Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Volume 2, Issue 3

Volume 2, Issue 3, Spring 2015

The role of chemical elements in melanoma

Angelo M. Facchiano; Francesco Facchiano; Antonio Facchiano

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 73-80

Publication of several studies attest the growing interest to investigate the real impact chemical elements and industrial pollution may have on the human health. In the current study we present novel data referring to the occurrence of the name of all chemical elements taken from the Mendeleev table, in the title of PubMed indexed melanoma articles. Nine hundred fifty four manuscripts were found to have in the title field the “melanoma” word and at least one of the 117 chemical elements. The occurrence of each chemical element in melanoma articles was then compared to the occurrence in epithelioma articles and squamous cell carcinoma articles, unrevealing substantial quantitative differences. Manuscripts having “skin” in the title were used as control manuscripts. The 10 elements most studied in melanoma manuscripts were found to be iodine, oxygen, ruthenium, boron, calcium, carbon, sodium, zinc, iron and technetium, accounting for more than 50% of the 954 identified manuscripts. In all such cases, the occurrence in melanoma manuscripts was found to be largely different as compared to epithelioma articles, as well as squamous cell carcinoma articles. The role of each of these elements in melanoma is discussed. Focal points • Bedside The ten most common elements identified to play key roles in melanoma are shown here to be different from the ten most common found in other control conditions, such as epithelioma or other skin cancers. • Benchside New ways are necessary to organize the immense literature data currently available and to collect it in an ordered, systematic manner, easy to read and to interpret. • Industry Systematic searches in PubMed -indexed literature leading to ordered outputs may facilitate the interpretation of published data. In the present study the role each chemical element plays in melanoma has been investigated by exhaustive searches in PubMed -indexed literature. • Governments There is an increasing interest to investigate the impact chemical elements and industrial pollution have on the human health.

Translational Medicine definition by the European Society for Translational Medicine

Randall J. Cohrs; Tyler Martin; Parviz Ghahramani; Luc Bidaut; Paul J. Higgins; Aamir Shahzad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 86-88

Progress in the field of translational medicine (TM) within the last decade attests to the importance of the TM initiative in the context of more traditional academic health science centers. In many instances, these advancements have taken place without a clear definition of TM, which signifies the urgent need for a clear, consensus definition that would serve as an integrative blueprint for the various “versions” of TM definition. The various existing definitions are reflecting the diversity of institutional translational research and deployment programs. The European Society for Translational Medicine (EUSTM) is a global non-profit and neutral society whose principal objective is to enhance world-wide healthcare through the specific development and eventual clinical implementation and exploitation of TM-based approaches, resources and expertise. In this position article, the EUSTM defines TM as an interdisciplinary branch of the biomedical field supported by three main pillars: benchside, bedside and community. The goal of TM is to combine disciplines, resources, expertise, and techniques within these pillars to promote enhancements in prevention, diagnosis, and therapies. Accordingly, TM is a highly interdisciplinary field, the primary goal of which is to coalesce assets of various natures within the individual pillars in order to improve the global healthcare system significantly.

Translational medicine and varicella zoster virus: Need for disease modeling

Aamir Shahzad; Don Gilden; Randall J. Cohrs

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 89-91

VZV is a ubiquitous human pathogen typically encountered early in life when primary infection causes chickenpox. During this time the virus infects ganglionic neurons at all levels of the neuraxis where the virus remains latent in host neurons. The fact that 495% of the world’s inhabitants have an immunologic response to VZV highlights the problem encountered when ascribing disease etiology to VZV reactivation. There are multiple challenges and problems to better understand pathobiology of VZV latency. There is currently no suitable disease model that mirrors the human diseases caused when virus reactivates. Without a disease model, Koch’s postulates cannot be met and ascribing a causal relationship is tenuous. Without a suitable model for all facets of VZV infection, latency and reactivation, understanding of VZV pathobiology will be difficult. Focal points: Benchside Suitable models for all facets of VZV infection, latency and reactivation are required to better understand the mechanism of VZV pathobiology. Governments Due to the increasing number of geriatric population at risk for severe disease caused by varicella zoster virus reactivation, there is immediate need to increase funding for research studies to find suitable models for VZV infection, latency and reactivation.

Methodologies and limitations in the analysis of potential neuroprotective compounds derived from natural products

John T. Weber; John Weber

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages -

Polyphenols, such as flavonoids found in a variety of plant species, have attracted the attention of scientists, the public, and the media due to their potential use as nutraceutical products. The high quantities of polyphenols found in some berry species, e.g. Vaccinium species such as blueberries and lingonberries, and their reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be beneficial for brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective potential of various polyphenolic compounds have been validated using a variety of in vivo and in vitro techniques, and they are often evaluated initially using in vitro cell culture techniques in order to establish toxicity and effective concentrations. Both in vivo and in vitro methodologies have their respective advantages and disadvantages, including, but not limited to, cost, time, use of resources and technical limitations. This presentation is meant to elaborate on the inherent benefits and drawbacks of in vitro and in vivo methods for assessing neuroprotection, especially in light of proper evaluation of compound efficacy and neural bioavailability. For example, in vivo studies can better evaluate the effects of protective compounds and/or their metabolites on various tissues, including the brain, in the whole animal, whereas in vitro studies can better discern the cellular and/or mechanistic effects of compounds.