Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Volume 5, Issue 1

Volume 5, Issue 1, Winter 2018

Activation of IL5R and CRTH2 on Human Eosinophils Elicit a Similar Molecular Response and Reveal a Synergistic Effect

Virginie Sippel; Berengère Renault; Berengère Renault; Berengère Renault; Gabin M. Pierlot; Berengère Renault; Peter M. A. Groenen; Daniel S. Strasser

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

Eosinophils represent a key cell driving inflammatory processes in diseases such as asthma and eosinophilic esophagitis. The entire process of migration and activation of eosinophils is orchestrated by a myriad of molecules, among which interleukin 5 (IL5) plays a crucial role. Another receptor expressed on eosinophils is chemo-attractant receptor like expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). CRTH2 activation has a prominent role in stimulating Th2 and type 2 innate lymphoid cells to produce IL5 in disease tissue, but also induces eosinophils migration and adhesion. Prostaglandin D2 is the endogenous ligand of CRTH2, predominately released by activated mast cells, another key cell involved in eosinophilic diseases. Consequently, the IL5 and CRTH2 pathway are likely triggered simultaneously in eosinophils in disease tissue. Understanding the molecular effects of CRTH2 and IL5 receptor (IL5R) activated eosinophils might provide new insights for efficient eosinophils blocking. We performed gene expression profiling with isolated human eosinophils to compare the molecular signatures of CRTH2 and IL5R activation. The identified genes were confirmed using an orthogonal technology, and simultaneous IL5R and CRTH2 activation was investigated on the protein level. This study reveals that IL5R and CRTH2 activation trigger a similar molecular response in eosinophils with stronger IL5R effects. C-C chemokine ligand 2 was produced synergistically upon IL5R and CRTH2 stimulation and might contribute to monocyte and macrophage recruitment to disease tissue. The effect on C-C chemokine receptor 1 suggests that eosinophils maturation in the tissue might even occur in absence of IL5 via the CRTH2 pathway.

Subsiding of Dependent Oedema Following Chiropractic Adjustment for Discogenic Sciatica

Eric C. P. Chu; John T. H. Wong

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 12-15

Background: Subsiding of dependent oedema with chiropractic treatment for sciatica has not been described in the literature. Case presentation: A 40-year-old woman presented with unbearable sciatic nerve pain which restricted her in doing daily activities. She also had bilateral leg swelling for some time and no apparent physical causes could be found after being reviewed by a cardiologist. The patient subsequently sought chiropractic care to relieve her pain. She unexpectedly experienced a beneficial outcome from spinal adjustment in which both sciatic nerve pain and leg oedema were simultaneously resolved. It is reasonable to say that ease of mobility from pain relief and increased lymphatic return from sympathetic responses can help eliminating leg oedema following spinal adjustment. Conclusions: The pathophysiology of oedema formation is multifactorial and the therapeutic role of chiropractic remains inconclusive in this case. Further researches are need in this area before the integration of chiropractic into cardiovascular practice.

Acquired Angioedema of the Glottis, Larynx and Neck in a Patient Affected by SLE: Case Report

S. Scollo; G. La Camera; S. Neri; C. Grasso; R. Cubisino; C. Bonsignore; V. La Rosa; M. Astuto

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 16-19

Acquired angioedema is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is generally secondary to C1 inhibitor deficiency due to antibody formation directed against the C1 inhibitor molecule. Face, mouth, tongue, lips, extremities and genitalia are generally involved but also respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosa may be affected. We report a case of a young woman with SLE who presented a severe airway obstruction caused by angioedema. We discuss her diagnostic and therapeutic management including a review of the literature.

Dolutegravir, Second Generation Integrase Inhibitor: A New Hope for HIV Patient

Geeta Yadav; Piyush Kumar; Yugal Kumar; Pradeep Kumar Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 20-29

Undeterred efforts are reported and still continue in future to achieve the goals of virologic suppression in HIV-infected individuals. Dolutegravir is the result of all the efforts made in this direction. It is a recent integrase inhibitor drug approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for use in the treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. This article has reviewed all the aspects of the drug, including the structural and functional analyses, in vitro activity, pharmacokinetics, drug-drug interactions, MOA, metabolism, excretion, dosing/adverse effects and resistance profile. Dolutegravir is a potent and well tolerated antiretroviral agent that can play an important role in the treating patients harboring resistance to other antiretrovirals. Some new combinations of drug with other antiretrovirals are also in the pipeline that can increase the immunologic response of the HIV patients.

Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Platelet Rich Plasma and Hyaluronic Acid in Early Knee Osteoarthritis – Case Series

Krishnaiah Kurapati; Sanjay Tapadia; Madhusudhan Rao; Kavitha Anbarasu; Vinod Kumar Verma; Syed Sultan Beevi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 30-36

Higher prevalence and growing burden of knee Osteoarthritis (OA) combined with recent safety concerns about pharmacological interventions has increased demand for new effective technologies for its management. Need of the hour is an innovative treatment alternative which may repair cartilage damage rather than just reduce symptoms of pain. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and PRP has been shown to relieve pain and symptoms as well as slow the progression of disease as stand-alone therapy. Treatment combining these modalities could be particularly hopeful owing to their positive and diverse interaction among themselves. Combinational treatment using both PRP and HA was performed on a series of 12 patients with early stage primary knee OA who fulfilled all the designated inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were evaluated before and after treatment (1, 3, 6 and 12 months) by physical examination, assessment of VAS for pain, WOMAC, IKDC, KOOS and OKS to record the patient-reported improvement in pain, functionality and quality of life (QOL). 2-tailed Mann Whitney U Test was performed to assess the effect of treatment at different follow-up times of all the clinical scores. Whereas, Pearson correlation coefficient was done to evaluate the correlation between different clinical scores. For all tests, p < 0.05 was considered significant. All patients showed statistically significant improvement in all orthopedics scores evaluated. VAS score was improved significantly from 3.00 ± 0.49 at baseline to 1.57 ± 0.41 (p = 0.031) in Grade I and 3.60 ± 0.51 at baseline to 2.10 ± 0.29 (p = 0.031) in Grade II patients at 6 months’ follow-up respectively. Other scores followed similar trends with statistically significant improvement at 6 months’ follow-up which maintained throughout till end of the study period. All patients treated experienced strong functional improvement and substantial gains in pain relief, functionality and QOL. Hence our preliminary findings suggest that combined PRP and HA procedure is safe and potentially efficacious, which merits further investigation in large clinical settings and also in controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-ups. Focal Points Bench side: Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) deliver a large pool of signalling proteins including growth factors and cytokines to the local milieu driving the tissue regeneration and repair mechanisms which when combined with high molecular weight cross-linked hyaluronan could bestow greater viscoelastic properties and alleviate the symptoms of osteoarthritis. Bedside: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disease and there is no cure for OA except medical management and partial/total knee replacement in advanced stage. PRP along with HA could have the therapeutic potential to promote cartilage regeneration and inhibit inflammation synergistically by decreasing the friction coefficient and minimizing wear. Community: The burden of OA on quality of life, disability and health care utilization is quite high. Combined PRP and HA could be an effective single-dose treatment modality restoring the functional activities and considerably reducing effective cost of the treatment. Governments and regulatory agencies: The technology to obtain PRP is FDA-approved and its safety and efficacy has been well established through several clinical studies. Regulatory agencies should consider the evidences put forth by the researchers and sanction grants to investigate in larger clinical settings and also in controlled trials with different ethnicities with long-term follow-ups.

An Unusual Presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus as Evan Syndrome: A Case Report and Review Literature

Ali Al Bshabshe; Hamdan Al-Shehri; Ali Assiri; Abdulmoneim Jamil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 37-40

Evans syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder with an unknown etiology. In this paper, we report the case of a 32-year-old Saudi woman living with Evans syndrome for more than 8 years (post-splenectomy) who was also diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She was admitted to our Hospital with severe headache and confusion due to cerebral venous thrombosis. The major hematologic manifestations of SLE were pancytopenia and the antiphospholipid syndrome, which are indicators of disease activity when all other possible causes are excluded. The patient was treated with anticoagulation and immunosuppressive therapy and subsequently showed significant improvements in thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. This case report provides an overview of the association between Evan syndrome and SLE.

Leukemia Recurrence Exclusively in the Breast after Stem Cell Transplant

Naziya Samreen; Shahrukh K. Hashmi; Amy Lynn Conners; Asha Bhatt; Katrina N. Glazebrook

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 41-45

Introduction: Leukemic involvement of the breast is extremely rare but constitutes an oncologic emergency. Imaging findings of T-Cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) recurrence in the breasts have not been previously described. Case Description: Patient is a 25 year old female who presented with symptoms of superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction secondary to a mediastinal mass status post biopsy demonstrating T-ALL, which was cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) positive and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), and 80% Ki-67 positive. She was treated with chemotherapy and post-treatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated resolution of mediastinal mass, with no evidence of distant disease. She underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in first remission. Seven months post-HSCT, patient presented with a large area of tender swelling of both the breasts with biopsy demonstrating relapsed T-ALL. Radiologic findings showed bilateral breast masses on ultrasound and mammogram, which were hypermetabolic on PET/CT. Conclusions: Breast involvement in leukemia recurrence, a very rare entity, can present with palpable masses. Mammographic findings in leukemia can include masses or architectural distortion, they are typically hyperechoic on ultrasound, and can have marked uptake on PET/CT. Oncologists, primary care providers and radiologists should be aware of leukemia presentations in the breast for prompt referral for urgent management.

Arteriovenous Malformation Pulmonary (AVM) in a Post-Cesarean Woman: Intensive Care and Urgent Surgery Operation

Francesco Oliveri; Christian Bonsignore; Ilenia Musumeci; Paolo Murabito; Stefano Scollo; Valeria La Rosa; Alberto Terminella; Giacomo Cusumano; Vito Sofia; Marinella Astuto

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 46-50

The AVM is a rare congenital disease that often affects the brain and only rarely we find in other organs. In this pathology there is an alteration of the vascular system, with the arteries discharging directly into the veins, bypassing the capillary system; this puts the patient at high risk of sudden hemorrhage. Today we present the case of a young woman suffering from unknown pulmonary avm. The breakdown of this avm caused a hemothorax in the immediate post-cesarean, necessitating emergency surgery and subsequent intensive care.

Congress Abstracts: 2018-European Clinical Case Reports Congress (EUCCR-2018), 21–22 April 2018, Vienna, Austria

Aamir Shahzad; Randall J. Cohrs

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 51-84

Oral Abstracts First report of a case of central nervous system vasculitis associated to the use of the check point inhibitor ipilimumab Juan Maya, Florentina Berianu, Benjamin Wang, Andy Abril and Ronald R. Butendieck Jr. Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, US

Isolated Demyelination of Corpus Callosum Following Hypoxia

Lucio Marinelli; Lara Castelletti; Carlo Trompetto

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 85-88

Corpus callosum includes a large amount of axons with various degrees of myelination, interconnecting cerebral hemispheres. Tumors, demyelinating diseases, infections, trauma and metabolic diseases as well as vascular lesions may affect corpus callosum, often extending to other white matter areas of the brain. We describe the case of a 76 years old male patient with history of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and normal pressure hydrocephalus, developing dysphagia during hospitalization. Ab-ingestis pneumonia caused brain hypoxia and coma; brain magnetic resonance disclosed isolated demyelination of corpus callosum that was not present before hypoxia. Compared to neurons and astrocytes, oligodendrocytes are reported as particularly sensitive to hypoxia. Respiratory involvement without blood flow impairment could have lead to a prevalent oligodendrocytes damage, resulting in a selective demyelination of corpus callosum. Our patient indeed evolved into persistent vegetative state and died five months after hypoxic episode. This case report could give some insight about in vivo brain susceptibility to hypoxic damage.

Effect of locally delivered 0.2% Thymoquinone gel in subjects with Grade C Periodontitis: Clinical, Immunological and Microbiological Assessment

Walid Elamrousy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 89-101
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.05.01.11

To evaluate the clinical, immunological and microbiological efficacy of local application of Thymoquinone (TQ) gel in subjects with grade C periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six individuals of both sexes aged between24 and 37 years, diagnosed as grade C periodontitis with pocket depth ≥5 mm were selected for this study. The patients received a complete prophylaxis including scaling and root planning (SRP) followed by local intrapocket administration of placebo gel in the control group and 0.2% TQ gel in the study group sites. Probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), matrix metallo-proteniease-8 (MMP8) concentration in
gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetecomitans (A.a) count in subgingival plaque were measured and recorded at baseline and 8 weeks postoperatively. Results: At 8 weeks evaluation period, TQ group showed a significant reduction in PPD, RAL, MMP-8 levels in GCF and A.a count in subgingival plaque samples when compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: The results showed more favorable clinical, immunological and microbiological outcomes with topically administered 0.2 % TQ gel when used as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy in subjects with grade C periodontitis.


M. Ramraj, K. Santhi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 102-122

The Umbelliferone (UMB)molecule was optimized by density functional theory with B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and HF /6-311G (d, p) basis set. The time-dependent DFT method was engaged to calculate the Frontier Molecular orbitals (FMOs) of the UMB molecule. The reactivity and selectivity of UMB are analyzed using parameters like MEP, global reactivity descriptors, Fukui function. Mulliken atomic charges are calculated and interpreted. The TDOS, PDOS and OPDOS of the molecule have been plotted and interpreted. Thermodynamic properties of the title molecule calculated.The molecular docking analysis reveals that inhibitory nature of the UMB molecule is a proved inhibitor of thePI3K inhibitor activity.

An Efficient MIMO-OFDM Based Advanced LTE Standard with QoS for Next Generation Wireless Networks

Mr.Arempula Sreenivasa Rao; Brij Bihari Tiwari; Dasari.Subba Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 123-130

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless systems using OFDM promise to provide the needed performance for future consumer products. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques have been actively pursued in underwater acoustic communications recently to increase the data rate over the bandwidth-limited channels. In this paper, we present a MIMO system design, where spatial multiplexing is applied with OFDM signals for LTE network. Providing QoS while optimizing the LTE network in a cost efficient manner is very challenging. Thus, radio scheduling is one of the most important functions in mobile broadband networks. In this paper we are implementing MIMO-OFDM systems for LTE standards for mobile communication.

Comparative Evaluation Of Anti-Inflammatory And Analgesic Activity Of Some Medicinal Plants

Ms. Madhurima Yadav, Dr. Raju Choukse, Dr. Sourabh Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 131-143

Pain And Inflammation Are Disabling Accompaniments Of Many Medical Conditions. So, Controlling Both Pain And Inflammation Assumes The Top Priority For The Physician. Inflammation Is A Part Of A Complex Biological Response Of Vascular Tissues To Harmful Stimuli Such As Pathogens, Chemicals Or Irritants. Therapy Of Pain And Inflammation Has Always Been Debatable. Methods: Rats Were Divided Into 10 Groups Of 6 Animals Of Each. The Antiinflammatory Activity Was Studied With Carrageenan Induced Rat Paw Edema Models. The Analgesic Activity Was Evaluated Using Tail Flick And Eddy’s Hot Plate Model. The Ethanolic Extract Of Balanitesa Egyptiaca Whole Plant Preparations Were Compared With Indomethacine In Both Acute And Sub Acute Inflammatory Models. The As 400 Mg/Kg Show Significant Increase In Latency To Tail Flick And Eddy’s Hot Plate Method Compared To Control Group (P > 0.05). The Highest Nociception Inhibition Of Stimulus By As 400 Mg/Kg (400 Mg/Kg) Was Observed Up To 180 Minutes. Various Test Result Parameters Were Statistically Analysed At P Value. The Present Results Suggest That Ethanolic Extract Of Balanitesa Egyptiaca Suppresses The First Phase Of Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema, Thus, Confirming An Nsaid-Like Property.

In-vivo & In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of Amlodipine Used in the Management of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus

Harit Rawal, Dr. Rakesh Patel , Dr. Raghvendra Dubey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 144-158

Amlodipine is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Here, we investigated the protective capacity of Amlodipine against high glucose (HG) elicited oxidative. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), NADPH oxidase (NOX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and all other in-vitro & in-vivo antioxidant experimental models. Moreover, the direct antioxidant effect of amlodipine was determined by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay and protein expression. Amlodipine exhibited antioxidant activity inthe ABTS assay with the IC50value of 37.5 µM. Additionally, the cell viability, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity were notably elevated by amlodipine. These findings suggest that amlodipine has protective effects on Management of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus.


S.Sekaran, Nisha Raj.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 159-172

The present study revealed that home gardens of Kollam district of Kerala are having diverse plant resources of both ecological and economic significance. A preliminary vegetation survey was conducted in 10 different home gardens in Kollam district of Kerala. A total of 255 plant species belonging to 202 genera and representing 83 families was encountered from 10 home gardens consisting of 57 trees 52 shrubs and 146 herbs excluding cultivars of Musa and Heveaspp, of these The different use category plants are studied, including 156 ornamental plants , 27fruits yielding plants, 30 species of vegetables, 150 species of medicinal plants, 24 species of timbers, 16 species of fuel woods, 18 species of spices and10 species of  miscellaneous plants are presented of  these plants IUCN,  RET category and endemic  plants like Baccoureacourtalensis, Vateriaindica, Woodfordiafruticosa, Saracaasoka  were encountered.. Hence It is necessary to study in detail whether home gardening in Kerala can be a viable mechanism for biodiversity/ex-situ  conservation of Biodiversity.Thus  Home gardening can play an important role in advancing food and nutritional security and also strengthening the provisioning of numerous ecosystem services in conserving the Biodiversity.
Key words: Ex-situ conservation, Home gardens, Ago-biodiversity,


G. Sindhu kumari, S. Sujithra, R. Rajila, D. Beula shiny, T. Kumaran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 173-179

Antibodies presently available for research, diagnostic and therapies are mostly mammalian monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Traditionally, bigger animals such as horses, sheep, pigs, rabbits and guinea pigs were used for the production of polyclonal antibodies, Chicken eggs present an ideal alternative antibody source to mammals, as the IgY in the chicken’s blood is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. The yolks of eggs laid by immunized chicken have been recognized as an excellent source of polyclonal antibodies for over a decade. This simple non invasive approach presents an appealing alternative to conventional polyclonal antibody production methods. This review offers summarized information about production of edible antibodies used for passive immunization.
Key words: Immunoglobulin Y; Antibody; Chicken eggs; Immunization

Faculty (Part time) Department of Economics, Cotton University, Assam, India

Priyanka Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 180-184

Demonetisation refers to the act of stripping a currency as legal tender. In demonetisation the current form of money is removed from circulation and retired. It is an economic process in which a country’s currency unit is no longer legal tender.Demonetisation is a move in which a government bans the notes or coins of a certain denomination. The honorable Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced demonetisation in India on November 8, 2016 where   Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes were withdrawn from circulation. It was a major event of the year 2016. The present paper attempts to explain the meaning of demonetisation, examine the reasons for demonetisation, find out the extent of demonetisation, explore the positive and negative impact of demonetisation on Indian economy and also provides suggestions. The present study is based on secondary data and the secondary sources includes books, journals, websites, magazines, newspapers etc
KEYWORDS: Demonetisation, black money, corruption, cashless economy, digitization etc

A comparative efficacy of two different hearing aids in patients with hearing loss- - An Original Research

Dr.Shahnaz Sheikh, Dr.Anushri Bajaj, Dr. Vikrant Vaze, Dr. BalchandraPaikay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 185-188

Background:Hearing loss not only causes a deficiency in a person’s capacity to perceive
sounds, but it also brings about psychosocial compromises. The present study was
conducted to compare efficacy of two different hearing aids in patients with hearing
Materials & Methods: 72 patients with hearing loss were divided into 2 groups. Each
group had 36 patients. Group I comprised of channels ranged from 1 to 16. Group II
had the number of channels ranged from 2 to 16. The minimum frequency ranged from
100 to 160 Hz and the maximum from 5,800 to 7,600 Hz. Total individual subjective
satisfaction (TISS) scores were also recorded.
Results: The group I had 17 males and 109 females and group II had 20 males and 16
females. The mean TISS score at 1 month, 6 months and 12 months in group I was 50,
55 and 63 and in group II was 60, 68 and 75 respectively (P< 0.05). The difference was
significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Devices with good technologic features such as more channels, a lower
minimum frequency, and a higher maximum frequency result in better hearing.

Assessment of tympanic membrane perforation in adult population- An Original Research

Dr.Shahnaz Sheikh, Dr.Anushri Bajaj, Dr. Vikrant Vaze, Dr.BalchandraPaikay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 189-192

Background: The incidence of perforations of the TM due to trauma is on the increase
consequent to trauma, and increased violence and accidents seen in present-day life.
The present study was conducted to assess tympanic membrane perforation in adult
Materials & Methods:80 patients with tympanic membrane perforation of both genders
were included. Clinical parameters such as cause of injury, side, site, complaints and
type was recorded.
Results: Left side was involved in 38 and right side in 42, Site was anterior in 46 and
posterior in 30 and undefined in 4. Complaint was otalgia in 78, tinnitus in 70,
otorrhoea in 80 and vertigo in 14. Cause was RTA in 32, domestic assault in 28 and
armed robbery in 20. Type was penetrating in 56 and non- penetrating in 24. The
difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Most common side involved was right and road traffic accident was the
main reason for tympanic membrane perforation


M. Kaja Lakshmy, E. Prabhakar Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 193-199

Malnutrition includes both over nutrition and under nutrition. Country like Indiaharbours burden
of both types. College students are highly vulnerable to malnutrition as they seem tobe nonchalant
about their dietary habits, physical activity and general health due to academic burdenand lack of
time. With increasing importance given to physical appearance one group of students areinto diet,
consumption of dietary pills and bulimia. On the other hand another set of students areaddictedto
junk food andsedentarylife and end up in overnutrition. Our study aim is a) To estimate the
prevalence of malnutrition among medical studentsb) To assessthefactorsassociated with
malnutrition amongmedical students.Acrosssectionalstudy was done among undergraduate
medical students. Asemi-structuredquestionnairewasselfadministeredamong200studentsandalsoanthropometricexaminationwasconducted
wascalculatedwiththe quetlet’s equation(weightinkgdivided by height in m2 ) The dietary habits
and intensity and frequency of physical activity werequestioned.Thedatawasentered in an Excel
sheet and theresults weretabulated.According to the WHO BMI scale , 13 students were
underweight , 113 were healthy ,55 were overweight and 19 were obese . Obese and Overweight
students were found to be morelethargicand had worsedietaryhabits than
thehealthystudents.Obesity and overweight is quite common among medical students .
Awarenessabout the ill effects of malnutrition has to be provided and medical students should be
encouraged totake care of their health so that they can adapt to a healthy lifestyle and also
practice the education ofhealthpromotion amongtheirpatients in future.

Assessment of efficacy of middle meatal antrostomy in the management of chronic maxillary sinusitis

Dr.Anushri Bajaj, Dr.Shahnaz Sheikh, Dr. Vikrant Vaze, Dr. BalchandraPaikay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 216-220

Background: Sinusitis refers to a group of disorders characterized by inflammation of
the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses. The present study was conducted to assess efficacy
of middle meatal antrostomy in the management of chronic maxillary sinusitis.
Materials & Methods:62 patients of chronic maxillary sinusitis of both
gendersunderwent complete otorhinolaryngological examination with nasal endoscopy
under local anesthesia. A clinical otorhinolaryngological examination and nasal
endoscopy was repeated on visits 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year
Results: Radiological score 0 was seen in 10, 1 in 20 and 2 in 32. Endoscopic appearance
score for polyp at baseline was 26, at 6 months was 10 and at 1 year was 1, endoscopic
appearance score for odema at baseline was 54, at 6 months was 12 and at 1 year was 2.
Endoscopic appearance score for secretion at baseline was 62, at 6 months was 20 and
at 1 year was 4. Symptoms score at 6 months for nasal blockage was 26, facial pain was
11, headache was 5, epistaxis was 6, post nasal discharge was 7. Symptoms score at 1
year for nasal blockage, facial pain, headache, epistaxis and post nasal discharge was 5,
2, 1, 1 and 2 respectively. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Middle meatal antrostomy is a safe and effective procedure in patients
suffering from chronic maxillary sinusitis.

Assessment of the size and site of tympanic membrane perforation and hearing loss

Dr.Anushri Bajaj, Dr.Shahnaz Sheikh, Dr. Vikrant Vaze, Dr. BalchandraPaikay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 221-225

Size and site of tympanic membrane perforation is proportionate to
degree of hearing loss, larger the perforation, greater the hearing loss. The present
study was conducted to assess the size and site of tympanic membrane perforation and
hearing loss.
Materials & Methods: 75 patients with tympanic membrane perforation of both
genders were divided into 3 groups based on size of perforation such as group I with 0-
9mm2, group II with 10-30mm2 and group III with >30mm2 perforation. Site was
anterior, posterior and multiple. Hearing loss was calculated.
Results: Group I patients had 28.4 dB, group II had 382 dB and group III had 47.5 dB
hearing loss. In group I, anterior site was seen in 16, posterior in 5 and multiple in 4
cases, in group II, anterior in 8, posterior in 7 and multiple in 10 cases and in group III,
anterior in 8, posterior in 5 and multiple in 12 cases. The difference was significant (P<
Conclusion: As the size of the perforation increased, hearing loss also increased


Dr. Hemalatha A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 226-232

Physical training has always remained a suitable intervention to overcome the muscle degenerative situations such as sarcopenia not only in the old but also in late-adult and middle-age. This study is aimed to investigate the intervention of physical activity and naturally occurring biologically active compounds of medicinal value in addressing age related skeletal muscle changes. Basella albaalso known as Indian spinach has antiulcer potential, anti-inflammatory activity and hypo-glycemic activity, a natural antioxidant can offer better defense against age related changes in the supplemented physical trained rats. Rats were categorized into four sub-groups. Sedentary control, SE-C; sedentary supplemented, SE-C(S); swim trainees at thermo neutral temperature, SW-T(N) and supplemented swim trainees at thermo neutral temperature, SW-T(N+S). The results suggest that swimming is capable of improving skeletal muscle endurance and mass.  Basella alba supplementation ameliorates the benefits of swim exercise.Basella alba and swim training showed changes and increase in the endurance capacity of skeletal muscles.
Keywords: basella alba, extensor digitorum longus,gastrocnemius, soleus,physical activity.


Dr. Hemalatha A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 233-239

Basella alba  has hypo-glycemic activity. The present study evaluated the benefits of the natural antioxidant, Basella alba, in treating the effect of age-related oxidative stress. Male Wistarrats of 3- , 12- and 18-months of age received a daily oral supplement of Basella alba for a period of 3 months.  At the end of this period, markers of oxidative stress were assessed in the erythrocytes. Basella alba lowered oxidative stress in erthrocytes. These results demonstrated the antioxidant activity of Basella alba probably confers the capacity to reduce oxidative stress in erythrocytes of aging rats. They also suggest a critical role for Basellain reducing blood glucose level and better haemoglobin content.
Keywords: aging,antioxidant, basella alba, erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit.

Analysis Of Mandibular Angle

Dr. Ullasa Shetty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 240-243

Background: Being the only bone which is involved in movement, there is a possibility of its change according to the life style that would be followed in a particular region. It has been observed that there are minute changes in different races, in different geographical regions and so it has become one of the most important bones to be studied in Forensic Medicine. This kind of studies has been seldom done in our population and this study puts in a sincere effort to find the angle in our population.
Aims and Objectives: To study the mandibular angle in bones of this region.
Results: The mean mandibular angle was found to be 133.67 degrees with a standard deviation of ±7.86 degree.
Conclusion: This study successfully reported the angle in the population.
Keyword: Mandibular, angle, forensic, medicine


Dr. Shivarama CH, Dr. Roshan S, Dr. Shishir kumar C Naik, Dr. Avin BR Alva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 244-250

Background: The traditional way of teaching includes a series of lectures which would be taken up by the experts in the subject. The whole medical education is compartmentalized and the students are unable to understand the larger picture. The alignment and integration of the subjects are not happening and majority of the times the students do not had a clue. This study tries to understand whether this alignment works in favour of the students or the traditional method is better.
Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to study the importance of alignment of subjects in the first year MBBS curriculum. The objective of the study is to uunderstand the perception of the students, to find out the effectiveness of alignment of subjects by conducting a MCQ test immediately after conducting a set of classes and to find out the retaining capacity of students by checking the scores of the students in the MCQ exams which would be conducted in a surprise manner after fifteen days of teaching.
Design: Interventional, Cross-over Design
Settings: This study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Kanachur Institute of Medical Sciences
Subjects: I year MBBS Students.
The study was done from September 2017 to August 2018 (1 year duration)
Sample Size: 100 students divided into 2 groups
Intervention: Perfectly aligned topics in 1st year teaching with double blinding.
Tools: Validated Questionnaire for perception and Validated MCQ.

The perception scores are better in the aligned subjects teaching group.
The MCQ scores are better in the aligned subjects teaching group in the examination which was taken immediately.
The MCQ scores are better in the aligned subjects teaching group in surprise exams which was conducted after 15 days.

Conclusion: The alignment of topics makes the students to understand the topics better. It is better perceived by the students and also the retaining of the subject better.
Keyword: cross sectional, interventional, alignment, MBBS and curriculum

Comparative Account On Phycoremediation Of Industrial Effluent From National Thermal Power Corporation (Ntpc) Using Four Indigenous Microalgae.

Soumya Das. K, Shaji. C, Sekaran. S.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 264-272

The present investigation focuses on the bioremediation of waste water by using various microalgae like Scenedesmus dimorphus, Oscillatoria willei, Chroococcus minutus and Lyngbya confervoides. For the study the industrial waste water samples and algal samples were collected from Kayamkulam Lake near NTPC, Alappuzha district, Kerala. Water samples were analysed for 12 Physico- Chemical parameters such as pH, Alkalinity, DO, Chloride, Total Hardness, Calcium, Phosphate, Sulphate, Nitrate, BOD, COD, Silicate and Heavy metals using standard methods. Algae were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Four most abundant and pollution tolerant taxa were isolated from the effluent and cultured in BBM and ATCC growth media. These cultures are used for the bioremediation of the above mentioned Physico-chemical parameters. The percentage reduction of each parameter was recorded from the samples treated with these algae. The percentage reduction attained with S. dimorphus was Alkalinity (46%), Phosphate (86.14%), Nitrate (77.64%), Sulphate (33.16%), Chloride (56%), Iron (42.8%), COD (71.23%) and BOD (89.72%).  In case of O. willei, the percentage reduction observed was Alkalinity (49%), Phosphate (79%), Nitrate (71%), Sulphate (66.7%), Silicate (72%), Iron (53%), COD (76%) and BOD (66%). The percentage reduction with the treatment of L.confervoides was Alkalinity (43%), Phosphate (77%), Nitrate (71%), Sulphate (59.6%), COD (68%) and BOD (62%) and in  case of C. minutus, the reduction noticed was Alkalinity (56%), Phosphate (92%), Nitrate (68%), Sulphate (52.9%), Silicate (89%), Chloride (52%),  COD (51%) and BOD (52%) The results were discussed in the text.
KEYWORDS:  Phycoremediation, Water Pollution, NTPC

Assessment of Cases of Nasal Septal Deviations

Dr. Manoj Kumar, Dr. Manish Gulati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 273-276

Background:Nasal septal deviations are very commonly found in regular nasal
examinations. The present study was conducted to assess cases of nasal septal deviations.
Materials & Methods: 54 patients of deviated nasal septum of both genders underwent
septoplasty. Outcome was recorded.
Results: Out of 54 patients, males were 26 and females were 28. The septal deviation was
causal in 28, midseptum in 16 and posterior septum in 10 cases. The difference was
significant (P< 0.05). The mean NOSE value pre- operatively was 56.2 and postoperatively
was 23.8. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: There was significant improvement in NOSE score following septoplasty.

Determination of complications of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)

Dr. Manoj Kumar,Dr. Manish Gulati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 277-281

Background:Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) is the removal of tissue
obstructing the Osteo Metal Complex. The present study was conducted to determine
complications of FESS.
Materials & Methods: 82 adult patients of chronic rhino sinusitis selected for FESS of
both genders were examined with anterior and posterior rhinoscopy. Lanza Kennedy
criteria is used to grade nasal endoscopy findings looking at the presence of secretion,
oedema and polyps. The complications were recorded post operatively.
Results: Age group 15-24 years had 25 males and 18 females, 25-34 years had 12 and 12
females and 35-45 years had 11 males and 4 females. Common complaints was nasal
obstruction in 71, nasal discharge in 15, post nasal drip in 22, headache in 64, halitosis in
10, anosmia & hyposmia in 8 and earache/ ear fullness in 4 patients. Common
complications were synechia seen in 45, lower lid ecchymosis in 12, bleeding nose in 10
and orbital subcutaneous emphysema in 4 patients. The difference was significant (P<
Conclusion: Common complications of FESS were synechia, lower lid ecchymosis,
bleeding nose and orbital subcutaneous emphysema.


*Kaushal Kumar, *Lakshyaveer Singh Saurabh Mishra, Vimal Kumar Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 282-290

The aim of the present study was focused on the development of nanoemulsion of carvedilol, an antihypertensive drug, to be administered through oral route. Twelvenanoemulsionformulations of carvedilol containing different oily phases and different proportions of surfactant-Tween 80 and co-surfactant- PEG 400 were prepared by ultrasonication method and after preliminary evaluation four formulations (F1, F2, F3& F4) were selected for further study. Prepared carvedilol containing nanoemulsions were evaluated for-droplet size and shape through Transmission Electron Microscopy, drug contents and in-vitro drug release patterns through dissolution studies. The entrapment efficiency for various formulations was found to be between 61.02±0.231% to 96.57±0.212%. The drug showed better release rate in comparison to conventional dosage form. All the formulations showed better results in terms of stability. Among the four formulations the best results were found with F1 formulation of carvedilol which gave the highest release of drug 31.28±3.46% after 1 hr and 88.41±2.72% after 24 hrs. The droplet size range in optimized formulation F1, F2, F3 and F4 was found to be between 20.76 to 107.38nm. The droplets were uniform and spherical in shape. It can be concluded that for oral administration of carvedilol a better solubility and bioavailability can be achieved by use of nanoemulsion formulation of the drug which otherwise has poor solubility and bioavailability.

Oral Dryness & Qualitative Changes in Saliva: Impact of Menopause & Hormonal Replacement Therapy: Systematic Review

Balwinder Singh, Vela Desai, Rajeev Sharma, Kirandeep Kaur, RS Narang, Sukhdeep Kahlon, Tanu Neb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 291-297

Oral dryness – enigma to clinicians. The emergence of oral dryness and its unrelated to
salivary flow rates raised many questions over the hypothesis of oral dryness in post
menopausal women. The current review focussed on qualitative changes in saliva. The
parameters included calcium, Parathyroid hormone and Serum Estrogen. The effect of
hormone replacement therapy in alienating the oral symptoms was also reviewed.

Formulation and In VitroEvaluation of Fluconazole Loaded NanoemulgelAgainstCandida albicans

Narang RS,Srivastava S, Ali J ,Baboota S, Singh B, Kahlon SS, Dogra A, Narang JK

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 298-306

Fungal infections have grown as a threat to the health of human beings over the past few years. In healthy state the human body houses many commensal fungalspecies, Candida albicans being one of them. In human beings who are healthy, the fungus is present in the body without causing any disease. However, the same fungus has potential to proliferate and produce a disease under diverse conditions. As per reports, presence of Candida species accounts for the most prevalent infection in surgical patients who are critically ill. A number of therapeutics have been used for treating candidal infections. Among them, Fluconazole is reported to be effective. Fluconazole is available commercially either as tablets or for IV administration for the treatment of infections occurring by Candida infestation. However, both the dosage forms formulated suffer from certain disadvantages. In order to overcome their drawbacks, in the present study, Fluconazole loaded nanoemulsion based gel was formulated and its efficacy evaluated as an attractive alternative treatment option for Candida infections. In vitro efficacy of Fluconazole loaded nanoemulgel, placebo formulation,  fluconazole gel and control (pure fluconazole) against Candida albicans (MTCC NO: 227) was compared using cup-plate method microbiological assay method. The nanoemulgel was formulated by addition of carbopol 934P (1% w/w) in optimized Fluconazole loaded nanoemulsion.A significantly higher (p≤0.05)zone of inhibition was observed for Fluconazole nanoemulgel (35±1.1 mm) in comparison to fluconazole gel (15±1.2 mm), placebo formulation (9±1.6 mm) and control (9.8±1.2 mm) after 24 hours. Further, after 72 hours, the Fluconazole nanoemulgel exhibited zone of inhibition (34.9± 1.6 mm) while the other three formulations (fluconazole gel, placebo formulation and pure fluconazole) did not exhibit any zone of inhibition.It was concluded that Fluconazole loaded nanoemulgel formulation due to its nanometricsize was effective in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans more efficiently as compared to all the other formulations evaluated.

Land Degradation And Integrated Watershed Management System

Rayees Afzal Mir , Syed Aasif Hussain Andrabi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 307-315

Our research “Land Degradation and Integrated Watershed Management System” is a Considering the deteriorating usefulness levels of inundated farming, the commitment from rainfed agribusiness ought to be expanded to meet the necessities from the consistently Bowing human and animal populace of India. Land degradation is a significant danger to our food and climate security and the degree of corruption issues are more articulated in rainfed locales. Huge capability of rainfed farming is undiscovered generally because of absence of empowering strategy backing and ventures. In dry spell inclined downpour took care of regions, watershed the board has shown the capability of multiplying the agrarian efficiency, expansion in water accessibility, rebuilding of natural equilibrium in the debased rainfed environments by greening these regions and broadening of editing cultivating frameworks. Effect of different watershed programmes can be significantly improved by growing new methodologies and empowering strategies new worldview dependent on learnings over most recent 30 years for individuals driven all-encompassing watershed the executives including assembly, aggregate activity, consortium approach, limit advancement to address value, productivity, climate and monetary concems is direly required. Anyway, this can be utilized as section point action for further developing business for provincial local area. It has been understood that for reasonable advancements of corrupted grounds, contribution of individuals (land less and recipients) is a lot of fundamental. For the last decade endeavors have been made standardize the associations of the local area and recipients and guaranteeing their inclusion in arranging project detailing, execution and upkeep.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 316-328

Due to the rapid progress in the field of robotics, it is a high time to concentrate on the
development of a robot that can man in all type of landscapes, ascend and descend stairs and
sloping surfaces autonomously. This paper presents details of a prototype robot which can
navigate in very rough terrain, ascend and descend staircase as well as sloping surface and
cross ditches. The robot is made up of six differentially steered wheels and some passive
mechanism, making it suitable to cross long ditches and landscape undulation. Static stability
of the developed robot have been carried out analytically and navigation capability of the robot
is observed through simulation in different environment, separately. Description of embedded
system of the robot has also been presented and experimental validation has been made along
with some details on obstacle avoidance. Finally the limitations of the robot have been
explored with their possible reasons

Analysis of the Flexure Behavior and Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Core Sandwiched Composite Material


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 329-342

A woven glass fabric is utilised as the outer skin, while epoxy is used as the matrix/adhesive
substance in this article's core material." For testing the flexural and compressive strength of
epoxy and fly ash sandwiched composites, three different mixtures were employed. Composites
having 65-35 percent fly ash and epoxy resin, 60-40 percent fly ash and resin, and 55-45 percent
epoxy resin are only a few examples of this kind of material (fly ash and epoxy resin). The 60-40
percent composite specimen fared better in flexure and compression tests than the 60-40 percent
metal specimen. The findings of the investigation are discussed and presented in this publication.
Just a few of the criteria utilised to evaluate this product include epoxy resin, compressive
strength, and flexural strength.

Stiffness analysis for a 3-PUU parallel kinematic machine


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 343-355

This paper describes the stiffness characteristics of a 3-PUU translational parallel kinematic
machine (PKM). An alternative method of generating the stiffness matrix is used when
considering actuators and limitations, as well as the compliances of both actuators and legs.
Extreme stiffness values and their design consequences are used to evaluate rigidity
manipulator performance.
Using the stiffness of a 3-PUU PKM in the design of its architecture is a good idea. Using an
eigenscrew decomposition of the PKM's stiffness matrix, it is possible to identify the PKM's
stiffness centre and the PKM's compliant axis, which provides a physical interpretation of
PKM stiffness.