitis is often difficult to make as symptoms of Tuberculosis Peritonitis is generally non-specific. The study was conducted on patients with ascites admitted to the Medicine and Gastroenterology Department,. Totally 124 patients were included in the study of which, 98 patients had Cirrhotic Ascites, 12 patients had Tubercular Ascites, 14 patients had Malignant Ascites. Clinical evaluation, abdominal ultrasonography, and laboratory investigations were conducted as follows: Serum lipid profile, Ascitic Lipid Profile and SALG of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol. On analysis, it was found that the SALG values are significantly higher in cirrhosis than tuberculosis or malignancy. A close relationship between the levels of SALG and type of Ascites was found which was significant for differential diagnosis.

LAPROSCOPIC MINI GASRTRIC BYPASS SURGERY IN MORBID OBESE PATIENT: A CHALLENGE FOR ANESTHESIOLOGIST

Dr. Bhavini Shah, Dr. Afreen Shamsuddin Boat, Dr. Balkees N .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2678-2682

There has been an increase in prevalence of obesity over last few decades. Obesity is multifactorial disease associated with numerous co-morbidities and complications which is mainly classified based on individuals body mass index. This is a challenge for the anesthesiologist to manage the patient perioperatively because of various cardiovascular and respiratory complications that are associated with it. The compromised airway and change in respiratory physiology in obese patients and the intra-operative factors like positioning, choice of surgical methods like laparoscopy further poses a challenge in management of airway, ventilation, fluid management. The peri operative risk of deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infraction, early ambulation and discharge are other concerns that are to be addressed and managed effectively. Hence, it becomes essential for the anesthesiologist to be aware of techniques for effective management of morbid obese patients posted for laparoscopic surgery for better outcomes post operatively.

Zen Garden Tradition and Influence

Dr. Purva Mange, Akshay Revekar, Priyanka Bhoyar, Prabhkirat Walia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2683-2693

The objective of this paper is to draw a comparative analysis between the traditional Zen gardens that originated in Japan and China for the modern and transitional form of Zen gardens adopted in India. The author studied the historical origins of Japanese Zen gardens in eastern Culture. The paper discusses the change in the vocabulary of traditional Japanese Zen gardens concerning materials and designs. Leading to a division of study into two parts by studying the traditional Japanese ZEN gardens and changes in material and designs. The comparative study is done by considering the Zen gardens in Three countries – Japan, China, and India 

Determination of Eating Disorders Among Young Adults

Vijay Chathoth, Zoheb Raj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2694-2698

Background: To determine eating disorders among young adults.
Materials and Methods: Three hundred ten school students of both genders were included in the study. BMI of all subjects was recorded. Eating concern score, weight concern score and shape concern score were recorded.
Results: Out of 310 subjects, males were 140 and females were 170. Age group was 18-21 years comprises of 120, 22-25 years had 100, 26-29 years in 60 and >30 years in 30 subjects. BMI was normal in 130, underweight in 120, overweight in 25 and obese in 35. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). The mean weight concern score was 2.63, mean eating concern score was 1.34 and shape concern score was 3.11.
Conclusion: It was observed in the study that most of the students were underweight and had eating disorders.

Serum total IgE levels in Smokers, Non- Smokers and Ex- Smokers and its Relation to Lung Function

Najma Muhammed. K, Nimisha K P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2699-2704

Background: To assess serum total IgE levels in smokers, non- smokers and ex- smokers and its relation to lung function.
Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty subjects of either gender were divided into three groups. Group I comprised of smokers, group II non- smokers and group III ex- smokers. Weight and height was recorded followed by BMI. Symptoms and signs of cough, wheezing, dyspnoea were recorded. Alcohol history was also recorded. 5 ml of venous blood was taken for assessment of haemoglobin, ESR and absolute haemoglobin count. IgE level was assessed.
Results: There were 30 males and 10 females in group I, 22 males and 18 females in group II and 32 males and 8 females in group III. The mean weight was 70.2 kgs, 68.2 kgs and 65.4 kgs, mean height was 172.2 cm, 171.6 cm and 168.2 cm, mean BMI was 24.4 Kg/cm2, 23.8 Kg/cm2 and 23.6 Kg/cm2 and alcohol intake (>once /month) was seen among 32, 10 and 24 in group I, group II and group III respectively. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05). The mean FVC was 85.1% in group I, 92.2% in group II and 72.6% in group III, FEV1 was 72.4%, 95.2% and 53.2%, FEV1/ FVC was 85.3%, 99.4% and 68.5%, FEF25-75 was 57.3%, 95.2% and 39.6% and FEF max was 76.4%, 102.3% and 48.9% in group I, group II and group III respectively. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05). The mean IgE level was 358.2 IU/ml in group I, 38.4 IU/ml in group II and 206.4 IU/ml in group III. Breath CO level was 16.4 ppm in group I, 5.3 ppm in group II and 4.8 ppm in group III. The absolute eosinophil count/mm3 was 324.2 in group I, 190.4 in group II and 286.2 in group III. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: There was altered pulmonary function tests and high level of IgE in smokers and ex- smokers as compared to non- smokers

Relationship Between Body Image And Self-Esteem By Using Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) And Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Among Undergraduate Dental Students.

Gayatri DeviR, Saravana kumar, Karnati Praveen Kumar Reddy, Priyank Seth, Wai Mar Lin, Ramasamy Chidambaram .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2705-2711

Self-esteem is very crucial in one’s emotional well-being. This study was based on the investigation of the relationship between the body image and self-esteem undergraduate dental students in Chennai. In this study, a total of 200 students was selected by convenience sampling from undergraduate dental students between the age group of 17 to 23 years, who study in Chennai through online google form questionnaire. Two sets of questionnaires were used: Body Shape Questionnaire[BSQ]-16B and Rosenberg self-esteem scale. In BSQ-16B, the scale ranges from never to always and in Rosenberg self-esteem questionnaire, which was based on the Likert Scale, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. SPSS version 22 [IBM cooperative] software was used for statistical analysis to evaluate the results. It indicated that the correlation coefficient value (r value) between the BSQ scores and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale scores was -0.373 that is a negative relationship between the BSQ scores and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale scores. As this study was done in late adolescence during their undergraduate study period more surveys with middle-aged group people and / or elderly subjects could thus possibly add up a remarkable quantity of knowledge to the outcomes of this project

Study Of Red Cell Distribution Width [Rdw] & Red Cell Distribution Width To Platelet Ratio [Rpr] As Early Predictors Of Severity Of Acute Pancreatitis And Their Correlation With Bisap Scoring System

Monali Mathur, Ram Kishan Jat, Puneet Rijhwani, Vijendra Sharma, Dharam P. Bansal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2712-2723

Aims and objectives: The present study was conducted to study red cell distribution width (RDW), and red cell distribution width to platelet ratio (RPR) as early predictors of severity in Acute Pancreatitis and their correlation with BISAP scoring system.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur. Total 117 Patients diagnosed with Acute Pancreatitis according to Revised Atlanta Criteria were included in the study.
Results: According to regression analysis, red cell distribution width to platelet ratio [RPR] was the only predictor of the severity of pancreatitis as compared to RDW and BISAP score.
Conclusion: From this study we confirmed that red cell distribution width to platelet ratio (RPR) is a good predictor of disease severity in patients with acute pancreatitis.
Keywords: acute pancreatitis, RDW, BISAP score
Introduction
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas gland that may cause local and systemic complications. Since the disease may cause severe organ damage and may have some fatal complications, assessment of disease severity is essential to determine their therapeutic strategies.[i]
From Indian population no data is available regarding the actual incidence of the disease. Only some idea of incidence can be obtained from patients admitted in different tertiary care centres in India (in SP medical college Bikaner, Rajasthan 50 cases per year, Indira Gandhi



[i] Joshua A. Greenberg MD, Jonathan Hsu, et al. Clinical practice guideline: management of acute pancreatitis Can J Surg 2016;59:128-140.

Study Of Albumin Creatinine Ratio And Urine Β2 Microglobulin In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients And Its Correlation With Microvascular Injury

MohammadFahim Memon, Dharam Prakash Bansal, Puneet Rijhwani, Vijendra Sharma .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2724-2737

Aims and objectives:  The present study was conducted to study the correlation between urinary β2 microglobulin and albumin creatinine ratio in diabetic patients, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy and diabetic retinopathy.
Materials and Methods: All patients admitted (in-patient) with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus under the department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Hospital from January 2021 to June 2022 was included in the study. About 6.0 ml venous blood from each study subject was collected into a plane test tube following standard procedure. Tube was labeled with the patient’s identification number and kept in a vertical position at room temperature (22˚C - 24˚C) for 30 minutes. Then blood was centrifuged at 3000 rpm/minutes in room temperature (22˚C - 24˚C) for 15 minutes. Serum was separated by micro-pipette and collected to appendrope, then preserved at −20˚C until further analysis.
The random plasma glucose was assessed by automated biochemistry analyzer on the principle of photometric technique, serum creatinine was measured by kinetic method and serum β2 microglobulin was assessed by ELISA method.
Results: Association between diabetic groups with urinary β2 microglobulin, creatinine and albumin creatinine ratio were showed statistically significant results. HBA1C showed positive correlation with creatinine, urinary β2 microglobulin and albumin creatinine ratio among all four groups.
Conclusion:  Urinary β2 microglobulin, creatinine and Albumin creatinine ratio were showed any significant relationship with diabetic groups.

Prevalence Of Anemia In Different Degrees Of Glycemic Control In Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus And Its Association With Crp

Aditi Goyal, Kishore Moolrajani, Puneet Rijhwani, Vijendra Sharma, Dharam Prakash Bansal .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2738-2745

Aims and objectives: The present study was conducted to study the prevalence of anemia in mild, moderate and severe degrees of hyperglycemia in type II Diabetes Mellitus, to study the Association of CRP with levels of HbA1c in type II Diabetes Mellitus, to study the Association of CRP with degree of Anemia and to compare the hematological parameters (Hb%, MCV, CRP) among the patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with HbA1c levels below 6.5% and above 6.5%.
Results: Mild anemia was 57%, moderate anemia was 31% and severe anemia was 12%. Higher infection (>6) CRP has higher HbA1c (15) level and was statistically significant. Comparison of anemia with CRP and HBA1C were showed statistically significant results. Hematological parameters (Hb%, MCV, CRP) were statistically significant among the patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with HbA1c levels. Lower HbA1c level (<6.5) was showed higher Hematological levels. (Hb%, MCV, CRP)
Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia was found significant with increasing severity of hyperglycemia and higher incidence of anemia is likely to occur in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Our study indicates lower levels of CRP can be achieved with better glycemic control. Further good glycemic control in diabetes mellitus is associated with better hemoglobin levels and a lesser incidence of anemia

CORRELATION OF DERMOSCOPY WITH HISTOPATHOLOGY IN A CASE OF LYMPHANGIOMA CIRCUMSCRIPTUM

Dr. Mohak Agarwal, Dr. Priya Garg, Dr. Ajay kumar, Dr. Devayani Pol .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2746-2751

A lymphangioma (or lymphatic malformation) is congenital proliferation of lymphatic vessels accounting for approximately 4 percent of vascular tumors and 25 percent of benign vascular tumors in children.1 One of the predominant types is lymphangioma circumscriptum consisting of multiple, grouped vesicles that may be pink, red, or black, owing to serosanguinous fluid or hemorrhage. These contain lymph fluid and are often said to resemble frogspawn. We present a case of lymphangioma circumscriptum on the right inguinal fold in a 15-year-old girl who was diagnosed clinically based on dermoscopy and histopathology and subsequently treated with sclerotherapy followed by radio frequency ablation.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF COLD COMPRESSION THERAPY VERSUS INFRARED RADIATION THERAPY ON HEALING OF EPISIOTOMY SURGICAL WOUND

Dr. Pankaj Prakash Salvi, Dr. Vidya Gaikwad, Dr. Jaya Sravani Ankem, Dr.Veneela Nallani, Dr. Swati Ghonge .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2752-2758

Background: During the course of delivery many women undergo episiotomy. Episiotomy is painful and takes a couple of weeks to heal fully. Though various antibiotics and analgesics are routinely prescribed after delivery for enhancing the wound healing and decreasing the pain, but most of the local therapies for healing for the episiotomy wound are often less utilized. Sitz bath, Cold compression therapy with application of cold gel pad and wound radiation by infrared therapy are often used to reduce pain and enhance wound healing. The study was done with the primary aim to compare the effectiveness of cold compression therapy versus infrared therapy on healing of episiotomy wound among postnatal patients.
Methodology: A comparative interventional study was conducted for a period of 6 months during which 100 vaginally delivered patients were included in the study. The patients were included after obtaining written and informed consent and fulfilling the inclusion criteria. The patients were randomly divided using closed envelope method into two equal groups; viz, group A, who were given cold compression therapy by cold gel pack and group B, who were given infrared therapy. In the two groups local wound therapies were given two times a day (morning and evening), for three consecutive days after delivery. At the end of 3 days after the therapies, the REEDA scale scoring was used to assess healing of episiotomy wound. Data entry was done in Microsoft Excel and analysis carried out using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Software version 20/ Epi Info.
Result: Demographically both the groups were equal in terms of age, parity etc.; and statistically not significant. More than half of the patients were Primigravida. Based on REEDA scores, both the groups were compared and it was found that, local wound therapy 

OCULAR TRAUMA CASES IN CHILDREN COMING TO TERTIARY CARE CENTRE DUE TO INHOUSE INJURY DURING LOCKDOWN PERIOD

Dr Neha Chaudhary, Dr Shailaja Anand, Dr Yurica Moirangthem, Dr Shashi Prabha Prasad .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2759-2763

Background: Eye trauma or eye injury, is a significant public health issue with psychosocial ramifications that can be avoided in 90% of cases. Most common ocular emergencies in childhood are caused by open-globe injuries and require immediate care. There was an increase in household trauma amongst children during lockdown.
Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study was done between MARCH 2020- JUNE 2021. 60 children below 14 years of age were evaluated in the emergency room and on outpatient department basis of a tertiary care hospital of Western Maharashtra.
Results: 20 were in age group 3 to 5 years, 35 were in 5 to 10 years and 5 were in age group 10 to 14 years. Out of 60 patients, 15 required surgical intervention, 35 required medical intervention and 10 patients were kept under observation. 2 patients had total loss of vision. 3 patients had significant loss of vision even after intervention was done, 45 patients regained their vision within 2-month period from the day of trauma and 10 patients did not have loss of vision.
Conclusion:  Long term close follow ups are essential to prevent irreversible blindness in childhood ocular trauma cases. Counselling the children and the parents plays a key role in the management of these cases and to reduce incidence of ocular trauma at home during lockdown period.

COMPARISON OF ATRACURIUM AND CISATRACURIUM WITH REGARDS TO THEIR POTENCY, ONSET TIME OF NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKADE AND RECOVERY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SURGERIES UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

Dr. Chhaya Suryawanshi, Dr. Dheeraj Gopal Ravindran, Dr. Reema Jawale, Dr. Pati Sathvika, Dr. Akhil R .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2764-2775

Introduction: Neuromuscular blocking drugs were first used in anaesthesia and surgery in 1942, ushering in a new era. Succinylcholine, a depolarizing muscle relaxant, was first introduced in 1952, and it quickly became widely used due to the drug's swift action and ultrashort duration of action. However, it was found to cause several undesirable side effects. Hence, efforts have been concentrated on finding the optimal non-depolarizing muscle relaxant with a quick onset and optimal conditions for intubation.
Aim: To compare Atracurium and Cisatracurium with regards to their potency, onset time of neuromuscular blockade and recovery in patients undergoing surgeries under general anaesthesia. Material and methods: We conducted the study in 60 patients of ASA I or ASA II category scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia. Group A (n=30) and Group B (n=30) were given Atracurium (0.5mg/kg) and Cisatracurium (0.15mg/kg) respectively. The onset time of neuromuscular blockade, intubating conditions, duration of neuromuscular blockade, hemodynamic parameters, and presence of any side effects were noted.
Results: The mean onset time of neuromuscular blockade for Group A and Group B were 256.97±8.23 seconds, and 208.70±6.21 seconds, respectively (p value <0.05). In Group A, the conditions of intubation were excellent in 17.24 % of patients and good in 80.65% and while Group B, excellent conditions were observed in 82.76% of patients and good in 19.35% of patients. The mean duration of neuromuscular blockade was 33.83±1.86 minutes in Group A and 59.20±3.40 minutes in Group B (p value <0.05). No side effects were observed in either group.
Conclusion: Cisatracurium (0.15mg/kg) had a statistically and clinically significant faster onset, excellent intubating conditions, and longer duration of neuromuscular blockade when compared to atracurium (0.5mg/kg). However, atracurium was faster in terms of recovery from the last dose of neuromuscular blockade. Both drugs were stable hemodynamically with no side effects

STUDY OF ELECTRICAL COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME, WITHIN 48 HOURS OF HOSPITAL ADMISSION

Dr. Sri Sai Kalyan Vemuri, Dr. Vikram B. Vikhe, Dr. Rahul Patil, Dr. Ahsan Faruqi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2776-2784

Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the electrical complications in patients of Acute Coronary Syndrome, within 48 hours of admission.
Methods: The present prospective observational study was conducted on 100 patients of age >18 years with confirmed diagnosis of ACS, admitted in medical intensive care unit of Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune during the period from OCTOBER 2020– SEPTEMBER 2022.
Results: Majority of patients in this study were in the 51-60 age group (34%) followed by 61-70years (22%) and 41-50years of age (21%). The majority of patients in this study were in the 51-60 age group. It was observed that majority of the patients with acute coronary symptoms were male with proportion of 57%, followed by 43% females. 51% patients had normal BMI, 33% were overweight, and 16% were obese. It was observed that among the STEMI patient’s Chest pain was the most common symptom and it was followed by Dyspnea, Fatigue and Palpitation. Among the NSTEMI patients Dyspnea was most common presenting sign and symptom.
Conclusion: Thus, our study concludes that majority of the patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome were middle-aged above 50 years of age with male preponderance. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were the most common reported risk factors. Majority of the patients were of NSTEMI with respect to coronary heart disease, followed by STEMI and Unstable Angina.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES AND SOLVENTS ON THE CLEANLINESS OF THE APICAL THIRDROOT CANAL IN ENDODONTIC RETREATMENT WITH BIOCERAMIC BASED SEALER (IN VITRO)

Zovi, Nevi Yanti , WidiPrasetia .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2785-2795

Aim :To determine the effect of the combined use of solvents (eucalyptus oil and orange oil), file retreatment, ultrasonic irrigation and rotary brushes on the cleanliness of the apical thrirdroot canal that were re-treated.
Materials and Methods :25 dental samples which were divided into 5 treatment groups.  Each group consists of five sample groups.  Group A were specimens whose root canal filling material was removed using eucalyptus oil, file rotary retreatment and ultrasonic irrigation techniques.  Group B were specimens whose root canal filling material was removed using eucalyptus oil, file rotary retreatment and rotary brushes irrigation techniques.  Group C were specimens whose root canal filling material was removed using orange oil, file rotary retreatment and ultrasonic irrigation techniques.  Group D were specimens whose root canal filling material was removed using eucalyptus oil, file rotary retreatment and rotary brushes technique.  The control group was specimens whose root canal filling material was removed using only a rotary retreatment file.
Results : Statistical assessment in all groups had effect and a significant difference in root canal re-treatment using solvents (eucalyptus and orange oil) and irrigation techniques (PUI and rotary brushes) was third apical root canal cleaning (p < 0.05).
Conclusion :This study showed that was an effect of using solvents (eucalyptus and orange oil) with irrigation techniques (PUI and rotary brushes) on the cleanliness of apical third of root canal. Also there was no significant difference between used eucalyptus oil with orange oil and PUI irrigation with rotary brushes on the cleanliness of the apical third root canal. However, the use of solvents and irrigation techniques can help clean the filling material in the apical third root canal in endodontic retreatment.

Effect Of Pressure Changes On Fracture Resistance And Fracture PatternsOf Endodontically Treated Premolars With Short Fiber Reinforced Composite Restoration During Simulated Dives and Flight : An in-vitro study

Lia Syafitri, Trimurni Abidin, M.Sabri .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2796-2801

Aim :The present study aims to examine the effect of pressure changes on fracture resistance and fracture patterns of endodontically treated premolarswith short fiber reinforced composite restoration during simulated dives and flight.
Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted maxillary premolars were selected and divided into three groups (n=10). All the teeth had endodontic treatment and MOD cavity design with short fiber reinforced composite resins as the final restoration.Group 1 for simulating SCUBA diving pressure(2 ATA), group 2 forflightsimulating pressure (0.37 bar) andthegroup 3 as controlgroup (atsmospheric pressure). All samples were treatedfor  1 monthandfracturetestwasperformedusing a universal testing machine (UTM) with static load was applied at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred and the fracture patterns was observed. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), while for fracture patterns were tested using Fisher’s Test.
Result :Therewere statistically significantdifferences in theresultsofthefracturestrength among the groups (p<0.05). The controlgroup  had thehighestfracturestrength4140,58 N ± 70.33 Ncomparedto flightsimulating group3891.80 N ± 88.43  and  SCUBA diving group 3720.76 N ± 43.27. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) observed on the fracture patterns among all groups and all of the fracture were repairable.
Conclusion: Diving pressure cycles demonstrated adverse effect on fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolar restoration.Short fiber reinforced composite restoration is suggested in divers and air crew members to increase the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolar restoration.

Serum magnesium level in type 2 Diabetes mellitus and its relationship with glycemic control and diabetic complications

Sandeep Dhavane, Priyanka Dhavane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2802-2806

Background: Several studies undertaken in different parts of the world have shown that hypomagnesemia occur at an increased frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes compared with their counterparts without diabetes. As current data suggest adverse outcomes in association with hypomagnesemia, it is prudent to monitor magnesium routinely in this patient population and treat the condition whenever possible. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the serum magnesium levels in type 2 diabetes in this part of our country. Aim & Objective: 1. Serum magnesium level in type 2 Diabetes mellitus and its relationship with glycemic control and diabetic complications.2. To study Clinical profile of type 2 DM. 3. Correlation of Serum magnesium level in type 2 DM with glycemic control and complications. Method: Study design:  Case control study. Study setting:  Department of Medicine at tertiary care centre. Study duration: January 2021 to December 2021. Study population: The study population included 50 diabetics without complications (group I), 50 diabetics with complications (group II) and 100 normal healthy controls (group III). Sample size: 100. Results: Serum magnesium levels were found low in study group as compared to control group. A significant correlation between HbA1C and magnesium levels was seen. The patients with diabetic complications have significantly higher values of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes was associated with poor glycemic control and with increased frequency of long-term complications.

A Rare Case Report Of Necrotizing Fasciitis As An Early Manifestation Of Tuberculosis

Kuberan K, C. Magesh, Jency .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2807-2810

Background: The association between necrotizing fasciitis and tuberculosis is extremely rare. We report a case in which the initial clinical presentation of tuberculosis was that of necrotizing fasciitis proven by histopathology. Repeated adequate surgical debridement was performed and was diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis later on. The diagnosis of tuberculosis should be suspected in patients with necrotizing fasciitis with recurrence or unexpected slow response to surgery.

Utility Of Ultrasound Guided FNAC In Diagnosis Of Abdominal Lesions, A Two-Year Study

Kirti Pardeshi, Sameer Arun Kadam, Leena Naik .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2811-2822

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, inexpensive method for obtaining a diagnosis of subcutaneous as well as deep seated tumors. USG guided  fine  needle aspiration cytology is a useful tool for diagnosis of superficial as well as deep-seated lesions of abdomen. Present study was aimed to study utility of ultrasound guided FNAC in diagnosis of abdominal lesions. Material and Methods: Present study was retrospective study, of cases of USG guided FNAC of intra- abdominal masses. The cases were analyzed, based on the cytological features. The diagnosis was made by correlating cytological findings with the clinical and the radiological features. Results: Maximum number of FNAC were seen in 21-40 years (28.09 %), followed by 41-60 years group (27.38 %). Male to female ratio was 1.18. Maximum number of lesions were observed in liver (33.4%), next in the order of frequency were lymph node (23.4%), gastrointestinal (8.5%), pancreas (7.6 %), gall bladder (6.9%), miscellaneous (6.9%), omentum & peritoneum (5.6%), spleen (3.5%), kidney (3.5%) & adrenal (0.7%). In present study out of 29 cases, that underwent HPE, 10 were malignant cases- & 10 nonmalignant cases, the sensitivity to detect malignancy was 90%, the specificity 100%, the positive predictive value was 100%, the negative predictive value was 81.81% and the efficacy was 93.1%. Conclusion: USG guided FNAC for intra-abdominal masses, is highly reliable and replaces invasive procedures, obviates surgical exploration especially in the high risk patients facilitating initiation of appropriate therapy.

Clinical Profile and Outcome of COVID 19 Patients from JIIU’s IIMSR, Jalna, Maharashtra

Abdul Jabbar Abdul Mannan, Syed Shahnawaz Ali Hamid Ali, Mohammed Suhail, Mohammad Shafee, Afshan Kausar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2823-2827

Background: COVID-19 is a pandemic spread all over the world. This disease has imposed a huge burden on health resources. Evaluation of clinical profiles of such patients can help in understanding and managing the pandemic more efficiently.
Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study of 100 diagnosed COVID-19 patients admitted to JIIU’s, IIMSR, from April to June 2021. All these patients were positive for COVID-19 by an oro-nasopharyngeal swab rt-PCR based testing.
Results: The mean age of the population was 45 years with a male predominance (72% patients). All the patients (100 %) were symptomatic, with fever being the most common symptom (85%), followed by cough (62%).
Conclusion: Severity based approach to COVID -19 infections, with defined criteria and treatment guidelines will help in judicious utilization of health-care resources

Complete Blood Counts in COVID-19 patients at JIIU’s Indian Institute of Medical Science and Research, Jalna, Maharashtra

Abdul Jabbar Abdul Mannan, Syed Shahnawaz Ali Hamid Ali, Mohammed Suhail, Mohammad Shafee, Afshan Kausar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2828-2832

Background: The new 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), according to the World Health Organization (WHO), has been characterized as a pandemic. As more is being discovered about this virus, we aim to report findings of the complete blood count (CBC) of COVID-19 patients. Methods: A total of 100 patients were admitted at the Noor Hospital of JIIU’s IIMSR, Jalna. The CBCs of these patients, following a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, were analyzed and a significant P P<0.05 was found after a full statistical analysis.
Results: CBC analysis revealed changes in the levels of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Conclusion: Clinicians should expect similar findings when dealing with the new COVID-19. This would serve in providing physicians with important knowledge on the changes that can be expected from the CBC of COVID-19 patients.

Evaluation Of Factors Influencing Juvenile Delinquency In India: Need For Reforms In Indian Juvenile Justice System

Ms. Seema Roj, Dr. Kiran Raj .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2833-2841

            The present study aims to identify the factors associated with juvenile delinquency and the gaps in the existing juvenile justice system from the perspective of Indian population. A random survey was conducted on the local population of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Total 134 persons from different professional (lawyer, judge, competent authority at imprisonment/detention centres, police, law enforcement officers)& non-professional (student, civilian, juvenile delinquent, relatives to victim) backgrounds participated in the survey. The questionnaire was designed such that it collected opinions of participants about juvenile delinquency & associated legal ramifications. Analysis of the responses received from the participants suggested that prevailing justice system for juveniles need some major reforms. Majority of them believed that poor economic background, lack of communication within family or parents and discourse in the family are some of the main factors leading to the delinquency among juveniles. Further, they also agreed upon the fact that the juveniles committing heinous crimes including murder, rape, and homicide should either be transferred from jurisdiction of juvenile court to adult court or should be tried like an adult once the age limit of a juvenile is crossed. Detention for crimes related to property damage was also strongly suggested by the participants. Role of parents & society in dissuading children from committing crimes is critical and rehabilitation centres at local level could be more effective in controlling juvenile crimes. Findings of this study also recommend expansion of family/juvenile court jurisdiction, implementation of evidence based practices (including assessment for risk and/or mental health issues), reduction of gang activity, and amending shackling/arresting activity at district/state/central government level.

Online Payment Opportunities With Reference To Paypal & Bitcoin

Ms. Lehar Choudhary,Dr. Kiran Raj .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2842-2851

  Digital currency has many benefits that make it a better option than traditional
currencies. Digital currency uses decentralization of information, which results in less fraud. This is not possible with fiat currencies because personal information and chargebacks are required for transactions. With PayPal, you can pay for an item securely and without hidden fees. If the purchase turns out to be a scam, PayPal is able to refund your money, and in turn, keep financial information secure. Bitcoin (BTCUSD) is often referred to as a form of digital currency that allows you to receive rewards without interference from central banks. Similarly, Bitcoin is designed to be a hugely beneficial innovation in the future, and it has vast benefits beyond drawbacks. Bitcoin is accessible and versatile currency that can be transferred in minutes. Bitcoin brings an innovation to payment systems, and this could fuel new innovations. A shortcoming of Bitcoin is that it's not widely accepted; nevertheless, there are many online stores accepting bitcoin nowadays. This paper explores the concept of the PayPal and Bitcoin, the opportunities we have using them and legal issues associated with them are also examined.

A Study On The Changing Perception Towards The New Media-Based Communication Channels

Anurag Verma, Prof. Amitabh Srivastava,Dr. Amit Sharma .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2852-2868

The proliferation of new media technology has changed how we communicate and access information. A study investigated the changing perception toward new media-based communication channels. The results showed a shift in preference towards using new media channels, such as social media and messaging apps, for communication and obtaining news. The convenience and accessibility of these platforms have contributed to their increasing popularity. However, there are also concerns about the negative effects of excessive use of new media, such as spreading misinformation and losing privacy. Overall, the study highlights the need for a balanced approach toward using new media communication channels.

Study On The Perception Of College-Going Male Students Towards Skin-Color Advertisements And Its Impacts On Their Mental Health

Anurag Verma ,Prof. Amitabh Srivastava ,Dr. Amit Sharma .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2869-2880

This research paper explores millennials’ perceptions of mental health and the role of media advertisements in shaping their views toward skin color. The study will focus on understanding the attitudes and beliefs of millennials, defined as individuals born between 1980 and 2000, towards mental health and the impact of media advertisements on their understanding of mental health towards skin color issues. The research will utilize a quantitative approach, using a survey to gather data from a sample of millennials to examine their perceptions and attitudes toward skin color. A total of 58 responses is collected using the purposive sampling method. The study results provide insight into how millennials perceive mental health and the role of media advertisements in shaping their views on skin color.

Suppressed Female Voices In Chauvinistic Patriarchal Society In Anita Desai’s In Custody

Dr Mamta Bhatnagar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2881-2888

Anita Desai is a prominent feminist author of our time who has raised the issues of women suffering in patriarchal society and has presented their problems in a realistic manner. Although the novel ‘In Custody’ is basically about men – Deven Sharma and Nur Shahjehanabadi – and all the female characters are mostly passive or silent, the author has depicted their view point also candidly. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the psyche of the subjugated female characters of the novel and to explore their position and exploitation in male dominated society. 

COMMON FEATURES OF HUMAN BEINGS AND ANIMALS IN THE LANGUAGE OF COMMUNICATION AND BEHAVIOUR.

Dr. Vivek Mehrotra, Dr. Shiva Durga .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2889-2896

Communication is a global means through which ideas, thoughts and expressions are conveyed. This is found to be used by all living creatures to some extent or other. Human and animal communication is yet another sophisticated form of communication. It involves non-verbal speech, in the form of symbols, signs, gestures and other such ways.
 
In our everyday life, we communicate to animals in some way like we communicate with our pets at home, the birds that chirp in the morning, cats etc. Animals also communicate by the sense of smell, touch and sound.
 
We will be studying about the various forms of communication like tactile communication, which involves cultures and experiences as well. Visual communication involves signals, signs transmitted visually along with a text message to the receiver, chemical communication and so on. The power of reasoning and the ability to grasp things differs
between man and primates.
 
Animals do have the capacity and urge to learn something new, but the speed and time involved varies when compared to that of a human being. Animals take their own time to achieve new things. They also have different moods and act according to the environment.
 
Like humans, even animals need to communicate in some way or the other to satisfy their requirements in this world. Therefore, communication and language is very important and is
to be taken seriously, be it humans or non- humans. Let us now move in the detailed study of animal and human communication.

Anaesthetic Management Of A Patient With Long Standing Huge Goitre With Atrial Fibrillation Posted For Total Thyroidectomy- A Case Report

Dr. Bhavini Shah ,Dr. Smita Ubhe, Dr. Pati Sathvika ,Dr. Afreen Boat .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2897-2902

Long standing goitre with altered airway anatomy includes a high risk for airway management. In this case we discuss about a patient who had a long standing goitre and also presented with atrial fibrillation which was even more challenging for the anaesthetic management. Preoperative investigation showed 14 x 5.8 x 8.9cms in right lobe and 13.3 x 5.9 x 7cms in the left lobe with moderate tracheal compression. Anaesthesia was induced with sedation and supplemental oxygenation and intubation was performed using flexible fibre optic laryngoscope with flexometallic endotracheal tube. It was a challenge to avoid any pressor response during flexible laryngoscopy. And identifying that hyperthyroidism is a causative factor of atrial fibrillation plays a crucial role in management.

VALENTINO SYNDROME: A RARE CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Dr Vinayak Kshirsagar,Dr Nilesh Sinha,Dr. Mahendra Bendre .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2903-2907

IMPORTANCE: Valentino's syndrome is caused by a peptic ulcer perforation in which stomach contents leak and accumulates in the iliac fossa on right side, causing focal inflammation and discomfort in the right lower quadrant mimicking appendicitis. It is a rare case with only a few cases recorded in the review of literature.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to discuss an unusual clinical presentation of a rare case of Valentino syndrome and about how the initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis was diagnosed to a case of perforated peptic ulcer with the help of CECT Abdopelvis and USG.
CASE PRESENTATION:  A 25/male who presented with pain in the right inferior quadrant for 3 days associated with  vomiting and fever with positive Mc Burney and Rovsing sign on examination was diagnosed clinically as acute appendicitis. USG showed duodenal perforation with perforation site sealed off by omentum. On CECT Abdomen, pneumoperitoneum was noted but the site of the perforation was not found. Intraoperatively, first part of duodenum showed a sealed off perforation without any perforation at other site. Patient was diagnosed as a case of Valentino syndrome.
CONCLUSION: Clinicians must be aware that though unusual, perforated peptic ulcer can present as a differential diagnosis for right iliac fossa pain. For a diagnosis, a strong index of suspicion and a proper radiographic assessment is required. If a perforated peptic ulcer is not treated promptly, it can progress to sepsis, multiorgan failure, and death.

Role Of Collagen Dressing Over Donor Site In Cases Of Split Skin Grafting

Dr. Mahendra Bendre,Dr. Emilee Datta, Dr. Vinayak Kshirsagar,Dr. Rushikumar Prabhubhai Kanani .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2908-2914

Background: Split Thickness Skin Graft (STSG) is graft that only contains the epidermis and a tiny portion of the dermis. Donor sites for split-thickness skin grafts can either be covered with different types of dressings. In this study, we looked at the function of collagen sheet dressing at the skin graft donor site and how it affected the healing parameters and compared it with conventional betadine dressing.
Methods: An prospective study conducted in 60 patients general surgery department. Collagen dressing or Betadine dressing over donor site were performed among study subjects by randomised process. 
Results: Mean age of 60 study sample was 42.58 years (SD - 9.812 years), with 53 (88%) male and 7 (12%) female in study. Collagen-based dressings for the donor site for split-thickness grafts produced better results in terms of the rate of healing, post-operative pain, and length of hospital stay than the typical betadine gauze dressing whereas in case of total cost of the treatment and patient satisfaction, Collagen Dressings and Betadine Dressings both show almost similar result.
Conclusion: Early pain alleviation and a high ulcer healing rate are provided with collagen dressing over conventional betadine dressing.

Ki-67 Proliferation Index In Carcinoma Breast: Pitfalls In Assessment

Cheena Garg, Amit Kumar, Arjun Agarwal, Nitesh Mohan .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2915-2921

Introduction: Ki-67 proliferation index is used as a prognostic-predictive marker in breast carcinoma and determined using visual hotspots or global counts methods. We studied analytical objectivity and reproducibility using the two methods.
Material and Method: 56 cases of carcinoma breast with Ki-67 (MIB-1antibody) staining on same sections were evaluated by two equally experienced pathologists, blinded to each other using both methods. The values obtained were classified into low, intermediate and high categories and statistical analysis was done using SPSS ver21.0 software.
Result: The mean value of hotspot method was higher whereas global method showed better interobserver reliability.
Conclusion: We recommend global method of Ki-67 evaluation as it has better reproducibility and inter-observer agreement as compared to visual hot spot method. The latter which has a higher mean value may result in change in categorization of Ki-67 index especially at higher end of cut-off in intermediate category, thereby affecting treatment protocols.

An Observational Study On Efficacy Of Fractional CO2 Laser Assisted Topical Antifungal Therapy For The Treatment Of Onychomycosis In Adult North Indian Population

Dr. Kartik, Dr. Sakshi Kohli Garg, Dr. Tarang Goyal, Dr. Monika .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2922-2933

Background: Onychomycosis, a fungus that affects the nails, is typically brought on by dermatophytes, as well as nondermatophytes, moulds, and yeasts. Using a fractional CO2 laser to treat onychomycosis results in microscopic thermal wounds in the nails, which help topical antifungal medications penetrate the nail more effectively.
Aims and Objectives: To study the efficacy of fractional CO2 laser assisted topical antifungal therapy for onychomycosis treatment in adult north Indian population.
Material & Method: In this study, 50 clinically suspected patients with onychomycosis had their nails examined by KOH examination and culture in both males and females over the age of 18. All patients underwent fractional CO2 laser treatment every two weeks while also receiving randomly selected topical antifungal drugs for a total of six months. Clinical findings and the Scoring Clinical Index were used to analyse the nails of all the patients for onychomycosis.
Result: All patients with KOH and culture-proven onychomycosis had clinical improvement, as determined by calculating the Scoring Clinical Index for onychomycosis following the conclusion of treatment, since there was a significant drop in the score of SCIO in all patients.
Conclusion: Fractional CO2 Laser assisted topical antifungal therapy is effective treatment for the onychomycosis in adult north Indian population.

A CASE OF STRUMA OVARII IN A 48-YEAR-OLD FEMALE

Dr. Khushi Jain, Dr. Sushma Kulkarni, Dr. C. R. Gore .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2934-2937

Struma ovarii is similar to ovarian cancer. Its diagnosis is difficult due to non-specific symptoms. It is a rare ovarian teratoma derived from germ cells along with thyroid tissue. The most common treatment is surgery. In this case, it was a 48-year-old lady with acute abdominal pain. Radio imaging (Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography) showed a large cystic lesion the right pelvis. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy was performed. On histopathology, the diagnosis of monodermal teratoma of struma ovarii was confirmed. This case has been discussed due to difficulties with preoperative identification and diagnostic accuracy.

ANGIOMATOUS MENINGIOMA WITH CLASSIC HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES

Archana C. Buch, Khushi Jain .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2938-2941

Meningioma comprises majority of the intracranial tumors. They arise from the meningothelial cells (MECs) and are usually slow growing and benign in nature. Few meningiomas have a complicated histology and occur in compromising locations are very difficult to treat. Such cases have poor prognostic outcomes. This necessitates prompt diagnosis of the tumor and a proper understanding of its severity that can help in better management of the patients in future.

Perioperative Challenges During Emergency Lscs & Management Of Post-Partum Pulmonary Edema In A Case Of Critical Mitral Stenosis With Severe Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

Dr. Balkees Nazeer, Dr. Shilpa Deshmukh, Dr. Dheeraj Ravindran, Dr. Afreen Shamsuddin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2942-2945

Parturient with severe mitral stenosis (MS) poorly tolerate pregnancy, while pregnancy is contraindicated in severe Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) as it poses high morbidity and mortality due to impending decompensated heart failure, pulmonary edema, atrial fibrillation, thromboembolic events, etc. We successfully managed a case of Rheumatic Heart Disease with severe MS (MVA:0.56 CM2) severe PAH (100mmhg) & severe TR in a 24- year-old multiparous female in active labor for emergency LSCS under General anesthesia despites inadequate NBM of only 2 hours. Aspiration prophylaxis, Modified Rapid Sequence Induction& Intubation, nasogastric tube aspiration, etomidate were key components of induction. Hemodynamic perturbations were promptly managed with fentanyl, loxicard, esmolol. Despites precaution, after adequate reversal and uneventful extubation, she developed pulmonary edema probably due to autoregulation and went for decompensation. Timely management of the critical scenario with 100% O2, furesamide, re-intubation and Noradrenaline improved the hemodynamic status, positive pressure ventilation given for a day and extubated uneventfully in surgical ICU and discharged to ward in a couple of days.

A RARE CASE OF VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE WITH MULTI-ORGAN TUMORS - ROLE OF RADIOLOGICAL IMAGING

Dr. Suhas M, Dr. Purnachandra K Lamghare, Dr. Aparna Shrikanth Prabhu, Dr. Rahul Arkar, Dr. Tejvir Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2946-2951

von Hippel-Lindau disease is an autosomal dominant inherited disease with a wide spectrum of manifestation which causes benign and malignant tumors in multiple systems. We present a case ofvon Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) who initially presented with retinal hemangioblastomas, but after 10 years had tumors in multiple organs,and few benign conditions. This signifies the importance of annual screening for detection and monitoring of conditions which can lead to timely surgical intervention and improve morbidity and mortality for patients. Radiological imaging plays a crucial role in diagnosing, monitoring, and screening for various manifestations and along with newer surgical techniques have contributed to significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of VHL patients.It is important to have a multidisciplinary team approach in screening for VHL disease.  

PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN ON THE BASIS OF THE WIDE INTRODUCTION OF ELECTROMECHANIZATION, AUTOMATION AND NON-TRADITIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

Ismailov Astan Ibragimovich,Nuriddinov Nasimjon Akhadkhonovich .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2962-2970

On October 23, 2019, by Presidential Decree, the “Strategy for the Development of Agriculture of the Republic of Uzbekistan for
2020-2030” was approved, which covered nine strategic priorities, the first of which was ensuring the food security of the population. In this regard, this article is devoted to the current state and prospects for the development of the use of electrical energy in the agricultural production of Uzbekistan based on the widespread use of alternative energy sources in technological processes and their scientific justification, which are the answer to the indicated strategy for the development of agriculture in the Republic.

Optimum Irrigation Method Of Winter Wheat Varieties Grown In The Conditions Of Meadow Soils Of Andijan Region, Influence Of Optimal Irrigation Method On Crop Elements And Productivity

Khusanov Sardorbek Olimjonovich .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2971-2985

Iirrigation soil moisture of winter wheat varieties "Tanya", "Vershina", "Kalym", "Andijan-4" in conditions of meadow soils of Andijan region compared to limited field moisture capacity (ChDNS) 70-70-70%,
75-75-75% and maintained at 80-80-80%. Irrigation soil moisture relative to limited field moisture capacity (ChDNS) 75-75-75% in the specified variants of the above varieties of winter wheat compared to other irrigation options (ChDNS
70-70-70%, 80- 80-80%) formation of high yield elements was determined. Among the studied varieties of winter wheat, the "Kalym" variety, which belongs to foreign varieties, is considered acceptable ChDNS 75-75-75% irrigation option spike length (cm), number of grains in one ear (grains), weight of grains in one ear (g), weight of 1000 grains (g) showed high results and was found to be 8.8 cm, 45.8 pieces, 1.46 g, 42.4 g, respectively. When analyzing the grain and straw yield of winter wheat depending on the irrigation methods, the "Vershina" variety belonging to foreign varieties has the highest grain yield of 69.5 t/ha, soil moisture before irrigation is 80-80-80% in the irrigation option of 82.4 ts/ha was determined to form a straw crop.

Employment of Nanolignin in Energy Storage Devices

Reeya Agarwal, Eatedal Alabdulkreem, Romany F. Mansour .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2986-3019

 In recent years, there has been a lot of focus on renewable energy storage devices as scientists attempt to optimize their performance. This paper delves into how research into nanolignin materials over the past few decades has aided in advancing energy storage devices because of nanolignin's good qualities (cheap cost, high availability, and lack of toxicity). This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using nanolignin as a battery material. This paper begins with a review of state of the art in energy storage, lithium-ion battery fundamentals (including anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes), and nanolignin materials. A modification to increase the stability of energy storage and a case study of the Kraft nanolignin-carbon composite as a green cathode material is offered to illustrate the concept. In the following section, we discussed how oxidizing Kraft nanolignin yields cathode materials. Lastly, the study provides a high-level summary of the current state of the field, an analysis of the most urgent difficulties, and recommendations for future research into nanolignin-based energy storage devices.

DEPENDENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND VARIETIES OF MELON ON STORAGE

Islamov Sohib Yaxshibekovich,Safarov Asqarbek Asadullayevich,Egamberdiyev Oybek Raxmatkul ugli .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3020-3024

This article describes the results of the research conducted on the storage of different varieties of apples. Experiments are based on quality control of apple fruit by organoleptic assessment of changes in their composition during storage. As a result of the research, scientifically based conclusions were made.

Organization Of Independent Educational Activities Of Students In The Course Of The Credit-Module System

Nematov Ulugbek Mukhtarjonovich .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3025-3034

This article is about the educational reform implemented in Uzbekistan, the organization of the educational process based on the credit-module system, the specific features of independent education in the credit-module system, the content of independent education, forms, methods and tools of independent education, evaluation of independent education of students. system, students' self-development, independent learning and acquisition of competences that allow for the formation of innovative activities are highlighted.

Effect of mupirocin and intensified hygienic practices in the decolonization of MRSA in nasal carriers - A comparative study

Dr Sukesh Kumar B.Y , Dr Geetha Kaipa , Dr sadiya shahanaz, Dr Sridhar Konuri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3035-3043

Background: Mupirocin is a powerful topical antibiotic for treating carriers of MRSA. Resistance to this medication has grown as a result of its frequent use in clinical settings and over-the-counter accessibility. Concern is also raised by Staphylococcus aureus having Mupirocin resistance. Materials and Methods:  It is a cross sectional study conducted in in Department of Microbiology during the period of May 2016 to April 2017. 1200 patients were selected in the study. Out of which, 400 patients were inpatients, 400 patients from community and 400 were from health care workers. Results: 64 (16%) were MRSA carriers out of 400 inpatients, 48 (12%) were MRSA carriers out of 400 health care workers and 25 (6.25%) were MRSA carriers out of 400 community samples. 137 (11.4%) were overall MRSA carriers. 33 (51.5%) patients from a total of 64 culture positive MRSA inpatients  were sensitive to mupirocin and 31 (48.5%) were mupirocin resistant. 11 (17.2%) showed low level resistance and 20 (31.3%) showed high level resistance among 31 isolates which were resistant. 21 (43.8%) patients from a total of 48 culture positive MRSA health care workers  were sensitive to mupirocin and 27 (56.2%) were mupirocin resistant. 6 (12.4%) showed low level resistance and 21 (43.8%) showed high level resistance among 27 isolates which were resistant. 11 (44%) patients from a total of 25 culture positive MRSA community samples were sensitive to mupirocin and 14 (56%) were mupirocin resistant. 4 (16) showed low level resistance and 10 (40) showed high level resistance among 14 isolates which were resistant. Five of the individuals who had the 2% Mupirocin treatment test negative for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in each of the four follow-up swabs. Twelve of the people who used intensified hygiene practises had no nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in any of the four follow-up swabs. Conclusion: Instead of utilising Mupirocin ointment, decolonization with adjusted hygiene behaviours including routine hand washing and nose cleaning produced positive effects.

A STUDY OF ANGIOGRAPHIC PATTERN IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME WITH DIABETES MELLITUS IN CORRELATION WITH HBA1c LEVELS

Dr.Bhubaneshwar , Dr.Ashwini, Dr.Prinicy John P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3044-3054

Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), have  poor long term glycaemic control,  even when fasting glucose concentrations are normal.3, 4, Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is a useful index of glucose intolerance and hyperglycaemia.HbA1cis an established marker of long-term glycaemic control. HbA1c can be assessed in the non-fasted state and has higher reproducibility than fasting glucose
Aim of the study : To study the blood levels of HbA1C in patients of Acute Coronary Syndrome at the time of admission and to find out the correlation with the angiographic pattern.
Materials and methods :Cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of general medicine, at Sundaram Arulrhaj Hospitals Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu in Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome .
Reslts : Among the people with SVD,18 (100%) participants had<6.5% HbA1c, 27 (56.25%) participants had 6.5-8.5 HbA1c and 8 (36.36%) participants had 8.5 – 10.5 HbA1c. Among the people with DVD,16 (33.33%) participants had 6.5-8.5 HbA1c, 10 (45.45%) participants had 8.5 – 10.5 HbA1c and 3 (25%) participants had >10.5 HbA1c. Among the people with TVD,5 (10.41%) participants had 6.5-8.5 HbA1c, 4 (18.18%) participants had been with 8.5 – 10.5 HbA1c and 9 (75%) participants had>10.5 HbA1c
 
Conclusion : Our data suggest that HbA1c level is a significant and independent maker for the severity of angiographic lesion in ACS patients, irrespective of other cardiovascular risk factors, age, and gender, smoking, alcoholism. HbA1c values can be a predictor of the prevalence of complex coronary artery lesions.  It may be used as a cardiac marker in risk stratification of the patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and indicated for coronary angiography.HbA1c levels are also to be included in investigations apart from routine Blood sugar  levels  in Out Patient Clinics and adoption of lifestyle changes & medications are to be taken to prevent the cardiovascular complications and morbidity from Diabetes mellitus.

AN EXPLORATORY STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFICACY OF PRANAYAMA FROM “KUMBHAK PADDHATI TEXT” IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS OF WORKING WOMEN.

Dr. Mrunal Ashay Jamdade, Dr. Mangala Wange .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3055-3060

Background: Anxiety neurosis is seen commonly in middle age people. Stress is main reason for it. Persistent stress affects body and mind resulting in Rasavaha and ManovahaSrotasdushti. In balancing both professional and family life every working woman faces mild to moderate stress. Recurrent stress induction leads to abnormal changes resulting in disability to perform daily work efficiently. Pranayama can be beneficial in the management of anxiety neurosis in working women.
Purpose: to assessthe Efficacy of Pranayama from “KumbhakPaddhati Text” in Anxiety Neurosis of Working Women
Methods: In this exploratory clinical study, Pranayama techniques selected from “KumbhakPaddhati” textbook of AacharyaRaghuveera were asked to practice 25 working women diagnosed with Anxiety Neurosis for continuous 42 days. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HMA-A) and The Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) Test were the criteria for assessment. Appropriate statistical tests were applied to data to draw inferences.
Results: Assessment of both the clinical parameters showed that these selected Pranayama procedures showed significant results in relieving the anxiety neurosis in working women. No adverse events were reported during or after the study period.
Conclusion – From the observations it can be concluded that selected types of Pranayama are effective in the management of Anxiety neurosis. In future larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE ON FOOD LABELING AMONG SPORTS PLAYERS AND NON SPORTS PLAYERS

Muthumareeswari, Dr.S.Sumayaa, M Karpakavalli ,Shreen.S,Dr.V.N.Indulatha, Dr. L.V. Vigneswaran .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3061-3075

 Food labeling is a topical issue and an important tool influencing consumer food choices. It could be an efficient tool to prevent consumer vulnerability to diet-related illnesses such as cancer, high blood pressure, hypertension and obesity, etc.This study seeks to examine the impact of Knowledge, Attitude and practice on food labeling among sports players and non-sports players in India. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) in four cities of Tamil Nadu- Chennai, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Dindigul. Data were gathered using an online KAP Pretest questionnaire from hundred respondents which included 50 sports players and 50 non-sports players. An educational session was conducted for all the respondents and the impact of the intervention was analyzed through a posttest questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviorsof the respondents regarding food labels and Independent t- test was used to examine the significant relationship between pre and post test results among sports and non-sports players and the result 

AWARENESS OF HPV VIRUS SCREENING AND ACCEPTANCE OF HPVVACCINE AMONG YOUNG GIRLS AND BOYS

Vijayalakshmi R , Niranjani S , Karpagavalli G .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3076-3079

INTRODUCTION:
HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, affecting both the gender equally worldwide. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a family of closely related non-enveloped a doublestranded DNA virus with currently more than 200 different sequenced genotypes.Two human papilloma virus types (16 and 18) are responsible for nearly 50% of cervical cancers. The India academy of paediatrics committee on immunization recommends offering HPV vaccine to all the female of appropriate age who can offered the vaccine. It is ideal that the vaccine is administered prior to the sexual debut to avoid the transmission of the virus and hence recommended, that age 10-15 should be vaccinated.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD:
A quantitative descriptive study was conducted to assess the level of awareness regarding HPV virus and acceptance level of HPV vaccination among study participants. The research was conducted in selected villages of Chengalpattu district among young girls and boys (10-15 years of age). Total of 300 study participants who met with the inclusion criteria were selected by convenient sampling technique. Two separate questionnaires were used to assess the knowledge and level of acceptance. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants and their parents

Transformational Leadership A Study On The Impact Of Job Performance Focus On Small Business Owners

HyeogJeong, Yeong Mi Kim .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3080-3095

In modern society, companies are in a very dynamic and unpredictable environment, especially small and medium-sized companies are facing an environment of instability, changeability, unpredictability, and complexity in poor conditions compared to large companies. Companies need effective leadership to secure organizational competitiveness and to grow and satisfy individual members. Recently, the importance of transformational leadership has been emphasized for organizational members' job commitment and performance creation. Transformational leadership is highly related to enhancing the adaptability of members in change and unpredictable environments, and it has been identified as a major leadership that causes innovation-oriented and change-seeking behaviors such as contextual performance, creativity and organizational citizenship behavior, along with supervisor satisfaction, job satisfaction, commitment, and job performance. However, there is a lack of empirical research on the relationship between transformational leadership and adaptive performance. In addition, most of the studies on transformational leadership have focused on core leaders at the group level or team leaders of large organizations, and only a few have studied leadership for small and medium organizations. In a rapidly changing environment, it is necessary to study the theoretical and practical contributions of the transformational leadership that have been proven so far to be effectively introduced and applied in the management field of SMEs.

Nutritional Assessment of Anemic Individuals and Its Causative factors: An Outcome based Study

Heena Marwah, Mayuri Rastogi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3096-3111

Anemia, the condition of high prevalence is divided into various types-based on lack of nutritional deficiencies like Iron, Vitamin B12 (cobalamin), Folic acid, protein deficiency etc., on the basis of genetic disorders like sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, on the basis of morphology of hemoglobin which includes color and size of the hemoglobin such as microcytic, normocytic or macrocytic having small size, normal size and large size respectively and hypochrome characterized by light color of RBC than the normal one. This is not the only classification of anemia but it is also divided on the basis of various other factors like on the basis of etiology, clinical signs and symptoms, on the basis of severity of any inflammation and the impaired production of RBC because of the defect in bone marrow, also known as aplastic anemia.

Effect Of Pruning In Different Time Interval On Growth And Yield of Button Rose

Selvavinayagam S, Rameshkumar S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3112-3118

A Field study entitled "effect of pruning in different time intervals on growth and yield of button rose was carried out in a farmer's field near Hosur, Krishnagiri district during 2020-21. The expriement conducted in a factorial randomized block design with two factors and three replication. i.e., third week of oct,first week of nov,third week of nov and first week of dec by altering different heights 40 cm and 45cm. The following growth characters are plant height, plant spread, number of branches plant1, number of leaves plant1, leaf area, days to flower bud initiation, number of flower plant1, flower diameter, single flower weight, flower yield plant1, flower yield plot1, estimated yield kg ha1 were recorded at periodical intervals. The results revealed that S3H2 pruning 3rd week of November  @ the height of 45cm consistently registered the maximum plant height (110.6), plant spread ( 43.3), number of laterals plant-1 (46.2), number of leaves per plant (180.3), leaf area (42.3) and Chlorophyll (1.55) when compared with treatments comprising growth regulator alone or n