Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Issue 2,

Issue 2

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection: Incidence Rate And Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern Of Bacterial Isolates In Patients Admitted In I.C.U Of Tertiary Health Care Hospital Of Jammu Province

Rajni Bharti, Priyanka Sharma, Neeru Rajput, Shashi Sudhan Sharma .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

Health care-associated infections (HCAIs) are infections that occur while receiving health care developed in a hospital or other health care facility1. HAIs are associated with increase in the cost of treatment, adverse patient outcomes, social impact, morbidity and mortality. DAIs continues to be one of the major threats to the patient safety, particularly in m of low-and middle-income countries2,3,4,5. There are four major types of healthcare associated infections which were commonly encountered. Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), Central line associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) and surgical site infection. Among these first three are known as device associated infections (DAIs). Around, 15-25% of hospitalized patients require urinary catheterization. The risk of developing CA-bacteriuria increases with time; with an average risk of 3-10% per catheter days to 25% at the end of one week and to nearly all cases in one month6.
For the diagnosis of CAUTI, a patient with a urinary catheter in place must meet one of two criteria: one or more of the given signs and symptoms with no other recognized causes; such as fever (temperature ≥ 38 degree Celsius), urgency, suprapubic tenderness, and urine culture positive for ≥105 cfu/mL, with no more than two microorganisms isolated; and positive dipstick analysis for leukocyte esterase or nitrate and pyuria (≥10 leukocytes/mL) with no other recognized cause. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) have accounted for as much as 40% of all nosocomial infections in the United States, affecting an estimated 800,000 patients per year. The incidence of nosocomial UTI among the 25% of hospitalized patients, who have a urinary catheter, is approximately 5% per day, with virtually all patients developing bacteriuria by 30 days of catheterization7. One of the recent study found that most catheter-associated bacteriuria was asymptomatic8. But silent catheter-associated UTIs may represent a large pool of antibiotic-resistant pathogens9 and drive a great deal of generally unnecessary antibiotic therapy. These infections increase the length of stay, hospital cost, and mortality.10According to Centre for disease control and prevention-National Healthcare Safety Network-2013 report, the mean incidence of CAUTI per 1000 catheterized days was 0-5.3% in critical care units and 0-3.1% in inpatient wards11. In India the incidence of CAUTI is 1.63-2.1 per 1000 catheter days12, 13. Broad range of bacteria can cause CAUTI. In short term catheterized patients it is monomicrobial such as gram negative bacilli like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Serratia, Citrobacter, and Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter and gram positive cocci like Coagulase negative staphylococcus and Enterococcus. In long term catheterized patients it is polymicrobial. In addition to the pathogens of short term catheterization, it is caused by Proteus, Providencia and Morganella.6The significant risk factors for CAUTI include age, uncontrolled diabetes and long hospital stay14. Other risk factors are female gender, impaired immunity and length of duration ofcatheterization15.

Efficacy Of Methotrexate And Acitretin In Cases Of Psoriasis

Dr. Rajeev Kumar, Dr. Praveen Kumar Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 8-12

Background: Psoriasis is a systemic immune-mediated disease accompanied by arthritis in a significant percentage of patients called psoriatic arthritis. The present study was conducted to compare methotrexate and acitretin in cases of psoriasis.
Materials & Methods: 80 patients of palmoplantar psoriasis of both genderswere divided into 2 groups of 40 each. Group I patients were given oral acitretin 0.5mg/kg daily for 3 months and group II were given oral methotrexate15mg/week for 3 months. Modified psoriasis area severity index (MPASI)score was recorded. Improvement was graded as: no change, slight improvement, moderate, marked and almost cleared.
Results: There were 15 males and 25 females in group I and 20 males and 20 females in group II. The mean MASI score at baseline, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months was in group I was 61.2, 41.4, 31.2 and 21.6 and in group II was 58.4, 39.2, 24.5 and 15.4. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Both oral methotrexate and acitretin were highly effective in treating palmoplantar psoriasis. The reduction of Psoriasis lesions with Oral methotrexate was faster than acitretin.

Reconstructions Of Length Of Ulna From Its Fragments-A Pilot Study In Eastern Indian Population

Srimoyee Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi Hembram, Achintya Biswas, Aniruddha Das, Nabanita Juin, Gowtham .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 13-30

Background: In a densely populate, demographically diverse and vast country like India, the identity establishment of a dead person assumes great medico-legal importance. It also poses a true challenge to the forensic pathologist working in an environment where decomposition and taphonomic process are highly rapid and variable. One of the important pillars for identification is the stature. The estimation of age, sex and stature are vital for skeletal samples, when found from sites in mixed lot. So, a technique is urgently needed for reconstruction of total length of long bones from their fragments. This investigation was designed to estimate the total length of ulnas using its fragmentary bone length in a population specific study. In addition to this, the goal was to deploy them in stature formulae for population specific cases and lastly to estimate the stature of the individual.
Materials and Methods: After getting institutional ethical committee clearance, the study over 50 Ulna Bone revealed linear equation where total length of ulna was used as dependent variable and the different fragmentary length being the independent variables.
Results: The measurements of both sides (left and right) were grouped and noted separately but the results were pooled to obtain the regression equation. This was done because no significant difference in measurement between the left and right side in the sample of 50 ulna bones. The following Regression Equation was obtained:-
TOTAL LENGTH OF ULNA = 3.85+ 4.53QR +0.71ST +1.81PQ+0.32 TU
Conclusion: This study was a preliminary work and a pilot project for estimating the regression equation to reconstruct the total length of ulna from its fragmentary lengths in a population specific sample (Eastern Indian population). Being population specific, it can be applied in disputed cases of identification of mutilated and fragmentary human remains of that geographic region and can be of immense help in future, especially for the law enforcement agencies in the case of mass disasters.


Manali Parmar, Dinki Sahu, Monika Sahu, Swati Parida, Dr. R Shridhar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 31-40

With consistently expanding advancement  in  innovation, utilization about Computerized Advertising, Online Entertainment Promoting, & Web search tool Showcasing is additionally expanding. Advanced Advertising is utilized by advertisers to advance labor & products to commercial center. Computerized Promoting places   significant job  in  expanding deals about labor & products. motivation behind this exploration is to concentrate on  effect about Computerized Promoting, how it's   significant device as two advertisers & buyers. We have additionally concentrated on  effect about Computerized Showcasing & its impact on  shopper purchasing conduct. This exploration was finished on  base about an organized poll as essential information & example size is 100 respondents


animesh Panda, prem Kandra, ayush Kumar Choubey, trupti Ranjan Sahu, Ms. Jasmine Joshi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 41-48

Shared Assets is an arising speculation vehicle that is covered with   pool about assets assembled from numerous financial backers. Common assets are assuming part about monetary go-betweens between banks and financial backers who needs to put resources into an offer market. fundamental point about shared reserves is to broaden gamble about financial backers. Larger part about businesses putting their sum current common assets for dealing with gamble about their monetary resources. There is   gathering about protections which is known as   portfolio that assists with choosing security current view about presentation. These colossal measures about cash current shared assets are worked by venture proficient called an asset supervisor or cash chief or portfolio director. This asset chief's responsibility is to put asset's resources current various protections like gold, stock, and different resources for make expected capital additions or pay. Shared reserves give open doors perpetually little and individual financial backers to get to expertly kept up with arrangement about protections like bonds, values, and different protections. Thusly, addition or misfortune emerging from such speculation can be shared aggregately among financial backers with respect to their commitment to asset.   shared asset's scope about speculation is organized and worked to satisfy venture targets.


Nayenika Solanky, Mahalakshmi.J, Santoshi Kumari, Shamma Parveen, Robert Frank, Ms. Jasmine Joshi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 49-63

Most budget summary examinations center around firms having a place with ventures that either contribute essentially to monetary figures or set in a profoundly serious business climate. target  about this paper is an investigation done to see degree to which an organization has executed utilizing rules monetary execution is great also right. This study researches execution  about business banking area for time  about April-2011 to Spring - 2014. Budget summaries  about Pivot bank, ICICI bank, Government bank also HDFC bank for demonstrated periods were gotten from data set, for example, CMIE, Ability, cash control also hurray finance. outcomes have impacted their monetary execution, also thus, point  about this proposition is to show impacts  about outflow outrage to Volkswagen's fiscal summaries, contrast distinctions with BMW's presentation during concentrated on time  about 2012-2016, also propose suggestion that would their proficiency in a consistently creating climate. exact piece  about this proposal was done, by utilizing near budget summary examination, to find contrasts in organizations' resource also capital designs, development, resource also work utilization effectiveness, liquidity, productivity, benefit per representative also relative power. As a general rule, it was established that, BMW was more beneficial for most part because  about more proficient administration  about money change cycle, as well as higher working benefit per representative, return on deals also work efficiency. They likewise had better also manageable resource also capital design, contrasted with Volkswagen. Important data got from these budget reports were summed up also used to process monetary proportions for four-year time frame. Monetary proportions are devices used to gauge productivity, liquidity also dissolvability execution  about four significant Indian business banks. This examination is to investigate fiscal reports  about these banks utilizing liquidity proportions, movement proportions, influence proportions, benefit proportions, a nd market esteem proportions. For liquidity, accompanying proportions were utilized: current proportion, fast or basic analysis proportion. For movement, Stock turnover proportion, debt holder turnover proportion also working capital turnover proportions were utilized. For influence, accompanying proportions were utilized for example obligation proportion, value proportion, also interest inclusion proportion. For productivity, overall revenue, net revenue, return on resources, return on investor's value, also income per share were utilized. For market esteem, cost profit proportion also procuring per share proportions were utilized.

Comparison of renal functions amongst obese and non-obese adults of rural population area of Northern India

Dr. Prerna Panjeta, Dr. Piyush Bansal, Ashutosh Kumar, Komal Saini, Dr. Vikram Kala .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 64-69

Introduction: Obesity has become the leading global health problem. In numerous large population-based studies-Higher BMI associated with presence and development of low estimated GFR and many other renal diseases.
Objective: To study the renal functions in obese adults of rural area.
To do comparative analysis of renal functions with age and sex matched non obese adults.
Material and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in the General Medicine OPD of BPS GMC for Women, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat, Haryana. A sample of convenient 100 obese patients were taken. A total of 200 patients attending General Medicine OPD were taken, out of which 100 were obese and 100 were non obese.
Results: Statistically significant P values were obtained for Blood Urea, Serum Creatinine, Serum Calcium, Serum Phosphorus, and urine albumin among obese and non-obese adults. Study shows no significant gender differences between obese and non-obese. Statistical analysis shows some age-related differences among obese and non-obese large population studies-showing positive association of BMI with chronic kidney disease.

A Case Report on Eosinophilic Cholecystitis with Frozen Calot’s Triangle – A Rare Inflammatory Etiology Affecting Gallbladder

Dr. Sreedevi B.V .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 70-73

Eosinophilic cholecystitis is regarded as ther are presentation of gallbladder infection that has similar presentation as acute cholecystitis. It presents with symptoms similar to that of cholecystitis with infiltration of excessive esnophils within the gallbladder. Eosinophilic cholecystitis can occur alone or most of the times in combination with eosinophilic inflammation gastrointestinal tract and rarely associated with inflammation of airway

Evaluation of the Single Path Versus Double Path PECS I and II Blocks as an Efficient Analgesic Choice in Female Breast Surgeries

Dr. Rajeev Kumar, Dr. Praveen Kumar Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 74-78

Background: Excruciating pain is a common consequence following breast surgery and can be efficiently managed with double path PECS I and II blocks. Pectoral plane blocks (PECs) are being utilised more frequently in analgesia for patients undergoing breast surgery.
Methods: Sixty patients undergoing breast surgery were randomly assigned into two groups: Single path and double path. Performance time of technique, the onset and length of the sensory block, visual analogue pain ratings (VAS), postoperative analgesic requirements and success rate were the outcomes.
Results: A single-path block performed more quickly. With the exception of 10 hours postoperatively, where the double-path group had lower pain scores, other time points saw equal pain scores. The sensory block lasted longer and started sooner in the double path block.
Conclusions: The use of double-path pectoral blocks was a beneficial approach, as it was associated with a faster onset, and a longer duration of analgesia.

A Study to Observe the Cases of Abdominal Wound Dehiscence in Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomy with Midline Incision

Dr. Amuleek Kaur, Dr. Karaninder Singh Wilku,Dr. Gopal Swaroop Bhargava,Dr. Ajaypal Singh Sandhu .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 79-86

Aim: A study to observe the cases of abdominal wound dehiscence in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy with midline incision.
Objectives: To calculate the frequency of abdominal wound dehiscence in patients undergoing emergency laparotomies subjected to midline incision and to determine hypoproteinemia, anemia and surgical site infection as contributing factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in emergency laparotomies with midline incision.
Materials and Methods: Observational cohort study carried out in the department of General Surgery at Sri Guru Ram Das University of Health Sciences, Vallah, Sri Amritsar on 60 patients who underwent emergency laparotomy with midline incision.
Results: In our study, patients belonging to various kinds of age group and socio economic background were included in the study irrespective of the gender. Amongst the 60 patients included, abdominal wound dehiscence was seen in 36 patients corresponding to 60% of the sample size. This study was endeavoured to delineate the role of anemia, hypoalbuminaemia and SSI (surgical site infection) in the dehiscence seen in these patients and it was observed that majority of the patients undergoing abdominal wound dehiscence had hypoalbuminaemia thus, making it the most significant risk factor followed by anemia and surgical site infection.
Conclusion: In this study we concluded that Abdominal wound dehiscence is a serious sequel of impaired wound healing. Many factors can predispose to this grave complication of which anemia, hypoproteinaemia and surgical site infection carry enormous significance. Patients with these risk factors require more attention and special care to minimize the risk of occurrence. Postoperative abdominal wound dehiscence can be prevented by improving the nutritional status of the patient, strict aseptic precautions, optimization of patient's hemodynamic losses and by proper surgical technique. Early diagnosis of burst abdomen and aggressive treatment helps in reducing morbidity and mortality. Some of the major factors like the ones mentioned in this study must be vigilantly looked for and treated to prevent this catastrophic complication.