Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Volume 6, Issue 1

Volume 6, Issue 1, Winter 2019

Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging with a novel fluorophore: ZW800-1

Kim S de Valk; Marion M Deken; Maxime JM van der Valk; Alexander L Vahrmeijer

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-2

Intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a novel technique that combines the use of a fluorescent agent with a dedicated near-infrared camera system, to allow real-time visualization of lymph nodes, tumor tissue and/or vital anatomic structures for surgical guidance (Vahrmeijer et al. 2013). NIR light ranges in the wavelength of 700- 900 nanometers, is invisible to the naked eye and can only be detected with dedicated NIR imaging systems, which are currently available from various commercial companies. Fluorescent agents are mainly administered intravenously at a given time prior or during surgery, in order to enable realtime imaging during the procedure. The time of injection is dependent on the biodistribution of the specific agent. After injection the fluorescent agent is cleared by either the liver or kidneys and accumulates in the target (i.e. lymph node, tumor or vital structure) by either physiological processes (enhanced permeability and retention effect), specific targeting or through their clearance route.

Zhengyuan capsule alleviates chemotherapy-related fatigue in nude mice with human lung adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts

Jieshan Guan; Lizhu Lin; Mingzi Ouyang

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 3-11

Aim: We aimed to investigate the action mechanism of Zhengyuan capsule (a registered proprietary Chinese medicine) against chemotherapy-related fatigue (CRF). Methods: BALB/c-nu nude mice model with human lung adenocarcinoma A549 xenografts was constructed by injection of A549 cell suspension. The xenografted mice were randomly divided into model, cisplatin and cisplatin+Zhengyuan groups (n = 20 each). The cisplatin group was given an intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg cisplatin every 3 days for 21 days. The cisplatin+Zhengyuan group was given an intragastric administration of cisplatin and 25 mg/kg Zhengyuan capsule each day for 21 days. Normal control and model groups were administrated with equal amount of saline. Forced swimming assay, tail suspension test, open field test, hepatic glycogen assay, blood analysis, and bone marrow smear was performed. Results: The cisplatin group developed CRF after receiving chemotherapy. When compared with cisplatin group, the cisplatin+Zhengyuan group exhibited longer exhaustive swimming time (p

Totally Extra-Peritoneal (TEP) laparoscopic ventral hernia and incisional hernia repair: Reverse TEP (r-TEP)

Danilo Coco

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 12-13

Laparoscopic ventral hernia and incisional hernia repair has now become a standard technique. However, the disadvantage of this technique is the contact between the mesh and tacks and the viscera. The objective of this article is to describe totally laparoscopic extra-peritoneal ventral and incisional hernia repair to avoid this problem. We developed a reverse Dulucq’s technique for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair described as Reverse Totally Laparoscopic Extra-Peritoneal ventral hernia repair (R-TEP).

Increased expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes in breast cancer cells

Jolanta Rzymowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Brygida Slaska; Izabella Cisek; Katarzyna Wach; Sebastian Mazur; Paulina Stachyra; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 14-19

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the expression at the mRNA level of cytochromeb, subunits COI, COII, COIII of complex IV, ATP6 and ATP8 and to perform aquantitative analysis of the activity of ATP synthase as complex V of the respiratory chain, responsible for ATP synthesis and break down of ATP to ADP in breast cancer. Methods and Results: The level of gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated on the basis of the light intensity of fluorochrome or fluorescein in the cells. Determination of the activity and location of the ATP synthase in cells was carried out using hybridization. In the formulations of breast cancer there was a higher genes expression at the mRNA level for all the examined genes as compared with non-cancerous tissue. The ATP activity was also higher in preparations obtained from breast cancer cells compared with the control tissue. Conclusions: The results confirm mtDNA incorporation to nDNA in neoplastic cells. They point to increased expression at mRNA level for COI, COII, COIII, ATP6 and ATP8 in breast cancer cells compared with control tissue. Increased amount of ATP synthase points to increased ATP in a neoplastic cell.

The role of oxidative stress on molybdenum enzymes and ischemic reperfusion injury in hyperuricaemic patients. An infrared spectroscopic study

Mamareli V; Tanis O; Anastassopoulou J; Kyriakidou M; Mamareli CH; Koui M; Theophanides T; Mamarelis I

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 20-25

There are many clinical evidences that hyperuricemia is a risk factor for the development of peripheral carotid and coronary vascular diseases. However, the mechanism of elevated uric acid concentration in biological systems is not yet clear. In the present work Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the mechanism of calcification and plaque formation in carotid arteries in hyperuricaemic patients. Comparison between the spectra of carotid arteries from patients with elevated uric acid values and spectra obtained from patients with normal uric acid values showed structural changes of the characteristic spectral bands in the region 4000-500 cm-1. These changes were related with changes in the concentration of the serum uric acid and the clinical history of the patients. The intensity decrease of the infrared bands in the region 1650-1500 cm-1 was associated with the decrease of the apolipoprotein ratio, ApoI/ApoII, which corresponds to HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) and the regulation of the LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins), which are related to oxidation stress. The infrared band at 1467 cm-1 indicated the presence of urea components as a result of the metabolic pathway. The shape and the intensity of the bands between 1250-900 cm-1 depend on the glycation-end products of the diseases. SEM-EDX chemical analysis showed fibril formation and molybdenum release in hyperuricaemic patients.

The mechanisms and challenges of cancer chemotherapy resistance: A current overview

Ravindran Ankathil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 26-34

Chemotherapy remains one of the principal modes of treatment for cancer patients. Despite advances in anticancer agents for multiple cancers, development of resistance to classical chemotherapeutic drugs and targeted drugs continues to be a major challenge. Drug resistance which can be either intrinsic or acquired, leads to treatment failure and tumor progression. Drug resistance occurs because of mechanisms that are associated with individual cancer cells or through mechanisms that relate to the microenvironment within tumors. Multiple molecular determinants of intrinsic and acquired resistance including genetic, epigenetic factors, as well as other factors which act at the genomic or cellular level have been identified. This review provides a conspectus on some of the recent discoveries on mechanisms of anticancer drug resistance and the possible ways to revert resistance and thereby improve cancer therapy.