Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Issue 1,

Issue 1

Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging with a novel fluorophore: ZW800-1

Kim S de Valk; Marion M Deken; Maxime JM van der Valk; Alexander L Vahrmeijer

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-2

Intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a novel technique that combines the use of a fluorescent agent with a dedicated near-infrared camera system, to allow real-time visualization of lymph nodes, tumor tissue and/or vital anatomic structures for surgical guidance (Vahrmeijer et al. 2013). NIR light ranges in the wavelength of 700- 900 nanometers, is invisible to the naked eye and can only be detected with dedicated NIR imaging systems, which are currently available from various commercial companies. Fluorescent agents are mainly administered intravenously at a given time prior or during surgery, in order to enable realtime imaging during the procedure. The time of injection is dependent on the biodistribution of the specific agent. After injection the fluorescent agent is cleared by either the liver or kidneys and accumulates in the target (i.e. lymph node, tumor or vital structure) by either physiological processes (enhanced permeability and retention effect), specific targeting or through their clearance route.

Zhengyuan capsule alleviates chemotherapy-related fatigue in nude mice with human lung adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts

Jieshan Guan; Lizhu Lin; Mingzi Ouyang

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 3-11

Aim: We aimed to investigate the action mechanism of Zhengyuan capsule (a registered proprietary Chinese medicine) against chemotherapy-related fatigue (CRF). Methods: BALB/c-nu nude mice model with human lung adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts was constructed by injection of A549 cell suspension. The xenografted mice were randomly divided into model, cisplatin and cisplatin+Zhengyuan groups (n = 20 each). The cisplatin group was given an intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg cisplatin every 3 days for 21 days. The cisplatin+Zhengyuan group was given an intragastric administration of cisplatin and 25 mg/kg Zhengyuan capsule each day for 21 days. Normal control and model groups were administrated with equal amount of saline. Forced swimming assay, tail suspension test, open field test, hepatic glycogen assay, blood analysis, and bone marrow smear was performed. Results: The cisplatin group developed CRF after receiving chemotherapy. When compared with cisplatin group, the cisplatin+Zhengyuan group exhibited longer exhaustive swimming time (p

Totally Extra-Peritoneal (TEP) laparoscopic ventral hernia and incisional hernia repair: Reverse TEP (r-TEP)

Danilo Coco

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 12-13

Laparoscopic ventral hernia and incisional hernia repair has now become a standard technique. However, the disadvantage of this technique is the contact between the mesh and tacks and the viscera. The objective of this article is to describe totally laparoscopic extra-peritoneal ventral and incisional hernia repair to avoid this problem. We developed a reverse Dulucq’s technique for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair described as Reverse Totally Laparoscopic Extra-Peritoneal ventral hernia repair (R-TEP).

Increased expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes in breast cancer cells

Jolanta Rzymowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Brygida Slaska; Izabella Cisek; Katarzyna Wach; Sebastian Mazur; Paulina Stachyra; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 14-19

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the expression at the mRNA level of cytochromeb, subunits COI, COII, COIII of complex IV, ATP6 and ATP8 and to perform aquantitative analysis of the activity of ATP synthase as complex V of the respiratory chain, responsible for ATP synthesis and break down of ATP to ADP in breast cancer. Methods and Results: The level of gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated on the basis of the light intensity of fluorochrome or fluorescein in the cells. Determination of the activity and location of the ATP synthase in cells was carried out using hybridization. In the formulations of breast cancer there was a higher genes expression at the mRNA level for all the examined genes as compared with non-cancerous tissue. The ATP activity was also higher in preparations obtained from breast cancer cells compared with the control tissue. Conclusions: The results confirm mtDNA incorporation to nDNA in neoplastic cells. They point to increased expression at mRNA level for COI, COII, COIII, ATP6 and ATP8 in breast cancer cells compared with control tissue. Increased amount of ATP synthase points to increased ATP in a neoplastic cell.

The role of oxidative stress on molybdenum enzymes and ischemic reperfusion injury in hyperuricaemic patients. An infrared spectroscopic study

Mamareli V; Tanis O; Anastassopoulou J; Kyriakidou M; Mamareli CH; Koui M; Theophanides T; Mamarelis I

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 20-25

There are many clinical evidences that hyperuricemia is a risk factor for the development of peripheral carotid and coronary vascular diseases. However, the mechanism of elevated uric acid concentration in biological systems is not yet clear. In the present work Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the mechanism of calcification and plaque formation in carotid arteries in hyperuricaemic patients. Comparison between the spectra of carotid arteries from patients with elevated uric acid values and spectra obtained from patients with normal uric acid values showed structural changes of the characteristic spectral bands in the region 4000-500 cm-1. These changes were related with changes in the concentration of the serum uric acid and the clinical history of the patients. The intensity decrease of the infrared bands in the region 1650-1500 cm-1 was associated with the decrease of the apolipoprotein ratio, ApoI/ApoII, which corresponds to HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) and the regulation of the LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins), which are related to oxidation stress. The infrared band at 1467 cm-1 indicated the presence of urea components as a result of the metabolic pathway. The shape and the intensity of the bands between 1250-900 cm-1 depend on the glycation-end products of the diseases. SEM-EDX chemical analysis showed fibril formation and molybdenum release in hyperuricaemic patients.

The mechanisms and challenges of cancer chemotherapy resistance: A current overview

Ravindran Ankathil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 26-34

Chemotherapy remains one of the principal modes of treatment for cancer patients. Despite advances in anticancer agents for multiple cancers, development of resistance to classical chemotherapeutic drugs and targeted drugs continues to be a major challenge. Drug resistance which can be either intrinsic or acquired, leads to treatment failure and tumor progression. Drug resistance occurs because of mechanisms that are associated with individual cancer cells or through mechanisms that relate to the microenvironment within tumors. Multiple molecular determinants of intrinsic and acquired resistance including genetic, epigenetic factors, as well as other factors which act at the genomic or cellular level have been identified. This review provides a conspectus on some of the recent discoveries on mechanisms of anticancer drug resistance and the possible ways to revert resistance and thereby improve cancer therapy.

Comparative spectroscopic analysis between Dille- Koppanyi test and Zwikker’s test for the detection of barbiturates in illicit cases

Rahul Das, Jayati Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 35-49

Barbiturates are derivative of barbituric acid which acts as central nervous system
depressant. The primary detection of barbiturates is carried out by the presumptive tests
viz. Dille Koppanyi test and Zwikker’s test. A comparative study was done in order to
determine whether there are any differences in the results of the two tests and to find out
the test with more consistency. Drug samples containing Phenobarbital viz. Gardenal-30
and Gardenal-60 were used in the study. Solution mixtures of 9 different ratios were
prepared in the ratios 1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2 and 9:1 comprising stock solution
of Phenobarbital and solvent (Methanol AR). Both the tests were performed upon the
samples at different proportions on spot tile and test tubes and the absorbance values
(given by UV/VIS Spectrophotometer) for all the various test results at different
concentrations were compared. The study demonstrated that Dille-Koppanyi test showed
better results after interpretation of the absorbance values using Independent sample ‘t’
test and Coefficient of variation. A mean value of 2.85 was found for Zwikker’s test and a
mean value of 3.19 for Dille-Koppanyi test. A significant difference of p<0.01 was obtained
between the results from the two tests. Further, a better consistency was found from the
absorbance values of Dille-Koppanyi test as compared to the absorbance values of
Zwikker’s test which is shown by the values of Coefficient of variation that was found to be
higher for Zwikker’s test (2.00 and 5.86 for Gardenal-30 and Gardenal-60 respectively)
and lower for Dille-Koppanyi test (0.78 and 2.26 for Gardenal-30 and Gardenal-60
respectively). In cases of trace amounts of drug sample being recovered from crime scene
suspected to be barbiturate, primary detection can be efficiently done directly using Dille-
Koppanyi test instead of Zwikker’s test which will lead to a better outcome in the

Estimation of Salivary Calcium and Phosphorus in Children with different caries status – A Cross- Sectional observational study

Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, Pratibha Ramani, R Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 50-58

Background and Objectives
Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a chronic disease of childhood affecting the primary
dentition. ECC begin early in life and can affect the quality of life of child. It is also termed
as nursing caries or baby bottle tooth decay. It has a multifactorial etiology and salivary
parameters are considered as one of the important etiological factors of ECC. The present
study was done to determine the level of salivary calcium and phosphorus in children with
ECC, severe ECC and caries free. The main objective of the study is to determine the
correlation between calcium and phosphorus level and to compare it with the three groups
of children with different caries experience.
Materials and Methods:
It is a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Saveetha Dental college and
Hospitals. Children between 3-6 years were examined and 20 caries free, 20 children with
ECC and 20 children with Severe ECC were recruited for the study. The examination and
sample collection were done by a single qualified Pediatric dentist. The samples were
collected and analysed for salivary calcium and Phosphorus.
Results: The results showed that there was a statistically significant differences in salivary
calcium and phosphorus levels among caries free, ECC and Severe ECC children.
1. There was a significant difference in salivary calcium levels among caries free,
ECC and Severe ECC children
2. There is a significant difference in salivary phosphorus level among caries free,
moderate ECC and Severe ECC children

Hydrogels – A versatile material in dentistry

Tony Thomas C MDS, Venkitachalam Ramanarayanan MDS, Vinod Krishnan MDS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 59-65

Hydrogels are a group of hydrophilic polymers which contain more than 10% of
water content in their structure. They have got a specific structure and also compatibility
with different condition of use. Flexibility of hydrogels, primarily due to its water content,
makes it possible to use them in a myriad of applications ranging from industries to
biological uses. Their application in medical field is popular due to their biocompatibility
and inert nature. Hydrogels have a wide range of application in the field of dentistry also.
These can be used as a better substitute for some of the materials used in dentistry. This
article describes then various avenues for application of hydrogels in dentistry


Lusi Nursilawati Syamsi, Chaidir, Nurita Andriani, Syamsudin Abdillah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 66-76

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of polyherbal (ONOIWA MX) capsules
containing 1000mg Channa striata extract, Curcuma xanthorriza 250mg and Moringa
oleifera 250mg as adjuvants for standard treatment of Covid 19 in the management of
moderate pneumonia.
This is a clinical randomized controlled single blind parallel study conducted during the
COVID-19 pandemic on patients having symptoms as well as positive cases, meanwhile,
patients were follow-up for 7 days after the last dose of Onoiwa MX. A total of 48 patients
were COVID-19 positive and divided into 2 groups namely group I (n = 24) given standard
therapy 2x200mg hydrochloroquine, 1x 500mg azithromycin injection, 2x75mg oseltamivir as
well as 750mg Levofloxacin injection and Onoiwa MX 3x1 capsule for 7 days. Meanwhile,
patients in the second group were given 2x200mg hydrochloroquin, 1x500mg azithromycin,
2x75mg oseltamivir as well as 750mg Levofloxacin injection + C.striata capsules 3 times a day
for 7 days. Furthermore, a clinical and vital signs examinations were carried out on the
patient daily.
The administration of ONOIWA MX capsule as an adjuvant therapy for standard COVID-19
treatment reduce parameters such as D-dimer, CRP and clinical symptoms.

ASCII KM Discrete Matcher: Enhancement of ASCII KS Discrete Matcher using Pattern with Variable Length

Kuljinder Singh Bumrah, Himani Sivaraman, Dr. Sandeep Budhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 77-80

It has been observe in past years that the academics have instigated string
matching algorithms in several turfs to extract and find the undisclosed key RSA
algorithm or any other encryption method for discovering the intruder or malicious
pattern in imposition detection system , the DNA matching, carbon chain matching .
This article has a signified aim to analyse ,suggest and attain an algorithm which is
classified for discrete pattern matching in different mode and moreover more efficiently
and effectively. It has been designed for any pattern or type of string whether a
character string , decimal value , wild character or any special symbol using your
ASCII value.

Prognostic value of tumor budding in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Dr. Sandhya Sundar, Dr. Pratibha Ramani, Dr. Gheena S, Dr.Abilasha R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 81-90

Tumor budding is the histological phenomenon seen as a detached, discohesive small cluster
of cells in the invasive tumor front. Tumor buds may provide a histological means for the
assessment of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction and facilitate early prediction of
prognosis.The present study aims to assess the prognostic significance of the tumor budding in
oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC). Detailed Histopathological scoring of the oral
squamous cell carcinoma tissue and lymph nodes including the evaluation of tumor budding
was performed by two individual observers retrospectively. The association between various
clinicopathological parameters and the budding index was analyzed using chi-square test and
fisher’s exact tests. Tumor budding was demonstrated in the invasive tumor front of all OSCC
cases. High-intensity tumor budding was seen in stage 4 cancers with tumor size of > 4cms.
Histologically, they were related to deep and extensive tumors, having an invasive front with
infiltrative cells in groups or cords, dense stromal type in association with mild inflammation
invariably. All of the cases with lymph node metastases were tumor budding positive. Thus this
study emphasizes the importance of tumor budding evaluation in regular pathology practice in
the management of OSCC cases.

Usage Patterns Of Network Connectivity And Security Perspectives In Internet Of Things

Siripuri Kiran; Dr.Gyanendra Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 91-98

The Internet of Things is the notion of linking any gadget to the Internet and other
connected devices (provided that it has an On/Off switch). It is a gigantic network of linked
objects and people – all collecting and sharing information about their use and the
surrounding environment. This includes an extraordinary number of items in all shapes
and sizes – ranging from smart microwaves that automatically cook your food for the
proper time period to self-driven cars whose complex sensors detect objects along their
path, to wearable fitness equipment that measure your cardiac velocity and the number of
steps taken on that day. There are even linked footboards that can track how far and
quickly they are being thrown and recorded for future training reasons using an
application. By taking advantage of major Bluetooth vulnerabilities, a cybersecurity expert
pirated a Tesla Model X in less than 90 seconds. For identical reasons, other automobiles
using FOB (wireless) keys have undergone assaults to open and start their automobiles.
Threat actors have identified a technique of scanning and replicating the interface of these
FOB keys to rob the corresponding cars with no alarm. If high-tech machines such as a
Tesla are exposed to an IoT data leak, every smart device is vulnerable to it.