Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Issue 2,

Issue 2

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Osteoconductive Properties of Novel GelMa/Eggshell-Derived Calcium Phosphate Composite Scaffold

Jodal Mohammedamim Ahmed; Shehab Ahmed Hamad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-19

GelMa/ES-HA composite scaffold was sucessfully fabricated via freeze-drying process.
The cytotoxicity of composite scaffolds was low after 24 h incubations (The viability of
cells was above 85%). However, the cell viability decreased over time (71.9% after 48
h and 60.0% after 72 h). ALP activity of the cells grown on scaffold samples was
significantly higher than that of polystyrene plates under the same condition (p <0.05).
Also, ALP activity of scaffold samples increased over time. Osteocalcin synthesis for
the cells cultured on the GelMa/ES-HA scaffold was significantly higher than on the
polystyrene plate after 6 days of culture. The results of ALP activity and osteocalcin
synthesis suggest that the bioactive GelMa/ES-HA scaffold improved the development
of a mature osteoblast phenotype. SEM micrographs of the HOS cells grown on the
scaffold after culturing for 3 days confirmed the favorable cells growth of cells on the
surface of scaffold or between its pores and also formation of calcium deposits.
The histological examination of bone sections showed deposition of osteoid bone in all
studied groups after 1-week and immature bone spicules rimmed by osteoblasts were
observed more clearly in treatment groups. Significant osteoid matrix synthesis and
mineralization accelerated was by early cell differentiation. The number of osteocytes
and osteoblasts as mean values increased during the transition from the 1, 4 to 8 and
12-weeks of healing intervals among treatment groups. While, the Osteoclast
population in treatment groups decreased over time. The production of Osteocalsin,
Osteopointin and Osteronectin in treatment groups significantly increased over time
(p< 0.05). Furthermore, the difference between Osteocalsin, Osteopointin and
Osteonectin production in all treatment group and control groups was significant (p<
0.05) except for the 1 week groups. The maximum Osteocalsin, Osteopointin and
Osteronectin production belonged to 3 months treatment group which were 34.26,
42.43 and 34.26, respectively; which this values for 3 months control groups were
17.49, 14.73 and 14.50.
The results of this study showed that the novel GelMa/ES-HA composite scaffold is a
bioactive, biocompatible, biodegradable bone graft with desired mechanical and
swelling properties and excellent potential for enhancing bone regeneration process
which could serve as a promissing candidate for bone and dental tissue engineering

Advances in Kinase Inhibitors Anticancers: Highlights and Challenges

Ali N. Hussein; Zahraa Albasry2

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 20-22

Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is considered as one of the main signaling catalysts during
the transduction of cell signal. The role of PTK is to transfer the ATP-γ-phosphate to the
tyrosine moiety in the targeted protein. This, in turn, resulted in many cellular processes,
including; phosphorylation, controlling cell growth, regulation of the cell differentiation,
apoptosis and many other cellular processes. Accordingly, any faulty expression of PTK
however, resulted in faulty cell multiplication. Nowadays, various PTKs are utilized as
targets for the treatment of cancer.
The mechanism by which the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) act as antitumor can be
simplified as the TKIs prevent the ATP from reaching its binding site by competitory
mechanism. This in turn will inhibit the phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase leading to
suppress the tumor cell proliferation. TKIs have gained a great attention by researchers
leading to discover many successful therapies, nevertheless, there are always
challenges to be tackled.
In this work, the authors summarize the mechanism of TKIs, highlighted the successes
and drawbacks of TKIs for anticancer therapies.

Intestinal Patch A Versatile Oral Delivery System Preparation and Evaluation

Wisam G. Sanad; Shaimaa N. Abd-Alhammid

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 23-30

Development of the dosage form aimed for safe, effective and easy administration
according to that ideal way is the oral route, but great challenges stop against that like
poor absorption, enzymatic degradation, low solubility and gastric effect all these
barriers present in the GIT. Intestinal patch with it is a unique design, consist of
protective and mucoadhesive parts resemble transdermal patch that provide good
chance for developing an oral dosage form to the proteins, peptides, aminoglycoside
and low permeable drugs near look about this oral intestinal device in this review.

Common Skin Disorders Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusin in Thi-Qar Province, Iraq

Ass. Prof. Ahmed Abdulhussein Kawen; Dheyaa Kadhim Al-Waeli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 31-37

The current study was designed to determine the prevalence of skin disorders
associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus which conducted from beginning of February
2019 to the end of march 2020. This study was carried out on 122 type 2 diabetic
patients who visited the outpatients clinics of dermatology and venerology in Al-Hussein
Teaching hospital in AL-Nasiriyah city, Thi-Qar province, Iraq. From 122 diabetic
patients, 60(49.18%) males and 62(50.81%) females. Mean age was 58.63±9.42. The
duration of diabetes mellitus with mean 6.73±3.3. The mean levels of RBS was found
(257.43±75.77) mg/dL, FBS (147.79±26.62) mg/dL, HbAlc (8.76±1.61%). The present
study demonstrate that the most considerably skin disorders was, bacterial infection 34
(27.86%), fungal infection 20 (16.39%), acanthosis nigricans 11(9.1%) whereas other
skin disorders was less frequently in this study such as granuloma annulare, rubeosis,
vitiligo, xerosis and yellow skin. The bacterial infection in males was recorded 24(40%)
higher percentage among skin disorders while fungal infection in females 13 (20.96%)
was more than other skin disorders. A significant differences between males and
females in some skin disorders were observed in this study (P≤0.05). A significant
differences were observed between pattern of skin disorders and values of RBS, FBS
and HbAlc in diabetic patients (P≤0.05). According to type of treatment, a significant
differences were recorded between type of skin disorders and combination therapy and
oral hypoglycemic in diabetic patients (P≤0.05) while did not show significant difference
in insulin therapy.

Screening of CD8 Gene in Females with Idiopathic Infertility: A Cross Sectional Study in Thi-Qar

Enaas S. Jawad; Muslim N. Saeed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 38-42

Background: Infertility affects a major proportion of the individuals in the reproductive
age group. About 40-50% of infertile cases are contributed by the female factors.
Several cases of female infertility remain unexplained. There are several genetic factors
associated with female infertility. Among these genetic factors, the most important
factors are gene mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and epigenetic factors. There
are several single gene mutations reported in female infertility. The present study was
conducted to screen the CD8 gene in unexplained cases of female infertility in the Thi-
Qar province.
Material and methods: In the cross sectional, comparative study conducted over the
year of 2018, 42 females were recruited. Among the 42 females, 11 were diagnosed to
have primary infertility, 11 had secondary infertility, and 20 were healthy fertile controls.
Venous blood was collected in EDTA coated vials by venipuncture. DNA was extracted
and the CD8 gene was PCR amplified and sequenced to screen for any mutations.
Result: Only 1 out of 22 patients (4.55%) showed a sequence change in the CD8 gene.
This patient showed one transition mutation (C418T) and one transversion mutation
(T419G). These mutations were absent in the controls.
Conclusion: Our study did not confirm the role of CD8 gene mutations in idiopathic
female infertility. However, further extensive studies should be conducted to
understand the role of CD8 gene mutations in idiopathic female infertility.

Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in Thi-Qar Province - Iraq from 2015-2019

Rana A. Othman; Yahya A. Abbas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 43-48

Background: Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are two of the most commonly
transmitted infectious agents by Blood transmitting so it is still remains a considerable
global health problem, this prospective cross-sectional study was conducted
between 2015 and 2019 at the directorate of main Blood Bank, dialysis center,
thalassemia center and public health laboratory in Thi-Qar Province -Iraq, during that
period a total of 1323 patients, 948 (71.7%) males and 375 (28.3%) females, they
suffering from signs and symptoms of liver diseases.
The aim of study: There were no adequate epidemiological studies on the prevalence
of viral hepatitis, especially in last years and there were no national solutions to limit
it’s, we conduct this study to determine the prevalence of both types at Thi-qar
Sampling and methods: This study was conducted in January 2015 to December 2019,
on main blood bank, patients referred to the thalassemic center, renal dialysis unit and
public health laboratory at Thi-Qar province, the study was conducted on 176848
individuals, from those (1323) cases, (515) blood donors, (45) thalassemic patients, (91)
renal failure patients and public health laboratory (672), the following data were
recorded: Age, sex, date, resident, type of infection, data were collected by from
statistical units. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows (version 23.0, SPSS lnc,
Chicago, III), for comparison between groups as appropriate; P ≤ 0.01 was considered
statistically significant.
The results: The results of infection were found 1323(0.7%), its distributed as :672
(50.8%) were public health laboratory patients, 515 (38.9%) blood donors, 91 (6.9%)
renal dialysis patients and 45(3.4%) thalassemic patients, the results was showed
higher infection in males more than females, with high prevalence in age groups (31-
40) and (41-50) years, with significant difference (P<0.01) .
Conclusions: despite the findings revealed that Thi-Qar is acceptable percentage rate
of prevalence of infection, but may be increased the infection by Immigration from
endemic areas, especially for business , transfusion of blood, a major roots of
infections by renal dialysis, thalassemic patients were a risk groups because
administration of blood.

Computed Tomography Findings Used to Discriminate Between Atypical Renal Angiomyolipoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma

Dr. Firas Abdullah Noori Al-Baghdadi; Dr. Ali AbdulBaqi Ali Ismael; Dr. Riyadh Adel Jaed AbdulAzez

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 49-56

Objective: Differentiate the atypical angiomyolipoma from the renal cell carcinoma of
the same size by computed tomographic findings.
Introduction: A solid renal mass is a lesion without macroscopic fat that enhances
regardless of its pattern. It is important to detect the malignant one and differentiate
them from the benign one, especially when they are small. To maximize its detection
and characterization, CT includes images obtained before and after the administration
of intravenous contrast.
Materials and methods: A prospective study was carried out with 45 patients (7) with
atypical angiomyolipomas and (38) with renal cell carcinoma, all cases had been
nephrectomized (total or partial) for the resection of the lesion with subsequent
evaluation of it in the pathology center, using three-phase computed tomography
(phases without contrast, corticomedullary and early excretory) for renal cell carcinoma
less than 50 mm. Two expert radiologists individually evaluate the characteristics of the
tumor, its attenuation in phase without contrast and the characteristics of its
enhancement to differentiate the atypical angiomyolipoma from renal cell carcinoma
Results: There was a predominance of women with atypical AML (57.1% of the total; n
= 4) and of men with RCC (65.15%; n = 25), but no significant difference seen
between them. Significant difference is seen between atypical AML and RCC regarding
their contour (p-value = 0.043). In the post-contrast phase, atypical AMLs had a
homogeneous distribution enhancement in 6 cases (85.7%) and a prolonged
enhancement pattern over time in most of cases (71.4%, n= 5); regarding the RCCs
presented heterogeneity in most of cases (92.1%, n= 35) and early wash out
enhancement pattern in (81.6%, n= 31), with significant difference between them.
Conclusion: Three-phase helical CT is the standard modality for evaluate the SRM less
than 50 mm. It serves to differentiate the Atypical AML from the RCC, with the more
valuable tomographic findings are homogeneity and pattern of enhancement of renal

Assessed Valuate of Soluble Programmatic Cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-1) in Sera of Hepatitis C Virus in Iraqi Patients

Seenaa Wdaah AlSalih; Alaa Raisan Rashid; Syakirah Samsudin; Moatasem AlSalih

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 57-63

Objective: The present study aims at detecting the concentration of human PD-1 in
samples taken from hepatitis C virus patients related to the healthy control group which
studying the relation between viral load associated with (PD-1) concentration.
subject of the treatment group content from 68 samples which is selected randomly
from the patients with HCV, subdivide into 32 males and 36 females aged 23-76 years
with 30 healthy individuals divided 20 males and 10 females. During first April to end of
June 2020.
ELISA kit from (Shanghai Yehua Biological Technology Company, China) was used to
measure programmed death concentration. While Real time-PCR technique (Device
Smart Cycler, USA) was used for calculating the viral load, according to Sacace
Biotechnology kit. The result was a high concentration of PD-1 in patients 295.709±29.36
and 168.337 ± 80.906) compared to healthy (106.014±63.90, 110.176 ± 36.681).
Respectively, and significant difference. and we found that PD1 concentration was
directly proportional to viral load
Conclusion: We have found that there is an enhancement in PD-1 concentration in
patients associated with healthy control groups, and We also found that PD1
concentration was directly proportional to viral load, Whenever, increased the viral load,
had risen the PD 1 concentration.

Vitamin-D Receptor (VDR) Gene Polymorphisms (FokI and TaqI) in Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis of Iraqi Population

Wajdy Jabbar Majid; Abdul Hussein Alwan Algenabi; Alaa Abood Alwadees

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 64-68

Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a multifactorial disease in which different
environmental factors may trigger the already carried genetic susceptibility in affected
individuals. One of the involved theories in the progression of autoimmune disorders is
the impairment of immunomodulatory activities of vitamin D or its receptors. The gene
polymorphism of vitamin D receptor was reported as an associate of numerous
autoimmune diseases including Addison's disease or type I diabetes mellitus. The
association between vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms and risk of
Hashimoto's thyroiditis was not analyzed in our community yet.
Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 182 Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients
visiting the Al-Hussein teaching hospital in Al-Nasiriah city and Al-Sadder medical city in
Al-Najaf in addition to 200 healthy individuals as a control group. Serum vitamin D3, FT3,
FT4, TSH, anti-TG and anti TPO concentrations were determined by
Electrochemiluminescence methods using Cobas e411 from Roche Company. The
genotyping of VDR gene (TaqI and FokI) was achieved by PCR-RFLP method in all
Results: Dominant homozygous genotype (FF) were significantly higher in the
Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients compared with those of the control group (OR= 2.22;
P=0.0002), while the OR for the heterozygous Ff genotype (0.63; p=0.029) and recessive
homozygous ff genotype were (0.40; p=0.017) suggesting that the individuals carrying
homozygous dominant FF genotype were two times more susceptible for development
of Hashimoto's thyroiditis than individuals carrying the ff or Ff genotypes which were
more protective from disease. In addition, results regarding VDR-TaqI polymorphism
showed that individuals carrying dominant homozygous TT genotype or T allele have
higher risks to develop Hashimoto's thyroiditis (OR= 2.64 and OR=1.78 respectively).
Conclusion: The current study data of VDR gene polymorphisms suggesting that Iraqi
individuals carrying dominant homozygous FF of rs2228570 SNP and dominant
homozygous TT of rs731236 SNP were more susceptible for development of
Hashimoto's thyroiditis while individuals carrying the ff homozygous or Ff heterozygous
of rs2228570 SNP and heterozygous Tt of rs731236 SNP were more protective from
disease. However, such associations were not related to vitamin D status of the studied
Hashimoto's thyroiditis population.

Serodiagnosis of Human Herpesvirus-8 among Iraqi Blood Donors

Zainab B. Mohammed; Shatha F. Abdullah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 69-74

Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) or known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
(KSHV) is the etiologic agent for all clinic-epidemiological forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS).
Many studies have been documented that blood transfusion plays an important role in
HHV-8 transmission. This study was prepared to determine the frequency of HHV-8
antibodies among blood donors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on ninety blood
donors who attended the Iraqi National Centre for Blood Transfusion in February 2019 to
detect HHV-8 IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunoassay method. Anti-HHV8-
IgG were detected in 78 out of 90 (86.6%) serum samples. A significant association has
been found between anti-HHV-8 detection and associated risk factors in blood donors such
as sexual relationships (legal and illegal), occupation, surgical and dental operations, blood
transfusion, cupping, tattooing, smoking and numbers of blood donation. Our results
confirmed that a high percentage of HHV8-IgG among blood donors may indicate an
increased threat to HHV-8 infection via blood transfusion.

Association of IL-4 and IL-6 Gene Polymorphism with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Nktel Faaz AL-Saad; Mohammed A.K Alsaadi; Ali Hmood Al-saadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 75-81

The case-control study was aimed to evaluate the effect of IL-4 and IL-6 gene
polymorphism on susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in patients in Babylon province
and also measure the serum level of these cytokine in in sera of studied group. The
genotype association of rs2243250 (C/C, C/T, T/T) were significant (P<0.05) with (46.7,
38.3, 15)% respectively for PTB cases and (36.7, 26.6, 36.7)% respectively for control
group. Allele's frequency for patients and control for IL-4 (rs2243250) were also
significant (P<0.05) and the C allele represent the risk allele for PTB patients with odd
ratio (95% CI) of 1.93(1.15-3.24), while the T allele represent protective allele for control
group 0.52 (0.31-0.87). The genotype association of rs1800796 (C/C, G/C, G/G) were
significant (P<0.05) with (43.3, 38.3, 18.4)% respectively for PTB cases and (50, 15, 35)%
respectively for control group, whereas, the allele's frequency for patients and control of
IL-6 (rs1800796) were insignificant with (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in
mean level of both IL-4 and IL-6 serum concentration between pTB patients and controls
(P<0.01). Also, there were an insignificant effect of IL-4 (rs2243250) and IL-6 (rs1800796)
gene polymorphism on the difference in serum level of both IL-4 and IL-6 respectively in
studied groups (P>0.05).

May Intrauterine Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Improve Clinical & Ongoing Pregnancy & Live Birth Rates in Unexplained Repeated Implantation Failure Patients? A Randomized Clinical Trial

Atousa Karimi; Sara Mokhtar; Mohammad Reza Sadeghi; Simin Zafardoust; Mina Ataei; Aboulzal Ghoodjani; Arash Mohazzab; Fataneh Nazari; Soheila Ansaripour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 82-87

Introduction & Objective: To study whether intrauterine granulocyte colony
stimulating factor (G-CSF) improves the rates of clinical and ongoing pregnancy and
live birth rates in unexplained repeated implantation failure (RIF) patients on their new
ICSI-ET program.
Study Design: In University affiliated, Avicenna specialized center for fertility and
repeated miscarriages 93 consenting unexplained RIF patients with normal
endometrium and without any history of malignancy or uncontrolled background
disease were enrolled in a registered, computer generated randomized double
blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients underwent intrauterine perfusion of
G-CSF or Placebo before ET and were monitored to calculate the Clinical & ongoing
pregnancy and live birth rates in each group.
Result: The mean age was 32.85±5.02 years in G-CSF and 33.57±4.63 years in
placebo group. There were no differences in baseline characteristic of patients and
the ICSI protocols in groups. clinical and ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates were
17%, 14.9% and 12.8% in G-CSF group and 21.4%, 17.4 %and 13 % in control
group respectively and did not show any statistically significant difference between
the two groups. No adverse side effect was seen in the study groups.
Conclusions: In the study, intrauterine G-CSF did not affect clinical and ongoing
pregnancy and live birth rates There was a non- significant improvement in clinical
and ongoing pregnancy rate and also a reduction in the first trimester abortion in GCSF
patients. Non-significant higher ongoing pregnancy and lower abortion rates in
the G-CSF group may be due to limited sample size or low G-CSF dosage. So further
multicenter studies with larger sample size or higher doses of G-CSF is
recommended. Clinical Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013063011653N2.

Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death in Elderly Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction with ST Segment Elevation, Having Undergone Myocardial Reperfusion by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Olga A. Osipova; Larisa V. Shekhovtsova; Yevheniia B. Radzishevska; Yury A. Lykov; Tatyana G. Pokrovskaya; Lilia V. Korokina

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 88-92

Prediction of fatal arrhythmias in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is extremely
important. Objective: Create a differential diagnostic model for predicting sudden
cardiac death in elderly patients with STEMI with the history of PCI. Methods: We
studied 152 patients (143 men and 9 women), mean age 70.3±3.4 years, with STEMI
after PCI; EF LV less than 50%. The patients were divided into 2 groups: those who
died on the first day from SCD and those who survived. The QT interval and its parts
were measured upon admission and after PCI. The control group consisted of 30
healthy individuals. Results: A model was developed for determining the level of risk
of arrhythmic death on the first day from SCD after successful PCI based on ECG
criteria using DA. The most informative for the differential diagnosis was a set of the
following indicators: QTd, QTapcd, and SubTd. The most significant indicator is Sub
Td. The following algorithms were developed: ROAD = Qtd x 0.3438 + QTapcd x
0.0842 - SubTd x 0.0864 - 19.5068, NROAD = Qtd x 0.1997 - QTapcd x 0.0148 +
SubTd x 0.3261 - 20.893. Their practical implementation on models is proved.
Conclusion: The creation of a “ROAD/NROAD” differential diagnosis model for
predicting SCD in patients with STEMI after PCI suggests practical application at the
prehospital stage in this category of patients for prophylactically fatal VA and SCD.
Assessment of the possible development of adverse events in patients with STEMI
after PCI is possible using the ECG method based on the use of indicators such as
QTd, QTapcd, and SubTd at the prehospital stage.

Comparative Analysis of Tissue Reactions during Implantation of Endoprostheses made of Polytetrafluoroethylene in the Anterior Abdominal Wall

Aleksandr A. Dolzhikov; Alina S. Leshchenko; Aleksandr Ya. Kolpakov; Aleksandr V. Soloshenko; Victor K. Gostishev; Sergey P. Francev; Vladimir F. Kulikovsky; Andrey L. Iarosh; Aleksandr A. Karpachev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 93-97

Objectives: The objective of this research was a comparative study of the reaction of the
tissues of the anterior abdominal wall to the PTFE-endoprosthesis with a DLC-coating at
long-term experimental stages.
Material and Methods: The study was performed on 110 white laboratory rats divided
into two experimental groups. In the first group, a 1.0–1.0 cm PTFE-endoprosthesis
fragment was implanted under the skin of the anterior abdominal wall in animals. In the
second group, a DLC-coated PTFE-endoprosthesis fragment was implanted into animals.
A morphological study of the preparations was carried out after 180 days of the
Results: A morphological study revealed significant differences in tissue reactions to two
types of PTFE-endoprosthesis after 180 days of the experiment. Both groups showed no
acute inflammatory changes, and the differences were related to the delimiting tissue
reactions. The giant cell reaction was observed to a greater extent when uncoated PTFEendoprostheses
were used, and type IV collagen fibronectin was accumulated in them.
The presence of a DLC coating significantly reduced the degree of this reaction. Also, a
significant difference is that the initial PTFE endoprosthesis with micropores is
impregnated with plasma and matrix proteins and subsequently grows with collagen
fibers. DLC-coating reduces the absorption of proteins in the thickness of the
Conclusion: The study found that this surface modification of PTFE-endoprostheses
significantly affects the nature of the inflammatory and restrictive reactions that
determine the bio-integration of the endoprosthesis.

A Rare Example of a Combination of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis and Bronchial Asthma in the Elderly

Andrey Yu. Tretyakov; Oleg V. Ermilov; Nina I. Zhernakova; Sergei A. Shekhovtsov; Victoria A. Tretyakova; Anna V. Ulezko; Alina N. Mishchenko; Maria I. Chervatyuk

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 98-101

Prediction of fatal arrhythmias in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is extremely
important. Objective: Create a differential diagnostic model for predicting sudden
cardiac death in elderly patients with STEMI with the history of PCI. Methods: We
studied 152 patients (143 men and 9 women), mean age 70.3±3.4 years, with STEMI
after PCI; EF LV less than 50%. The patients were divided into 2 groups: those who
died on the first day from SCD and those who survived. The QT interval and its parts
were measured upon admission and after PCI. The control group consisted of 30
healthy individuals. Results: A model was developed for determining the level of risk of
arrhythmic death on the first day from SCD after successful PCI based on ECG criteria
using DA. The most informative for the differential diagnosis was a set of the following
indicators: QTd, QTapcd, and SubTd. The most significant indicator is Sub Td. The
following algorithms were developed: ROAD = Qtd x 0.3438 + QTapcd x 0.0842 -
SubTd x 0.0864 - 19.5068, NROAD = Qtd x 0.1997 - QTapcd x 0.0148 + SubTd x
0.3261 - 20.893. Their practical implementation on models is proved. Conclusion: The
creation of a “ROAD/NROAD” differential diagnosis model for predicting SCD in
patients with STEMI after PCI suggests practical application at the prehospital stage in
this category of patients for prophylactically fatal VA and SCD. Assessment of the
possible development of adverse events in patients with STEMI after PCI is possible
using the ECG method based on the use of indicators such as QTd, QTapcd, and
SubTd at the prehospital stage.

The Effect of COL1A and COL3A Gene Polymorphisms on Pelvic Organ Prolapse among the Women of the Belgorod Region

Alexandra S. Ustyuzhina; Sergei P. Pakhomov; Umeda G. Shokirova; Alina V. Matrosova; Ibragim M. Soliman; Larisa V. Pakhomova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 102-104

Relevance: The problem of genital prolapse, despite such a long history of the
disease, still does not have a definite solution. Currently, the problem of genital
prolapse in women remains relevant due to the high impact on the social part of life.
Genital prolapse and impaired function of neighboring organs significantly reduce the
quality of life. Every year there are more and more articles linking genital prolapse with
connective tissue pathology and with a change in collagen structure. This paper
describes the relationship of polymorphisms of the collagen genes COL1A1 and
COL3A1 and pelvic organ prolapse in women. This study aimed to analyze the effect of
rs1800012 and rs1107946 polymorphisms of the COL1A1 gene, rs1800255 of the
COL3A1 gene on the development of pelvic organ prolapse in women of the Belgorod
Material and Methods: In 2018 we analyzed 268 women who were residents of the
city of Belgorod and the Belgorod region, among which 2 groups were identified.
Group 1 (N = 53) included women who had signs of pelvic organ prolapse. Group 2 (N
= 215) consisted of women with an objectively proven absence of prolapse. The study
was carried out in the gynecological department of Belgorod Regional Clinical Hospital
of St. Joasaph.
Results: In our study, it was found that the frequencies of polymorphisms of the
COL1A1 and COL3A1 genes in residents of the Belgorod region did not differ from
those in representatives of European populations. Thus, in the studied population of
Belgorod women, the allele A of the rs1800255 polymorphism of the COL3A1 gene
was characterized by a protective effect in relation to the predisposition to pelvic organ
Conclusion: In our study, a high association of rs1800255 polymorphism of the
COL3A1 gene to pelvic organ prolapse in women of the Belgorod region was
confirmed. At the same time, no connection between the rs1800012 and rs1107946
polymorphisms of the COL1A1 gene and genital prolapse was detected.

New Aspects in the Study of Clinical and Morphological Features of Uterine Blood Flow in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in the Mother

Tatyana V. Pavlova; Anton N. Kaplin; Lyudmila O. Zemlianskaia; NataliaB. Pilkevich; LyubovA. Pavlova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 105-109

The aim of the study was to develop new approaches to the study of modern aspects of
the clinical and morphological features of uterine blood flow in type I diabetes mellitus
(DM) in the mother. Under our supervision, there were 40 pregnant women with type I
DM. Clinical examination methods generally accepted in obstetric practice were used to
assess the condition of the fetus, placenta, and blood flow in the fetal vessels and uterine
arteries. Light microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) of 2 uterine fragments obtained during cesarean section were
performed. Samples were examined using a FE1 Quanta 200 3D scanning microscope,
analyzed, and morphometric and imaging were performed. Processing AFM images was
formulated using the NOVA software (NT-MDT, Russian Federation). Results obtained
allow us to judge the adverse effect of diabetes on the mother's body during pregnancy
and childbirth. Among the complications of pregnancy, it should be noted: the state of
preeclampsia (8%), fetoplacental insufficiency (88%), the threat of abortion (52%),
polyhydramnios (25%).Morphologically, we revealed plethora of the endometrium. A
change in the shape of the myometrium with the presence of fragmentary destructive
changes in the myometrium, including focal necrosis and damage to the vascular system
of the pregnant uterus. The paper substantiates the possibility of using scanning electron
and atomic force microscopy as express methods for morphofunctional diagnosis of a
woman's condition in pregnancy pathology

An Action of Superlow Power EHF Radiation on Some Microbes in Vitro, Human Erythrocytes and the Functional Status of a Person

Felix A. Pyatakovich; Tatyana I. Yakunchenko; Kristina F. Makkonen; Olga V. Mevsha; Olga N. Moryleva; Sergio Stagnaro; Simone Caramel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 110-114

This paper is devoted to the analysis of advanced scientific research about the role of
superlow intensity EHF effects on biological objects, including people. In this
investigation was utilized Gunn diode with the flow of electromagnetic radiation
superlow intensity of 10 μW and frequency 40-43 GHz. The estimation of the influence
of the millimeter radiation on staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, and the native blood has
been performed. It was shown the death of staphylococcus is associated with the
frequency of modulation signals of the radiation. The EHF irradiation of bacterial
suspension for one minute leads to the short-term disorders of motor function of
E.coli. Exposure by EHF of the super weak intensity causes inhibition of red blood cell
function, which manifests itself in a decrease in their ability to aggregate. Our
experimental data also prove that intake of water activated by means of EHF radiation
modifies the functional status of patients.

Innovative Methods of Elementosis Study in Oncourological Practice

Tatyana V. Pavlova; Vladimir F. Kulikovsky; Natalia B. Pilkevich; Lyubov A. Pavlova; Dmitry V. Bessmertnyy; Ivan A. Pavlov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 115-121

The purpose of this work is to study the content of macronutrients in the tissues with
oncourological pathology. Methods: Clinical examination material of 279 people was
used in the work, 229 of them were men (82%) and 50 were women (18%). Elemental
analysis of oxygen, carbon, calcium, nitrogen and sulfur was carried out using a
detector to record the spectra of characteristic X-ray radiation (EPAX company), which
were integrated with "Quanta 600 FEG" scanning electron microscope. Results: with
prostate cancer, the oxygen content decreased, so during stage 1, the oxygen content
decreased by 36.8% among middle-aged patients, and by 38.6% among elderly
patients, stage 2 - by 32.4% and 28.9%, stage 3 - by 34.1% and 34.2%, and stage 4 -
by 30.9% and 35.1%. The nitrogen content changed insignificantly, carbon and sulfur
decreased. The calcium index among middle-aged patients with stage 1 prostate
cancer increases by 10.6, and by 10.8 times among the elderly, while it is absent
among the patients with stage 2, 3 and 4. The nitrogen content among the patients
with renal pathology did not change significantly, but there was a tendency of carbon,
calcium, and sulfur increase and oxygen decrease. When they studied the level of
macronutrients in bladder cancer, there was a tendency to nitrogen and carbon level
increase, and in the groups of stage 1 and 2 patients, the content of calcium and sulfur
increased by 12.5 and 3.8 times, respectively, and oxygen was also reduced.
Conclusions: we found that all groups demonstrated oxygen content decrease, most
pronounced among stage 2 patients with bladder cancer - 49.5%, which leads to tissue
hypoxia in the studied organs. The nitrogen and carbon content varied slightly. The
content of calcium and sulfur increases among the patients of all studied groups.

Features of the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Schizotypal Disorder

Oleg V. Ermilov; Andrey Yu. Tretyakov; Lyubov V. Romasenko; Nina I. Zhernakova; Elizaveta S. Rudycheva; Inna V. Tikhonova; Irina A. Misan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 122-127

Objective: To describe the features and mechanisms of development of metabolic
syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes melitus (DM2) and intermediate states of glycemia in
psychosis the occurrence of these disorders, the values of total cholesterol (TC),
fractions of high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL),
triglycerides (TG), values of atherogenic coefficient (AC), insulinemia, С-peptidemia,
insulin resistance (IR) the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of patients
with schizophrenia and in mentally healthy individuals.
Materials and methods: The frequency of carbohydrate metabolism disorders (CMD) was
studied. Fasting glycemia was determined, and in the presence of its violation, a glucose
tolerance test was performed. MS components were studied in patients with DM2,
plasma concentrations of TC, HDL, VLDL, TG, C-peptide (CP), insulin and HbA1c were
determined in patients with DM2, AC values and IR indices were calculated using
HOMA-IR and CARO criteria.
Results: CMD in schizophrenia are more common than among mentally healthy subjects,
amounting to 13.1% (p=0.02), and the main condition here is a significant number of
individuals with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
among women (CMD p=0.01; IGT p<0.001; IFG p=0.03). A feature of psychiatric
sampling is a decrease in HDL by 16.4% (p=0.03) and an increase in AC by 52%
(p=0.02). Mentally ill men with MS are characterized by a significantly large value of AC
(p=0.019), insulinemia (p=0.02), CP level (p=0.02), HOMA-IR (p=0.01) and CARO
(p=0.04) values than in mentally ill patients with DM2 without MS. In comparison with
the control, regardless of gender, the schizophrenic patients with DM2 have significantly
lower values of insulin (p=0.03), C-peptidemia (p=0.04) and IR, according to the criteria of
HOMA-IR (p=0.01) and CARO (p=0.03).

New Aspects in the Study of Clinical and Morphological New Aspects in the Study of Blood in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Tatyana V. Pavlova; Vladimir F. Kulikovskij; Anton N. Kaplin; Irina I. Povalyaeva; Lyudmila O. Zemlianskaia; Lyubov A. Pavlova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 128-133

The aim of the research was to study red blood cells in type II diabetes mellitus (DM),
both an independently occurring disease, and in combination with hypertension, using
innovative research methods (atomic force and scanning electron microscopy with
elemental analysis). In the course of the study, we observed 20 patients aged 40 to 50
years. All of them were divided into groups of 5 people: without somatic and endocrine
pathology and infectious diseases; with moderate type II DM; stage II hypertension;
with a combination of type II DM and hypertension. Each has passed the necessary set
of generally accepted clinical and laboratory examination methods together with related
specialists (therapist, endocrinologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist). Blood was taken
from each patient for subsequent light, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy.
A morphometric analysis of the tissues in the Ntegra-Aura instrument was also
performed. We observed the most pronounced changes in the structure of erythrocytes
in people with a combination of type II DM and hypertension: the number of
degenerative forms increases sharply, and the number of discocytes decreases. In this
regard, such altered red blood cells can’t perform their functions in full. The article
substantiates the possibility and future prospects of using atomic force and scanning
electron microscopy with elemental analysis for independent type II DM, and in
combination with arterial hypertension.

Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Patients with Oral Galvanosis

Aleksandr V. Tsimbalistov; Ekaterina S. Mikhailova; Irina V. Voytiatskaya; Irina. P. Ryzhova; Aleksandr A. Ponomarev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 134-140

The clinical and biochemical parameters of patients with oral galvanosiswere studied. A
comprehensive examination of patients with galvanosis, which included an assessment
of dental and somatic status, as well as a study of the content of low- and mediummolecular-
weight substances (LMMWSs) in plasma, erythrocytes and mixed saliva was
held.Patients with galvanosis who were also likely to have diseases of the digestive
system, diseases of the circulatory system, diseases of the nervous system prevail
among comorbidities. Consequently, the course of the underlying disease in the
examined patients is complicated by concomitant somatic pathology due to the observed
polymorbidity.The absolute values of the current value recorded in the oral cavity do not
correlate with the subjective and objective manifestations ofgalvanosis. A positive
average correlation was found between the severity of the development of galvanosis
and the level of impedance in the oral cavity(r=0.573, p<0.001).The high level of
LMMWSs in the blood (22.12±0.77c.u.) and mixed saliva (29.88±0.62c.u.) in patients with
galvanosis indicates endogenous intoxication resulting from the impairment of many
organs and systems, which is confirmed by the history and examination data. The
placement of dental material into the oral cavity increases the degree of toxic load and
has a negative impact on the surrounding tissues and the body as a whole.

Malat1 RNA Genetic Factor and T1 Bladder Cancer

Vladimir F. Kulikovsky; Viktor K. Gostishchev; Alexander F. Chernousov; Pavel G. Osipov; Andrey L. Yarosh; Uriy A. Hoschenko; Olesya I. Lokteva; Andrey A. Beresh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 141-145

Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the urinary tract. This disease
has a pronounced tendency to relapse and progress, is characterized by a severe course
and a high degree of disability. Non-invasive bladder cancer - superficial tumors of the
mucous membrane of the bladder with possible germination in the submucosal layer,
but without muscle invasion (pTa and pT1). Invasive bladder cancer - with germination in
the muscle layer (≥рТ2). Currently, there is an extensive literature on genetic data with
RMP T2-T4, but there is not enough information about the early form of RMP - T1. It
was discovered that almost 90% of the human genome is actively transcribed, while
only 2% are protein-coding genes, and the majority of the transcripts are non-coding
RNAs. Molecules of non-coding RNA, depending on their size, are divided by length. A
lot of data has been published regarding the effect of short variants of these molecules
on the development of oncopathology by inhibiting mRNA expression. At the same
time, we did not find large studies devoted to the study of the influence of long noncoding
RNAs. Also now, the MALAT1 dnaRNA is attracting the attention of scientists.
Concurrently, researchers are particularly interested in studying the relationship of single
nucleotide polymorphisms of the MALAT1 gene with the appearance of
oncopathologies of different localization, as well as the study of its association with
different characteristics and stages of the tumor process. In this study, we collected
overview data regarding the possible association of rs 3200401 polymorphism of the
MALAT1 gene in patients with a single focus and multifocal bladder cancer stage T1.

A Case Report of Successful Endovascular Treatment of «Sentinel Bleeding» in Patient with Adverse Anatomy

Maksim S. Kapranov; Vladimir F. Kulikovskiy; Aleksandr A. Karpachev; Aleksandr V. Soloshenko; Adrey L. Iarosh; Edrees S. Al-Kanani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 146-150

Introduction: Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer (pancreaticoduodenectomy - PDE),
has a high risk of postoperative complications (up to 30-70%) due to its difficulty, one of
such undesirable outcomes is bleeding (up to 10% of all post PDE complication. Since
1991, a non-fatal gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) or bleeding through drainage that follows
PDE, is called - “sentinel bleeding”; and it is a predictor of further massive fatal bleeding.
Material and methods: We present data of 64 yo male after
gastropancreaticoduodenectomy (GPDE).
Diagnosis: Moderate differentiated (MD) ductal adenocarcinoma of pancreatic head.
Massive GIB with source of bleeding as pseudoaneurysm of right hepatic artery occurred
on 21stday after GPDE. It was impossible to implant stent-graft and we failed to primary
embolize with “front-to-back-door” technique: against the background of further and
recurrent bleedings, patient underwent coiling of pseudoaneurysm and subsequent coil
implantation into right hepatic artery and common hepatic artery. Due to new recurrence
of GIB – patient underwent successful “front-to-back-door” embolization with
combination of coils and Onyx.
Results: After «front-to-back-door» embolization patient was discharged in satisfactory
condition without recurrence of bleeding. Follow-up period is18 months: no recurrence of
Conclusions: Bleeding after PDE should be considered as «sentinel bleeding» and
embolization should be used. Surgical hospital, carrying on resections of pancreas as a
routine, should have a CathLab unit, equipped with wide specter of angiographic
instruments and 24/7 surgical team with experience of hemostatic interventions.

Features of the Clinical Course of Dental Tissue Abrasion in Adulthood

Alexander A. Ponomarev; Maxim S. Kaushan; Sergei N. Gontarev; Arman A. Oganesean; Maria K. Kurmaz; Maria G. Gayvoronsky

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 151-155

Objectives: In the paper the data is given of the research on prevalence of dental tissues
abrasion (DTA) in adults of various age groups.
Materials and Methods: The detailed dental examination of 1.924 patients (1.044 males
and 880 females) at the ages from 21 to 89 was carried out. There were 4 groups: young
adults – from 18 to 44; middle-aged adults – from 45 to 59; older persons – from 60 to
74; and senile persons – from 75 to 89.
Results: The prevalence of dental tissues pathology in adults depends on the age group
and gender specific features. The DTA is less common in young adults (4.98%) than in
middle-aged adults (36.24 %) as well as older (31.44%) and senile persons (17.2%).
People of older age groups more often need treatment and preventive interventions
oriented to teeth tissue.
Conclusions: The study found that women are less susceptible to hard tooth tissue
abrasion than men. With age, the number of people with tooth abrasion as well as its
severity increase

Study of Some STR Markers of Y Chromosomes in Two Iraqi Sub Populations of Middle Euphrates Aria

Mohammed zuhair Naji; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 156-162

In this study, a sample of 144 persons lived in middle-Euphrates of Iraq population was
analyzed using 5 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms. This
population (n=144) was separated to two sub-population Hashemites (n=72) and
Commoners (Non- Hashemites) sub-population (n=72), in the commoners sub-population
the locus DYS19 was most polymorphic loci in number of alleles with the highest gene
diversity, while in Hashemites sub-population, the locus DYS19 and DYS392 were most
polymorphic loci in number of alleles and DYS391has the highest gene diversity. In study
of Y STR Haplotypes, it found 62 haplotypes in all populations 52 were unique
haplotypes, the Hashemites sub-population the number of haplotype was 27, the unique
haplotypes were 19, and in the commoners sub-population the number of haplotype was
35, the unique haplotypes were 33 haplotypes and has a highest haplotype diversity and
Discrimination Capacity.

The Effect of TNFα -308G/A Gene Polymorphism with Breast Cancer Risk in Iraqi Population

Anwar Abed Nasser Dhabaan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 163-167

The study included two hundred and thirty samples of which 130 patients women of
breast cancer in Iraqi population,, their ages ranged from 29 to 71 year (ages mean 42.95
± 1.5) and 100 controls (healthy women), their ages ranged from 25 to 65 year (ages
mean 31.37 ± 1.9). We confined the frequency of TNF-α gene -308G/A polymorphism by
TARMS PCR technique (Tetra-amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain
reaction technique). Also, we determined the association of TNF-α gene -308G/A
polymorphism with breast cancer of Iraqi women population. Statistical results showed
significant difference in genotype frequency of TNF-α gene -308G/A polymorphism with
breast cancer women patients and control (healthy women). The A allele showed high
frequency in breast cancer patients comparison with control (healthy women) and present
with etiological fraction risk (EF) of breast cancer patients in Iraqi women, and its ratio
64.23% in patients while in control 50.50%. The G allele shows high frequency in control
comparison with breast cancer patients was 35.77% and 49.50% respectively, and
present related with protective fraction (PF) with breast cancer patients was (0,21.4). The
genotypes of AA and GG (homozygotes) shows high frequency in breast cancer patients
was 58.46% and 30% respectively, comparison with control was 16% and 15%
respectively, also AA and GG homozygotes genotypes showed relationship with
etiological fraction risk of breast cancer in women patients, while the GA heterozygote
genotype show high frequency in control (healthy) was 69% comparison with breast
cancer patients was 11.54%, and show related with preventive fraction of breast cancer
patients. Our findings demonstrate that the TNFα -308G/A gene polymorphism may
represent a risk factor for breast cancer development of patient’s women in Iraqi

Forensic Approach Analysis of Multipartner (STR) for Identifying the Suspects in Iraqi Sexual Assault Cases : A Case Study

Ruaa Mohammed Mahdi; Da ad A. Hussain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 168-176

DNA has become a powerful forensic tool for solving cases such as linking a suspect to a
crime scene, resolving biological relationship issues and identifying disaster victims. DNA
fingerprinting can be used to help identify individuals by revealing the differences in the
DNA sequence among different people. Certain non-coding regions of DNA exhibit
significant differences in base pair sequence among individuals. Such regions are called
polymorphisms. DNA investigations mainly involve two steps; the obtaining of DNA
profiles from biological samples and the interpretation of the evidence given by these DNA
profiles. Chromosomal DNA was extracted from semen samples as well as from blood
stain more over PCR technique applied to amplify STR loci, while the detection carried out
by capillary electrophoresis .Then making the interpretation by matching DNA profiles that
obtain from both suspects and victims with the DNA profiles that obtain from the objects
in the crime scene. The case involve seven forensic samples, one female victim (A), three
suspects (B, C, D) and three clothes (brown underwear, blue jeans and shirt belong to
victim A).. DNA extraction from the semen contamination in these samples give DNA
fingerprints with a mix profile that’s belong to more than one suspect.

Age at Diagnosis and Surgery for Cryptorchidism: A Single Center Study in Baghdad

Dr. Alaa Al-Deen Al-Dabbagh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 177-181

Background: Undescended testis (UDT) is the most prevalent genital abnormality in boys
and owing to its long-run complications, it must be managed before one year of life.
Objectives: was to determine the age of presentation of UDT to our institution, the age at
surgical intervention, application of current guidelines and the outcome of surgery.
Patients and methods: We prospectively studied 70 boys with UDT admitted for
orchiopexy at urology center in Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital/Baghdad/Iraq in 2017-2019.
Patients were distributed into 3 age groups based on the time of surgery; age ≤ 1 year
(group 1), 1 < age ≤ 2 years (group 2) and age > 2 years (group 3). Laterality of UDT,
palpability, age at diagnosis and surgical treatment, kind of surgical procedure and postoperative
complications were evaluated
Results: Of the 70 children included in the study, 75.7% exhibited unilateral
cryptorchidism, 78.5% testes were inguinally sited (most common). Most testicles were
palpable clinically (69%). The mean age at time of diagnosis was 1.61±2.07 years whereas
at time of surgery was 2.46 ± 2.37 years. The mean interval between diagnosis and
surgical treatment was 10.2 ± 0.78 months. Boys who underwent surgery before their 1st
birthday, before 2nd birthday or later were 4.3%, 30% and 65.7% respectively. Open
surgical technique performed in 95.7% of cases
Conclusion: Most patients comprised in the study underwent surgery at an age later than
recommended by international guidelines due mainly to delayed referral and delay by
parents. This issue can be overwhelmed by updating the awareness concerning UDT

Genotyping Diversity of Proteus vulgaris by using RAPDPCR and Study of Some Factors on the Activity of Bacteria

Lamees A. Abdul-Lateef

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 182-193

P. vulgaris causes variety of infection such as, UTIs, wound infections, burn infections,
bloodstream infections, and respiratory tract infections, bacteremia and brain abscesses. A
total 120 specimen, were collected from clinical samples (urine, vagina, wound, and burn).
only 18 isolates of Proteus vulgaris were recovered. The relationship between 18 Proteus
vulgaris isolated using RAPD-PCR was performed. The ten primer showed polymorphism
among the isolates generating 86 bands, 54 of which were polymorphic with sizes ranging
between 150-30000bp. The mean percentage of ten primer 62.79%. Proteus
vulgaris isolates identified were screened for biofilm production by TCP method. Among
the isolates, 55.55% were biofilm producer and 44.44% were non/weak biofilm producer.
Regard the effect of NAC (10%) on biofilm formation was also studied, this study proved
that NAC effectively reduced the viability of biofilm formation from (55.55) to (5.55%). On
the other hand, the effect of NAC and green tea at concentration (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15
mg/mL) on urease was also investigated, it was state the high concentration of it could
cause inhibition to urease production

Association of Lipid Profiles, Body Mass Index and ABO Blood Groups among Iraqi Male Smokers and Non- Smokers

Suad Azeez Hasan; Saad Abdul Kareem Mohammed; Aya Nabeel Hameed; Jasim Adaeem Shaalan; Manar Muhammed Hassan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 194-201

This short study enclosed a male category of Iraqis (343) divided into 2 groups one group
contain smokers males (183) who smoke over twenty cigarettes per day and group of nonsmokers
males (160), the mean age groups was (41 years), the predominant blood groups
was O+ and B+, for each groups. The results of this study revealed statistically highly
significant differences within the group of smokers ' body mass levels and blood lipid
levels in distinction to those of the non-smokers with a propensity to have obesity within
the category of smokers relative to the group of non-smokers, so blood lipid
concentrations were higher in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol rate in
the smoker's community, and the HDL rate was lower. Whereas the body mass index for
this study was a statistically highly significant regression towards the high proportion of
obesity with high concentration levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density
fats and a drop in high-density fat concentration levels

Escherichia coli Isolated from Horses and Study the Effect of the Peganum harmaline Extract In Vitro and In Vivo and Antibiofilm Effect In Vitro

Aseel Mohammed Hamzah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 202-207

Out of a hundred horses, fecal samples Escherichia coli was isolated from 37 samples of
different ages, The isolated samples had been used to examine the effect of peganum
harmaline on isolated E.coli in vitro and in vivo.
The goal of this research was to determine the antimicrobial activity of peganum
harmaline extract by means of (ethanol: methanol 1:1) in opposition to Escherichia coli at
various 40,20, 10, 5, 2,5, 1,25 and 0,625 mg/ml concentrations in each plastic and glass
tube. The values of MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum
bactericidal concentration) for the extract against E.coli were equal to (0.625 mg/ml) for
MIC and (10 mg/ml) for MBC on bacteria which cultured on glass tube while the MIC
value was 40 mg/ml and MBC was10 mg/ml on plastic tube. The effect of Peganum
harmaline on the formation of E.coli biofilm was investigated and the biofilm inhibitory
concentrations were 40-6.25mg / ml in vitro. In vivo, a group of laboratory mice used, the
LD50 of peganum harmaline extract was tested orally by up and down method and found
to be 1030 mg/kg body weight, the extract used as 103 mg/kg bodyweight treatment after
causing E.coli infection at 1×108 CFU/ml in laboratory mice the treated persist for two
weeks in group one and three weeks in the second group as well as three week treated in
the third group from the second days after infection while the control group left without
treated and the mice sacrificed after second, third and fifth days of infection. The result
shows histopathological changes in all treated groups, especially in the third group and
that refers to the antibacterial effect of the peganum harmaline ethanolic extract when
compared to the infected control group.

Displaced Mid Shaft Clavicular Fracture Fixation by Plate and Screws (Functional Outcome)

Ahmed Nama M. Altaei; Mustafa Waleed yahya; Rafiq Qutran Al-Hussain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 208-213

Background: Displaced mid shaft clavicular fracture can be manage conservatively and
surgically, open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screw, as primary
intervention is valid option.
Method: prospective cohort study was conducted of 18 young patients with displaced mid
shaft clavicle fracture ,these patients underwent open reduction and plate and screw
fixation, after 6 months follow up evaluation done for complication rates functional score
by DASH & ULCA score, patients satisfactions and estimation of time need for resume
Results: 15/18 patients were male; those patients underwent open reduction and internal
fixation by plate and screw in time up to 40 days post injury. 50% have complications
mostly minor complications like prominent hard ware and scar or paresthesia, 2/18
patients have major complication, one infection and other implant failure ,most of patients
14/18 have fully satisfied with result ,61% resumed the job early within 3 weeks. The
mean DASH score was 34.9 ,ULCA score 28.9, factors effecting DASH score was
comorbidity, complication, range of motion, satisfaction and time to return to job, while
ULCA score effected by use of regional anesthesia, complication, range of motion,
satisfaction and time to return to job. There is no statistical relationship between age,
gender, and complications and time to fixation to satisfaction or time to resume job.
Conclusion: open reduction and internal fixation of displaced mid shaft clavicle fracture
should be offered for patient with expectation of good outcome especially with supervised

Evaluation of Pneumothorax in Neonates in Al Immamian Alkadhomain Medical City

Abbas Jaafar Khaleel Al-Anbari; Dr. Jawad Kkadhum Abid

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 214-219

Introduction: Pneumothorax occur most during neonatal age than other age of life in
human being, this more related to high morbidity and death rate. It started form damage
to alveoli that more distended. The air seepages lengthways of the perivascular sheath of
connective tissue inside to the pleural space, The aim of our study is to assessment of
prevalence, recognize the danger factors and to define the clinical features, treatment and
consequence of neonates that have pneumothorax and determine the fate of neonates
after treatments.
Method: Prospectively collected data from newborn infants with pneumothorax observed
and treated at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in al immamian alkadhomain
medical city, Sociodemographic data of neonates, clinical features of pneumothorax and
treatment of pneumothorax. Finally, assessment the fate of neonate assessed.
Results: A cross section descriptive study on 41 neonates mean age (34.6 ± 3) weeks
most age group 31 – 40 weeks 85% and weight (2 ± 0.7) kg most neonates (49%) with
2.1 – 3 kg, 34% females and 66% males, 61% of neonates are single parity, 71% of
neonates not need to antenatal steroid, while 56% of neonates delivered by CS, 71% of
neonates with Apgar score less than 7 in first 1 min., Significant association between
sociodemographic variables and clinical features as show in table 4; 52% of right
pneumothorax occur in male, 88% of left pneumothorax occur in male and 100% of
bilateral pneumothorax occur in male. 57% of RDS occur females while 43% of RDS in
male. 100% of TTN occur in single parity. 67% of pneumonia occur at age group 21- 30
week. Significant association between sociodemographic variables and treatment and fate
as show in table 5; 56% of neonate’s need C-pap were females and 44% were males.
56% of neonates need O2 therapy with weight 2.1-3kg, 26% of them that need O2 therapy
with weight 1-2 kg. 55% of alive neonates are males and 45% are females, 72% of single
parity neonates still alive.
Conclusion: Pneumothorax is moderately common in the NICU. The fate of neonates are
71% still alive and 29% dead. Pneumothorax itself was not a factor of death, probably due
to the sufficient and rapid therapy used in the NICU.

Synthesis and Evaluation of The Thrombolytic Activity of Novel Condensed Pyrimidine Sulfonamide Derivatives

Mazin M. Mohsin; Mahmood J. Jawad; Saif M. Hassan; Samir M. Awad; Yassmine Ali Hussain; Najah R Hadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 220-224

Pyrimidine-5-sulfonamides are new organic compounds of wide spectrum activity. A new trend is to incorporate a salicylate moiety in an attempt to enhance a thrombolytic activity. We started this strategy using 2-thiouracil 1 as a blocking unit by its ability to be chlorosulfonated at 5th position by refluxing with chlorosulfonic acid giving sulfonyl derivative 2 which was condensed with three common aromatic amines namingmethyl-4-aminosalicylate, methyl-3-aminobenzoate and methyl-4-aminobenzoate respectively yielding sulfonamide derivatives 3a-c. Moreover, 3a-c derivatives were reacted with chloroacetic acid-producing thiazolopyrimidines 4a-c,which in turn were reacted with p-nitrobenzaldehyde giving arylidine derivatives 5a-c. Also compounds 3a-c were cyclocondensed with anthranilic acid yielding pyrimidoquinazoline derivatives 6a-c. They also were condensed with ethanolamine forming imidazopyrmidine derivatives 7a-c. All the newly synthesized compounds were subjected for thrombolytic evaluation and some of them showed promising activity especially those bearing methyl salicylate moiety as compared to ticlopidine and clopidogrel. We performed different modifications in the thienopyridine chemical structure of ticlopidine and clopidogrel to conclude that the presence of second nitrogen atom in the pyridine ring (yielding pyrimidine moiety) and the presence of the other cycle instead of thienyl ring would lead to enhanced the thrombolytic effect which was maximized by incorporation of a methyl salicylate moiety. We concluded that 4a, 6a, 8a, 7a, 3a, compounds have more potent than both clopidogrel and ticlopidine respectively. They certainly deserve further studying in the future.

Impact of Gene Polymorphism of Lipoprotein Lipase on Atorvastatin Treatment Outcome in Ischemic Stroke Patient in Najaf Governorate

Sarah Ali Abbas; Ahmed M. AlMudhafar; Thekra A. Al-Kashwan; Hayder K Hasson; Adhwaa Hameed Jaber; Najah R Hadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 225-228

Background: Stroke was commonly identified as a neurologically impairment that occur in central nervous system on vascular basis as Acute focal injury. Statin (HMG-CoA reductase Inhibitor), clinical trials in many large scaled shown that in primary and secondary CVD the used of statin was declined rates of (CV). Human Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) gene coding was place in short arm of chromosome in the p22 region of the same Chromosome and has nine introns and ten axons. Aim: The aim of the study is to find out effect of LPL gene polymorphism of response to atorvastatin treatment in patients with ischemic stroke. Patients and methods: Samples was Picking up from patients’ admission to at Middle Euphrates Center for Neurological Sciences in the main hospital for measurement of the lipid profile, molecular analysis study of genotyping and measurement of human lipoprotein lipase by ELISA technique. Result: There is good response to treatment and the response consider statistically significant, the best group response to treatment was homozygous mutation then Heterozygous mutation and the less group response was Homozygous normal, wild. Conclusion: The effect of drug on serum biomarker not affected by age except HDL (best result in age<60yr), and not affected by gender and weight state, while in consider to smoking and Hypertension TG (best response in non-smoker, hypertensive) and VLDL (best response in smoker, hypertensive) affected and in diabetic state the Cholesterol and TG affected on response (the best result in non-diabetic). Heterozygous mutation most distributed then homozygous normal and the less distributed was homozygous mutation.

Anti-Inflammatory and Gene Expression Studies of Terminalia chebula Extracts against Interleukins and TNF

Mustafa M. Farhan; Saeed Arrak Turkey; Nadhim M.H .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 229-237

Aims: Since ages, several plant extracts and Ayurvedic formulations were used to treat
ailments and such studies were well documented in the recent decades. Even some of
the plants were screened for their efficacy as immunomodulators to restore and
rejuvenate the immune system. The present study deals in screening for the possible
healing effects of Terminalia chebula on IL-2 and IFN-γ levels.
Methods: The raw and dried fruits of the sample were pulverized finely and extracted with
methanol. Following which their aqueous solutions are reextracted with hexane, ethyl
acetate and chloroform to study the possible cytotoxic effects. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-
stimulated macrophage cells were used throughout the study to measure the effect of
extracts on nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess method. Expression of
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were studied by real time
PCR quantification along with estimation of IL-1β and IL-6 cytokine levels using the
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: The chloroform extract showed maximum NO inhibition at about 18.31±
1.6μmol/L. In accordance to the above result, COX2 and TNF-α were found to be
downregulated by 12 and 7 fold respectively at 100μg/mL (P < 0.005). Chloroform extract
significantly reduced IL-1β levels to 21.23 ± 0.21pg/ml (100μg/mL) and also lowered the
levels of IL-6 to 45.67± 3.31pg/ml (100μg/ml)
Conclusion: The present study confirmed the positive effect of the chloroform extract in
reducing the NO secretion and also by showing an inhibition in the expression of COX2,
IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Thus to conclude Terminalia chebula could be used as the best antiinflammatory
candidate drug in addition to the many chemical compounds available in the
medical markets.

The Applications and the Current Status of Silver Nanoparticles in the Field of Orthodontics

Aravind Kumar Subramanian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 238-241

Nanotechnology over past decades, has emerged as a mainstay in various fields and has
been employed in various biomedical applications. It is currently being extensively used in
the manufacture of drugs, as a diagnostic aid, in implants, as a prosthetic material and in
tissue engineering. With the recent introduction of advanced Nano robotic models in local
anesthetic procedures, the applications and importance of nanotechnology in the field of
healthcare have gained renewed impetus. This review primarily throws light on the
current applications of silver nanoparticles in the field of Dentistry, emphasizing on
orthodontics in particular, with regard to their antimicrobial properties, anti-cariogenic
effects, Nano silver coating applications of orthodontic brackets, micro implants,
biocompatibility analysis and fixed orthodontic appliances.

Comparison of Mesial Molar Migration Associated with Different Depths of Micro-Osteoperforation Assisted Canine Retraction

Arya S Prasad; Aravind Kumar Subramanian; Remmiya Mary Varghese

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 242-250

Objectives: Micro-osteoperforation is a minimally invasive procedure to accelerate
orthodontic tooth movement. Accelerated orthodontics can sometimes lead to migration of
the anchor teeth. The objective of this randomised control study was to compare the
amount of mesial molar migration between different depths (3 millimetre and 6 millimetre)
of micro-osteoperforation assisted canine retraction.
Methods: Ten adult patients requiring extraction of maxillary first premolar for orthodontic
treatment were enrolled for this split mouth study. The micro-osteoperforation of varying
depth (3 millimetre and 6 millimetre) were made using a mini implant. Direct anchorage was
taken with the help of a mini implant to retract the canine teeth. The patients were divided
into two groups - 3 millimetre depth and 6 millimetre depth of micro-osteoperforation. The
primary outcome was to compare the mean mesial molar migration between the two
groups for three months.
Results: The mean mesial molar migration with 3 millimetre depth of micro osteoperforation
was 0.49 ± 0.20 millimetre and with 6 millimetre depth it was 0.39 ± 0.18 millimetre, which
was statistically insignificant (P >0.350).
Conclusion: Micro-osteoperforations of different depths do not cause a significant
difference in mesial molar migration and are not clinically significant. When it comes to
clinical situations even a slight mesial movement of molar can have high significance in the
treatment outcome.

Detection of Microcalcifications in Digital Mammogram Using Curvelet Fractal Texture Features

Dr. Vimal Kumar M N; Divya M; Ilakkia M M; Jayanthi S; Dr Gomathi V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 251-256

In this work, an attempt is made to Segment and find features of the segmented
mammogram Images and finally mammogram images are classified as normal and
abnormal. The mammogram images used for this work are considered from MIAS
Database. The database includes 322 digitized films and all the images are of size
1024x1024. It consists of 322 images (208 normal images and 114 abnormal images).
Initially, mammogram images are subjected to pre-processing using Discrete Cosine
Transform to enhance the edges of the mammograms. Then, sharpened images are cl
using the Fuzzy C-means Clustering algorithm. After segmentation, Curvelet coefficient
and fractal Dimension values are obtained using Discrete Curvelet Transformand Fractal
textures respectively. The average values of obtained curvelet coefficient and fractal
dimension values for both normal and abnormal mammogram images are compared.
Finally, The mammogram images are classified using an Ensemble Fully Complex-
Valued Relaxation Network Classifier. The Classifier is used foe the classification of the
mammogram images as normal and abnormal.

The Value of Intracameral Injection of Bevacizumab for Treatment of Rubeosis Iridis in Neovascular Glaucoma in Nassiryah City

Wajida Saad Bunyan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 257-264

Purpose: This work targets assessing the estimation of intracameral bevacizumab
infusion in treatment of rubeosis iridis in neovascular glaucoma.
Patients and strategies: A planned report was done on 30 eyes of 30 patients with
rubeosis iridis. Intracameral infusion of bevacizumab was infused for all patients. Iris
flourescein angiography and specular microscopy were performed to all patients
preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients were followed up at five days, one month, a
quarter of a year, and a half year spans following the system.
Results: Iris fluorescein angiography demonstrated neovascularization relapse just in the
early development. Notwithstanding, specular microscopy indicated practically stable
endothelial trustworthiness aside from a couple of cases.
Conclusion: The utilization of intracameral bevacizumab for rubeosis iridis still needs
more preliminaries to build up long haul security and viability in retinal ischemia and
neovascular glaucoma.

The Impact of E-Learning on Pharmacy Education: Pharmacy Students' Perspective during COVID-19 Pandemic

Zaid Mahdi Jaber Al-Obaidi; Qasim A. Bader1, Yasmeen Ali Hussain; Mohammed Dakhil Al- Rekabi; Hayder Kadhim Abbas; Dhurgham Qasim Shaheed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 265-270

Objectives: E-learning has jumped from an adjuvant tool to a crucial educational protocol
during COVID-19 pandemic. This has a particular value for Pharmacy Students as the
Pharmacy Education necessitates unique requirements. Consequently, this mixture of
requirements needs to be fully understood by educators to offer a better education for their
students. Accordingly, the authors conducted this study herein in, to facilitate the
understanding of E-learning correlated with Pharmacy Education in Iraqi Pharmacy Students'
Methods: The study design was designated to questionnaire of 540 pharmacy students in
three different Iraqi Universities. This involved two types of questions. The first with
multiple choice questions and the second with agreement question. The statistics utilized
were performed with GraphPad Prism version 8.4.3 (686).
Results: The results were observed with the employment of D'Agostino-Pearson omnibus
(K2) and the P value was recorded as 0.0106.
Conclusion: The authors find that the opinion of the pharmacy students could highly affect
the education outcome in according to their perspective during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Analytical results of optimum conditions of canned capers production

Oybek Ergashev; Abdulaziz Eshonturaev; Dostonbek Muhiddinov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 271-276

Caper is medicinal herb. Its canned products with dietary ingredients which processed burgeons, fruit and canned foods are used to treat various diseases. Combination canning reduced moisture content in caper fruit by 14%, 25%, 35% and 75% then the effectiveness of canning by adding salt to it is learned. Theoretical and practical results of the work are summarized. The optimal variant of a new type of canned non-traditional caper was designated.


Dilmurod Butunov Baxodirovich; Sokijon Khudayberganov Kobiljonovich; Shinpolat Suyunbaev Mansuralievich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 277-290

To develop the most universal model for controlling the duration of the elements of the time spent by wagons at the sorting station. The methods of system analysis are used, comparing the performance of the sorting station, mathematical modeling. The concept of explicit and latent losses is introduced when processing wagons at the sorting station. The analysis of the existing standardization method for the time spent by the wagons and its disadvantage is carried out. A method of mathematical modeling of losses in the process of processing wagons at the sorting station was developed. The developed model makes it possible to evaluate the fulfillment of each element of the time that the wagons are at the sorting station and form statistical patterns of their non-fulfillment, and also makes it possible to develop action plans to reduce losses in the processing of wagon flows


Shoira Djabbarova; Mastura Tadjieva; Ra'no Mardonova; Guzal Turaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 291-296

the article deals with the issues based on analyzing the efficiency of problem based learning and it’s organizational process in teaching. Problem-based learning consists in creating (organizing) problem situations, understanding, accepting and resolving these situations in the process of joint activities of the student and teacher with the maximum independence of the first and guiding guidance of the second. Such activities develop students' interest, satisfaction with the educational process, activation of the need for self-actualization and, as well as helps to form a creative personality.


Jafar Kholmuminov; Juraev Narzulla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 297-307

The philosophy of Sufism reached the highest level due to the theosophical doctrine of the great philosopher, theologian, poet, one of the great representatives of the philosophy of Sufism, known as “Sheikh ul-Akbar” - “The Greatest Sheikh” Mukhyiddin ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240) inspired by the views of Haq im at-Termizi. The theories of Ibn al-Arabi about “Vahdat Ul-Woojude” (Unity of Being) and Inson al-Kamil - the Perfect man embraced the entire Muslim East and positively influenced the views of Western philosophers. Also, in the history of Sufism, the doctrines of the Tariqata Khojagon, which was founded by Khoja Yusuf Hamadani and Khoja Abduholik Gijduvani (1103-1218), then perfected by Khoja Bakhouddin Naqshband (1318-1389) and named Nakshbandiya and spiritually unified the regions of Mavanranakhr , was not left without the influence of the philosophy of “Wahdat ul-wujud” (Unity of Being) Ibn al-Arabi. Representatives of the Naqshbandi doctrines such as: Khoja Muhammad Porso Bukhoriy, Khoja Ubaidullo Ahror Vali, Mavlyana Abdurahman Jami, Alisher Navai, Khoja Mahdum Azam and Ahmad Sirhindi also made a significant contribution to the development of the ideas of “Vahdat Ul-Woojude” (Unity of Being) .


Jafar Kholmuminov; Narzulla Juraev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 308-317

The Sufi medal of Hadjgon, which was later known as the doctrine of Naqshbandiya, has left a great spiritual, scientific and literary heritage to the Islamic world and humanity in general during its almost nine centuries of history. Representatives of this doctrine, edifying lives of spiritual leaders and great thinkers, their views on religion and the world, on the universe and man, knowledge and enlightenment, and love, scientific and artistic works dedicated to different knowledge and themes occupy a peculiar place in the history of Islamic thinking. Even after the reign of Timurid, the doctrines of Naqshbandi remained a symbol of unity and friendship among the peoples of Central вAsia and continued to serve as a factor in the systematization of their daily way of life and education, enriching their spiritual world and literature. In Persian and Turkic poetry of the 17th-19th centuries, the ideas of Naqshbandiy were sung. The article briefly explores the role and place of the doctrines of Naqshbandiy as a religious and philosophical trend in the development of intercultural and interethnic relations between the peoples of Central Asia, partly Tajiks and Uzbeks.

The motive of evolution in Uzbek stories


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 318-324

This article discusses the issue of the motive of evolution in Uzbek literature. A
brief description of the phenomenon of metamorphosis written from the history of Uzbek
literature to the present day. From the examples of folklore: it is said that this phenomenon
of evolution, which occurs in fairy tales and epics, began in the oral literature of the
Turkic peoples in the VII century, and this fact is not uncommon in Uzbek literature.
Mythological phenomena in world literature have their own content and essence in each
national literature. Magic and sorcery save them from disaster when the activity of the
protagonist in the oral literature of the East slows down. In this way the heroes achieve
their goals, goodness triumphs. In modern stories, the motive of evolution is a symbolic,
metaphorical phenomenon, which condemns the negative aspects of human life, such as
depravity and evil, and glorifies the pure. This situation serves to make people think
independently, to increase the level of thinking


Mashhura Zokirova; Dilorom Saribaeva; Sohiba Xojieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 325-333

This research work is devoted to the technology of production of dietary and herbal natural preservatives for people with diabetes. Scientific work on hydrolysis of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke with citric acid, acid-rich fruit juices was carried out. The hydrolyzate was purified, transformed into syrup, and used as a sugar substitute in the preparation of canned sugar.


Salomat Norova; Sherali Ochilov; Aslitdin Nizamov DSc

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 334-341

The article deals with theoretical approaches to determining the categories of “economic potential” and “economic growth”, the problems of efficient use of the region’s potential, substantiates the direction and degree of influence of the shadow economy on economic growth, reveals the essence of the shadow economy (households) as an element of economic potential, correlation and regression analysis of households and per capita GDP of the Republic of Uzbekistan and a new alternative method for constructing correlation the model to obtain more accurate indicators that are very close to real.


Khurshid Sattarov; Mamatkarim Sapaev; Mutabar Agzamova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 342-354

The article discusses the measurement of motion parameters (displacement, speed, acceleration, sharpness - changes in acceleration and vibration parameters) using a new inductive sensor of angular accelerations of the inertial principle of action with a ferromagnetic liquid and with advanced functionality as well as the analysis of its magnetic circuit and the main technical characteristics.


Gulnara Kallibekova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 355-359

This article tells about the research history of the newspaper language in Karakalpak linguistics and the problems that should be studied nowadays. The language and style of journalism were objects of scientific research by some researchers. As well as researchers of Karakalpak linguistics drew attention to study the difference in language and styles of newspapers that are part of journalism. There are still problems to be investigated. Functional styles of the Karakalpak literary language, their stages of formation and development, including the journalistic style, its unique way of narration, its peculiarities and victories are discussed. Researchers of the language of newspapers often learned the language of the original newspapers, their form of narration. But in several works they were able to learn the language and stylistic differences of newspapers, which today serve to convey information to our society in various scientific fields. However, the language and style of distributional, urban, district and advertising newspapers published in the country have not been studied. The language of the press is one of the tools that serve society as part of the literary language, which in turn contributes to the development, maturation and significant expansion of the lexical layer of the literary language. This is due to the fact that new words, phrases, international terms and terms specific to a particular branch, which are used in the press, will soon be absorbed into the literary language.

Foreign language competenceformation of the future teacher of vocational education in the information and educational environment

Iroda Khajieva; Guzal Khujaniyazova; Khurshida Kenjaeva; Fazliddin Jumaniyozov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 360-365

The article consists of the information about the fact that teachers of foreign languages departments to increase the effectiveness of teacher training can use the presented complex model of the development of foreign language communicative competence of future teachers of a foreign language by means of an educational online community.


Shokhida Abdullayeva; Iroda Khajiyeva; Nilufar Matyazova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 366-369

The article is devoted to the identification of the interaction of the lexical, morphological and word-formation tiers of the Russian language in the field of verb vocabulary. This article also addresses the problems of intensive isomorphism and structural allomorphism with respect to multisystem languages


Odil Musaev; Rukhsora Ruziyeva; Oynisa Muhammadiyeva; Ulugbek Makhkamov; Etibarkhon Mallaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 370-378

The exercising of public control on government agencies and activities of
officials is one of the necessary conditions for the formation of a democratic state and civil
society. The great attention is to support public control over state power and leaders in
developed countries. This type of control is provided by citizens, civil society structures, in
particular the Mass media. At the same time, citizens can complain about the violation of
their rights and duties by the authorities. The role of control institution will be to protect
citizens from the arbitrariness of officials. The role of such control institution is to protect
citizens from the arbitrariness of officials. In the civil society being built in our country,
state power is controlled by the Constitution and laws, and the state, its agencies and
officials are under the broad public control. Because the state is a “hired servant” of civil
society and is accountable to the people. In particular, the acceleration of liberalization in
all spheres of life, methodology of communication with the public in ensuring public
control over the activities of public authorities in the implementation of laws, the principles
of state agencies sever public for people play important roles.


Lazizakhon Gafurova; Odiljon Sharipov; Dilafruz Makhkamova; Gulchekhra Nabieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 379-391

This article presents the morphological, agrochemical, physicochemical and chemical properties of soils of irrigated meadow-alluvial and irrigated desert-sandy soils of Bukhara Oasis. Indicators of biological activity of soils, their seasonal dynamics, evaluation of the level of biological activity of soils on the basis of integral indicators of soil main texture-properties, transformation coefficient, biogenicity, ecological-biological status of organic matter of irrigated soils of the territory are given.

Teachers' Attitude to Communicative Language Teaching in Uzbekistan

Gulnara Makhkamova; Ugiloy Kusanova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 392-403

Growing of the status of methodology of FLT both in western countries and Uzbekistan has been seen for the last time because of a changing educational paradigm. This article focuses on a discussion of Communicative Language Teaching in the national context of Uzbekistan. This educational approach or method is widely used in all over the world. That is why this article provides a clear articulation of efficacy of some principles of the Communicative Language Teaching applied in English classes at the senior grades of the secondary schools, as well as necessity and rationality of application of the eclectic method. It also describes the research conducted with teachers of the English language who work at schools of Tashkent city in Uzbekistan. By the help of the interview we found out teachers’ attitude to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), their preferences and gaps in teaching English to the achievement of B1 level of language proficiency by learners (10th -11th grades).
The main inferences of this study are: 1) CLT is dominant in the FLT setting in Uzbekistan and allows to concentrating at a function, meaning and authentic material; 2) teachers need to apply eclectic approach to achieve a certain level of the language proficiency reflected in the program's requirements because of the national context specificity; 3) instructions should be designed in accordance with the principles: accuracy, fluency, approximation, appropriacy.


Muftakh Khakimov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 404-413

In article the author results the analytical analysis of analogies and differences between two dynamical technologies - relational databases and blockchainа. If the technology of relational databases was applied at construction of information systems of the electronic government, technology blockchainа rather new to digital economy being the new engine of the electronic government. The comparative analysis of these technologies on several parametres is carried out, are specified their strong and weaknesses. Primary factors on which the technology choice should be carried out, depending on the purposes of solved problems in digital economy are specified.


Sherzod Turobov; Kamola Muzaffarova; Nigora Alimxanova; Gulsara Azamatova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 414-424

Every state wants that the households will be financially independent in their territory, they will be beneficial to the government, they will spend their optional assets and their sources for the thriving of them and the economy of the country in the modern market industry. The complex elements of analysis including observation, saving, systematizing, statistic, critical and analytical analyses in terms of the finance of the households and their investment to be performed, are depicted in this article. If the suggestions given in this article are conducted, the activity of the households in the economy will rise more remarkably.


Pokiza Jalolova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 425-431

In this work, the BP method was used and modeled on ICT in order to calculate
the energy levels of electron in the КН for calculating polyaron effects , and the image of
the compressive potential of the КН was considered parabolic. Because of the difficulty of
solving the differential equation (6), its solution is sometimes used by linear combinations
of specific solutions which are obtained in strong and weak interaction regimes. When this
method is applied to the volumetric polar semiconductors, the interpolation estimation of
the energy of polaron state is obtained. In this case the correction due to the polaron effect
occurs in the regime of a strong interaction impact Α > Α (~ 6 · ·8) 
in this condition the
electron wave function is localized in the polarization field. In the field c  Α<Α
electron-wave function is in the extended state (delocalized), and the polaron state energy
suits the Lee-Loue-Pains result, namely it is proportional to the Α .


Iroda Pardaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 432-441

Alisher Navoi, touching on the theme of the perfect man, exaggerates and interprets the concepts of the state and spirituality in detail, comparing the symbols of the dervish and the ruler. These two concepts were considered in eastern philosophy as incompatible dimensions. But from the point of view of Navoi, they must be mutually agreed and supported by each other. Just as divinity and materialism, the world and the afterlife are interconnected, spirituality and state are inseparable. State becomes richer, stronger, closer to people, if it goes to spirituality. Spiritual education is necessary for both the ordinary citizen and the head of the country. That is, regardless of whether a person is the owner of the property or a king or ruler, if he accepts the faith of a dervish, he can achieve perfection and become closer to God.
The work “Tarihi muluki Ajam” of Navoi gives an ideal picture of the ideal ruler who has achieved such perfection (dervishism and rule), which he dreamed of seeing.
By writing “Tarihi muluki Ajam” with religious, philosophical, socio-political, and moral-educational content, the author was the first to create an independent historical, literary, and prosaic work depicting the image of rulers in the Uzbek language.
Navoi covers the history of the kings of ancient Iran and calls on the rulers to follow the example of past kings. Such an ideological goal was also put forward in the epic “Hayrat ul-Abror”, “Farhod va Shirin”, “Sab’ai sayyor”, “Saddi Iskandari” which were created before this work. But in these works, writer, whose historical goals were described as an artistically conceived image, had a harmonious image to his dreams, goals. In the work “Tarihi muluki Ajam”, artistic heroes in “Hamsa” appear before our eyes as a historical person or ruler. Their position in society and their original way of life are described by the author in simple and understandable language.
The ideal ruler in the writer's dreams is often portrayed in the person of Shah Gazi or Iskandar (Alexander the Great). One of the artistic incarnations of the Timurid rulers, Husayn Boyqaro in the poetry of Navoi imagined as Shah Gazi. In this regard, we consider it appropriate to dwell more on the personality of Husayn Boyqaro.


Anvar Djuraev; Bozorova Farida; Zuhritdinov Alisher; Mukhamedjanova Sabrina; Mavlonova Iroda; Tursunova Gulbahor

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 442-454

The article presents the experimental results of a new composite ring drum that
cleans cotton of small impurities The results of a full-factor experiment of the
recommended composite spiked drum with an elastic element are presented. The
boundaries of the input factors and the levels of their change are given. The planned
central composite experimental matrix was constructed, the calculations were performed
on the basis of the constructed table, and a regression equation was obtained that
determines the cleaning effect. Dependence graphs were obtained for changing the
number of revolutions of the drum, changing the distance between the spikes and the
mesh, as well as changing the surface of the mesh, which affect the cleaning effect. From
the analysis of the graphs, the optimal values of the composite spiked drum are shown


Xayrullo Qanoatov Murodullayevich; Dilorom Saribayeva Akramjanovna; Umidjon Rahimov Yunusjonovich; Omon Mansurov Abduvaliyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 455-461

According to the analysis of the chemical composition of secondary raw materials during tomato processing, substances containing lycopene and unsaturated fatty acids in tomato have proven anticancer properties and are also used for atherosclerosis and ischemic diseases of the heart. Medical tomato oil, its use in various types of salad, dishes and canned meat contributes to normal digestion.


Mahfuza Alinazarova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 470-475

In this work, a new expression in simple form for the useful shi coefficient
of solar elements has been introduced. It has been shown that the computational results
obtained from this expression can explain the results obtained from the experiment. From
this formula it is shown that when the efficiency of solar cells is related to the non-ideal
coefficient of VAX, the correlation of this parameter to the non-ideal coefficient at the
point where the short-circuit current density is determined is linear


B. R. Haqberdiyev; B. O'. Kochkarov; A.G'. Mamitaliyev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 476-479

This article through the integration of the disciplines of engineering graphics and design technology education teaching methods contains characters illuminated. It of planned to actively use interdisciplinary integration, increase the effectiveness of education, analyze and implement it in practice and give high results. Teaching engineering graphics and design sciences in the classroom one of the main sources of organization is the need for integrated training that meets the requirements of the time.


Shavkat Alimov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 480-489

This article discusses the importance of quality management in manufacturing enterprises. The impact of the ISO 9001 Quality Management System on the sustainability of manufacturing enterprises is also presented. The research studied statistical methods of quality control and their details. The study concluded the following:
a) the importance of statistical methods and experimental design methods for the analysis of numerical data;
b) the importance of the operational application of simple graphical, statistical methods for quantitative research instead of using more complex calculation methods after the experiment is completed;
c) to obtain all the benefits of using statistical methods, it is important that personnel involved in product research participate in the statistical analysis. This contributes to the early detection and elimination of any cause of possible deviations.


Dilorom Yakibova; Sharif Yakibov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 490-496

This article discusses how elementary school students are nurtured in the legacy of thinkers in technology classes and feel a sense of national pride, hard work, faith, and conviction. The article also discusses what great scholars have said about hard work, its content, and its relevance today. This article is for teachers and academics who teach technology in all elementary grades.

Development of an algorithm for a radio monitoring system for horn and log-periodic antennas

Haydar Madaminov; Abdugofur Xotamov; Nodir Eshnazarov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 501-507

In the world, research is being carried out on the study of radio communications for the spectral conversion of radio signals,
coordination of electronic and high-frequency devices, and signal detection. Including radio signals: telecommunications, navigation, telemetry, wireless technology signals, electronic signals, etc. Digital algorithms are also being developed, the introduction of new systems for monitoring and identifying signals and improving detection systems is one of the most important tasks. In this article, special attention is paid to the development of informatization, ensuring high-quality reception of digital television signals, as well as improving mobile communication systems. In this direction, in particular, scientific research was conducted on the analytical presentation of the processing of television signals to provide the consumer with a wide variety of television programs and significant results were obtained.


Khodjiyev Muksin; Abbazov Ilkhom; Makhkamov Iqbol; Karimov Javlon; Rajapova Marguba

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 508-515

This article describes the changes in fiber waste from the technological flow in ginning plants, how much it changes in the stages of the technological process. The dust released in the drying and cleaning shop is only 5-7 mg/m3 of dust, which is less than the air in the building where the drying equipment is located. Large dispersed dust particles separate even at high humidity and sink to the surface of the building without being able to spread. In drying units, dust emitted in conjunction with an atmospheric drying agent causes discomfort. Although this dust is coarsely dispersed, it escapes in the dryer along with the air stream and settles near the roof of the building and near the drying shop. The amount of dust emitted was found to be 500-600 kg per day. In the ginning unit, the released dust is released into the atmosphere from the cotton pneumatic transport system, which is formed in the air in the drying and cleaning shop, as well as in the cleaning of cotton in the cleaning machines. It is a dusty fiber with less mineral fractions. The fine fractions are mainly composed of crushed dirty particles. It was found that only one ginnery produces 150-350 tons of fibrous waste per year, depending on the type of cotton, 5-6 tons of non-recyclable waste, 70-90% of non-recyclable waste is organic waste. It serves as a raw material for the use of waste as feed for livestock in agriculture. The results of scientific research conducted at the enterprise “Zarbdor Pakhta Tozalash” JSC in Jizzakh region to determine the amount of waste from ginneries have been processed.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 516-523

One of the most important spiritual changes in a small school age is the process by which conflict situations manifest. At the same time, it is necessary to get acquainted with the content and essence of the conflict. Man faces various contradictions in his way of life in society. Conflicts and conflicts can occur throughout a person’s life, at any age, in any situation. Conflicts can occur at home, on the street, at school, between students, between parents and children, between an employee and his or her supervisors, between team members. Conflicts do not bypass anyone. It often happens more often when they are together for a long time. The article describes the pedagogical conflicts that arise in the educational process of children of primary school age, their variation depending on their age characteristics and causes. Types of conflicts are discussed, and ways to overcome conflicts using a pedagogical approach are scientifically substantiated by comparative analysis.


Lola Gulyamova; Dilshod Rakhmanov; Abduhokim Abdurahmanov; Otabek Yusupjonov; SHukurullokhon Anvarov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 524-532

This paper covers issues related to using Open Data for retrieving geospatial information about population in Uzbekistan. The methods are described from the perspective of their relevance to the technical and conceptual development of interactive dynamic maps. Several peculiarities of development of Open Data in this country are analyzed with the purpose of applying geoinformation technologies for capturing geospatial information. Some analytical tools are suggested to bring together Open Data of different official sources by means of Geographical Information Systems. ArcGIS Online and other software are applied for interactive mapping.

Formation of air transport in Khorezm oasis and its role in the economic and social life of the region

Fazliddin Jumaniyozov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 533-540

this article is focused on the history of air transport and aviation in the Khorezm region. The history of civil aviation originated in Khorezm in the first quarter of the 20th century. The geographical position of the oasis allowed it to be ignored by world tourists until the 20th century. The development of air transport services in the region has strengthened its integration with the outside world.


Aziza Buribaeva; Bakhtiyor Rakhimov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 541-546

The purpose of the integration of educational and research activities in higher education includes the process improving the quality of students in accordance with the educational programs of higher education, to attract students to participate in scientific research with the support of scientific supervisors, and using new knowledge and achievements of science in educational activities. In this article highlighted the issues based on improvement of research competence of students in teaching English language in higher education institutions.


M.F. Alimova; D.U. Qalandarova; L. Alimjonova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 547-554

The paper deals with the actual problems, major directions and development trends of the field of Religious Studies in Uzbekistan. It is clear that the youths have become the main target of different destructive ideas in the period of globalization. The paper focuses on the prevention of these threats and formation of a spiritual immunity against them as well as on the improvement of healthy lifestyle and respect towards national and universal values in souls and minds of the youths in order to prevent a gap to be appeared in their spiritual world. National and religious values have developed for better in Uzbekistan recent years. A special attention has been paid on the deep study and analysis of the religious-educational heritage of ancestors and continuation of their scientific traditions worthily. It was explained that the fact that increase of an interest towards a religion gives a chance to solve the modern complicated issues providing a harmonization of problems in society, thoughts about the solution of them, secular and religious values. Thousands of sects such as Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and other religions were emerged in the second half of the 20th century. The paper emphasizes a possibility to suppose that such kind of processes may be continued in the future. A special attention was paid on the formation of a critical and conscious approach in the youths towards religious news for choosing an objective way in the cyberspace and using the system of the modern information and communication technologies.


F.Z. , Atakhanova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 565-570

The article deals with the issues based on the elements of traditional Uzbek clothing used in the design of modern clothing, created as a result of the increasing interest to the types of national clothes in Uzbekistan due to the process of national awakening that began in the late twentieth century. Some problems of re-assimilation and perception of national motives were considered. As well as, there has been highlighted the issue of applying the artistic and figurative features of the Uzbek national costume, rather than directly copying and repeating the traditional style, decor, methods and elements of technological processing.


Sanobar Djuraeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 571-577

This article analyzes the results of archaeological and ethnographic research related to ancient history, provides historical and ethnographic sources of the Surkhon oasis. This work is provided to restore the historical topography of archaeological monuments. At the same time, scientists of the Surkhon oasis commented on their life activities and scientific heritage. They studied the history of the memorial monuments lying on the ground. Information about the Chaghaniyon literary environment is collected. The medieval craftsmanship and trade relations of the Surkhon Oasis were analyzed.
At the same time, the history of miraculous tourist objects, which appeared by nature in the Land of Surkhon, was studied on the basis of field research and included in the scientific study. Scientists have shown the role of tourist zones in the life of the population, which are spiritual heritage, ancient archaeological, memorial monuments and a repeated donation of nature. The basis of our spiritual and material heritage is the development of local and international tourism.

IDEAL AND REAL CIVIL SOCIETY (On the example of the Republic of Uzbekistan)

Fakhriddin Musaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 578-583

As is well known, the formation of a free civil society with the state as its goal, each people is a multifaceted process combining methodological and specific socio-practical features. The article considers its philosophical and methodological aspects. A free civil society, operating as a form of social organization, and its consolidation as a state governed by the rule of law, is methodologically composed of three components. Firstly, there is the humanitarian and legal aspect, which covers the system of basic human rights and freedoms. Secondly, there is the legal aspect, which includes a system of legal acts aimed at the protection of human rights, the implementation of the priorities of the State governed by the rule of law and civil society in general. Thirdly, there is the institutional and legal aspect, which implies a constitutional separation of powers, which requires a balance of power for balanced and harmonious functioning, and imposes on it an obligation not to interfere.
The more people in civil society are equal, the freer, the more equal people will be. Understanding equality as equality of opportunity to meet needs means freedom. Because equality of all opportunities means freedom for every person.


Iroda Yakubova; Yulduzkhon Satvaldieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 584-594

The main purpose of this article is to study the legislation of Uzbekistan and Japan from a comparative point of view, to study the methods of protection of reputation of honor, dignity and business reputation, to study the creation of effective protection measures using information and communication technologies, to formulate single scientific approaches and hypotheses on the basis, measures, methods and principles of civil law. The main focus is on the main goals of improving the judicial system in accordance with the Uzbekistan’s Five-Area Development Strategy for 2017-2021 in general and proposals for further improvement of the legislation were formed on the basis of the approach, proposed by the author. Also, this article analyzes the methods and means of civil law protection of reputation, dignity and business reputation, the issues of judicial order protection. The author argues that it is possible to assess the actions of the offender and determine the method of protecting the rights of the victim by analyzing such criteria as reputation-undermining, notorious data, non-compliance with reality.

Economic – mathematical modeling, accommodation and perfection of regional and professional educational establishments on the basis of multistage system.

Erkin Ganiev; Tolib Absalomov; Mukarram Ganieva; Shalola Temirova; Xayriniso Ganieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 595-597

In article, questions of development of national system preschool and vocational training are considered. Last years on strengthening of its legal base complex measures have been taken for development of vocational training, modernization and modernization of educational process, a number of system measures for support of target youth in achievement by then the considerable international both Republican’s Olympic Gomes and competitions has been undertaken.

Objective necessity of formation of digital education and organizational and economic mechanisms of its introduction

Sevara Babanazarova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 614-620

This article deals with the issues related to analyzing the objective necessity of the formation of digital education at a time of rapid development of the digital economy and the main directions of organizational and economic mechanisms of its introduction. Also it highlights the pros and cons of traditional and digital education. The result of the research, creating national education platforms for the introduction of digital education, and the necessary requirements are developed for it.


M. Rakhmatov; M. N. Rasulova; O. I. Eshniyozov; S. M. Elmonov; A. Nuritdinov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 621-625

The article exposes the interdisciplinary integration of technology education and other interdisciplinary integration aimed at improving the quality of education currently through concrete examples of modern didactics of student learning.

Ways to ensure the efficiency of the movement of goods and materials in the commodity market

Diyor Kholmamatov; Sherzod Pardaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 626-634

In the context of innovative development of the Uzbek economy, the implementation of deep structural changes and diversification in industry, the development of the processing industry, deep processing of local raw materials and mineral resources are among the top priorities. These priorities require the effective organization of the supply of raw materials, semi-finished products, spare parts and components, equipment, production facilities for production continuity. In meeting the needs of manufacturing enterprises for the means of production depends on the commodity market and how the movement of commodity resources in this market is organized. Therefore, this article examines ways to ensure the efficiency of the movement of commodity resources in the commodity market.


Kudrat Ortikov; Barno Nazarova; Jakhongir Rustamov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 635-639

Abstract. In this article author is tried to show explicit cooperation of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the United States of America in field of providing security in the region of Central Asia. Besides, in the article is given information the role of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the sphere of maintaining stable situation in the region and assistance of the USA. The article includes itself also information of modern policy of the Republic of Uzbekistan towards the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and further proposals to provide its stable situation.


Shukhrat Kasimov; Yanvarjon Khodjayev; Husniddin Kuchinov; Bakhtiyor Khalkhadjayev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 649-657

This article deals with the effective method of cleaning the heating surfaces of power and waste boilers, presents the characteristics of slag-ash and dust entrainment in flue gases, the mechanism of formation and properties of deposits, the description of the scheme and the physical process of pulse cleaning of contaminated surfaces. The results of analytical research of parameters characterizing the operation of the pulse cleaning system and their application to the existing metallurgical complex recovery boiler are covered.


Yanvarjon Khodjayev; Shukhrat Kasimov; Bakhtiyor Khalkhadjaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 658-661

This article is devoted to the prospects of using oil shale in Uzbekistan. Oil shale is one of the promising types of organic raw materials that can largely compensate, and in the future, replace oil products and gas. On the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, there are huge reserves of oil shale - 47 billion tons. Various types of products can be obtained from oil shale. In Uzbekistan, prerequisites are being created for the organization of the shale industry, the issue of developing an attractive investment project and attracting foreign investment to create shale processing enterprises is being considered.


Muminova A. K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 671-676

The verbal occurrence of rank and title names in the Uzbek language from a socio-linguistic point of view, that is, in relation to the personality of the speaker and the listener is analyzed in this article. The research of career and title names used in the lexicon of a historical work in terms of the attitude, speech conditions and speech situation of the applicant and the recipient disposes to reflect the cultural reality and cultural identity of that period.


Nazokhat Jiyanova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 677-682

This article discusses the etymological analysis of the numerative words used in the work "Boburnoma" by the king and poet Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, who had a place in classical literature and formed the "Great Empire" in India. It also provides information on the scope and value of the ancient use of numerative (accounting) words in Central Asia and other countries. The expression of numerical words in the sources is compared and analyzed.


Anvar Adilhodzhaev; Bunyod Igamberdiev; Dilshodkhon Kodirova; Shokhrukh Davlyatov; Akbarjon Marufjonov; Said Shaumarov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 683-689

The article considers the issues of thermochemical treatment of the surface of plant aggregates to ensure strong adhesive interaction with a gypsum matrix in a composite building material. A selection of additives contributing to the improvement of adhesive strength and physical and mechanical properties of gypsum boards was conducted. A comparative analysis of the effect of moisture sorption on the durability of the composite material at the processing of fiber aggregates was also performed.


Anvar Adilhodzhaev; Volodya Tsoy; Said Shaumarov; Bunyod Igamberdiev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 690-694

The paper considers the issues of the influence of a hydrophoisizing additive adsorbed on mineral fillers selected by the coefficient of reduced hydration activity on the structure-forming and physicomechanical properties of the cement-sand mortar.


Anvar Adilkhodzhaev; Irkin Makhamataliev; Kadir Umarov; Said Shaumarov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 695-700

This article presents the results of the production of reinforced concrete products by the formless molding method. On the basis of the experimental studies carried out, the relationship between the required mobility of the concrete mixture and the value of OC was established. The above research results make it possible to determine the OK of a concrete mixture during mixing and, as a result, to correct the composition of concrete without interruption during the mixing process.

Theoretical studies of the influence of deep pit parameters on the choice of technological schemes for transporting rock mass

Urinov Sherali Raufovich; Saidova Lola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 709-713

The article deals with the actual problem of selecting transport equipment for deep pits. Studies of the relationship between the performance indicators of technological transport and the mining conditions of deep pits are presented. When justifying the choice of dump trucks, the need to take into account adaptation to the main influencing factors is established. The influence of the width of the transport berm on the parameters of a deep quarry is determined.

Biological resources - COVID-19. Legal support of biological resources for scientific purposes and biological safety

O. Narzullaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 714-724

This article provides suggestions and comments on the development of new legislation based on new definitions, improvement of normative legal acts and their analysis related to the use of biological resources for scientific purposes and ensuring biological safety. It also analyzes the most important issues that contribute to the further development of the theory of environmental law in the field of protection and use of biological resources. On issues related to the use and protection of biological resources, analytical information on the establishment and effective functioning of scientific institutions, their legal status, biological threats and biological safety will be provided. It is argued that biological security is an important branch of national security. Natural ecosystems and their use, ie livestock, irrigated agriculture, forestry, fisheries, recreation, tourism and other sectors of the economy is directly related to biodiversity. Given the role of the environment, international regulation of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their by-products is important. Biosafety alone is a pressing issue in the world. Documentation in this regard allows minimizing potential risks to the environment and human health. Finally, the legal use of biological resources for scientific purposes and the legal provision of biological safety provide a number of environmental legal recommendations related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Adilkhodjaev A.I.; Igamberdiev . B.G; Shaumarov S.S.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 725-729

The article discusses the possibility of using a treated rice straw as a fibrous filler in composite gypsum boards and describes the method of thermochemical treatment of this agricultural waste in order to increase its dispersion-reinforcing effect. The research findings on the synergistic effect by the modifying additive “FremNanogis” on the formation of the structure of the gypsum-fiber composition are presented.


Bahramjan Farfiyev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 730-738

It is well known from the history of mankind that in the life of every society the issues of social stratification processes acquire fundamental importance. Since ancient times people have been thinking about the reasons of stratification. In ancient Greece encyclopedic scientists in their works tried to scientifically substantiate the phenomenon of inequality as a natural process. With this approach, they justified the pattern of human exploitation. Along with other factors, religion, too, as a social institution, significantly influenced the stratification processes. This tendency is inherent to all world and national religions. And in modern conditions both material and spiritual factors actively influence the processes of social stratification. In this article the influence of the institute of religion on the processes of social stratification is investigated. It is noted that in some doctrines religion is the backbone of closed stratification systems. An example of such stratification is the caste system of India. In Islam all people are considered equal and the privileged position coming from the ancestral dynasty is strictly condemned. In comparison with material wealth, the status of an educated person is considered the most prestigious. In the history of our country, as a result of adaptation of the precepts of Islam to the interests of the ruling classes, there were classes of Ishans, Khojis, Sayyids, etc., which had nothing to do with Islam. Nowadays, these classes have only a symbolic meaning. Therefore, Islam does not affect the stratification processes of contemporary Uzbek society. However, observance by people of the norms of Islamic morality is important in the activities of officials. These findings have been confirmed by empirical research conducted in various regions of the country, among various classes of the population.


Golubenko Aleksey Yurievich; Azizov Ruslan Minilevich; Boybutaev Jaxongir Jumanazar ugli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 739-748

The article is devoted to the modern requirements of professional and psychological selection of candidates for Special Forces units, various selection factors using differentiated psychological criteria based on reliable indicators of psychodiagnostic tests and expert assessment of the main groups of professionally important qualities that characterize motivational, volitional, cognitive, normative and typological components.
Keywords: psychology, diagnostics, criteria, psychological readiness, army, personality, qualities, methods, formation


Matyakubov Xamidjan Razzokovich; Xudayberganov Aniyoz , Niyazmetovich; Kalandarova Urinposhsha Yuldashovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 749-754

The actual problem of alienation of students from educational activities reveals the mechanisms of alienation, internal and external factors of this phenomenon have been studied in the present article. It has been stated than the relevance of studying the problem of alienation of modern students from educational activities in higher education is due to a number of circumstances. Dynamic socio-economic conditions of modern society, which requires not only a high level of professional training of specialists, but also the development of their ability to flexibly restructure their activities, show initiative, creativity, originality of actions and actions, the ability to live in conditions of instability, uncertainty and a high level of risk


Paluanov D.T., Mamatkulov D.A.; Mamatkulov D.A; Kenjaev B.O.; Gadaev S. K.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 755-757

As a result of the use of many hydrotechnical structures in our republic for many years, the level of reliability in their technical capabilities is decreasing. This is causing a number of problems in the hydrotechnical structures. As a result of the research carried out, suggestions were made on the problems existing in the hydrotechnical structures, their elimination and mitigation.

Tashkent state technical university (Uzbekistan)

Anvar Vosilovich Kabulov; Ibrokhimali Holmamatovich Normatov; Anvar Abduvokhidovich Karimov; Erkin Ravshanovich Navruzov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 758-771

The algorithm for constructing control models of complex systems should be based on the hypothesis that the research and control processes of complex systems are subject to a single technology. A comprehensive study of objects is needed, starting with preliminary study, obtaining adequate models, process algorithms, and ending with the creation of effective control systems. Therefore, the algorithmization of control processes using modern computer technology requires not only improved management at all levels, but also the creation of new effective methods for the rational and adequate description of objects of research, optimization and construction of a control algorithm. The general scheme of such an algorithmic approach is described below. In this paper, we give methods and models of algorithms that are of particular importance in the automation of all stages of system research and the construction of control algorithms. From this point of view, the research process of various objects should be divided into seven consecutive stages, which are a cybernetic chain with feedback. The paper also gives a formalized standard description based on function tables, an algorithmic method for solving the problems of managing complex systems based on algebra over function tables, and methods for synthesizing workplace complexes using production systems as an example.


Khaitov Umidjon Khamidovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 772-782

The article describes the use of information and communication technologies in secondary schools in Uzbekistan. The level of information and communication technologies in secondary schools of Bukhara region is also covered. The problems of non-use of information and communication technologies in teaching and measures to overcome them were discussed. The training provided suggestions and feedback on the benefits of information and communication technologies


KhurshidKarimovAkramovich .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 783-786

Abstract:the article is dedicated to the national preventive mechanisms for prevention of torture, requirements of international standards on national preventive mechanisms, amendments to the law about formation of national preventive mechanisms in Uzbekistan has been analyzed and proposals for further improvement to current legislation in this sphere has been provided.


Sh.M. Ibatova; F.Kh. Mamatkulova; D.S. Islamova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 787-796

In children with rickets, significant changes in the composition of higher fatty acids in blood serum have been established by gas-liquid chromatography. The depth of changes in the composition of higher fatty acids depended on the severity of the disease. The violated composition of higher fatty acids was corrected using vegetable (apricot) oil and aevit. Apricot oil helps to normalize the activity of serum lipase and leads to the restoration of the metabolism of higher fatty acids, the absorption of calcium and phosphorus thereby ensures high efficiency of therapy in children with vitamin D-deficient rickets. The effectiveness of this method of treating children before traditional therapy is shown.


Shakhnoza Miralieva , Khayrullaevna; Malika Fayzieva Sadikovna; Raime Ismailova Setiaevna; Feruza Rakhmanova Akmalovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 797-801

the article deals with the issues based on the efficiency of distance learning in teaching process. Further development of information technology, as well as distance learning of a foreign language is an inevitable process. The integration of distance education, in general, into the educational community, the inevitable virtualization of universities operating in the field of distance education, will lead distance learning of foreign languages to compulsory study not only in the context of independent discipline, but in combination with various courses. Based on the material of this work, it will increase the effectiveness of education in the field of learning foreign languages


German Averboukh; Tetiana Kravchynska; Oksana Skotarenko; Olga Zhulikova; Nataliia Konstantiuk; Yekimov Sergey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 802-808

The public service is an apparatus whose activity is aimed at fulfilling the tasks and functions of the state. The Law of Ukraine “On public service” says that the public service in Ukraine is a professional activity of people who hold positions in government bodies and apparatus for the practical implementation of tasks and functions of the state and receive wages from public funds. These persons are called public servants, and also have certain official powers. The effective functioning of the public service is inextricably linked with the process of selection and training, placement, retraining, education, evaluation and usage of personnel. Personnel work is a means of implementing personnel policy. Personnel work, according to Laski, Harold. (2007) should always be performed in five contexts that are parts of the overall system, although they can be explored separately. These are the following contexts:
1) political - each country has its own political system, which constructs the specific socio-political conditions for personnel work;
2) socio-economic - access to getting the education, choice of profession, the right to work, receiving medical care and social protection;
3) geographical - all personnel work, as a rule, is concentrated within certain territorial and administrative borders;
4) cultural - traditions, mentality, customs, beliefs;
5) spiritual - social values and religious beliefs.

The application of auditing internal standards for strengthen positions in the accounting outsourcing services market

Oksana Skotarenko; Elena Gugnina; Olga Zadyora; Evgeniya Muhina; Luiza Moldashbayeva; Tatyana Egorushkina

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 809-813

The practice application of internal auditing standards makes it possible not only to reduce the labor input while conducting audits, increase the level of control over the work of auditors, but also to obtain additional advantages in the market of audit services. In this study's boundaries was found that when choosing an audit firm to receive its accounting outsourcing services, firms primarily focus not on advertising in the media, but on the business partners' advice. To conquer new market positions, audit companies have first of all to strive to improve the quality of services, provided to their clients. This can be achieved by introducing new and improving existing internal standards for auditing.


Igor Sazonets; Lesia Melnyk; Ruslan Pushko; Tetiana Gavrilko; Oksana Krochak; Tetiana Mishustina; Valentyna Shevchenko

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 814-819

The features of monetary policy implementation in Ukraine was analyzed in this work. There was shown the dependence of the Ukrainian currency market on migrant workers' remittances. The dollarization of the Ukrainian economics has a negative influence with it. However, a balanced approach is required to solve this problem. According to the authors' point of view, an important task of monetary policy in Ukraine is attracting free cash of individuals and enterprises in foreign currency into the banking system and into the real sector of the economy. The increasing process in international foreign reserves will enhance the stability of the national currency.

Diagnosis and treatment of intraoperative bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy

Hadjibaev Abduhakim Muminovich; Hadjibaev Farhod Abduhakimovich; Pulatov Mahmujon Muratjon ugli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 820-828

The results of repeated interventions were studied in 68 patients with intraoperative lesions of the intrahepatic ducts after cholecystectomy. There were 46 women (68.5%), 22 men (31.5%). The age of patients averaged 52.4 years. Standard deviation, σ: 18.787751111741. Along with traditional reconstructive operations, as the first stage of correction of intraoperative injuries, we widely used the therapeutic possibilities of endobiliary interventions.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the application of various anastomoses during VRS using a metal skeleton significantly reduces the risk of developing their postoperative narrowing and insufficiency of sutures, formed anastomoses and, accordingly, improves treatment results.

Phytochemical analysis of α-amylase- inhibiting secondary metabolites of endophyte Penicillium brevicaule alba Thom

Gulyamova T.G.; Nasmetova S.M.; Ruzieva D.M.; Mukhammedov I.I,; Kadyrova G.Kh.; Karimova F. A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 829-836

The present work was aimed to identify phytochemicals in methanol extract P. brevicaule alba Thom - CC200, obtained from C. cristata , by qualitative and TLC analysis and evaluation of α-amylase inhibitory activity in vitro. It was determined the presence in the extract of glycosides, terpenoids, and saponins. The partitioning of the extract by TLC showed that inhibition of enzyme activity at 50,3% and 37,6% is associated with two compounds of saponin nature.


ZebinisoNiyazova Tashkent pediatric medical institute; Lyubov Khegay; Alisher Rakhmanov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 837-843

The article presents the results of a study of acute and chronic toxicity, irritating and allergenic effects of biocoating for the treatment of penetrating eye injuries. It has been established that a bioactive, biodegradable pellicle does not have a toxic effect, is safe and, according to the classification of toxicity, belongs to the 5th group of substances “practically non-toxic substance” and can be recommended for use in the manufacture of medicines intended for the treatment of eye injuries.

Development of agrotechnical methods and application of biomeliorant plants in the lower areas of Amudarya


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 844-849

little-known sorghum culture, over the past ten years has gained a worthy place among agricultural crops.Sorghum has high drought tolerance, salt tolerance, high productivity, crop stability over the years and a distinctive feature is that it is able to continue the accumulation of dry matter and grow normally at high air temperatures and a limited amount of moisture in the soil, when other crops often die.

Analysis of the role 1G / 2G polymorphism Analysis of the role 1G / 2G polymorphism in the MMP1 gene development and clinical course of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

I.A. Kamilova; J.E. Pakhomova; D.K. Nadjmutdinova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 850-859

In the present work, the frequency of occurrence of polymorphic variants 1607 1G / 2G (rs 1799750) of the MMP1 gene encoding enzymes of collagen metabolism and its genotypes in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and healthy women in Tashkent was first investigated. A statistically significant association of 2G allele carriage with a risk of developing CIN (χ² = 15.4; P≤0.001) and unreliable with carriage of the heterozygous genotype 1G / 2G (χ² = 1.36; P≥0.243) were established. In the control group of patients, a statistically significant predominance of the 1G allele (χ² = 29.4; P≤0.001) and the homozygous genotype 1G / 1G (χ² = 19.6; P≤0.001) was found. The highest values of the carriage of the 2G allele and homozygous genotype 2G / 2G were found at CIN and at CIN ΙΙΙ. Thus, the study of polymorphism rs 1799750 of the MMP1 gene is promising for predicting the course of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and can be used to form risk groups for the development of this pathology.
The frequency distribution of alleles and genotypes of the polymorphic marker rs1799750 of the MMP1 gene in patients with CIN did not correspond to the canonical Hardy-Weinberg distribution due to an increase in the frequencies of homozygous genotypes and a decrease in the frequency of the heterozygous genotype; in the control group, the frequency distribution of alleles and genotypes of the polymorphic marker rs 1799750 of the MMP1 gene corresponded to the canonical Hardy-Weinberg distribution.

The developing of the efficient usage from basic funds in industry

Kholida Saidrasulova Bekpulatovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 860-871

The article describes the basic funds and their role in manufacturing. Industrial enterprises are mathematical and econometric analyzed by based on data indicators of the usage from basic funds in production. A new approach has been formed to the research by forecasting with opportunities for efficient usage of basic funds. The importance of reforms for efficient use from basic funds in the production of industrial enterprises has been studied.


S.R. Avizov; T.I. Atamuratova; Sh.A. Holova; F.R. Kamalova; L.H. Akobirova; A.T. Oltiev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 872-885

Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the educational process should be based on the development of personal potential and intellectual abilities of students, which implies the ability to generate and use knowledge in new situations. Today, the main task in training specialists, especially in higher education, is to develop and improve such skills among students. Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy, which establishes a direct link between learning objectives and the hierarchy of cognitive processes, seems to be a practical and convenient tool for setting objectives and evaluating learning outcomes. This article discusses the relationship between modern training requirements and the need for special work by the teacher on the goal-setting of pedagogical activity with an indication of the criteria of the end result in the assimilation of course content, cognitive and communicative activities. The article describes the results of testing the methods of teaching the subject through a system of various controlling procedures. using Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy to describe the cognitive knowledge and taking into account the changes made by Anderson and Kravlov (2001) on the organization of lectures, learning of educational material, development of cognitive and communicative activities, allowing to implement a qualitative assessment of the results of training students at the university. The method of modeling the content of the subject and a set of methods to motivate students to learn the content of the course, the development of cognitive needs, communication and intellectual sphere of all students. The factors limiting the use of binary lectures in the educational process are described. Practical recommendations on the use of this technology in the educational process have been developed.


Parida Mirkhamidova; Dilnoza Babakhanova; Mavjuda Rahmatullayeva; Rano Alimova; Gafurjan Mukhamedov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 886-898

The total amount of biologically active compounds - antioxidants, flavonoids, and vitamin C in different trees for example in Morusnigra L., Prunuspersica L., Serasus Vulgaris L., and Juglansregia L. leaves were found at different seasons. The results showed that the highest concentration of antioxidants in spring was found in walnuts and peaches than in the summer season. The number of walnut leaves was about 9.105 ± 0.05 mg/g, and in peach, leaves were about 9.082 ± 0.075 mg/g. In spring, the content of flavonoids in the leaves of grapes was high and amounted to 4721 ± 0.521 mg/g, in the summer their number was 3825 ± 0.255 mg/g, and in the fall there was a decrease in flavanoids to 1.460 ± 0.2253 mg/g. In the spring, in the stalks of grapes, flavonoids were 4.386 ± 0.046 mg/g, in cocoons 0.348 ± 0.023 mg/g.

The Republic of Uzbekistan and the Eurasian Economic Union: integration opportunities

Nabi Ziyadullaev; Ulugbek Ziyadullaev; NabiS. Ziyadullaev; Ulugbek S. Ziyadullaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 899-912

The article reveals the features of international trade, economic and integration priorities of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The conceptual approaches to joining the WTO, diversification of the geography and structure of foreign trade, as well as the expansion of foreign economic cooperation with world and regional powers, the CIS countries and Central Asia are substantiated. Particular attention is paid to risks and building vectors of effective interaction with the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), as well as mitigating the consequences of the coronavirus pandemic on the national economy.


Pakhratdinov Shukritdin Ilyasovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 913-919

The factor of legitimacy of power structures, which is the basis of threat resistance of the society, has been analyzed in detail in this article. Special attention is also paid to the main criteria for the legitimacy of power. An attempt is made to identify and analyze the nature and main characteristics of the legitimacy of power. Considerable attention is paid to the relationship between the concepts of “legitimacy of power” and“legality of power”. The methods used by the state to ensure political and economic manageability of citizens, taking into account the existing alignment of political forces have been studied.


M.I. Davronova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 920-924

In this article, one of the brightest representatives of Uzbek poetry, Usman Azim’s poetry is analyzed. In his poetry the symbol of tree, the images of leave, rod and tree are described as symbol. Usman Azim opens the way to philosophical thought through the image of the tree, leaves and symbols. To prove that these images are important, in their turn, to give new insights. Usman Azim opens the way to philosophical thought through the image of the tree, leaves and symbols. This embodiment leads to philosophical reasoning, such as life, time, and death. The poet can also display the path to the termination through the image of the leaf. Most importantly, the reader will be able to watch all of this process as a third person. The lyric hero of Usman Azim is sometimes described as a leaf, and sometimes it becomes a tree. When the lyrical character of the leaf appeals to the tree and tree also addresses to the leaf, which indicates the importance of the poet's creativity. The article will focus on one of the Uzbek researchers, M. Yuldosheva. M. Yuldosheva connects the symbols of the tree and leaf, in the works of Usman Azim, with human consciousness and its activity. Poet's idea is dwell on to understand correctly. The image (tree), created by Usman Azim, has been formed as an image that can not bear fruit and can not attract others by its beauty. For this reason, this image is important. Because the poet's image can not produce fruits, yet he can see his symbol as firewood. To share it’s warmth to the nation is a sign of its happiness. Moreover, the image created by the poet is also important as the symbol of human life. This is because this image is an endless boundary of human life, where the concept of parting is embedded in the image of the life is also associated with the art... This symbol, which is closely attached to the ground by roots in both parts of the border, is a specific hierarchy of human fate, which also helps to clarify the relation to this symbol. Comparative analysis of the poet's lyrical image and symbols with images of other poets. Particularly, such an image is one of the Uzbek poets' appearance in the Ulugbek Hamdam’s creativity, but it has been clarified and compared with the images and the difference in image styles.


OrzubekAnarbaevRahmanovich, .; SanobaDilshodqizi .; ShakhnozaAshurovaAlmasovna .; HolboyIbragimovIbragimovich, .; ShakhnozaAshurovaAlmasovna, .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 925-932

In this given article the author analyzed the linguistic features and new formation and creation of the compound words in English and in Uzbek. Also, he tried to learn that Word formation is the creation of new lexical units based on the material and possibilities available in the language. This process serves to enrich the content of the language dictionary on a regular basis. One of the most commonly used word forms today, which is considered to be holistic and concise, as well as productive, is compound words. Compound words are a very important and relevant phenomenon for all languages. 


Ismailov S.I; Rakhimjonov O.N.; TulanbaevZh .T; Karimova M. M.,; Zhuravleva N.S.,; Berezkina A.I.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 933-939

Introduction: To date, thyroid surgery has undergone major changes in terms of preoperative assessment of thyroid nodules. Various systems are used to evaluate thyroid nodes using ultrasound, one of which is the ACR TIRADS system, proposed by the American College of Radiology (American College of Radiology). A special system of cytological evaluation of these nodes according to the updated Bethesda classification adopted in 2017 is also used. This article presents data on the use of ACR TIRADS and Bethesda systems in patients who underwent surgery on the thyroid gland in the VITAMED clinic in Tashkent in the period from 01/08/2019 to 03/12/2020.
Objective: To show and evaluate the experience of using ACR TIRADS and Bethesda systems in the practice of thyroid surgery. To evaluate the correlation between the results of a preoperative assessment using these systems and the results of a histopathological study.
Materials and methods: 1378 patients were examined. Of these, 158 patients were operated on in 2019 for nodular (n = 70) or mixed non-toxic (n = 31), diffuse toxic (n = 22), mixed toxic (n = 6), toxic nodular goiter (n = 15), as well as patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) (n = 7) and patients with primary hyperparathyroidism simultaneously with the presence of thyroid nodules or with diffuse toxic goiter (n = 7). Ultrasound diagnostics using the ACR TIRADS system and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) followed by a cytological evaluation using the Bethesda system were used for their preoperative evaluation. During the operation, express diagnostics of the remoted nodes was performed. Subsequently, after the final histology, the data of cytology and express diagnostics and preoperative node evaluation were compared according to the results of ultrasound using the ACR TIRADS system.
Results: Data obtained from the use of ACR TIRADS and Bethesda systems have been shown to be effective in detecting thyroid cancer. 90.5% of the thyroid cancer revealed by the final histology , were rated before the operation by ACR TIRADS classification in categories TIRADS -3, TIRADS-4, TIRADS -5, in 19%, 34%, 37.5% of cases, respectively. According to the results of the FNA, 69% of thyroid cancer was preoperatively assigned to the three Bethesda classification categories, as B-IV - 41%, B-V - 22%, B-VI -6%, respectively. The indications for the operation were cases of confirmed thyroid cancer (n = 3), suspected thyroid cancer (n = 81), toxic goiter (n = 43), primary hyperparathyroidism and the simultaneous presence of thyroid nodes or diffuse toxic goiter (n = 7) and the presence of symptoms compression and / or substernal growth of thyroid nodes (n = 24). 101 total and near-total thyroidectomies, 15 subtotal thyroidectomies, 25 hemistromectomies, 17 extended or economical thyroid lobe resections were performed. During express histological diagnosis, all 100% of thyroid cancer cases were assigned to categories B-IV, B-V, B-VI in 28%, 58% and 16% of cases, respectively. According to the results of the final histology, 32 cases of thyroid cancer were identified (13 papillary
carcinomas (41%), 8 (25%) follicular carcinomas, 10 (31%) follicular variant of papillary carcinomas, 1 (3%) undifferentiated carcinomas.
Conclusions: The use of ACR TIRADS and Bethesda systems in the preoperative assessment of thyroid nodules is effective in detecting malignant tumors. The use of the Bethesda system for the cytological evaluation of smear materials on glass from thyroid nodules after their resection during surgery is effective in detecting thyroid cancer and adjusting the volume of surgical intervention.


Irismetov , M.E.; Kholikov A. M.; Usmonov F. M.; Razhabov K. N.; Tajinazarov M. B.; Rustamov F.R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 940-945

The cystic degeneration of the meniscus, or the so-called meniscus cyst, is an
independent nosological unit with well-defined symptoms and a characteristic pathologo
anotomical picture [1,2]. Information about this disease is almost not found in the educational
literature, and only a few works have been published in the periodical foreign literature. The
question of the nature of pathomorphological changes in meniscus cysts is still under
discussion [3,4].


M.E. Irismetov; N.B. Safarov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 946-950

Purpose of current investigation was to improve the arthroscopy technique of patients with osteoarthritis of knee, by introduction of complex clinic and diagnostic algorithm. Materials and methods. The investigation was carried out on the basis of 218 patients data of the clinic of Sport traumatology department of Republican Scientific and practical medical Centre of Traumatology and Orthopedics during 2014-2018 yy. with osteoarthritis of knee of different degree (0-IV st.) by Kellgren and Lawrence classification. All patients were carried out 5 types arthroscopic operations depending on the stage o morphologic alteration, that based to development of clinic and diagnostic algorithm. Results were studied at nearest (3-6 months) and long term (6 months - year) periods. At postoperative period to patientsmedications, early rehabilitations and physiotherapy were recommended. In our data, in 96,5% were positive results. Conclusion. Arthroscopy with using of clinic and diagnostic algorithm is allowed to rise of share good results, to activate of patients and to begin of early rehabilitations at postoperative periods.

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: single-bundle hamstring versus double-bundle reconstruction with lavsan (polyethylene terephtalate)

Murodjon Ergashevich IRISMETOV; Farrukh Makhamadjonovich USMONOV; Alisher Mukhammadjonovich KHOLIKOV; Kurbon Nurmamatovich RAJABOV; Murodjon Bakhodirovich TADJINAZAROV

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 951-959

Anterior cruciate ligament is one of the main stabilizateur of the knee joint. Many methods were suggested for its reconstruction with different allo- and autografts, as well as synthetic materials. The aim of study is to compare of two methods of ACL reconstruction. Material and metods. The study included 110 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction. I group (54 patients) underwent single-bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendons, II group (56 patients) underwent double-bundle reconstruction with lavsan (polyethylene terephtalate) tape. Patients were evaluated with Lachman, anterior drawer and pivot-shift tests and Lysholm score. Results. Our results showed better results in double-bundle group, especially rotational stability was significant better. Conclusion. Independing of the method of ACL reconstructions these surgeries must be perform taking into account anatomic features and changes of the knee. Double-bundle technique of ACL reconstruction with lavsan provides better stability than single-bundle technique with hamstring tendons.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 960-966

This article examines the specifics, legal framework and current trends of the securities market in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The purpose of the study is to study the activities of the securities market in Uzbekistan on the example of the Tashkent Stock Exchange. As a result of the study, the following recommendations were made:
- The issuance of securities allows enterprises to implement large financial investment projects. For this reason, it is advisable to increase the number of joint stock companies in the regions of the country. An increase in the number of joint-stock companies will allow modernizing the production or service process.
“Today, the main part of joint-stock companies operating in the country are agricultural entities, and the number of joint-stock companies in industries producing value-added products is relatively small. In order to modernize the country and develop innovative activities, it is necessary to encourage the state to increase the number of joint-stock companies producing high value-added products. Such incentives will allow the development of an innovative economy, along with the efficient functioning of the stock market.
- In the stock market "Tashkent" there is an opportunity to develop e-commerce through the introduction of digital technologies.


Shukhrat Yusupov; Dzhamshed Atakylov; Bobir Davranov; Parviz Pulatov; Kamoliddin Juraev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 967-971

Abstract: After the operation for gangrenous - perforated appendicitis, miscarriage occurs in 11%, infertility in 62% of cases. 154 girls aged 3 to 15 years were examined. For the purpose of diagnosis, a complex of examinations was carried out: collection of anamnesis data, analysis of menstrual and generative functions, bimanual examination, colposcopy, microbiological examination of the contents of the cervical canal and vagina, polymerase chain reaction to reveal sexually transmitted diseases, assessment of the functional state of the ovaries, examination of the sexual partner , hormonal examination, ultrasonic examination of small pelvis organs and thyroid gland, examination of the mammary glands. The developed algorithm makes it possible to carry out timely diagnosis and treatment of complications of reproductive function in girls after suffering from prevalent appendicular peritonitis

Improving the teaching of "Information Technology" in higher education on the basis of multimedia technologies

A.I. Tillaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 972-976

This article describes the role of multimedia technologies needed to improve the teaching of Information Technology in higher education, and ways to effectively use multimedia software and hardware in education. Suggestions are made on the rules of creating multimedia software tools.

Issues of improving the system of the prosecutor's office of the Republic of Uzbekistan based on the tasks of ensuring legality in the field of environmental protection and agriculture

RustamGafurov .; DavurkhonNodirov .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 982-989

This article analyzes the system of prosecutor's offices of the Republic of Uzbekistan and offers suggestions for improving their structure based on the areas of activity in the field of ecology and agriculture

Issues of improving prosecutorial control over the implementation of legislation in the field of ecology and environmental protection

Rustam Gafurov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 990-996

Abstract: This article discusses the organization of prosecutorial control over the implementation of laws in the field of ecology and environmental protection, its regulatory framework, the main directions, development directions and problems in this area and ways to solve them.Article provides information on the theory of environmental policy integration and discusses some of the successes of this process in Uzbekistan, as well as barriers to it.


Bilim Terebaev; Shakhnoza Abzalova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 997-1003

61 patients aged 3 to 14 years were treated with a diagnosis of postoperative anal incontinence (AI). Gel plastic surgery of the anal canal in patients with postoperative AI is the method of choice and is an alternative to reconstructive plastic interventions. During the operation, the creation of an internal nephosphincter from a bypass muscle coupling is advisable to perform with preliminary stomatization of the colon. The final result is largely determined by the quality and timing of rehabilitation measures in the near and remote postoperative period.


E.A.Shamansurova .; G.G.Makhkamova .; N.X.Isakhanova .; Sh.A.Abdurazakavova .; A.A.Tillabayeva .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1004-1010

Аннотация. Infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are wide-spread in many countries around the world. For this purpose, we have studied the preva-lence and peculiarities of the clinical course of the most frequently occurring forms of haemophilus infection in 124 children aged 2 months to 15 years. It was found that Hib infection is most common in children with lower respiratory tract diseases (43.8%), the to-tal incidence of Hib was 38.7% of the total number of children surveyed and depended on clinical forms of hemophilic infection.


Mamura Rakhmatillaeva; Dilnoza Abdurakhmanova; Oydin Ubaydullaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1010-1017

Correlation dependence of the parameters of N - terminal cerebral natriuretic (NT-ProBNP) peptide and echocardiographic parameters for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in children with CHD. For the study, 81 children aged 1 to 34 months were examined. The first group of CHD children without pulmonary hypertension, the second group - 56 CHD children with pulmonary hypertension. The results of our study show a statistically significant relationship between NT-ProBNP levels and structural features and pancreatic function during the development of PH with CHD.


Irismetov M. E; Rasulov M. R.; Rustamova U. M.; Ismatullaeva M. N.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1033-1038

Summary: The choice of the optimal method of surgical treatment of the habitual dislocation of the patella is one of the urgent problems of modern orthopedics. This is evidenced by the existence of more than 160 methods of operations. The ultrasound diagnostic method is non-invasive, affordable and quite informative, especially when choosing an operation. The article presents the results of ultrasound examinations to study the characteristic changes in the elements of the knee joint in this disease. A survey of 219 patients operated on using different methods was performed. According to the results of studies, it was found that ultrasonography is one of the methods for diagnosing the habitual dislocation of the patella, which provides the possibility of multiple dynamic studies and postoperative observation.


N.A. Matkarimova; N.A. Parpiev; Sh.A. Kodirova; Sh.B. Hasanov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1039-1043

The article describes the conditions for the synthesis of 2-mercaptothiazoline, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and thiamine hydrochloride complexes with Cu (II), Ni (II), and Co (II) salts. If the composition of synthesized compounds was determined using elemental analysis, the proof of identity was performed by determining the liquefaction temperatures. The coordination centers of ligands, the dentate of the central atom, were determined based on IR spectra.
As a result of the studies, it was found that thiazoles are connected by nitrogen and sulfur atoms in the heterocycle, in promissory notes formed by intermediate metals. In this regard, it is observed upon the transition of the hydrogen atom of the S-H group to a metal atom.


DSc. Kurbonov A.Y .; prof.Avtonomov V.A .; prof. Axunov A.A .; DSc.HashimovaN .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1044-1051

In the world's cotton-growing countries, cotton is cultivated on the territory of 89 countries, on a total area of more than 30 million hectares, from which more than 22.4 million tons of cotton fiber are obtained. Today, there are problems in the production of high-quality cotton fiber yield. One of these problems is pathogens that cause significant damage to cotton production, with losses in the world amounting to 12-15%. In the world, considerable attention is paid to the study and control of the pathogen Verticillium dahliae Klebahn, which affects cotton.
The problem of breeding wilt-resistant varieties of cotton is complicated by the search for new methods and donors of resistance to the pathogen. It is necessary to improve the method of selection of parent pairs during hybridization and qualitative assessment of interspecific hybrids at the early stages of the breeding process in order to increase the efficiency of breeding, speed up the process of introducing new varieties of cotton into production.The selection must be carried out on the basis of physiology and biochemistry of signs of resistance of the initial breeding material. The initial stage of selection should be based on test signs of resistance, which are associated with the catalytic activity of some enzymes involved in the formation of phytoimmunity against fungal infections (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonialyase, polyphenol oxidase).The greatest interest of researchers is attracted by protective mechanisms, including the processes of lignification of cell walls and the biosynthesis of phenolic phytoalexins. These mechanisms simultaneously create a mechanical and chemical barrier to the penetration of fungal structures into the cell, preventing the spread of the pathogen.

Methods of creation of high-yielding, fork-resistant varieties of cotton with a complex of morphological features.

YashinBabaevAmanovich .; GulmiraOrazbayevaEgambergenovna .; AbrorjonKurbonovYorkinovich .; UlugbekGulyamovGafurovich .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1052-1059

The article presents the methods of selection of parental forms, the use of different selection methods as analytical selection, transgressive selection, convergent selection and their effectiveness for creating new competitive varieties of cotton. Efficiency of application in hybridization of wild and ruderal forms as well as local and foreign cotton varieties in creation of new high-ripening and fork-resistant cotton varieties and lines with improved valuable morphological features. It has been revealed that analytical selection depending on the selection method allows to create new high-ripening, vilt-resistant, high-yielding varieties of cotton, transgressive selection depends on the geographical origin of initial forms and the greatest success in transgressive selection is achieved at return or saturated crosses. Convergent selection method is the most perspective direction in creation of vilt-resistant, early maturing, highly productive varieties and lines that will have the best features of both parental forms. In the process of selection work on the method of analytical selection created a variety of cotton Omad, which was introduced in the State Register in 1999 and zoned by Samarkand region, by the method of convergent selection created a variety of cotton C-8294 (Gurlen), which was introduced in the State Register in 2020 and zoned by Kharezm region.


M.A. Sadikova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1060-1066

The successful conduct of operations in the RPS to a large extent depends on effective anesthetic management. The introduction of the achievements of RPS, namely the patch patch method, made it possible to take a qualitatively new step in the treatment of cicatricial contractures and the elimination of cosmetic defects after the removal of keloid scars. Unfortunately, existing generally accepted criteria for assessing the adequacy of anesthesia do not always inform in a timely manner about disorders of the microvasculature of the blood circulation, especially in the area of surgical intervention. The expansion of the possibilities of perioperative control of the peripheral blood flow of the operated area in the RPS can provide more in-depth information on the effectiveness of anesthesia during surgical interventions of this type. The article presents the results of studies of 81 patients with reconstructive plastic surgery on the lower extremities regarding the effects of burns and injuries of the 1-2 degree (ASA I-II class).

Constitutional and legal basics for the participation of political parties in the formation of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis

IkhtiyorBekov .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1067-1075

This article presents the constitutional and legal basis for the participation of political parties in the formation (election) of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, their improvement and development trends, as well as the experience of foreign countries in this regard. The article analyzes the participation of political parties in the elections in the history of the Oliy Majlis with specific examples and facts, and draws theoretical conclusions about their participation.


Shermuxamedov Ulugbek; Salixanov Saidxon; Shaumarov Said; Zokirov Fakhriddin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1076-1080

The article deals with the issues of ensuring seismic stability of high-speed railway overpasses, taking into account the experience of their design and construction in developed foreign countries. The review of technical solutions for ensuring earthquake resistance of overpasses and bridges located on high- speed and high- speed railway lines in the world and in the Republic of Uzbekistan is carried out. The method of selecting the optimal parameters of earthquake-proof bearing parts of bridges and overpasses on high-speed railway lines is presented. The article proposed a new solution of dynamic oscillation damping of the bridges, wherein the dampening mass (superstructure) is located between the two protected objects (supports) and dampens their oscillation. Thanks to this approach, several times reduces the seismic load on the supports of the girder bridges in high-speed lines.


Ismailova R.O .; Kariev G .M.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1085-1096

The article presents the results of surgical treatment of 147 patients with Chiari malformation (CM) type 1 using intraoperative monitoring. During the surgical intervention, the tactics and volume of the surgical intervention are determined depending on the dynamic data of the NIOM. The analysis of the nearest and distant regression results of neurological deficit in patients operated with and without NIOM was performed.


Ilkhom Otajonov; Guli Shaykhova; Feruza Salomova; Khurliman Kurbanova; Nazarova Malokhat; Khurshed Kurbonov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1097-1109

Among the important socio-economically important problems, a special place is occupied by kidney diseases. Timely identification of individuals and patients at high risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the early stages of the disease, risk factors, and adequate treatment methods can stop the growth of renal dysfunction. It should be noted that the effectiveness and safety of a low-protein diet have a good evidence base. The aim of the study was to substantiate the safety and efficacy of a diet consisting of bakery products made from wheat / soy flour, based on morphological studies in rats with chronic kidney disease (glomerulonephritis). The experiments were conducted on 24 white male rats with a body weight of 250-300 g. Modeling of glomerulonephritis was caused by the introduction of adaptive lymphocytes. Group 1 comprised intact animals, group 2 — rats with glomerulonephritis contained in a normal diet (without the addition of bakery products from soy flour), group 3 included rats with glomerulonephritis, contained in the diet containing bread and bakery products from 5% soya flour, and group 4 - in the diet of bakery products from 10% soy flour. The organs and tissues of animals were examined histologically 60 days after glomerulonephritis modeling. The inclusion of bakery products made with 5% and 10% soy flour in rats with experimental glomerulonephritis has been proven safe. The histomorphological picture of the kidneys of rats of 3- and 4-experimental groups, consuming bakery products of 5 and 10% soy flour, was characterized by less pronounced lymphocytic infiltration in the renal interstitium, with fewer atrophic renal tubules compared with the control group. The cessation of sclerotic changes in the renal parenchyma was noted. Dystrophic changes in all studied organs were reduced, which was manifested in an improvement in the functional state of cell organelles, and a decrease in edema of the intercellular tissue.


Boymurodov G. A.; Dursunov A.M .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1110-1112

The treatment of fractures of the proximal tibia is at the center of surgery traumatology. A high percentage of complications and unsatisfactory functional results require the development of methods for the osteosynthesis of fractures of the proximal tibia. Various complications associated with bone regeneration, such as pseudoarthrosis and delayed fusion, occur mainly with a conservative flight. When using external fixators in the proximal part of fractures of the tibia, the probability of their association is high. The article uses the results of treatment of 132 patients with various methods. The treatment results were healed by other methods of osteosynthesis.


Sherzod Pardaev Xolmurodovich; DiyorKholmamatov Haqberdievich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1113-1120

At the current stage of economic reforms in Uzbekistan, the implementation of deep structural changes and diversification in industry, modernization of production, technical and technological renewal, deep processing of local raw materials are among the priorities in the economy. The role of the commodity market in increasing the production of finished products is invaluable. Therefore, the state of development of the commodity market in Uzbekistan, the situation on the commodity market and the factors affecting it, the problems in the development of the commodity market, their solutions are described in this article.


Rahmatulla Mirzaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1121-1124

Resume: The article notes the versatility and multifunctionality of the concept of “translation”, the specific features of its transformation, the relationship and the sphere of contact between law and language; the ways of achieving the adequacy of the translation are indicated, the most difficult cases of the process of translation of legal terms, such as words denoting the realities of national jurisprudence, terms and terminological phrases containing vivid expressions cultural component of knowledge, phraseological expressions not recorded in modern dictionaries, abbreviations accepted and widely used in a professional environment.


Dr.Kulmamat Mirzaev; Bekzot Janzakov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1125-1133

Abstract. In recent years the development of international tourism became a priority in many countries including former Soviet republics. In this regard, authorities need to know how international tourism demand is constructed and what factors affect the tourists’ spending. We estimated the impact of various factors on international tourism receipts in some former Soviet countries. As a result of our empirical analysis, we found out that government efficiency, capital investments, trade, and GDP per capita mattered significantly.

Determination of treatment tactics for gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding in coronary heart disease

Khadjibayev A. M; Rakhimov R. .I; Makhamadaminov A.G .; Yeshmuratov A.B .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1134-1140

The computer program developed by us for choosing the tactics of treating patients with UGDK combined with various forms of coronary heart disease most fully meets not only the requirements of practical emergency medicine, but also those of modern evidence-based medicine.
A good example of this is the presented case of clinical observation, which convincingly indicates that the use of the computer program developed by us to choose the tactics of treating UGDK combined with various forms of coronary heart disease allows us not only to accurately establish the clinical diagnosis, but also to choose the most appropriate treatment tactic.


Zaynitdinova L.I .; Kukanova S.I .; Juraeva R.N .; Ergashev R.B .; Tashpulatov J.J .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1141-1147

Application of nanoparticles in different industries attracts special attention nowadays. Use of microorganisms is one of the actively studied directions for nanoparticles production. The strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri possessing capacity to bioformation of copper nanoparticles was selected as a result of conducted screening among collection cultures. Earlier this strain revealed activity in terms of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles too. The possibility to regulate size and form of produced nanoparticles by regulating concentration of ions in the solution was established. The strain is considered as a potential source for development of the technology for production of copper nanoparticles.

The role of social mobility in shaping "Middle class" in Uzbekistan

Nodir Ahmedov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1148-1159

This article is devoted to the issues of development of main tendencies of social mobility in Uzbekistan, main directions of replenishment of entrepreneurs as well as key aspects of such discipline as sociology of entrepreneurship. The author considers entrepreneurship to be the activity of individuals aimed at the production of material and spiritual goods and services for the systematic generation of profit. At the same time, the importance of diluting the concepts of "business" and "entrepreneurship" has been proven.
The term "middle class", which has actively entered the public consciousness and scientific turnover in the last two decades, still does not have a clear definition and unified methodology of research. The fact is that the middle classes cannot be described by one integral criterion. This is a social totality characterized by a chain of attributes, which include material and non-material resource attributes (level of income, education, business legitimacy, investment preferences, etc.) Nevertheless, today there is already a common understanding of some characteristic features of this social layer.
The "middle class", like any other unit in the social structure of society, is recruited from a variety of backgrounds. Social mobility has played a major role in its replenishment, as the history of the middle class is closely linked to the expansion and acceleration of social mobility flows in modern society. The creation of a mobile and simultaneously stable society was possible only when the middle class became an important element of the social structure.


T.R. Rashidov; Rashidov Tursunbay; Shermuхamedov Ulugbek

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1160-1166

Annotation. This article discusses a two-mass system with a rigid fixation of the end part (foundation) of the bridge on high-speed railways. The results of selecting the optimal parameters of dynamic vibration dampers (DVDs) for setting stiffness and damping in the case of a two-mass system with a rigidly fixed end part of the bridge are presented. It is shown that such a solution is recommended for the case when the bridge is located in a steep gorge, the intermediate supports are high and flexible, and the end supports are quite rigid, since they give the designer a wide opportunity to choose the dimensions and rigidity of the designed seismic protection elements.

Education Institution Program and Children Psychosocial Crisis

M.A. Muazar Habibi; Casmudi .; Henny Damaryanti; Yenny Aman Serah; Siswadi .; Yana V. Vinokurova; Albina Kh. Khaertdinova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1167-1177

Basically. educational institution program suits to the needs of each institution. And
educational institution program is closely related to the needs of teachers, the number of
students, facilities and infrastructure, financial possession, curriculum, learning strategies,
guidance and counseling, educational supervision, and community relations. In the toddlerhood
stage, the children seek to explore freedom as a process of self-discovery. Children have their
own rituals to control and organize the environment. A big toddler has the motto "I can do it
myself". When they do something positive, they develop a sense of autonomy. They imagine as
people who can manage the situation well to meet their own needs. In the final stages of
toddlerhood, children can already experiment with autonomy, as a strong basis for selfconfidence
and the pleasure of being free. Toddlers keep struggling with activities until they can
master them.

An Observational Study on Cell Phone Dependence Disorder and it’s Homoeopathic Management

Dr. Hemant Vyas; Dr. Sachin Gupta; Dr. Bharat Sharma; Dr. Gaurav Gupta; Dr. Rakesh Sharma; Dr. Anil Kumar Vangani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1178-1183

Need and Background of the Study: As this problem is increasing day by day there is
a need to find out a solution either in the form of psychotherapy or medicinal treatment. Here
we are trying to enlighten the scope of psychotherapy and Homeopathic management in
treating the cell phone dependence disorders.
The recent advancement related to speed and decreased cost of internet data has increased the
use of Cellphones throughout the world. Cellphones are being updated very frequently by
improving their design and functions, which is responsible for overdependence, overuse and
addiction to the screens. Homoeopathic system of medicine can reduce this tendency of
overuse and addiction to Smartphone.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1185-1190

Background: Surgery is the most well established mode of initial definitive
treatment for a majority of oral cancers. Over the past few decades, the surgical technique
of neck dissection has evolved from Radical neck dissection to Modified radical neck
dissection and then to Selective Neck Dissection.
Objectives: The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the incidence of pathologic
incursion of the carotid sheath, when noticed grossly uninvolved while doing surgery in
the patients with neck dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
Methods: 80 neck dissections will be performed. Carotid Sheath will be removed separately
and methodically evaluated by well experienced head and neck pathologists by performing
hematoxylin and Eosin staining and Immunohistochemistry Analysis with Markers like
Pancytokeratin and CD34 for tumour infiltration and the occurrence of lymphatic 
tissue. Hence, if found negative than it will strongly indicate that we can modify the neck
dissections limiting upto the level of carotid sheath.
Results: Carotid Sheath is not grossly involved, removal of Carotid Sheath is not
recommended. Histologically Carotid Sheath may harbour dilated lymphatic vessels,
lymphocytes aggregates and neutrophils. Carotid Sheath, however, would not harbour any
metastatic tumour emboli from primary Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Conclusion: Not only for surgical safety but also for the shield it provides post operatively
against adjuvant radiation therapy and any infection in neck and even trickling of saliva
down the neck postoperatively by protecting vital structures it encases like Common carotid
artery, Vagus Nerve and Internal jugular vein. So far there is paucity of data in presence
of metastatic involvement of carotid Sheath. This study will give basis for preservation of
Carotid sheath during neck dissection which will reduce postoperative morbidities in head
and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

Understanding Micro Small Medium Enterprise in Indonesia

Iwan Koerniawan; Yulia Tri Samiha; Cut Erika Ananda Fatimah; Ade Ananto Terminanto; Rita Irviani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1191-1203

is hampered. Understanding the intricate details of the issues being looked by
MSME's is accepted to have an association with endeavors to renew the business in the
current advanced time. Hence, we have directed a field study utilizing observational
techniques and delineated arbitrary examples to comprehend the attributes of these MSME's
issues. At last, we prevailing with regards to summing up the discoveries of the MSME's
investigation among some MSME's entertainers in the region. Our discoveries incorporate;
First, MSME's are held to occupy the time clear at home. Furthermore, MSME's are
completed without having a reasonable administrative vision and mission. Third, as a normal
individual MSME's there, it is completed with its own little capital without capital advances
from money related organizations or other outside gatherings with a benefit sharing
framework. In this way, we recommend that the discoveries of the difficult qualities will be 
understood if the MSME's get colleagues and subsidizing to help oversee and deal with the
financials and the outlook of the MSME's so they can expand their business profitability


Dr. Gaurav Gupta; Dr. Hemant Vyas; Dr. Ravi Jain; Dr. Bharat , Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1204-1212

First time on December 30, 2019, a report of a cluster of pneumonia of unknown aetiology
was published on ProMED-mail, possibly related to contact with a seafood market in Wuhan,
China. [1] Following this till October 15, 2020, 38,394,169 confirmed cases of COVID-19,
including 1,089,047 deaths have been reported to World Health Organization. [2]
First time, this case was reported on December 31, 2019 by WHO Country Office in China
but based on symptoms; its beginning can be traced in initial days of December 2019.
Initially for first few cases (n=29), this infection was classified as "pneumonia of unknown
etiology." Following intensive outbreak investigation by the Chinese Center for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) and local CDCs, this infection was classified as novel viral
infection belonging to the coronavirus (CoV) family. Finally on February 11, 2020, the WHO
Director-General, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, announced that the disease caused by
this new CoV was a "COVID-19," which is the acronym of "coronavirus disease 2019". [3]
This Coronaviruses are encapsulated, single-stranded RNA viruses that generally cause mild,
cold-like illnesses in human beings and belongs to SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). [4]

Post-operative physiotherapy rehabilitation in rare combined full thickness tear of supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon managed by arthroscopy with mini open Supraspinatus tendon repair: A Case report

Swapna Jawade

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1212-1219

Background: Complete combined disruption of muscle fibres of Supraspinatus
and subscapularis tendon are rare than any other tear of rotator cuff. Mini open
arthroscopy supraspinatus tendon repair is used to repair a torn supraspinatus along with
other tendon that forms rotator cuff. Prime aim of post-operative physiotherapy
rehabilitation following arthroscopy mini open supraspinatus tendon repair (STT) is focus
on healing of repaired tendon when reducing muscle atrophy and stiffness due to
prolonged immobilization. In this case study Rehabilitation protocol has been modified
into four phases from immediate protection phase to advance strengthening exercises on
the basis of surgery procedure.
Case Presentation: A 41 year male who was diagnosed with combined full thickness tear of
supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon which are rare than any other tear of rotator cuff.
Patient underwent arthroscopy with mini open supraspinatus tendon repair (STT) after 20
days .Patient was referred to physiotherapy with complaints of pain, restricted range of
motion (ROM), muscle weakness and difficulty in functional activities. Rehabilitation was
given according four phases to accelerate early healing of repair tendon. Patient was
treated 5 days per week for 22 weeks. In Phase I patient was explained maintain the arm in
abduction sling for 5 week, removed only during exercises and no lifting of objects or
taking body weight. Key exercises of rehabilitation were therapeutic modalities to reduce
pain (cryotherapy, Interferential therapy) scapula isometrics, range of motion,
strengthening exercises, muscle energy technique (MET) with open-chain proprioceptive

The Notion of State Owned Plantation Enterprises

Yuyun Hendrawati; Fauzi Ridwan; Olga D. Kravchenko; Hamid Mukhlis; Rita Irviani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1220-1232

Pluralism is the character of Indonesia as a nation, this has produced nationalism to be a
unifying symbol of social life in Indonesia. All elements of the nation cannot prioritize the ego as
one of the dominant entities, both state institutions, and existing community groups. The love of
homeland must be instilled in every move, step, and policy adopted to maintain the integrity of
Indonesia as an independent and sovereign nation. Thus, the goal of the nation will be realized
for the creation of prosperity for all Indonesian. The presence of SOE (State Owned Enterprises)
as a State company bears great hopes for the Indonesian prosperity. Thus, SOE must be able to
become a pillar of the nation's economy and drive the economy for private businesses and
cooperatives. In carrying out the mandate of the constitution, SOE management must receive
support from all elements of the nation, its existence must be protected as a national vital object
that has a great impact on the life of the nation and state. The negative stigma that appears to
SOE entities should be able to be a whip for SOEs to be able to continue to look for the best


Jv’n prof. Dr. M. P. Sharma m.d. (hom.); Jv’n dr. Rakesh sharmam.d. (hom.); Jv’n prof. Dr. Anil kumar vangani m.d. (hom.); Jv’n dr. Ravi jain m.d. (hom.); Jv’n dr. Alka jain m.d. (hom.); Jv’n dr. Gaurav gupta (hom.)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1233-1237

Under acute skin conditions there comes various ailments of skin like Eczemas,
Anaphylaxis, Atopy, Herpes Simplex, Photo-dermatitis, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Miliaria,
Chilblains, DRESS reaction, AGEP reaction, Pompholyx etc. are a spectrum of the acute skin
conditions that affects human skin and manifests as erythema, eruptions, wheals, pustulosis and
often present with flaking or scaling skin or wheals, inflammation and pruritus. Homeopathy is
becoming one of the most popular management option for such conditions,and it is authenticated
via its principles- in Ancient Indian Literature and clinical trials are needed to test the efficacy, in
order to help community, Corporates and Government to create a policy to stoppage of work loss
and to improve the overall quality of living of it’s citizens/employees which will be observe b the
end of this study and further studies will be needed for the confirmation.

Prosthetic Management of Nasal Defect in Pigmentary Mosaicism- A Rare Case

Dr. Hetal Purohit; Dr. Sweta Kale Pisulkar; Dr. Surekha Godbole; Dr. Seema Sathe (Kambala); Dr. Chinmayee Dahihandekar; Dr Sweta Kale Pisulkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1238-1244

Nose is one of the most commonly associated defect in the trauma involving
craniofacial region. The resulting aesthetic and structural defect causes facial
disfigurement affecting the overall personality of the patient.The defect not only affects the
individual with impaired functionality but also psychologically. Hence, the treatment
involves multidisciplinary approach in the management of cases.
Background: The purpose of this Case report primarily focuses on the prosthetic
rehabilitation as treatment modality in management of nasal defect in Pigmentary
Case Presentation: The 14 year old patient reported with the complain of missing central
incisor and nasal defect. Rehabilitation of the single missing was done with removable
partial denture. Patient was diagnosed with a rare disorder of Pigmentary Mosaicism with
nasal defect as the associated deformity which also represents with cutaneous and the
extra-cutaneous involvement. Along with the nasal defect the patient also manifested with
Hyper and hypopigmented patches on the skin overall on the body surface in mosaic
pattern, Which was treated simultaneously.

Understanding Theoretical Perspective of the Best Implementation of Regional Autonomy

Amirul Mustofa; Eny Haryati; Rifai .; Andy Kurniawan; Olga D. Kravchenko

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1245-1259

In a new country, development is a new "ideology." In simple language, it means "planned
revolution". Inevitably, these countries realize that they are increasingly lived behind, especially
in economic terms, compared to developed countries. Countries in Western Europe and North
America have relatively higher living standards, political stability, and extraordinary
technological growth. The situation was enjoyed after they experienced evolution which took
quite a long time. Until the 19th century, European civilization experienced at least three to four
gradual evolution, these are primitive, agrarian, mercantilism, and industrial societies. When
these countries entered the mercantilism century, around the 16th century, these new countries
were still in the colonialist era. As it is known, the era of trade (mercantilism) created sailors
who dared to sail the oceans to find a new country where they could obtain cheap merchandise
and then be sold in Europe with double price. The traders' target is spices. Trade can be more
profitable if supported by monopoly. A lasting monopoly and more profitable if the area for
producing charcoal is controlled (colonialized). During the period of mercantilism 1500-1800, it
risen up the economic exploitation in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This era can be said to be
the starting point for the emergence of world stratification, or polarization between developed
countries and underdeveloped countries, the relationship between the West and the producers of
spices in the backward regions was a trade partner relationship.


Jv’n prof. Dr. M. P. Sharma m.d. (hom.); Jv’n prof. Dr. Anil kumar vangani m.d. (hom.); Jv’n dr. Rakesh sharmam.d. (hom.); Jv’n dr. Hemant vyas m.d. (hom.); Jv’n dr. Alka jain m.d. (hom.); Jv’n dr. Bharat sharmam.d. (hom.)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1260-1277

Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is fibro–myoadenoma of prostatic gland and
homoeopathy offers a non-surgical treatment in such cases. Approach of homoeopathy is
individualizing through totality of symptoms by repertorial analysis of the repertorial results of
repertory indicated and used for the purpose. A case was studied which was treated with this
approach and was brilliantly cured is discussed in the study. Homeopathy is always known to be
safe and good option for such conditions; is authenticated deeply regarding its principles- in
Ancient Indian Literature and we need to test its efficacy in clinical trial, in order to help
community, Government and Corporates to make a policy for prevention of work loss and to
improve quality of life of it’s citizens/employees and their dependants, which we will able to do by
assessing results of this study and conduct more future studies in this regard in near future.


Dr. Anup Kediya; Dr. Anil Agrawal; Dr. Aanchal Manchanda; Dr. Sunita Vagha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1278-1281

Rhinoscleroma is a rare chronic infection with granuloma formation which is
precipitated due to recurrent chronic sinusitis. Clinically patient presents with mass or
swelling in upper airways most commonly in nose with obstructive features. Though there are
many tests for its diagnostic evaluation, histology still holds the mainstream modality for its
confirmatory diagnosis.

Nationalism Makes SOEs as Economic Pillars for Social Justice

Andi Desfiandi; Rumawi Rumawi; Agustitin Setyobudi; Aleksander Sebayang; Maya Laisila; Anatoly V. Kurochkin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1282-1295

SOE is established as the desire of the State to prosper its people, so if there are questions related
to the need for SOEs in Indonesia, then the statement is unconstitutional. Indeed, the presence of
SOEs is on the wishes of the 1945 Constitution. If SOE is abolished, then the provisions of
Article 33 of 1945 Constitution must be amended or abolished, Indonesia as a state based on
Pancasila adheres to the values of social justice for all Indonesian people. SOE is formed as an
effort by the State to be able to realize what has been outlined in the country's foundation. The
aim of social justice is to form a balanced and orderly society in which all citizens have the
opportunity to build a decent life and those who are weakly placed to receive assistance as
needed. The government as the leader of the state has the duty to promote equitable prosperity
and in this context it has the right and obligation to sue its citizens to make their contributions
according to their respective abilities. Because the issue of social justice as one of the legal
guidelines often creates problems, it is not only in practice but also in the clarity of concepts, it is


JV‟nsDr.Mahavir Prasad Sharma; Dr. Navid N Shah; JV‟ns Dr. Shaha Shabanam Rafik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1296-1302

Homoeopathy has to play major role in future of World’s health as the whole world
is worst hit by pandemic of CORONA VIRUS.Homeopathic prophylactic medicines are based
on the ability to prevent infective diseases & boost one’s immunity when chosen according to
the principle of similarity.This historicreview was the ground for evaluating the response to
treatment including homeopathy in the former epidemics and also try to emphasize on future
role Homoeopathy.


Dr. Lajwanti lalwani; Dr. Zahiruddin quazi; Dr. Abhay gaidhane; Dr. Nazli quazi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1303-1310

Abstract- Introduction -Functional Capacity (FC) is a valid measure of physical fitness in
health and disease and should be evaluated at the start and at the end of Cardiac
rehabilitation programs (CRPs). However after comprehensive literature search we have
not came across any of studies on diabetic patients comparing FC after inpatient
rehabilitation. So this study was undertaken with the aim to compare the FC after inpatient
CRPs in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients with and without diabetes
using 6 minute walk test.
Objective: Comparison of FC after inpatient CRPs in CABG patients with and without
diabetes by performing 6 minute walk test (6MWT) using distance walked, % predicted
distance and mean peak VO2.
Methods and methodology: observational type of study conducted at tertiary care hospital,
total of 32 subjects {Experimental group-16 in diabetes (DM) and Control group-16 in
non-diabetes (non-DM)}. Stable CABG surgery patient were included. Exclusive criteria
were graft taken from leg, lower leg amputation, unstable hemodynamic, Peripheral
Vascular Diseases (PVD), BMI >30 kg/cm2 and Lower limb disability were excluded . FC
using 6MWT was evaluated at the end of phase 1 CRP in both groups .6MWT was done
using ATS guidelines.% predicted distance and mean peak VO2 calculated using equation.
Result- The experimental group patients had statistically significantly less functional
capacity as compared to the control group.
Conclusion- In experimental group i.e. DM Patients functional capacity is decreased after
inpatient cardiac rehabilitation in CABG patients.

The Role of Sales Promotion Girl on Purchase Intention

Ana Rusmardiana; Fenni Supriadi; Rita Irviani; Hamid Mukhlis; Rahul Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1311-1325

Some companies have various strategies to build the strong value of the companies’ brand
image so that the consumers intend to buy the products through strengthening sales promotion,
product quality, and empowering the use of celebrity endorsers. Therefore, the purpose of this
study is to analyze the effect of sales promotion, product quality, and celebrity endorser in
building Brand Image to trigger purchase intention so that the main objective of this research is to
examine the role of the mediating effect of Brand Image. By implementing Multiple regression
analysis, the results of this study show that sales promotion, product quality, and celebrity
endorsers affect brand image, and brand image has a mediating role in boosting consumer
purchase intention. Celebrity endorser has the highest influence on brand image. The higher
brand image has, the higher purchase intention will be created due to the more attractive celebrity
endorser role, then followed by intensive sales promotions and high product quality.

Homeopathic Clinical Drug Proving Trial on Rhodiola Rosea

Jayoti Vidyapeeth; Jvn Dr. Panckaj Garg; Jvn Dr. M. P. Sharma; Jvn. Dr. Rakesh Sharma; Jvn Dr. Anil Kumar Vangani; Jvn Dr. Pushpa Kumawat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1327-1332

Brief Summary:
The main aim of the study is to assess whether Rhodiola rosea in the potency C 1-4 nitites more
characteristic homeopathic symptoms during proving after three days upto one week, compared
to a placebo in Hypertensive and Anxiety/ Depression prone volunteers.
Secondary aims are to develop and to test a qualitative analysis methodology on which to base a
definition for drug-specific (characteristic) symptoms and to compile a profile of characteristic
homeopathic proving symptoms of the drug being trialed for therapeutic purposes.
This study protocol adapts the traditional homeopathic drug proving methodology to a modern
clinical trial design.

A Study on the Attitude for Psychosocial Health of Nursing Students in Korea

Seoung-Uk Wie; Keum-Bong Choi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1333-1341

Background: Korean nursing students experience higher levels of academic stress than
those of other disciplines. Academic stress leads to psychological distress and has
detrimental effects on well-being. The aim of this study was to identify the levels of stress,
self-perception and resilience of undergraduate nursing students and to recognize the
correlations between them. Methods: The research design is a descriptive correlational
study design. The participants in the study 198 nursing students in South Korea. The used
research measures were tools which measure stress, self-perception and resilience. Data
collection was conducted from May 13, 2019 to May 24, 2019 using SPSS 21.0 for data
analysis.Results: The results show that stress is affected by health status, and clinical
practice satisfaction. Meanwhile, resilience is affected by health status, interpersonal
relationships, personality trait and major satisfaction. Stress and resilience are negatively
correlated while self-perception and resilience are positively correlated. Furthermore, an
increase in self-perception correlates with an increase in resilience and a decrease in selfperception
correlates with a decrease in resilience. Conclusions: It is important for nursing
leaders of education and practice to find out the sources of stress and coping strategies used
by the students so that such leaders can help students effectively manage upcoming
problems and situations. In addition, if the social support system that protects nursing
students is systemically formed and utilized, it can not only help increase self-perception
and resilience of nursing students but also improve their happiness.


Dr. Lajwanti lalwani; Dr. Gyanshankar mishra; Dr. Abhay gaidhane; Dr. Zahiruddin quazi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1342-1347

Introduction- Pursed lip breathing (PBL) is spontaneously adopted by COPD
patients to relieve dyspnea. A systematic review done by S. E. Roberts et al concluded that
studies should be done to find the short-term benefits of PBL that helps in clinical
improvement in patient’s status. So with this background the study was undertaken to find
the effect of PLB in stable COPD patients for shorter time on saturation levels, dyspnea
and PEFR Readings.
Methodology- IEC approval from institute and written informed consent was signed by the
subjects. This is an Experimental study and included 56 stable COPD patients were
included in the study with inclusive criteria of Diagnosed case of Stable COPD Patients on
regular medication and visiting respiratory OPD and IPD of tertiary care center.

The Organization and Management of National Education System

Wiflihani .; Juliaans Eliezer Rulland Marantika; Hery Winoto Tj; Dicky Hendrawan; Pradana Chairy Azhar; Mohzana .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1349-1365

understudies that endures all through life. Training is sorted out by
giving models, building self discipline, and building up understudies' innovativeness in the
learning procedure. Training is completed by building up a culture of perusing, composing and
math for all residents. Instruction is completed by enabling all segments of society through
support in the organization and quality control of instructive administrations. In the
administration of the national instruction framework, the party in question is the president, while
the operationalization of the board by the president is alloted to the service or clergyman


. .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1366-1381

Background: Error in any laboratory starts from the moment any investigation is
being planned till it is interpreted and clinical judgment is made. Entire process is difficult
to perform without error.
Aim : Study of the Errors in hematology laboratory in a tertiary care hospital.
TeerthankerMahaveer Medical college and Research center (Moradabad). Purpose: To
investigate for errors and causes of errors related to different hematological tests in
hematology laboratory.
Methodology: In this observational study, a total of 304,358 tests (95,991 outpatient
department [OPD] and 208,367 inpatient department [IPD]) were received in haematology
laboratory. These errors were further categorized as Pre-analytical, Analytical and Postanalytical.
Result: The Pre-analytical errors constituted maximum number of errors 501samples
(94.7% of total errors) which constituted major chunk of errors which is close to 0.16%,
which was followed by post analytical errors which was found in 17cases (3.21% of total
errors) with frequency of 0.0036% ;Analytical errors were detected in least number of
cases i.e.11reports (2.07% of total errors)
Conclusion: Errors in hematology laboratory which is classified as Pre-analytical,
analytical, and post-analytical errors remain the biggest limitation to laboratory service
and it thus has impact on healthcare management and cost involved. Majority of reasons
involved behind analytical errors is within the scope of laboratory and thus can be reduced
to a great extent by training of laboratory staff, participation in quality system and regular
monitoring of equipment’s. We found analytical error to be close to 2% most of which were
related to auto clumps which can be resolved by incubation at body temperature most of
the time as these are cold auto agglutinins which poses analytical problem, especially in
winters. We found Post analytical error also to be insignificant (3.2%), most of which was
due to wrong entry of results, such errors can also be avoided and minimized by close and
frequent monitoring of laboratory reports.

Effect of the Education of Using Structured Multimedia on Stress, Self-efficacy and Performance Confidence in Undergraduate Nursing Students

Yu-Jeong Kim; Keum-Bong Choi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1382-1390

Background: The The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of the education of
using structured multimedia on self-efficacy, stress, and performance confidence in future
nursing professionals. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with a non-equivalent control
group pretest-posttest design was used. Participant were recruited from two nursing
colleges. The sample consisted of an intervention group (n=29) that participated in the
educational program and a control group (n=30). The data were collected using selfadministered
questionnaires. Data analyses utilized x2-test, fisher's exact probability & ttest
with the SPSS 21.0 program. Results: As a result of research, the experimental group
showed significantly increases in self-efficacy (t=2.694, p=.027) and performance
confidence (t=1.825, p=.031) than the control group. Also, the experimental group showed
significantly decreases in stress (t=-4.026, p=.031) than the control group. The findings
indicate that the education of using structured multimedia on self-efficacy, stress, and
performance confidence in future nursing professionals is an effective teaching method for
nursing students. Conclusions: It is important to manage the psychological well-being to
prepare successful professionals. In addition, it will be necessary to consider teachinglearning
method strategies for applying structured multimedia learning in the nursing

Developing Regional Autonomy: Lesson Learned from Norway

Mardiah Astuti; Mahyudin Ritonga; Rita Irviani; Hamid Mukhlis; Rahul Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1392-1406

A decentralized government system is the opposite of a centralized government system.
In a centralized system, the authority to make decisions about various public affairs lies in the
hands of the central government. Officials in the provinces and districts are only the panic of the
central government. In contrast, in a decentralized system, part of the authority to manage public
affairs is devolved to provinces and districts. One of the implications of implementing autonomy
is the development of the uniqueness of each community so that diversity appears within a
country. Therefore, the experience of developing regional autonomy in several countries is also
different. Indonesia which has been, is currently and continues to do trial and error in
developing regional autonomy will certainly be more mature if it not only learns from its own
experience, but also learns from the experiences of other countries in trying to answer its native
problems with the concept of autonomy. Studying the experiences of other countries is intended
to reflect in order to find positive and negative values that are used as references, and if possible


Dr. Anchit Gugnani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1407-1435

has been routinely considered a part of the perioperative
respiratory therapy strategies to prevent or treat complications. Incentive spirometry is
designed to mimic natural sighing or yawning by encouraging the patient to take long, slow,
deep breaths. People living with chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease (COPD), COVID 19, emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis, experience similar lung
disease symptoms. Shortness of breath and decreased lung function make breathing difficult.
Sometimes, doctors recommend their patients use an incentive spirometer. Incentive
spirometers are prescribed after surgery or as part of a lung disease treatment plan. Here are
the facts you need to know about incentive spirometry benefits

Role Of Mock Drills In Competency Based Post Graduate Medical Education In Managing Emergency Clinical Situation.

Dr. Neema Acharya; Dr Tripti Srivastava; Dr Sourya Acharya; Dr Samarth Shukla; Dr Deepika Dewani; Dr Neema Acharya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1436-1447

Abstract: Background- Access to a skilled health professional and quality emergency
obstetric care are important factors that improve maternal and perinatal mortality. In
Medical simulation (drills) of emergency cases can give ample opportunity for post
graduate students to learn, practice and finally can assess system weaknesses and
strengths, test policies and procedures for coping with higher levels of competencies and
thereby improve teamwork and management and communication skills of post
graduates/staff members.
Aim- We aimed to compare the effectiveness of traditional video demonstration vs.
performing mock drill as a T-L METHOD in terms of competencies of postgraduate
students regarding managing emergency clinical situations in OBGY and study perception
of postgraduate students of both methods.
1.To study and compare between change in WPBA SCORE of traditional video lecture
and Mock drills on competencies of post graduate medical students in managing
emergency clinical situation
2. To study perception of PG students about Mock drill as T-L tool in pg training.

Improved and Generalized Bernstein Type Inequalities for the Higher Derivatives of a Polynomial

Barchand Chanam; Khangembam Babina Devi; Reingachan N; Thangjam Birkramjit Singh; Kshetrimayum Krishnadas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1448-1455

Let p(z) be a polynomial of degree n having no zero zero in z  k , k 1, then
for 1 R  k , Dewan and Bidkham [J. Math. Anal. Appl., 166(1992), 319-324] proved
 
 
 
 
max max
z R n z
R k
p z n p z

 

 

The result is best possible and extremal polynomial is    n
p z  z  k .
In this paper, by involving certain coefficients of the polynomial p(z) , we prove a result
concerning the estimate of maximum modulus of higher derivatives of p(z) ,
which not only
improves as well as generalizes the above result, but also has interesting consequences as
special cases.

Production Efficiency OfHoaloc-Mango Gardeners In The Southern Vietnam

Truong Hong Vo Tuan Kiet; Nguyen Thi KimThoa; Pham Thi Nguyen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1665-1673

A structured questionnaire was used to collect data with 184 observations of the cooperative
farmer group and 230 that of the non-cooperative farmer group. The results indicated that technical
efficiency mean of the cooperative grower group was greater than that of the non-cooperative grower
group in seasons 2, and 3, while this figure of the cooperative farmer category was lower than that of the
non-cooperative farmer category in the first season. Additionally, the positive determinants of technical
efficiency in the cooperative farmer group were the age and plant density in season 1, the wrapping bag
in seasons 1, and 2, the land area in season 1, and 3, and the credit access and market access in season 3.
Meanwhile, the negative factors were the payment for agro-input wholesaler and classifying sale in
season 1, the credit access in season 2, the age, education, farming experience and plant density in season
3. In the non-cooperative farmer group, the positive determinants were the land area in seasons 2, and 3,
the credit access in season 2, and the plant density in season 3. However, the negative elements were the
wrapping bag in seasons 1, and 2, the age, education, farming experience, market access and land area in
season 1, and the classifying sale in season 2.

Correlation Of Clinical Examination, Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Surgical Findings In Diagnosing Ankle Joint Ligament Injuries

Khaulah Karimah Azni; Suraini Mohamad Saini; NazrilaHairiana Nasir; Norafida Bahari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1474-1484

with chronic ankle pain and/or instability.
Methods: Retrospective review of MRI images and medical reports was performed for all
patients who required surgical treatment for chronic ankle instability at two institutions
during a four-year period. Medical reports of 22 female and 20 male patients with a mean
age of 35.9 years (17–58 years) were analysed. From 42 patients who met the inclusion
criteria, only 20 patients underwent surgery. Surgical findings were considered the gold
standard. The time interval between MRI scans and arthroscopy/surgery was 5 months (3–
10 months).
Results: MRI showed 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of anterior talofibular ligament
(ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and 66.7% sensitivity for the diagnosis of
deltoid ligament tears. However, specificity was moderate to low, particularly for deltoid
tears. Our study also demonstrated the high accuracy of MRI in detecting chondral injury
with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Clinical tests, particularly tenderness on palpation and

A Systematic Review Of Requisite Focused Soft Skills For Employability

C G Prakash; Prof KavitaLaghate

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1485-1493

This paper is a systematic review of the literature study of focussed skills which are demanded by the
industry . Using systematic researches across two decades of publications , journals were selected for review
.Key findings of the review include motivations : to enhance employability by addressing the skills in demand ;
barriers : resistance to change and lack of knowledge of requirements ; and limitations such as absence of
focus on employment while designing and rolling out curriculum of post graduate management students


Rizalyn C. Ilumin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1495-1502

Disaster mitigation is an important issue that must be addressed. School
buildings have two significant functions in post-disaster scenario, namely: educational and
emergency. The failure of structures disrupted the operation particularly on the postdisaster
functions of school buildings. A two-level prioritization matrix is used to rank the
importance of each building inside the Pangasinan State University-Urdaneta City Campus
in the Philippines. Seismic risk scores are plotted against the Post-disaster Functional Asset
Value (PDV) in x and y axis, respectively to identify the most vulnerable and important
buildings. In this method, the uses of space of the structure and its structural vulnerability
using rapid visual screening are the main factors in categorizing the eleven (11) buildings in
the study. The two target structures, namely: Engineering Building 2 and four-story
Administration Building are old and newly constructed buildings, respectively. These
structures are essential in post-disaster activities. Seismic performance evaluation of these
two buildings is conducted by following the concept of Japan Building Disaster Prevention
Association (JBDPA) Standard. The JBDPA Standard for seismic evaluation of existing
reinforced concrete buildings is a detailed inspection method where the actual capacity of
the structures to resist the seismic force can be determined. It focuses on the reinforced
concrete structures with the concrete wall. Therefore, the strength index of masonry infill
walls especially those with openings were determined from the equations of various
experts. The proposed Usage index was used in calculating the seismic demand index of
structure, Iso. The result of the second level screening specified that only the first floor of
the old and new buildings’ longitudinal axis need to be strengthened. The behaviors of the
structures before and after retrofitting were analyzed in Structural Earthquake Response
Analysis (STERA) 3D. Retrofitting the two vulnerable buildings by installing concrete
shear walls resulted into an upgraded structural strength and denotes an earthquakeresistant
structure. JBDPA Standard was found useful in the Philippines since many
existing reinforced concrete school buildings with masonry infill wall need further

Patriotism Bridges the Relationship between State and Nation

Suwari Akhmaddhian; Daniel Susilo; Fauzi Ridwan; Indira A. Shakirova; Nur Aminudin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1503-1519

A love of homeland or patriotism is a feeling that arises from the heart of a nation, to devote
themselves, maintain, defend, protect the country from all threats and disturbances. What can be
expressed about the love of homeland is the sense of pride, ownership, respect and loyalty
possessed by every citizen in the country where he lives which is reflected in the behavior of
defending their homeland, protecting his homeland, willing to sacrifice for the sake of the nation
and his country, loves the customs or culture of his country by preserving it and preserving
nature and the environment. The love of homeland is an experience of the Unity of Indonesia
pinciple that can be realized in everyday life. The Indonesian constitution has laid the foundation
for every citizen entitled and obliged to participate to defend the country, awareness of the love
of the homeland is essentially devoted to the state and willingness to sacrifice to defend the
country. Therefore, the love of the homeland needs to be developed in the soul of every
individual from an early age so that the purpose of living together can be achieved.

The Teachers Unpreparedness in Carrying Out Islamic Education Learning using the Revised 2013 Curriculum in Elementary School

Siti Asriyatul Husna; Mahyudin Ritonga; Ahmad Lahmi; Riki Saputra; Sandra Ayu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1520-1528

This research aimed to show the unpreparedness of Islamic Education (PAI) teachers in
planning, implementing, and assessing the learning based on The Revised 2013 Curriculum at the
elementary school. This type of research was descriptive qualitative. Data collection was conducted
with purposive and snowball. The data source of the study consisted of school principals, Islamic
Education (PAI) teachers, and students in three primary schools, namely SDN 08 , SDN 12, and SDN
04 in Lembah Melintang District, West Pasaman Regency, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Data
collection techniques were done through observation, interviews, and documentation. Then the data
analysis procedure was carried out in three levels, namely data reduction, data presentation, and
conclusion drawing. This research also found two notable things: first, generally teachers were not
ready to teach Islamic Education in the aspects of planning, implementing, and evaluating student
learning outcomes. Second, the unpreparedness of the teacher to teach Islamic Education is caused by
internal factors, namely the teacher itself and externally, the lack of the supporting facilities of the
school where the teacher carries out his work. More fundamentally, the readiness to implement Islamic
Education learning in accordance with the The revised 2013 curriculum that is caused by internal
factors. PAI teachers are not well supported by external factors.

Anaesthetic considerations for head and neck cancers in patients undergoing reconstructive free flap surgeries- a review of 55 patients

Dr Swaraj Jyoti Sonowal; Dr Anupam , Das; Dr Sumanjit S Boro; Dr Tridip Jyoti Borah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1529-1536

A retrospective study was conducted at Dr Bhubaneswar Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati Assam in
55 patients who had undergone free flap reconstructive surgery following resection of head and neck
cancers over a period of 2 years from 2018 to 2020. General anaesthesia with either endotracheal
intubation or cuffed tracheostomy tube was used. Anterolateral thigh, radial forearm and free fibular flaps
were used for reconstruction. The mean anaesthesia time was 29.8 hours which included the time from
induction to extubation. Out of which the surgery mean time was 10.6 hours. Of the 55 free flap surgeries,
there were 4 failures, two of which were intraoperative leading to the surgeon abandoning the procedure.
Optimal utilization of advanced anaesthesia techniques as well as improvement in surgical expertise can
further increase the use as well as reduce the complications associated with free flap surgeries.

Self-Help Groups: A Study on Their Roles and Impacts on Women Empowerment

Leelashree . M; Dr. PSV Balaji Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1538-1552

Economic empowerment is considered as a key step that can be taken towards attaining
the goal of equal involvement of women in community as well as household and also to
overcome the social stereotypes and challenges with the help of Self Help Groups (SHGs). In
order to withstandin a society, it is important that the course of social empowerment begins
together with a development of independence and self-assuranceamongst women. When proper
actions are taken to address all the prevailing social issues, women of the society will attain
better education, sense of ownership and belonging along with the leadership and more prospect
to have a better future. This study tries to scrutinizeon the impact of SHGs with regards towomen
empowerment on the first-hand information.This tries to identify initiatives taken by SHGsto
attain individual and communal empowerment in Mysore city. Individual empowerment is
examined through their level of awareness, leadership skills, communalization,
economicliberation, empathy from family, betterstandard of living, acknowledgement,
participation in the process of decision making. Collective empowerment is observed through
schemes provided, involvement in social and political aspects.

Molecular Detection of Mouse Mammary Tumor-like Virus (MMTV-Like) in Breast Carcinoma for Iraqi Female Patients

Hasan A. Mohammed; Müge Fırat; Mohammed E. Mansur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1533-1566

Background: The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like env gene have
previously been reported to be present in some human breast cancers, however, their
role in developing that cancers is still unclear.
Aim: This study aims to investigate the presence of MMTV-like env gene among
Iraqi women who have breast cancers.
Methods: The prevalence of MMTV-like env gene and beta-globulin gene in
formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast tissue specimens of 88 Iraqi women
with breast cancers was detected using conventional PCR and Real- Time techniques.
Eight benign breast tumors’ specimens were also used as controls. Fisher’s exact test
was used to analyse data.
Results: MMTV-like env gene were detected in 16 (18.8%) specimens of those with
breast malignancies, while they were not identified in benign breast tumors
specimens. However, no significant difference between two groups was noted.
Conclusion: MMTV-like env and beta-globin genes were detected in Iraqi women
with breast cancer, and further research is needed to study the role and association of
these env gene with cancer development.

Synthesis, Characterization and Investigation of New Polymer Contain Heterocyclic Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitor for Stainless steel in acidic medium

Amaal S. Sadiq; Entesar O. Al- Tamimi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1567-1588

A new series of Poly 2-[N-(5-vinyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-3-methyl amino]benzo[d]thiazole(4) has
been synthesized through reaction of 2-aminobenzimidazole with ethyl chloroacetate . The
resulting ester was synthetically modified through hydrazine hydrate to acyl hydrazide which
was condensed with acrylonitrile to afford the title 2-[N-(5-vinyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-methyl)
amino] benzo[d]thiazole(3). Finally, Using a controlled DC power supply, compound [3]
electrochemical polymerization onto the S-steel (anode) electrode surface was carried out in a
potentiostat. The polymer-coated and uncoated stainless steel corrosion safety test was studied in
a solution of 0.2 M HCl, followed by Tafel and Potentiostatic procedures at temperature 293 K.
Nano materials such as ZnO were applied to the monomer solution at different concentrations to
enhance the resistance for corrosion the 316L stainless steel surface, so that tests showed that
the performance values of corrosion protection for the polymer coating increase with the
introduction of nano materials.[13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, and FTIR] were recorder to confirm the
structure of poylmers, measurement of some of its physical properties and atomic force
microscope(AFM), scanning electron microscope(SEM).

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Methanolic Extract of Medicinal Plants (Senna alata and Senna hirsuta) and Analysis of Antibacterial Activity

D. Madankumar; S. Pari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1581-1594

Because of their environmental friendly nature and effectiveness cost wise, green
synthesis of nanomaterial’s from plant has become progressively popular. In this research, we
used methanol extracts from fresh leaves of Senna alata and Senna hirsuta medicinal plants to
synthesize silver (Ag) nanoparticles as bio reducing agents. This method allowed the synthesis of
nanoparticles supported by spectrophotometry Ultraviolet-visible, FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD
research. UV-Vis spectra and visual observation showed that after treatment with Ag precursors,
the color of the fresh Senna alata and Senna hirsuta leaf extracts turned into light greenish and
brownish yellow, respectively. This screened antibacterial activity against five different bacteria,
viz. Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and
Escherichia coli with the use of Disc Diffusion method. Silver nanoparticles extracted from
Senna alata and Senna hirsuta leaf extracts, which inhibited B.subtilis (18 & 16), E.faecalis (19
& 14), S.aureus (20 & 14), K.pneumoniae (21& 16) and E.coli (17 and 15), size in mm. The
higher Inhibition zone occurs in K.pneumoniae and S.aureus follows. It has been shown that
inhibiting bacterial growth, the Methanol extracts of Senna alata leaves containing Ag
nanoparticles is comparable with chloramphenicol.

Synthesis of some New 4,6-dichloro-2-aminobenzothiazole compensators with expected biological

Enas,Jassim. Al- jubory; Khalid, A. Al- Badrany; Omar A. Kanoush

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1595-1606

was prepared from the reaction of compensated aniline with potassium thiocyanate in the presence of bromine. Unsaturated
Alpha-Beta (E2-6) compounds were obtained from the reaction of aromatizing aldehydes with para –hydroxyacetophenone in a
basal medium. The interaction of alpha-beta - unsaturated compounds with 4,6-dichloro-2-aminobenzothiazole gives
compounds (E7-11) 4-(1-(4,6-dichlorobenzothiazole-2-El amino) - 3-aryl) phenol. The bioavailability of compounds prepared
on two types of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was tested using a lower inhibitory concentration and compared
with standard antibiotics. The prepared compositions were validated using physical and spectral methods using FT-IR,H1-
NMR,C13NMR technology



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1607-1614

The article examines and analyzes the problem of the existential power of human
feelings, which can radically affect the sociocultural life of an individual. At the same time,
the right to life of the person himself, who is an existential, rational being, is his unique
achievement, coupled with the possession of individual feelings that qualitatively affect the
worldview and the life process of the individual. According to existential philosophy, the
explanation of the meaning of life is closely intertwined with society, the state, nature,
thereby defining the laws of the whole universe. However, for the person who thinks and
feels, the world emerges as a personal, living experience. The article shows that a person
not only appears, but also realizes himself as a unique part of our world. The dual nature
of man is considered. Communication, guilt, willpower - all these are special aspects in a
person’s life that can lead him to a feeling of true freedom. As a result, one of the
unequivocal conclusions is that feeling and only feeling can realize a real life in people.


Z.F., Mavlyanova; Sh. Khusinova; Sh. Sabirova, assistant; S. Umirova, assistant

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1615-1621

Cerebral palsy is a neuromuscular disease that is often complicated by
nutritional problems in children and adolescents. At the same time, violations of the
nutritional status are a frequent manifestation of the underlying disease, worsen its course
and reduce the effectiveness of rehabilitation. The currently used classification of forms of
cerebral palsy does not reflect the overall severity of the disease, expressed in the degree of
impairment of motor functions, which is important in clinical practice. The article
discusses the possibility of using the GMFCS classification to assess the severity of
movement disorders in children with cerebral palsy.


Zilola Mavlyanova; Gulnoza Burkhanova; Maftuna Ravshanova; Sardor Makhmudov; Sanzhar Kholboyev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1623-1631

This article discusses severe forms of cerebral palsy in children of different ages
and the development of anemia in these children, and iron supplements are needed to treat
such children (III). The lack of data on this disease and the effect of ferric iron
preparations on the course and prognosis of infantile cerebral palsy served as the
relevance of the study.
The aim of the study. To evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ferric iron (Emfer)
preparations on the course and prognosis of infantile cerebral palsy.
Materials and research methods. To achieve this goal, the results of treatment of 67 sick
children with severe cerebral palsy were analyzed. Children age from 2 to 17 years old. All
patients were ranked by age groups in accordance with the age classification with the
GMFCS scale: up to 2 years old - 9 children (13.43%), 2-3 years old - 11 children (16.4%),
4-6 years old - 18 children (26.8%), 7-12 years old - 15 children (22.38%), 13-17 years old -
14 children (20.9%). The study group was divided into 3 subgroups of motor deficit
according to the GMFCS scale: level 3 - 16 children (23.88%), level 4 - 20 children
(29.85%), level 5 - 31 children (46.27%). All patients were divided into 2 groups - the main
group - 38 children (56.71%, age - 11.04 ± 6.3 years), for whom anemia was corrected
using the Emfer preparation based on ferric iron, and the comparison group - 29 children
(43.29%, age - 12.06 ± 5.1 years), who were treated without iron supplements.


Sardorbek . Yusupov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1632-1638

This article highlights the legal framework of the implementation of legal
policy by local state authorities, as well as analyzes the legal nature and special features
of the legal acts of local representative and local executive bodies. In addition, author
developed recommendations and proposals to improve the principle of separation of
powers in the system of local state authority.


Mukhamadkhan Khamidov; Khasimbek Isabaev; Ilkhom Urazbaev; Utkir Islamov; Aziz Inamov; Zokhid Mamatkulov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1639-1648

Research in the 80s of the XX century aimed at changing the hydromodular
zoning of irrigated lands of the Khorezm oasis in Uzbekistan, the distribution of irrigated
lands by hydromodular regions and the definition of scientifically based irrigation regimes
for cotton in each hydromodule region. This article presents the results of scientific
research on the implementation of hydromodular zoning of irrigated lands of Khorezm
region, the distribution of irrigated lands by hydromodular regions and the definition of
scientifically based irrigation regimes for cotton in the main hydromodular regions of
Khorezm region. Moreover, it provides information on the study of hydrogeological
conditions, the definition of irrigated lands in the new hydromodular areas of the oasis.
Irrigated lands of Khorezm region belong to one soil-climatic zone - desert zone, three soilameliorative
areas within this zone. For the first time electronic distribution of irrigated
lands of Shоvоt and Gurlan districts of Khorezm region on the basis of geographic
information system (GIS) technology, using the data of soil-lithological sections and
observational wells maps were created.
When irrigating cotton in the most common hydromodule regions VII, VIII and IX in the
region cotton, while maintaining the pre-irrigation the soil moisture at the level of 70-80-
60% LSMC (lowest soil moisture capacity), and cotton is grown at 3856 m3 / ha (VII), 2789
(VIII) and 2203 m3 / ha (IX) irrigated according to seasonal irrigation norms; 35.0, 38.9
and 39.8 С/ha of cotton, with a minimum of one quintal for growing cotton: 55.4; 71.7 and
110.2 m3 of river water is consumed.


М.Kh. Khamidov; K.T. Isabaev; I.K. Urazbaev; U.P. Islomov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1649-1657

The problem of global climate change is relevant to the human agenda, not
only because of the average annual temperature rise on the planet, but also because of
changes in the entire geosystem, rising global oceans, melting ice and permanent glaciers,
increasing uneven rainfall, changing river flow regimes and climate instability. other
changes involved.The article presents the results of scientific research on hydromodular
zoning of irrigated lands of Khorezm oasis and scientifically based irrigation regimes for
cotton in the main hydromodular regions of Khorezm oasis and study of soil and
hydrogeological conditions of the oasis, new hydromod Inclusion of observation wells for
monitoring of groundwater level and mineralization dynamics in ArcGIS program,
interpolation of groundwater surface, creation of electronic digital map of soil mechanical
composition, hydromodule using raster calculation panel based on groundwater level and
soil mechanical composition information on the formation of the zoning layer.


Ernazarova Iroda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1658-1665

The study focuses on changes in the thinking and word usage of creators in the
context of a pandemic and highlights the importance and relevance of linguistic-cognitive
analysis of authorship and authorship. Creative vocabulary has always been one of the
most studied concepts in linguistics. Because how an artist uses a language unit
determines his or her individual skill. The concept of authorship is theoretically based on
the fact that it is the brightest expression of the alternatives used in relation to this term.
The study of the author's word creativity focuses on the issue of enriching the vocabulary
of the language, increasing the attractiveness of the language. To understand the author's
word creativity, it is important to understand the artist's inner world and thoughts about
existence, the level of thinking. Therefore, the importance of cognitive analysis in
understanding the full nature of the problem is illustrated in the case with concrete
examples. It is cognitively revealed in what situation and for what reason the creator refers
to a unit that does not exist in the lexicon of language (accidental, unusual), and it is
emphasized that this issue is the basis of linguistic analysis.


Majidova Yakutkhan; Farangisbonu Doniyorova; Nargiza Ergasheva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1666-1672

Statistically significant association of allele G and hetero A/G,
homozygous genotype G/G polymorphism rs1801394 MTRR gene with risk of autism
development was revealed. The presence of allele A and genotype A/A polymorphism of the
rs1801394 MTRR gene reduces the risk of autism. Identification of allele G increased the
risk of autism by 1.4 times compared to the presence of allele A (95% CI = 0.68-2.93, df=1).
The presence of the allele G of MTR A2756G polymorphism correlates with an increased
risk of autism.


Ya.N. Madjidova; U.T. Babajanova; V.K. Abdullaeva; Sh.A. Shirmatov; Khalilova A.A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1673-1679

Introduction. Affective-respiratory paroxysm (ARP) or breath-holding spells is a
common phenomenon that occurs in children from 6 months to 6 years. Up to 90% of
children experience ARP for the first time before the age of 18 months. The mechanism of
the condition is still unclear. Scientists have found that children with breath-holding spells
are much more likely to be diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia and, perhaps, it
contributes to the development of pathology. 20-35% of children have a burdened family
history. Some families have a dominant type of inheritance.
Materials and Methods. The algorithm for examining children included: general
clinical, neurological and psychological examination of children, conducting laboratory
research, registration of an electroencephalogram, according to indications, conducting an
echocardiographic study. We examined 50 children with ARP aged 6 months to 6 years.
Research was carried out in the clinic of the Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute. The
diagnosis of ARP was established based on the history provided by mothers and
observations of seizures. Paroxysms were defined as stopping the baby's breathing at
exhalation after deep inhalation during crying. Paroxysms were classified as cyanotic,
pale, and mixed.
Results. A detailed study of the passage of the ante-, intra- and postnatal periods
made it possible to determine the significance of various unfavorable factors such as
anemia (p <0.05), toxicosis (p <0.01), acute respiratory infections (p <0.1), stress, use of
obstetric aids (p <0.05) and birth trauma. (p <0.1). In addition to perinatal risk factors, 13
(28%) children were found to have a hereditary predisposition to ARP and 4 children (8%)
to epilepsy. In most cases, seizures began at 6–12 months of age (38%). According to our
observations, the main provoking factors of seizures were: anger, inability to get what you
want - 70%, pain - 18%, fear - 12%. At clinical and neurological examination in children,
ARP of neurotic nature (82%) prevailed over affectively provoked syncope (10%) and
"epileptic" ARP (8%). The seizures in most cases were characterized by a typical course,
medium duration and high frequency. When assessing psychoemotional and behavioral
characteristics, children with ARP were more sensitive, intense, persistent, active, less
distracted, and differed in mood variability compared to healthy children. According to the
indicators of the functional state of the autonomic nervous system in children of the main
group, the initial autonomic tone was characterized by sympathicotonia, normal autonomic
reactivity was recorded significantly less than in the control group (p <0.05). According to
the results of laboratory studies, anemia (88%) and hypocalcemia (82%) were significantly
more common in children with ARP. Analysis of electroencephalographic data revealed:
signs of age norm - in 14 (28%) children, signs of dysfunction of nonspecific midline
structures of the brain - in 6 (12%) children, general cerebral changes. - in 3 (6%)


Alisher Norbutaev; Jasur Rizaev; Jakhongir Abduvakilov; Nargiza Ortikova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1680-1687

Abstract. The results of the effect of complex treatment on periodontal
microcirculation in patients with chronic periodontitis occurring with an iron deficiency
Purpose of the study: to study periodontal microcirculation in patients with chronic
periodontitis occurring against the background of iron deficiency states.
Materials and methods: As the research sources, 100 patients who applied to the
Samarkand regional dental clinic suffering from chronic periodontitis and iron deficiency
were selected. The patients were divided into 2 groups, of which 1 main group consisted of
50 patients who received glycodent gel and an iron preparation (combined iron (II) sulfate
- sorbifer durules / ascorbic acid). The second group received the generally accepted
standard therapy for chronic periodontitis. The diagnosis of iron deficiency states was
established by determining the parameters of iron and ferritin in the blood.
Microcirculation was studied using the "Lazma" apparatus (Russia).
Results and discussion: A positive effect on microcirculation of the complex of
treatment with glycodent gel and an antianemic drug for chronic periodontitis with an iron
deficiency state was revealed.


Miruktamova Feruza; Makhamatov Makhmud

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1688-1696

Abstract: The article is devoted to one of the most important problems of our time
— children whose behavior contradicts generally accepted social norms and rules, i.e.
from the point of view of the risk of their actions in relation to society. The principal
probability of leaving a teenager in the "field of deviance" is determined by the presence of
risk factors, the essence of which allows us to identify the quality of self-esteem, the level of
anxiety, aggressiveness and affillation as criteria for the development of social competence
of children at risk. The article discusses the concept of "children at risk", explains the
reasons for getting children into the "risk group". Also, the author describes the main
value orientations of this group, especially in the development of adolescents included in it.


Matluba Tillavoldieva; Ekaterina Li; Gulchehrakhon Eshanova; Nurkhon Aminova; Shakhlo Khalmetova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1697-1700

Abstract This article is devoted to the role of the family in social development, the
moral foundations of family relations and their views on the role of the family in family
life, especially in the upbringing and moral development of youth. Moreover, it analyzes
how each family acts in accordance with the needs of the community, and the development
of society, which directly depends on the level of socio-economic and spiritual development
of families in it.


Tuychiev Alisher Zhuraevich; Rizaev Nurbek Kadirovich; Abdusalomova Nodira Bahodirovna; Tashkenbaeva Zarina Ulugbekovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1701-1726

Abstract:This article provides information on the impact of the pandemic on intellectual
property and its consequences, the activities of companies providing intellectual property
services in the context of the pandemic, the intellectual ecosystem.Also, this article is devoted
to the consideration of issues related to the creation of the intellectual property ecosystem
throughout the world, research and experimental developments, R&D expenses, as well as
accounting and assessment of inovation products. In the context of global globalization,
intellectual property objects are crucial in assessing the property of enterprises. However, the
methodology of analysis of intangible assets has not been comprehensivelypresented in
scientific works, therefore, this article developed a methodology for the analysis of intangible
assets, in particular the analysis of intellectual property.


Dilnoza Karaketova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1727-1731

Abstract. The article provides a comparative analysis of the norms that establish
responsibility for hooliganism, as well as aggravating circumstances in the criminal
legislation of the Russian Federation, Armenia, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and
Turkmenistan, which are included in the CIS.


Nigora Khodjaeva; Ulugbek Sabirov; Shahnoza Mavlyanova; Sevara Muminova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1732-1736

In patients with a genetic predisposition, associations of the mutant variants
Arg25Pro of the TGFb1 gene, A-8202G of the MMP9 gene and MMP1 1607G (9.6%),
associations of the mutations of the Arg25Pro gene of the TGFb1 gene, and A-8202G of
the MMP9 gene (5.8%) are mainly detected, associations of mutations of Arg25Pro genes
of TGFb1 and MMP1 1607G (3.8%), associations of mutations of A-8202G genes of
MMP9 and MMP1 1607G (15.4%) of the examined patients with photo-aging.


Abdurasul A. Khadjimetov; Artur M. Khaidarov; Jasur A. Rizaev; Shakhlo A. Akramova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1737-1744

Diagnostic and treatment approaches aimed at identifying risk factors for the
development and formation of recurrent dental per implants has been developed. Complex
therapy of destructive processes in periodontitis was carried out in 74 patients with chronic
generalized periodontitis of combined cardiovascular system and with partial secondary
adentia before dental implantation. It was found out that the key risk factors of early
inflammatory complications and dental mucositis development in the delayed period of
implant functioning are the pathogenic flora increase in the peri-implant zone.


Sharafatdin Narbaev; Aleksandr Chertovitskiy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1745-1748

Abstract. Natural resource management is an indispensable part of the economy,
while land use as an objective continuous multi-purpose process of land use by society acts
as its most important component subsystem. Land resources are used in all spheres of
society's activity-economic, social and environmental. Under the global model of economic
growth, the load on natural resources has reached its maximum size. In some regions of
the world and landscape ecosystems around the world, the risk of environmental disaster
was growing. Objectively, there is a need to move from a model of economic growth to a
model of sustainable development, including sustainable environmental management.
Land use is the most important component of the environmental management system. In
order to translate the inefficient system of land use in Uzbekistan to the model of its
sustainable development, the main criteria and principles were studied and established,
and the definition of sustainable land use was given.


Mansur Agzamov; Firuz Normurodov; Akbar Tilyakov; Farhod Mavlyanov; Shukhrat Ziyadullaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1749-1759

The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithm we developed when
choosing the surgical treatment tactics of acute subdural hematoma of the brain. A
retrospective analysis of 82 patients hospitalized from 2018 to 2019 was carried out in the
neurosurgery department of the Samarkand branch of the Republican Scientific Center for
Emergency Medicine with acute subdural hematomas. Group 1 included 53 observations,
where osteoplastic and resection craniotomy were performed for removal of subdural
hematomas. Group 2 included 29 observations, where subdural hematomas were removed
using a new minimally invasive method. Based on the data obtained, the algorithm developed
and implemented by us allowed us to provide emergency medical care most effectively and get
positive results. This algorithm can be used with all age groups of patients, regardless of the
severity of the injury. The algorithm for choosing the treatment tactics for acute subdural
brain hematoma is available on all stationary computers in all medical institutions and is easy
to use. In combination with the clinical and neurological picture, the results of radiation
diagnostics studies, the algorithm we developed is an innovative method of providing qualified
emergency medical care and surgical intervention that meets modern requirements.

The effect of budesonide on the quality of life in patients with bronchial asthma

Shukhrat Ziyadullaev; Jasur Rizaev Alimdjanovich; Irina Agababyan Rubenovna; Jamshid Ismailov Abduraimovich; Soatboy Yuldashev Jiyanboyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1760-1766

Abstract: In recent years, serious and numerous advances have been made in the treatment
of bronchial asthma. These results are associated with the significant efficacy of inhaled
corticosteroids in topical diagnosis and pathogenetic treatment of bronchial asthma.
However, despite the results achieved, the fight against this disease is not satisfactory. In
patients with severe bronchial asthma, inhaled corticosteroids are more effective when
used in combination with β2-agonists. Almost every second asthma patient is concerned
about nighttime attacks. More than half of the patients had limited physical activity, and
one in three lost the ability to work. Most patients are forced to see a doctor because of the
exacerbation and progression of the disease.

Study of portional kidney function in yound children with nephropathy exchange genesos

Akhmedova M.M.; Rasulova N.A; Irbutaeva L.T.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1767-1770

Abstract: 121 children with pneumonia on dismetabolic nephroparthy background were
investigated, and 20 children with pneumonia without urinary syndrome. It were
performed following methods of kidney partial functions investigation of: glomerulus
filtration, ammonia, acidity, osmotic quality of urine, daily metabolites screening (oxalates,
urates, urine acid). In patients with pneumonia on dismetabolic nephroparthy background
were revealed significant alterations of kidney partial functions, structural and functional
condition of erythrocytes membrane, increasing of peroxides lipid oxidation processes. For
the purpose of correction children with pneumonia and renal pathology it was prescribed
following treatment.


F.Z. Atakhanova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1771-1776

Abstract: The article deals with the issues based on the elements of traditional Uzbek
clothing used in the design of modern clothing, created as a result of the increasing
interest to the types of national clothes in Uzbekistan due to the process of national
awakening that began in the late twentieth century. Some problems of re-assimilation and
perception of national motives were considered. As well as, there has been highlighted the
issue of applying the artistic and figurative features of the Uzbek national costume, rather
than directly copying and repeating the traditional style, decor, methods and elements of
technological processing. This is especially true during quarantine due to Covid-19.


Khudayberdi Khaknazarov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1777-1784

Abstract: The article deals with the experiences of countries around the world in
studying the daily life of the military, the research of individual authors, research centers,
and scientific schools on the subject is analyzed. There is information on scientific
research, their methods and methodology on the study of the daily lives of servicemen in
the world from a military anthropological point of view. Furthermore researches on the
subject in terms of historical periods and geographical order are also studied on the basis
of comparative methods. The article describes the research conducted in Uzbekistan on the
life and daily life of the military, in particular, the research of historians in this area, based
on the sequence of historical periods. It provides information on the daily life, interests and
future plans of the military, the culture of leisure, the social anthropological analysis of
the daily life of the military. Certain conclusions were made on the topic and suggestions
and recommendations were developed.


Tulkin Iskandarov; Liliya Romanova; Iskandarov Aziz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1785-1790

Abstract. The article presents the materials of experimental research on the new defoliant of
cotton "Phosphodef". By parameters of acute toxicity the studied preparation belongs to low
hazardous compounds, IV class of hazard. The irritating effect of the preparations on mucous
membranes of eyes and skin; cumulative properties of the preparation have been studied in
acute experiments. Hygienic standards of the preparation in air, water, soil and food products;
sanitary protection zones, terms of employment are scientifically proved. According to the
research results, the use of defoliant "Phosphodeph" in agriculture from hygienic positions is
not objectionable.


Roza Kamilova; Barno Sagdullaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1791-1798

Abstract. Rivers often become primary receivers of pollution and this affects the
ecological state of water biogeocenoses, soil and plants. Uneven water use in the upper and
lower reaches of the Syrdarya River and accumulation of contaminants in the upper reaches
leads to changes in the ecological balance in the middle reaches. Hydrochemical indicators of
water samples from the Syrdarya River in the middle flow and suitability of water for
irrigation were studied. Samples were taken during the warm period of the year from 8
stations during 2018 and 2019. The water was found to be slightly mineralised with a normal
value of electrical conductivity. 18.75% of water samples had an alkaline reaction; in 97.9% of
samples, the bicarbonathion content exceeded the standard values. By chloride content
95.84% of samples are suitable for surface irrigation. The concentration of nitration was
within the limits of normative values. To be used for irrigation purposes, it is necessary to
dilute river water with fresh water, normalise pH and regularly monitor hydrochemical


Utkir Adilov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1799-1812

Abstract. Employees are working on opencast coal mining from May to September
work in conditions of heating microclimate. A decrease in the influence of the high
temperature of air and solar radiation is reached by the uniform distribution of the hottest
time of day (from 12 to 16 o'clock) by drawing up the working schedule. The selection of
means of individual protection of hearing organs, their regular use, and efficiency assessment
performance will reduce the impact of noise on workers' bodies. Decrease of total working
time in conditions of exposure to industrial vibration not exceeding 5-6 hours will allow
reducing the class of working conditions on this factor. The effectiveness of individual
respiratory protection means the size of dust particles, the degree of insulation of the
underwear space in places where the mask is not tightly attached to the face. Considering dust
dispersion, working conditions classes of workers engaged in brown coal mining in
underground mine #9 "Angrenskaya" decreased by 1 stage, while in mine "Shargunkumir"
the working conditions classes on dust factor, on the contrary, increased by 1 stage.


Akhmedova D.I.; Akhmedova N.R.; Ruzmatova D.M.; Danilova E.A.; Khusniddinova S.Kh.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1813-1823

Abstract. The study aimed to study the content of toxic and essential microelements in
the hair of children with cardiomyopathy living in areas with different climatic and
geographical conditions. 96 hair samples of children with cardiomyopathy living in different
environmental conditions were examined. The research results showed that the problem of
microelements is typical not only for the Aral Sea region but also for other regions: deficit
and/or deficiency of 2 or more vital microelements is found in 96% of children with CMP. The
frequency of trace elements in children in all regions was high in Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, He and Zn.
Children living in the Aral Sea region were characterized by excessive levels of manganese,
bromine, and iodine; children living in relatively advantaged regions were characterized by
reliably high levels of potassium, chlorine, and iodine.

Assessment of compulsory health insurance abroad and the prospects for implementation in the Republic of Uzbekistan

Nishanova , Aziza; Nurmamatova Kurbonoy; Kurbanova Sanobar; Rakhmonova Shakhnoza; Zakirova Khalida

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1825-1835

Abstract. This article provides an overview of compulsory insurance in developed countries
such as Germany, Israel, the United States of America and the possibility of applying this
type of insurance in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The risks and ways of overcoming them
are assessed, as well as the costs required to create a perfect model of health insurance
based on the gross domestic product produced in the Republic of Uzbekistan.


Temirov Xamid (PhD) .; Mansurov Mansur (PhD) .; Xudoykulov Mamarasul (PhD) .; Kushakova Mamura .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1836-1839

Abstract. The study provides a comprehensive analysis of the credit policy pursued
by the government during the Covid-19 pandemic and its results in order to support the
population and businesses, to prevent large debts.
The study reccomend the following:
The interest rate and terms of loans not only affect the banking sector, but also
directly affect the living standards and quality of life of the population. For this reason, it
would be expedient to provide loans with simplified terms and conditions of repayment to
support entrepreneurship in the country.
According to 2020 data, the interest rates of commercial banks in the country will
be 24%. Under this decree, if a preferential interest rate of 16% was applied, the financial
interest of individuals after October 1, 2020 would be avoided


Risolat Islomova .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1840-1843

Abstract: As a result of the study of the development of ecological tourism in Navoiy
region, in order to clear up the issues aimed at growing the wide variety of tourists, 2019-
2022 was forecasted and its prospects had been identified.
Innovative science in the course of development of ecological tourism in the Navoiy
location perspectives and development of tourism in the region, for this purpose, the find
out about was once conducted in 2019-2022, which has a real quantity of ecotourism per
year. The forecast warning signs for 2019–2022 are justified using a multifactor
correlation mannequin for the improvement of ecotourism in the Navoiy region.


Kuchimova Ch. A; Khaydarova D.S .; Pardaeva Z.S .; Abdurazakova R.Sh .; Turaev T.M .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1844-1853

Abstract: The problem of the existence of long-term depressive states is not new:
descriptions of "chronic melancholies" are found in psychiatrists already in the 70 years
of the XIX century. If we look at modern statistics of depression in general, we can see that
not all depressive phases show a tendency to reverse development. In 40% of cases, the
initial phase and a year later still meets the criteria for depression (N. Pincus, 2001), in
20% of cases it lasts for more than 2 years (N. Pincus, 2001) and in 17% of cases,
depression continues throughout life (R. Kessler, 1994).


Aziz Qobilov .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1854-1859

Abstract: Objective. To analyze results of surgery for symptomatic and aggressive
vertebral hemangiom, which is rare in clinical practice.
Material and Methods. The study included 82 patients having symptomatic vertebral
hemangiom with local pain syndrome as a main clinical manifistation. Diagnosis of
vertebral hemangioma was confirmed by neurovisualization findings in all cases. Patients
were operated on by use of percutaneous unilateral transpedicular vertebroplasty.
Results. All patients had a regression of pain syndrome, increase in physical activity,
and return to their usual mode of life after surgery. In 45 patients pain was arrested at the
first day after operation, and in 37 patients — in five days. The follow-up period after
percutaneous vertebroplasty was 6 to 12 months.
Conclusion. Percutaneous vertebroplasty when correctly indicated and perfectly
performed is effective and minimally invasive method of treatment for symptomatic and
aggressive vertebral hemangioma.


Norbuvi Bektemirova; Vyacheslav Avakov; Erkin Bilalov; Akmal Rasulov; Sardarbek Atadjanov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1870-1876

Relevance. Anesthetic manual in ophthalmology is an urgent problem of modern medicine,
which is due to the specifics of intraocular operations.
The relevance of anesthetic aid in ophthalmology is also increasing due to the fact that
more than half of patients undergoing surgical interventions are elderly and senile patients
[2,5,8,] with one or more somatic concomitant diseases [4,7,12,17,], which requires a special
approach to these patients in terms of preparation for surgery, the choice of anesthesia and
postoperative management.
Hemodynamic disorders are one of the important links in the pathogenesis of eye diseases
[10, 18]. When providing anesthesia in surgical ophthalmology, it is of great importance to take
into account the state of ophthalmotonus, which is directly dependent on the hemodynamics of
the eye. The works of many authors [1,7,9,11,10,] indicate that the vascular factor is one of the
most important links in the mechanism of changes in intraocular pressure (IOP).
Purpose of the study: To study the effect of the most frequently used anesthetics in
retrobulbar blockade on the state of microcirculation of the eyes during ophthalmic operations.
Material and methods. The studies were carried out in 115 operated patients with a
diagnosis of acquired cataract. Patients underwent cataract extraction, extracapsular cataract
extraction with intraocular lens implantation (EEC with IOL) and tunnel cataract extraction with
intraocular lens implantation (EEC with IOL).
The age of patients in the studied groups ranged from 50 to 86 years. More than half (84
patients - 79.2%) of them were aged 60 to 80 years. The average age was 69.6 + 5.3 years.
In the allocation of the patients on the floor of the 115 female patients was 70 (62.3%)
and male patients - 45 (37.7%).
To study intraocular hemodynamics, Doppler ultrasound was used, which were
performed them.

Cytogenetic and immunological alterations of recurrent bladder cancer

Shukhrat Ziyadullaev; Obid Elmamatov; Nodir Raximov; Farkhod Raufov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1877-1883

Abstract: In this review, we discussed genetic and immunological changes of bladder
cancer along with relapse of this disease; however, it should be noted that in most cases,
multiple genetic and immunological changes occur simultaneously or mutually dependent
on each other. Many genetic mutations disrupt the function of genes involved in
regulation, and conversely, chromosomal aberrations lead to changes in transcription.
Pathogenesis and transition of normal urothelium of bladder into cancer are multifactorial
processes. Chronic inflammation causes the initiation and progression of the main
pathophysiology of invasive and metastatic cancer. A dichotomy is observed in the role of
immune cells in bladder cancer. Although the immune response protects the bladder by
suppressing tumor growth, certain immune cells including neutrophils, macrophages, and
T-lymphocytes contribute the development and progression of the tumor.


Anvar Adilhodzhaev; Bunyod Igamberdiev; Dilshodkhon Kodirova; Ortiq Rakhmonov; Akbarjon Marufjonov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1884-1889

Abstract: The article discusses the possibility of producing bricks from a composite
gypsum binder of increased water resistance from local raw materials and man-made
waste. Experimental data demonstrate the dependence of the characteristics of the binder
on the ratio of its components. The authors provide a comparative analysis of energy
efficiency and other features of bricks made of the composite material and other wall

Effect of Maternal Hypothyroidism During Gestation and Lactation in Female Rats on Thyroidal and Testicular Functions of Their Male Offspring at Puberty

Sarah J. S .; Jassim M. A. Alkalby

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1890-1900

Maternal hypothyroidism, is a deficiency of the transfer of thyroid hormones from the mother to the
fetus. This study was designed to investigate the effect of induced hypothyroidism in female rats during
gestation (G), lactation (L) and gestation and lactation (G+L) on thyroid and testicular functions of
their male offspring at puberty. The hypothyroidism state was induced by administration of
propylthiouracil (PTU) (0.2) mg/kg b.w/day orally to three pregnant female rats’ groups during
different physiological state as follows: gestational group (treated from day 6 till parturition),
lactational group ( treated from parturition till weaning) and gestational and lactational (treated from
day 6 of parturition till weaning), in addition, to pregnant control group which received distilled water
(D.W) only. All offspring were weaned at 30 days age and six male offspring of each group were
chosen randomly and left without treatment until puberty (60 days) postnatal. Blood samples were
collected to the measurement of serum level of some hormones including thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH), thyroxin (T4), triidothyronine (T3), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), and folliclestimulating
hormone (FSH). Thyroid glands and testes were removed for histopathology study. The
results of hormonal analysis revealed a significant (P≤0.05) increase of TSH concentration in G and L
groups and a significant (P≤0.05) decrease of T4 in all treatment groups while a significant decrease in
T3 was recorded in the G group compared with the control group. Histopathological results showed
histological changes in both thyroid glands and testes in G, L, and G+L groups. The present study
concluded that the different maternal hypothyroidism periods have a nearly different impacts on
offspring male rat, where the G group was the most affected than others.

Research Protocol “Comparative Histological Study of Wound Healing Potential of Ehretia Laevis Roxb. plant leaves on Animal Model Against Standard ”

Dr. Rushikesh Thakre; Dr. Arvinda Bhake; Dr. Pradip Tekade; Mrs. Ketaki Harne; Dr. Preeti Sujit Borkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1901-1910

Background :- Ayurveda is considered as ancient science for healing.Many
medicinal plants are mentioned in Ayurvedic literature for wound healing.Folklore
medicines for various medical conditions including wound healing are being practiced in
India. Herbal plants contains many phytochemical useful for many medical conditions and
prevent thr progrees of diseases. All these traditional practices need to be evaluted on
scinetific grounds, to pave the path for further clical trails and new drug developments.
This effort will avoid the excessive use of anti biotics and to avoid side effects of modern

Protocol of the Effect of Eye Exercise, Triphala Kwath Eye Wash & Triphala Ghrita Systemically On Computer Vision Syndrome

Dr.Roshna Sukhdeoji Bhutada / Rathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1911-1922

Today, due to online working platform, everyone requires computer device and
used for long time. Resulting multi-factorial disease called Computer Vision Syndrome. In
modern lifestyle, every person is getting affected due to radiation may be due to VDT
(Video display terminals), computer, T.V. and CFL lamp, mobile etc. Symptoms known by
video display terminal users include many symptoms, thus term “Computer Vision
Syndrome”. In modern Science, lubricating medicine (eye drops) available but has not
specific effect for long time on CVS. Ayurveda deals with modification in the lifestyle
which is beneficial for the individual to remain healthy. Hence eye exercise, , Triphala
Kwath eye wash and Triphala Ghrita sytemically will be use for the treatment of CVS .
Objectives To study the efficacy of combine effect of Eye Exercise + Triphala Kwath Eye
Wash +Triphala Ghrita Systemically in the management of Computer Vision Syndrome.
Methodology- The study is Control Randomised clinical observational study. method -
100 patients of CVS will be treated by randomly dividing them into three, Group I having
40 patients will be subjected to Eye Exercise + Triphala Kwath Eye Wash +Triphala
Ghrita Systemically. Group II having 40 patient will be subjected to Eye Exercise +
Triphala Kwath Eye wash. Groups.III having 20 patient will be subjected to Exercise +
Instillation distilled (demineralised and sterilized) water patients will be treated. Results
The result will draw from the study of observation after treatment Conclusion The
Conclusion drawn from the observation and result.

Neurophysiological Assessment And Cognition In Adult Females With Iron Deficiency Anaemia

Dr. Umme Kulsoom Sheema; Dr. Alka Rawekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1923-1925

Abstract: Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most prevalent form of anemia
especially in developing countries. Females of child bearing age are vulnerable for developing
IDA due to menstrual blood loss, dietary deficiency, pregnancy and lactation. IDA is
diagnosed by low blood hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels which correlates with body iron
stores. Of the various biological effects of iron, there are many evidences that iron effects
normal neurological functioning and development. This forms the biological basis for the
behavioral and cognitive developmental delays observed in iron-deficient anemic infants and
children. Reduced levels of blood hemoglobin and serum ferritin has been positively correlated
with low cognitive score and altered evoked potentials in females with IDA. Lack of research
studies to know the effect of IDA on neurophysiological parameters like cognitive
performance, event related potential and brainstem auditory response are little explored in
Indian adult females.
Methods: Cognitive status is assessed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale
which is validated testing scale for diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and
neurophysiological assessment is done using auditory Event Related Potential (ERP / P300)
and Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry (BERA). MoCA score, ERP and BERA values
will be compared in females with iron deficiency anemia and normal females and also
associated with blood hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. IDA may impair Cognitive
performance and hearing in adult females which may have tremendous impact on
understanding of speech and problem solving in them.
Hence, the aim of the study is to confirm a relationship between IDA and neuro-cognitive
features using cognitive scale and evoked potentials in adult females.

Elastography of the cervix for prediction of induction of labour

Dr. Sanjivani Wanjari; Dr. Suresh Phatak; Dr. Deepti Shrivastava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1936-1945

Abstract: Background –Labour can be induced for various indications. This is done when
it appears that benefits of induction outweigh its risk. Bishop score is the gold standard
that is used to determine whether labour can be induced. However, the assessment of the
cervix with digital examination is subjective and less reproducible. Elastography is an
upcoming modality which is an ultrasound-based imaging technique used for assessing
elasticity of tissues. It is based on the premise that softer tissues get more compressed than
harder tissues when pressure is applied with ultrasound probe. Thereafter colour mapping
is done depending on the gradient values of strain.
Aim - to assess whether elastography findings of uterine cervix can be used to predict
successful induction of labour.
Objectives -
1) To examine the cervix by digital examination.
2) To determine the length of the cervix with the help of trans-vaginal ultrasound.
3) To perform strain elastography of the cervix.
4) To observe within how many hours labour starts after induction.
Materials & methods –
A prospective observational study will be done at AVBRH over a three years period from
October 2018 to October 2021. Inclusion criteria - Pregnant women with gestation of 36-41
weeks, having no contraindication for labour induction, will be included in the study.
Sampling procedure –Simple Random Sampling. Sample size – estimated sample size for
study is 80 cases. Strain Elastography of the cervix will be performed before labour
induction in the sample population and the outcome will be assessed. A score will be
devised based on the colour mapping of elastography.
Up till now we have had encouraging results. A colour map showing various colours from
blue/purple through green/ yellow and then orange/red were noted. The colour red


Swapna Jawade; Namrata Naidu; G. G. Vardharajulu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1946-1954

Abtract: Background: Strength training is recommended for improving muscular strength and
slowing deterioration of age-dependent muscle power and for rehabilitating patients with
musculoskeletal conditions. Reliable method of assessing muscle strength is essential for
standard procedure of strength training protocol for safeguard, sport and rehabilitation. One
repetition maximum (1RM) is a reliable means for the measurement of muscle strength and is
termed as the value of load against which prescribed movement is achieved with complete
full range of motion only once with free weights
Objectives: To establish the role of strength training protocol in strengthening muscle
assessed by 1 repetition maximum before and after training in adults.
Methods: The sample consists of thirty healthy adults were selected randomly on basis of
inclusion criteria with age group of 20 to 40 years. The strength training program lasted for 3
weeks (3 × weeks, 60 to 90% of 1RM for 6 to 12 minute, 2 sets, and 10 repetitions) for 5 days a
week.1 repetition maximum test (RM) was baseline outcome measure which was assessed for
shoulder and elbow flexors and hip and knee extensors before and after strength training.
Results: Statistical analysis of data was done by using Paired t-tests to analyze 1RM Pre and
post strength training protocol. The results of the study showed a significant improvement in
strength in both upper and lower limbs in a short duration of time and the protocol can be
used for rehabilitative purposes.
Conclusion: There is significant effect of strength training on 1 repetition maximum. This
strength protocol can be used for the rehabilitation of various musculoskeletal conditions for
the early rehabilitation


Erkin Yakubov; Nasriddin Ergashev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1955-1961

Abstract: The paper presents an analysis of the data of ultrasound, CT, MRCP and
intraoperative cholangiography in patients with bile duct cyst. Echographic data are
presented in 86 patients, CT in 61, MRCP in 8 and intraoperative cholangiography in 73
patients with this pathology. Ultrasound is a highly sensitive and informative screening
method for the diagnosis of choledochal cysts in children. To increase the specificity of
ultrasound with cysts of the common bile duct, a dynamic study of the contractility of the
biliary system after taking a "choleretic breakfast" is proposed. Currently, in the diagnosis
of pathology of the biliary tract, CT of the abdominal cavity and MRCP are effective noninvasive
methods, alternative to invasive ERCP. It has been established that the final
verification of the form of bile duct cysts, abnormal fusion of the pancreatic duct into the
cyst cavity is determined using MRCP and intraoperative cholangiography, which allows
you to choose the optimal method of surgical treatment.

Association Of Spot Urinary Albumin Creatinine Ratio (UACR) With Coronary Artery Disease

Sanyukta H; A.H. Inamdar; Sunil Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1962-1966

Background: Microalbuminuria has been recently found to be a marker of
atherogenesis. It is associated with various risk factors of atherogenesis and damage of the
vascular endothelium. There have been few studies in which it has been found that
mortality in cardiovascular disease are increased with microalbuminuria. Urine is
collected over 24 hours and this study has similar sensitivity as urinary albumin creatinine
ratio. A urinary albumin to creatinine ratio is as sensitive as a 24 hours urine study even
though it itself is a gold standard test. In patients with CAD other factors have been
explored then urinary albumin has been recently identified.
Objectives: To assess correlation between urinary albumin creatinine ratio with coronary
artery disease and to correlate Urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) with
Framingham heart study Cardiovascular disease (FHS-CVD) score in all patients of
coronary artery disease.
Methodology: In this study which is cross sectional, Subjects to be included in the study
will be explained regarding the study and proper consent will be obtained. A random urine
sample will be collected. Urinary albumin concentration will be measured by auto analyser
and urine albumin creatinine ratio will be calculated. The values of the same will be
recorded and will be statistically analysed.

“Is there any effect of Phototherapy on Cardiac Function in Neonates with Hyperbilirubinemia”

Dr. Amar Taksande; Dr. Jayant Vagha; A. Rupesh Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1967-1976

Abstract: Background- Neonatal jaundice is commonly seen in preterm new born and
phototherapy treatment of choice when indicate. Phototherapy is an efficient treatment
although there is some side effect present. These side effect may be on behavioural and
physiological in some organ and there is also changes in stages of sleep cycle and
circadian rhythm during and after phototherapy for few days. These changes in sleep cycle
due to the neurotransmitter tryptophan and there is also changes is hormones like
decreased in the growth hormones and there is changes in the melatonin which may affect
with sleep cycle. there is some study done which suggestive that phototherapy will affect the
stages of sleep but there is solid information available whether there is any effect of
phototherapy on cardiorespiratory activity. Some old study is suggestive of there is
increased in heart rate and decreased in the SBP systolic blood pressure during
phototherapy. Phototherapy cause to increase the respiratory rate and heart rate during
phototherapy. Objectives: To determine the outcome of phototherapy after 24hrs, 48hrs,
72hrs, and >72hrs on cardiac function in term neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. Results-
After completion of the study we will come to know the effect of phototherapy on cardiac
function and also get the idea for how many hours ( <24hrs / 48hrs. 72hrs or > 72hrs) we
can give safe phototherapy to the neonate with hyperbilirubinemia without affecting the
cardiac function. Or is there any need for cardiac shielding during phototherapy.
Conclusion- After completion of the study we will come to know the effect of phototherapy
on cardiac function in term neonate who is having neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.


Dr. Amruta Dinesh Varma; Rajasbala Dhande

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1977-1982

Abstract: Background: Understanding the RELATION between anterior cruciate ligament
and postero lateral corner TRAUMA with antero-lateral ligament of knee with it’s clinical
diagnosis would help us better understand the pattern of injury and to take proper
treatment action .Objectives :To find the correlation between pattern of injury of
anterolateralligament , anterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner injury on MRI
with it’s clinical correlation and associated findings. Methodology: A cross-sectional study
will be done at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi, involving52 patients who
present with knee trauma for MRI. The sample will be selected and involvement of
Anterior cruciate ligament ,postero lateral corner injury and antero-lateral ligament with
associated findings will be evaluated using T1, T2 and PD MRI sequences. These will be
compared and there association will be calculated which can be used for better planning of
treatment. Results: After appropriate statistical analysis, we expect to find association
between anterolateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament tear with posterolateral
corner injury and this will be considered for reconstruction. Conclusion: In this
observational study, we expect associations between injured ligaments with aid of clinical
findings . We also expect to find a positive association between anterolateral ligament with
posterolateral corner injury and anterior cruciate ligament tear.

A Case report on impact of physiotherapy rehabilitation on partial claw hand secondary to borderline tuberculoid Hansen disease.

Swapna Jawade; Sugat Jawade

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1983-1986

Abstract: Background: Hansen’s disease known as leprosy originated by Mycobacterium
leprae is a chronic infectious disease. It hampers mostly skin and peripheral nerves.Claw hand
is secondary impairment following Hansen’s disease specially those not gone under
physiotherapy treatment. .Primary goal of physiotherapy rehabilitation is to reverse the
functional impairment caused by Hansen’s disease and customize lifestyle modification to
restore functional day to day activities. In this case report presented that modified
physiotherapy rehabilitation of partial Ulnar clawing following borderline tuberculoid
Hansen’s disease have very important role in regaining range of motion
(ROM) ,sensation ,muscle strength and improve hand grasp. Case Presentation: A 30 year old
female reported to Dermatologist with the complaints of light coloured lesion over her right
arm, loss of sensation of lesion and tingling numbness over right hand since 7 months and
was diagnosed as a borderline tuberculoid Hansen’s disease with partial Ulnar clawing of
right hand. Then she was referred to physiotherapy for the rehabilitation after one month of
multidrug therapy with the complaints of loss of sensation, weakness in attempting grasp with
difficulty in doing functional activities. Patient was on lumbrical blocking splint to stretch the
impaired fingers and regain range of motion. In physiotherapy rehabilitation, TENS, motor
point electrical stimulation, Maitland’s mobilization, mirror therapy with sensory re-education
and strengthening exercises was given for 6 weeks, 5 days per week. Conclusion: In this case
used modified physiotherapy rehabilitation for partial Ulnar clawing following borderline
tuberculoid Hansen’s disease aid in early regain of sensation, ROM and hand muscle strength
and restore functional grasp

Utility of customized protective surgical splint concerning soft tissue healing in patients with unilateral cleft alveolus undergoing secondary alveolar bone grafting in comparison to those without splint

Dr. Apoorva Mishra; Dr. Rajiv Borle; Dr. Nitin Bhola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1987-1993

Background: Alveolar cleft closure is vital in achieving stability of maxillary
arch, providing a foundation for alar base, prevent the inferior turbinate from herniating
into cleft area and giving impetus to teeth adjoining cleft. Intact Soft tissue cover over the
grafted cleft site will provide a contained cavity which will help maintain the grafted bone
in the compacted position till new bone formation occurs. Customized surgical splint over
the operated site as a mechanical barrier can help improve the soft tissue healing in
patients undergoing Alveolar bone grafting (ABG). Aim: To compare the utility of
customized surgical splint in terms of soft tissue healing overlying the grafted alveolar
bone Material and Methods: Random allocation of unilateral cleft alveolus patients in two
groups will be done. Group A, in which immediately after the surgery in a customized
surgical splint will be placed. Group B, in which no splint will be given. Soft tissue healing
will be assessed for both the groups on post-operative day 7th and 15th. Result: Results will
be analyzed using Student’s paired t-test. It is expected that the soft tissue healing will be
significantly better in the patients with surgical splints. Conclusion: Expected results of
better soft tissue healing with utilization of customized surgical splints in operated patients
of cleft alveolus may be recommended as part of standard care protocol. It can play a
pivotal role in subsequent successful uptake of graft by improving soft tissue healing

Comparative evaluation of Immunohistochemical expression of MT-1 MMP, TIMP-1, TGF-β1, α-SMA in oral submucous fibrosis and oral submucous fibrosis with coexisting Oral Squamous cell carcinoma

Sharma Nidhi; Gawande Madhuri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1994-2002

Abstract: Background : „Oral submucous fibrosis” (OSF) is chronic, progressive, and
irreversible disease but also as oral potentially malignant disorder with high probability of
malignant transformation. From a clinical as well as the histological point of view it
appears to be of major importance to establish and understand the molecular nature of the
mechanism of malignant transformation in OSF .So that these molecules could be targeted
to formulate a standard treatment for high risk cases of OSF patients in need for better
prognosis. Material and Methods: 25 Cases of “oral submucous fibrosis .” and 25 Cases of
oral Submucous Fibrosis with coexisting oral squamous cell carcinoma will be analyzed.4
μm thick sections of formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks were immunohistochemical
stained with Polyclonal rabbit MT-1 MMP antibody , Monoclonal mouse TIMP-1 antibody
,Monoclonal mouse TGF-β1antibody , Monoclonal mouse α-SMA antibody in each case
Statistical Analysis: Sample size formula based on difference between two proportions:
This study uses the following formula for the sample size n: n = (Zα/2+Zβ)2 * (p1(1-
p1)+p2(1-p2)) / (p1-p2)2,
Discussion: The Incidence of malignant potential in OSF has been estimated to be 7-13%².
After years of persistent efforts and research, satisfactory and definitive treatment modality
still eludes us. These markers could be used on regular basis to assess malignant potential
of OSMF. This will help to formulate and decide the standard treatment plan with a better
regime of target drug therapy

Fetal haemoglobin: A novel prognostic determinant in sickle cell anaemia

Dr. Obaid Noman; Dr. Arvind Bhake; Dr. Shweta Bahadure; Dr. Nihar Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2003-2008

Background-Acknowledgement of instrumental action of fetal hemoglobin(HbF)
in improving the clinical condition of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients, began around 7
decades back, by Janet Watson who found that infants with SCD had lesser symptoms and
their deoxygenated RBCs did not sickle or deform as aggressively as their mothers having
sickle cell trait. She proposed high HbF levels in infant blood as compared to mothers for
the observations of her study. Reduced incidence of crisis like vaso-occlusive, haemolytic,
aplastic, megaloblastic, infectious and others have been found with higher HbF levels.
With this backdrop the present study is being undertaken to know the reciprocity between
HbF levels and the state of crisis in sickle cell. The study is expected to fill the missing link
between “Why a few patients with HbS with haemoglobin pattern of SS suffer less from
crisis than that of others with a similar haemoglobin pattern of SS”
• To know HbF levels in pateints with SCD with Hb (SS) pattern
• To draw the comparisons between HbF levels in SCD with Hb(SS) pattern in
subjects 1. With sickle cell crisis and 2. Without sickle cell crisis
• To find out cut-off level of Hb F at its protective effect against the crisis in SCD
• Study design - Observational and analytical study
• Sample size - Total of 30 Patients of sickle cell Disease (Hb SS)
• Study duration - 1 year
Expected Results: Incidence of Crisis in HbSS patients are expected to have a inverse
relationship with HbF levels. A cut-off level of HbF above which episodes of crisis are
lower can be expected to be found. Conclusion: Conclusions will be drawn from results
obtained and an attempt to establish a cut-off HbF value which renders a protective action
against crisis in SCD will be made.

Assessment and comparison of Periostin levels in peri-implant sulcular fluid as a biomarker in healthy peri-implant sites and sites with periimplant mucositis and peri-implantitis

Dr. Anup U Shelke; Dr. Prasad V Dhadse

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2009-2016

Abstract: Background – Peri-implant diseases need early diagnosis and intervention in order
to prevent implant failure. Periostin is an enzyme imperative for periodontal health which
decreases with increasing severity of inflammation and levels revert back to normal after
treatment. Alterations in the levels of periostin with relation to peri-implant diseases is not yet
been investigated. This study aims to explore the role of periostin in peri-implant health and
disease. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the levels of Periostin in peri implant sulcular
fluid (PISF) in healthy peri-implant sites and sites with peri-implant mucositis and periimplantitis
with its clinical correlation. Method and design: Total of 66 implant sites loaded at
least one year earlier will be included in this study and divided into three groups. Group I
(healthy peri-implant tissues), group II (peri-implant mucositis), and group III (periimplantitis).
Levels of periostin in peri-implant sulcus fluid (PISF) acquired by microcapillary
pipettes acquired by micro-capillary pipettes will be determined from each group
using human periostin ELISA kit. Results: The results will be analyzed as levels of periostin in
peri-implant sulcular fluid recorded by ELISA in all the three groups and will be subjected to
intergroup comparison and will be presented after statistical analysis. Conclusion: Levels of
periostin in peri-implant sulcular fluid may prove to be a magnificent tool in early and prompt
diagnosis of peri-implant diseases which will help in planning and execution of appropriate
treatment, hence preventing further destruction of supporting tissues increasing longevity of
dental implants.

Study protocol for comparative evaluation between open flap debridement, osseous resective surgery and autogenous bone graft in treatment of hemiseptal periodontal defect - A clinical and radiographic study

Dr. Vaibhav Tiwari; Dr. Prasad V Dhadse

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2017-2026

Abstract: Background: Osseous resection is established treatment protocol for periodontal
hemiseptal defects, however this forces clinician to settle for less than optimal results and
leads to undesirable outcomes like unpleasant esthetics, denitinal hypersensitivity, root caries
etc. the present treatment protocol is designed to asses defect resolution by autogenous bone
pieces in treatment of periodontal hemiseptal defects. Objectives: To evaluate the soft and
hard tissue response using clinical parameters like probing pocket depth(PPD), clinical
attachment level(CAL) and radiographic bone fill in treatment of hemiseptal periodontal
defects to Open flap debridement, Osseous resective surgery autogenous bone graft. Methods:
the study sample will be randomly divided in to 3 groups of 12 hemiseptal defects each. Group
1 to be treated by resective osseous surgery, Group II treated by open flap debridement and
Group III treated by Autogenous bone graft. Clinical parameters include gingival index,
probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level along with radiographic assessment with
radivisograph (RVG) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). All parameters will be
evaluated at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months interval. The Independent-Samples t Test will be done
to compare means for two groups.” The Paired-Samples t test to compare means of two
variables for a single group. Difference will be considered significant when p value <0.05.
Expected results: Proposed approach is expected to show improvement in probing pocket
depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival index. It is also expected to gain defect fill
reduction or resolution of hemiseptal defect. Conclusion : By attempting to treat periodontal
hemiseptal defects with regenerative method this study is attempting to avoid all undesired
effect associated with osseous resection and provide evidence of regeneration in such defects,
this can lead to paradigm shift in treatment approach of periodontal hemiseptal defects.Q

Assessment and Comparison of Ghrelin and Chemerin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum as Predictive Biomarkers in Aggressive Periodontitis Patients: A Study Protocol

Dr. Pavan , Bajaj; Dr. Prasad V. , Dhadse; Dr. Vidya Baliga; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2027-2033

Abstract: Background: Ghrelin is a recently described peptide hormone that is secreted
predominantly by the stomach. It induces appetite and thereby controls food intake and energy
balance. It has been also observed modulatory effects on the immune system and bone
metabolism. Chemerin binds to an orphan G coupled receptor which modulates the innate
immune system and chemotaxis of immature dendritic cells and macrophages. Objective:
Comparative evaluation of GCF & Serum “levels of Ghrelin and Chemerin” as the
(Predictive) biomarkers of inflammation in aggressive periodontitis. Methodology: Total 80
samples will be included and divided into two groups. Group I includes 40 GCF samples from
40 subjects with aggressive and Group II includes 40 Serum samples from 40 subjects with
aggressive periodontitis group. The GCF will be collected from the site with deepest probing
depth. Gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level will be measured
one day before GCF collection to avoid stimulation of the sample and its contamination with
blood. The Ghrelin and Chemerin levels in GCF and serum samples will be measured using
an ELISA kit. Expected Result:

Evaluation of the relationship between obesity and severity of periodontal diseases in rural population: A Study Protocol

Ms. Gauri , Bendre; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal; Dr. Diksha Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2034-2037

Abstract: Background- Excessive accumulation of fat results into obesity. Obesity further
have an adverse effect on health as it has been seen to be associated with diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, heart disease like coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease such as
hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, metabolic syndrome like insulin resistance, some
cancers such as cancer of esophagus, thyroid, kidney, uterus, colon and breast, and
psychosocial problems. Also, obesity is considered to be a risk factor for periodontitis
which is an inflammation of supporting periodontal structures around the tooth which
results from the complex interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune
response. However, the impact of obesity on different severity of periodontal disease is not
evaluated in rural population. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and the
severity of periodontal disease in Rural population. Methodology: A total 400 obese
subjects will be included in the study. Biometric parameters like age, weight, height, waist
and neck circumference, subcutaneous skin fold will be evaluated. Also periodontal
parameters like Plaque index (PI), Papillary bleeding index (PBI), Probing pocket depth
(PPD), Clinical attachment level (CAL) and Gingival recession (REC) will be evaluated
and co-relation between these parameters will be carried out. Results: A statistically
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis. A positive co-relation will be observed
between biometric parameters and periodontal status of obese individual. Conclusion: A
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis in rural population.

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and adherence to radiation safety measures and radiological waste management among mapped manpower assisting dental practitioners in Wardha district: A Protocol

Dr. Gargi Nimbulkar; Dr. Vasant Wagh; Dr. Abhay Gaidhane; *Dr. Kumar Gaurav Chhabra; Dr. Shravani Deolia; Dr. Abhishek Ingole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2037-2043

Background: Oral and maxillofacial imaging has been long an indispensable
component while diagnosing in dentistry. The biologically hazardous or adverse effects on
human body are well documented. This warrants judicious use to avoid its harmful effects.
Manpower assisting dental practitioners in routine private dental practice in India is an
unmapped manpower. This is a maiden attempt to map manpower assisting dental
practitioners in private dental clinics along with assessment of their knowledge, attitude
and adherence to radiation safety measures and radiological waste
management in Wardha. Objectives: To map the manpower assisting dental practitioners
and to assess knowledge, attitude and adherence to radiological waste management and
radiation safety measures among them. Methodology: This cross-sectional study will utilize
a structured; validated and pre-tested questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and
adherence to radiation safety measures and radiological waste management. The data
collected will be computed and chi square test, unpaired t test, one way ANOVA followed
by post hoc test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient will be used appropriately for
statistical analysis. Results: Till date no studies have been done on manpower assisting
dental practitioners in private dental clinics to assess knowledge, attitude and adherence to
radiological waste management and radiation safety measures. Therefore the data
obtained regarding mapping and knowledge, attitude and practices will be crucial as being

Comparative evaluation of healing after periodontal flap surgery using isoamyl 2- cyanoacrylate (bioadhesive material) and silk sutures: A Study Protocol

Dr. Diksha Agrawal; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal; Dr. Deepika Masurkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2044-2051

Abstract: Background- The main goal in periodontal surgery is the healing by primary
intention because there is less scarring, more rapid healing and reduced discomfort.
Cyanoacrylate is a tissue adhesive which provides benefits to the patient as a faster healing
and less postoperative pain. Flap surgery for periodontal reattachment, demands close
postoperative adaptation for the gingival tissue onto the prepared tooth surface. Objective- To
evaluate the healing after periodontal flap surgery using isoamyl 2‑ cyanoacrylate and silk
sutures. Material and Methods- In this study, 40 patients of systemically healthy will be
selected. Groups will be divided into test and control which consist of 20 defects in each.
Informed written consent will be obtained from all the subjects before the surgery. Clinical
measurements like Plaque index, Papillary bleeding index, Probing pocket depth, Healing
index will be recorded. The test group will be treated by isoamyl 2‑ cyanoacrylate, while the
control group will be treated by Silk suture after periodontal flap surgery. Patients will be
recalled at 1, 3, 6 months post surgically for periodontal re-evaluation. Expected Result- When
all the parameters will be compared at 6 months post-operatively to baseline data, both the
treatment group (test and control) will show significant CAL gain, PPD reduction. Test group
will be found better healing as compared to control. Conclusion- Both the treatment group
(test and control) will show significant CAL gain, PPD reduction. This study will be achieved
effective healing response after periodontal flap surgery with sutures as compared to

Comparing of the patient related esthetic outcome Using Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) membrane with Coronally Advanced Flap With and Without Vertical Releasing Incisions (the envelope-type flap and the flap with VRIs) in Miller Class I and II Gingival recession defects: A Study Protocol

Dr. Deepika Masurkar; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal; Dr. Diksha R. Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2052-2059

Abstract: Aim: To compare the patient related esthetic outcome Using Platelet rich fibrin
(PRF) membrane with Coronally Advanced Flap With and Without Vertical Releasing
Incisions (the envelope-type flap and the flap with VRIs) in Miller Class I and II Gingival
recession defects
Material and Methods- 14 defects will be randomly divided into test and control group
consisting of 7 defects in each. Test group will be treated by PRF + CAF without VRI
group and control group will be treated by PRF +CAF with VRI.Primary outcome will be
gain in root coverage and secondary outcome will be Plaque index (PI), Papillary bleeding
index (PBI), probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), relative gingival
margin level (RGML), recession depth (RD), gingival thickness (GT) and width of
keratinized gingiva (WKG). Clinical evaluation will be performed at 3 & 6 months of
Result-Student’s paired t-test will be utilized to analyze data from the day of surgery to six
months. A comparison of both groups at baseline and six months will be achieved by
student’s unpaired t-test. Comparison of the PI and PBI at baseline & six months will be
performed by student’s paired t-test. When all the parameters will be compared at 6 months
post-operatively to baseline data, both the treatment group (test and control) will show
significant gain in root coverage, RAL gain, PPD reduction, decrease in reduction depth,
increase in GT and WKG.No significant difference will be found in the two groups for
reduction of recession and CAL and satisfaction of patient with regards to esthetics.
Higher chances of complete root coverage and increase WKG will be seen in control
Conclusion- The combination of PRF and CAF without VRI will be effective in the
treatment of gingival recession. PRF in combination with CAF without VRI will have
significant clinical outcome as compared to GTR membrane and CAF with VRI.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2060-2069

Abstract: Background :. Impacted mandibular third molar removal is one of most
commonly practiced minor oral surgical procedure performed by oral surgeons. It causes
injury to the highly vascularized area, causing complications like pain, swelling and
trismus. Bromelain, a botanical enzyme leads to significantly decrease the sequalae after
removal of impacted third molar. Aim:. Comparison of efficacy of bromelain and
aceclofenac to reduce post-operative complications after removal of third molar. Material
and methods :Patients having impacted third molar selected for study. The sample
population is 72 and will be divided in 2 groups, each consisting 36 patients. Group 1 will
be prescribed with Bromelain capsules 250 mg TDS for 5 days and Group 2 will be
prescribed Tab. Aceclofenac BD for 5 days. The sequalae of mandibular third molar
surgery include pain, swelling and trismus is measured in two groups and data collected.
Expected Results : Student’s unpaired t-test will be analyse the data from the on 1st ,3
rdand 7 thday postoperatively . A comparison of both drugs will be achieved by unpaired ttest.
The variables include pain, swelling and trismus. When all the parameters will be
compared till six postoperatively, the bromelain shows significant results in reducing postop
complications like pain, edema and trismus in removal of impacted third molar.
Conclusion : Bromelain said to have greater efficacy than Aceclofenac for reducing
sequlae like pain, swelling and trismus after impacted third molar surgery.

―Comparison of resection performed by Peroral and Transoral route on surgical margins in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.‖

Dr Chirag Sunil Patil; Dr. Anendd Arroon Jadhav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2070-2078

Abstract: Backround: Lip-split incision has been traditionally used to manage the primary
oral cavity tumour to ascertain clear surgical margins. Small tumour excision is routinely
carried out per orally; however, there is a paucity of data vis-à-vis with the oncological
safety of per oral approach in T2/T3 excision of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Objective of the study: We compared per oral access over the transoral access in terms of
assessing the tumour free surgical margins. Settings & Design: A prospective,
interventional, double-blind, randomized control study was conducted among 20
histopathologically proven participants with previously untreated OSCC scheduled for
curative intent. Subjects & Method: Participants were randomly allocated to the two
intervention used. The primary outcome variables evaluated were the adequacy of the
surgical margin. Additionally, the primary tumour resection time between two
interventions was assessed. Results: The primary tumour resection time will be
significantly extended in Peroral access & no significant difference will be seen pertaining
to the adequacy of a safe surgical margin between two intervention. Peroral access will be
a choice of surgical approaches that preserve function, minimize complications and
maximize cosmetic outcome. Conclusion: Surgical approaches that minimalize
complications, preserve function with the optimal cosmetic outcome should be utilized
whenever feasible. Peroral access may offer significant advantages like avoiding transoral
trauma, fastens the healing time & affords better & faster recovery.

Comparative evaluation of effectiveness of progressive occlusal equilibration using conventional and computerized analysis on crestal bone loss around single implant in posterior region

Dr Arihant Bathiya; Dr. Sweta Kale Pisulkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2073-2084

Abstract: Background: Dental implantology has emerged as treatment of choice for missing
tooth replacement. Implant occlusion is a dominant factor which affects implant success.
Various practices are there for occlusal consideration and its adjustment like articulating
paper and T scan for regularly employed in clinics. Very less literature is available
on effectiveness of better method for occlusal correction. Objectives: To assess and analyze
efficacy of occlusal equilibration using computerized analysis at various time intervals to
evaluate the crestal bone loss around single posterior implants. Methods: This study will be
performed on 50 partially edentulous patients with single posterior missing tooth will be
selected. Implant with two-stage protocol will be placed. Primary stability at first stage surgery
and secondary stability at second stage surgery will be evaluated. Immediately after
loading of implant CBCT will be taken to evaluate base line crestal bone level, with cement
retained PFM crown. In study group T scan is used as intervention. CBCT will be taken
after 12 months of placement of implant prosthesis to evaluate crestal bone level for all patients.
Results: Statistical significance of the mean differences between the measurements
in the interval of 12 months will be tested with Student’s paired t-test, Chi square test, and
unpaired t test. Conclusion: Periodic equilibration using T scan will be an effective protocol
to control the further crestal bone loss. There by this procedure will also be addressing
the complication in occlusal consideration in implantology, eventually result in implant

Evaluation of Knowledge and Need of Esthetic Restorative Services Among Dental Interns.


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2085-2089

Abstract: Introduction: Esthetics has become as important as function, structure and biology,
until about the last two decades, in dental practice as current advertising and the media in
general emphasize the effect of a pleasant appearance because of its importance in many
everyday situations. This fact leads to changes in patients' esthetic needs and consequence of
dental treatment priority. Aim : To evaluate knowledge and need of esthetic restorative
services among dental interns. Material and method: Total 100 dental interns will be selected
for Sharad Pawar Dental College. A convenience sampling method is used. Interns will be
given questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. Questionnaire will be subdivided in two parts,
one part consisting of question related to knowledge of esthetic restorative services and second
part will include question related to need for esthetic restorative services. Analysis will be done
using Chi square test. Conclusion : This analysis will helps us to evaluate the knowledge of
esthetic among dental interns and it will also help us to know the need of esthetic restorative
services among dental interns. Expected results: The results will show that the knowledge of
dental esthetic among dental interns will not be fully satisfactory ,there will be variation in the
level of knowledge of dental esthetic and there will be a need in the improvement of the
knowledge and need of dental esthetics.

Comparison of Poliglecaprone 25 (monofilament) and Polyglactin 910 (multifilament) suture material in terms of soft tissue healing of surgical wound after cleft alveolar bone grafting

Dr. Prachet Dakshinkar; Dr. Rajiv Borle; Dr. Nitin Bhola; Dr. Apoorva Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2091-2097

Abstract: Background: Grafting the maxilla having cleft in alveolus is a part of
comprehensive sequential treatment of cleft patients so as to facilitate eruption of
permanent canine, achieve continuity of maxilla for orthognathic corrections and
supporting alar bases. Unhindered soft tissue healing is critical to preventing graft
exposure and achieving graft uptake. Poliglecaprone 25(monofilament) suture is known to
have low capillarity. Thus it can be of benefit in achieving the required healing of soft
tissue over cleft maxilla after bone grafting. Aim: To Compare Poliglecaprone
25(monofilament) and Polyglactin 910(multifilament) suture material in terms of soft
tissue healing of surgical wound after cleft alveolar bone grafting. Material and Methods:
Patients of unilateral cleft alveolus will have to be randomly divided into two sections. Group A
comprising of patients in whom closure will be done by Poliglecaprone 25 whereas Group B of
patients in whom closure will be done by Polyglactin 910.Success of the choice of suture material
will be evaluated in terms of soft tissue healing, suture slack and number of inflammatory cells on
suture surface. Result: Results will be analyzed using Student’s paired t test. It is expected
that the healing will be significantly better in Group A than Group B. Conclusion:
Efficacy of Poliglecaprone 25 in terms of soft tissue healing after alveolar bone grafting
can be validated through this study.

Comparison of three suturing techniques in securing the PMMC flap in the oral cavity in OSCC.

Dr. Deepankar Shukla; Dr. Anendd Jadhav; Dr. Nitin Bhola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2098-2104

Abstract: Background: In order to promote healing by primary intention the positioning
and suturing of surgical flap is the main objective. Aim: To compare ‘Simple interrupted’,
‘Vertical mattress ‘ and ‘ Figure of 8’ suturing techniques in intraoral closure of PMMC
flap in oncological ablative defects in Oral Carcinoma. Material and Methods: 30
histopathologically proven patients of oral carcinomas allocated to 3 groups equally in
non randomized order requiring PMMC flap for rehabilitation of post ablative defect.
Group A consisted patients underwent PMMC flap closure with Vertical Mattress suturing
technique, Group B consisted patients underwent PMMC flap closure with Simple
Interrupted suturing technique and Group C patients underwent PMMC flap closure with
Figure of 8 suturing technique. Gaping and wound dehiscence and marginal necrosis
assessed at 1st week and 3rd week postoperatively. Result: Irrespective of the type of
suturing technique used there will be no significant difference in the healing outcome will
be observed. Conclusion: Simple interrupted suture was fastest to take. Vertical mattress
suture was more time consuming and Figure of 8 was also time efficient. No statistically
significant advantage could be drawn in terms of Gaping, Dehiscence and Marginal
necrosis amongst the three techniques considered in our study.

―Comparison of Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap with and without Lateral Axillary Incision in Reconstruction of Soft Tissue Defect in Head and Neck Region‖- A Pilot Study

Dr. Manan Gupta; Dr. Nitin Bhola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2105-2115

Abstract: Background - Major ablative surgeries leads to soft and hard tissue defects which
require reconstruction which gives better functional and aesthetic outcomes. Pectoralis
major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is a workhorse flap for soft tissue reconstruction owing
to its merits. The conventional technique of harvesting PMMC flap is associated with
donor site complications such as functional deformity and scar contracture. A modified
technique without lateral axillary incision for harvesting PMMC flap may provide better
results. Aim - To compare the two incision designs of harvesting PMMC flap (with lateral
axillary incision and without lateral axillary incision) in soft tissue defect reconstruction in
head and neck region. Methodology – A prospective pilot study will be performed on 16
patients diagnosed with OSCC requiring resection, neck dissection and reconstruction with
PMMC flap. These patients will be allocated to two groups by alternate randomization,
Group A PMMC flap harvest with lateral axillary incision and Group B PMMC flap
harvest without lateral axillary incision. The patients will be subjected to General
anaesthesia and surgery will be performed by single experienced surgeon. Parameters
assessed will be time taken for harvesting the flap, time required for closure of donor site,
flap survival, range of motion (ROM) of shoulder (Degree of endorotation and
exorotation), complications (hematoma, seroma, dehiscence, marginal necrosis, infection)
and scar formation. The obtained data will be filled in MS excel sheet and statistical
analysis will be done. Expected result – The modified technique would prove better in
terms of function and aesthetic with minimal complications and that it will provide new
insight in choosing the best approach with minimal complications for harvesting of PMMC
flap. Conclusion - The results if favours the modified technique with respect to time of
harvesting, time of closure of donor site and complications, will help in the reconstruction
of such defects with minimal donor site complications and improved outcomes.

Comparative Analysis For The Presence And Intensity Of TMD Symptoms In Skeletal Class I Malocclusion, Skeletal Class II Horizontal Malocclusion & Skeletal Class II Vertical Malocclusion Using Helkimo And Craniomandibular Index. A Study Protocol


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2113-2118

Abstract: Background: Healthy dentition is a pre requisite for good esthestic, phonectics
and self-esteemed of an individual. In India 40-80% of population have one or the other
class of malocclusion with varying severity. There are various methods used of evaluation
of TMJ dysfunction like tomogram, MRI, but Helkimo is a pioneer in developing indices
by which severity can be clinical evaluated Temporomandibular disorder is a multifactorial
disease. Awareness regarding this is an important aspect in today’s scenario. In
Orthodontic practice awareness regarding TMD is utmost important. A parallel group trial
study is to analyze & compare presence and intensity of TMD symptoms in skeletal class I,
class II (vertical & horizontal) using Helkimo and Craniomandibular index. This study
will help us in day to day Orthodontic practice.
Objective: Evaluation of presence & intensity of TMD symptoms in skeletal class I, class II
(vertical & horizontal) cases using Helkimo index & Craniomandibular index.
Evaluation of presence & intensity of TMD symptoms in skeletal class I, class II (vertical
& horizontal) cases using Craniomandibular index
Material and methods: Total 90 patients (Class I, Class II (vertical & horizontal)), in age
range of 14-25 years, will be selected.
For every patient, Helkimo and craniomandibular index will be taken. Scores will be
recorded and will be compared. The results compared will give us which skeletal pattern is
prone for TMD.

A protocol for Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Ksheerabala Oil and Steroid mouthwash In Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis- an in vivo study


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2119-2127

Abstract: Background: OSMF, apre-malignant condition is a very common and chronic
condition occurring mostly due to habit of tobacco consumption and various other factors
which affects the oral cavity characterized by mucosal burning on consuming hot & spicy
food, oral ulcerations, fibrosis leading to difficulty in mouth opening. There are vast
treatment options for this condition including pharmacotherapy, physiotherapy, surgical
approaches but in our study we used an ayurvedic preparation called ksheerabala oil
which has least side effects and is having holistic approach for treatment. It will also be
compared with effectiveness of steroid mouthwash in the treatment of OSMF.
Objectives: To evaluate efficacy of steroid mouthwash, ksheerabala oil and the
combination of ksheerabala oil and steroid mouthwash in improvement and management
of mouth opening, burning sensation of the mouth and cheek flexibility.
Method: This study targets 90 patients clinically diagnosed to have OSMF which will be
divided in three groups: Group A, B & C with 30 subjects in each group. Group A will be
instructed to gargle with 10 ml of 0.1% Dexamethasone for 10 min. three times daily for 1
month. Group B will be instructed to to gargle initially with 10 ml of 0.1% Dexamethasone
for 10 min& then with 10 ml of ksheerabala oil for 10 min three times daily for 1 month &
Group C to gargle with 10 ml of ksheerabala oil for 10min three times daily for 1 month.
Patients will be recalled after every 7 days for a period of 1 month and on each visit, mouth
opening, burning sensation and cheek flexibility will be recorded.
Results: The primary outcome of the study will be increase in degree of mouth opening and
secondary outcome will be decrease in burning sensation and improvement in cheek
flexibility after treatment in OSMF patients. The severity of burning sensation will reduce
after using ksheerabala oil and steroid mouthwash both while combination of both may or
may not be effective but ksheerabala oil will be more effective in improvement of mouth
opening and cheek flexibility compared to steroid.

“Evaluation of Conventional Corticotomy With Novel Piezosurgery In Orthodontic Treatment - Study Protocol For A Comparative Study”


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2128-2131

Abstract: Background: Addressing the needs of young adults undergoing orthodontic for
faster treatment with unrealistic requirements has become challenge in modern era to
orthodontists. So, to meet the treatment needs of the patients a combined multidisciplinary
approach of orthodontists and oral surgeon is required. Various techniques are emerging in
accelerated orthodontics field. Piezosurgery being a novel minimally invasive technique has
shown to be a emerging trend with good results with the piezocision technique. Objectives: We
aim to evaluate and compare the conventional corticotomy with piezo-guided corticotomy in
accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment. Methods: This randomized comparative study
has sample size of 24 subjects equally divided in two groups, i.e. conventional corticotomy
group done with bur and piezo-guided corticotomy group. The time required for the surgical
procedure, rate and amount of tooth movement and total treatment time required for
completion of space closure was measured. Along with this, secondary parameters like
gingival recession, periodontal pocket formation and dehiscence/ fenestration formation were
also assessed. Results: Piezosurgery being minimally invasive requires more time for surgical
procedure, however, it more efficiently moved tooth with reduced total treatment time when
compared to conventional corticotomy. The piezosurgical group resulted in faster rate as well
as amount of tooth movement than bur group. Although there was no statistically significant
difference evident in complications associated with accelerated orthodontics tooth movement.
Conclusion: A novel, minimally invasive approach for surgical orthodontics with better
patient acceptance is equally effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement and
definitely widen the scope of surgically accelerated orthodontic treatment with prognostically
satisfactory clinical outcomes.

“Evaluating Salivary pH, Uric acid, & CReactive Protein levels in Completely Edentulous patients before and after wearing Complete dentures incorporated with and without 7.5% Chitosan nanoparticles” – An Interventional Study


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2132-2137

Abstract: Background: Saliva plays major part in oral well-being of complete denture
users and also considered a very important biomarker for overall body health and indicates
several biomolecules just like blood to give useful information and monitoring of diseases
and health .Denture stomatitis is a common finding in complete denture wearers and
analysing salivary ph, Uric acid & C-reactive protein levels through saliva collection will
help in its early diagnosis and treatment. Chitosan, a biomaterial nanoparticle
incorporated into dentures gives it antifungal and antimicrobial effect. Having
antimicrobial and regenerative properties it is of interest in dentistry and already being
used in toothpastes, mouth rinses and dental dressings.
Objectives: To evaluate salivary ph , Uric acid & C-Reactive protein levels before and after
complete denture insertion with and without addition of Chitosan nanoparticles &
Comparatively evaluate the outcome.
Method: 15 complete denture patients incorporated with Chitosan nanoparticles will be
tested for salivary ph, C-Reactive protein & Uric acid levels. Saliva samples will be
collected from subjects immediately before the insertion of complete dentures and after 24
hrs and compared with Control groups not containing Chitosan.
Results: This study shows antifungal and antimicrobial effect of Chitosan in Complete
dentures which implies less fungal activity post denture insertion leading to less denture
stomatitis cases proving effectiveness in preventing Denture stomatitis.

Comparative Evaluation of improvement in clinical symptoms in moderate TMD cases with the use of Advanced Light Force appliance- An in vivo study

Dr. Purva Dhannawat; Dr. Sunita Shrivastav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2138-2143

Abstract: Introduction: There has been increase in number of TMD cases which may go
undiagnosed and progress in severe form. There are various options for treating TMD one
of them is ALF appliance .It delivers light and continuous forces when fitted in arches.
This appliance mainly uses functional force for its working. ALF can improve position and
function of tongue, airway dimensions, sleep due to clear airway, it facilitates breathing
through nose and sinus drainage improving overall balance of facial bone. The use of ALF
appliance has also been suggested in deprogramming the TMJ and help preventing
aggregation of TMD symptoms in patients taking orthodontic treatment. But no such
studies has been carried out to see its effect on TMD. Hence, a study is planned evaluating
TMD’s in moderate group described by Helkimo index and comparing the symptoms pre
and postoperatively with ALF appliance. Materials and method: Patients seeking
orthodontic treatment will be checked for any TMD’s. Helkimo’s index will be recorded.
Mild to moderate cases as per Helkimo’s index will be selected cases for study. Appliance is
fabricated using flexible and resilient 0.025 elgiloy wire. Helkimo index will be obtained at
different intervals for evaluating any changes in TMD symptoms. Conclusion: No such
studies has been carried out to see its effect on TMD. Hence, a study is planned evaluating
TMD’s in moderate group described by Helkimo index and comparing the symptoms pre
and postoperatively with ALF appliance.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2144-2150

Abstract: Background: Accelerated orthodontics aimed at reducing orthodontic treatment
duration. The main setback that occurs in the treatment of patients who require first premolar
extraction is the distalization of the canines, which requires longer treatment duration. There
are many surgical techniques evolved to accelerate tooth movement. So this study will help us
to evaluate and compare canine retraction rate between two surgical techniques i.e
corticotomy facilitated orthodontics and piezocision technique. Objective: The main objective
of this study is to compare rate of canine retraction in corticotomy facilitated orthodontics and
piezocision technique. Methods: The sample consisted of 22 patients (15-25 years old) with
Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The suggested treatment plan for the given sample was
extraction of the maxillary first premolars with subsequent canine retraction. Split mouth
study design was selected for study. After initial leveling and alignment, first premolar will be
extracted then one side was assigned for corticotomy and contralateral side for piezocision in
the area of first premolar and canine retraction was initiated bilaterally with 0.019×0.025 SS
wire in slot. Study models will be obtained presurgery T0 and postsurgery at T1, T2 and T3
time interval. The following variables were examined over a 3-month follow-up period: rate of
canine retraction, molar anchorage loss, canine rotation with the help of study model. Results:
This study will found that rate of canine retraction will be more in corticotomy facilitated
orthodontics when compared with piezocision. Conclusion: This study will conclude that
corticotomy will be more efficient technique for canine retraction when compared to


Karaxodjaeva Dilorom; Leila Burkhanova; Umida Sharakhmetova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2151-2161

Abstract: In the light of the development of the draft of a new edition of the Civil
Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan, new approaches to the definition of the concept, legal
capacity, constituent documents of a legal entity, the emergence and forms of legal entities,
state registration, bodies of a legal entity, the name and location of a legal entity have been
determined, and prospects for development and improvement of these definitions in the
legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan, and the peculiarities of providing this process
with the spread of coronavirus infection. It is determined that a legal entity is an
organization that has a separate property, which can be responsible for its obligations, can
acquire and exercise civil rights and bear obligations. It is proposed to create an exhaustive
list of legal forms of legal entities and include all forms in the civil code, taking into
account the current version. The article analyzes the reasons for the formation of legal
entities, which should occur through the establishment of a new legal entity, or through
the reorganization of legal entities. It is also determined that legal entities act on the basis
of constituent documents provided for by law for a specific organizational and legal form.
The article substantiates the provision that in addition to state registration, it is necessary
to provide for re-registration of legal entities. Proposals are formulated to improve the civil
legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the field of regulating the legal status of legal
entities and to include these provisions in the draft of the new version of the Civil Code of
the Republic of Uzbekistan.


Tadjibaeva Albina

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2162-2168

Abstract. This article examines the importance and role of ensuring the protective
function of the criminal process, and also analyzes the issues of the defense's involvement
in juvenile cases. It has also been proved that the active and sincere participation of the
defense counsel, the application of all methods and means provided by law in the interests
of his client, is important in a fair trial in favor of the accused.


Tulaganova Gulchehra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2169-2173

Abstract. This article analyzes the involvement of the court, law enforcement and a
lawyer in criminal proceedings. At the same time, it was noted that it is important for
lawyers to strengthen their participation in the evidentiary process based on advocacy
tactics and strategies in their work. In the concluding section, it is noted that it serves to
ensure the principle of adversariality, while providing an opportunity to further strengthen
the defense function of the lawyer.


Saodat Nasmetova; Tashkhan Gulyamova; Dilorom Ruzieva; Iqbol Mukhammedov; Lilia Abdulmyanova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2174-2181

Abstract. Postprandial hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor involved in type 2
diabetes. The elevated level of postprandial hyperglycemia is caused by carbohydratehydrolyzing
enzymes, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase. Inhibition of these enzymes appears to
be an effective means for diabetes management. Recent studies suggested that endophytic
fungi of some medicinal plants produce α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors. The
endophytic fungus P. brevicaule alba-CC 200, which exposes inhibition of α-amylase, was
isolated from the Celosia cristata plant. This article presents data on the purification of
inhibitory compounds from the methanolic extract of Penicillium brevicaule alba Thom-
CC200. Fraction of G-7 with the highest inhibitory activity of 76.5% isolated by adsorption
column chromatography. The yield of dry samples was more than 18 weight % (w/w) with
more than 60% purity. The HPLC and LC-MS of fraction G-7 indicated that the inhibitory
activity is these fractions associated with the triterpene saponins.


Mashkura Mavloniy; Suvonkul Nurmanov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2182-2185

bank of microorganisms - main agents of oilfield pipelines and equipment
biocorrosion - is created. Technical specifications for producing the most promising
biocorrosion inhibitors and their application methods in the oil production industry prevent
oilfield pipelines biocorrosion.


Zaynitdinova L.I.; Juraeva R.N.,; Kukanova S.I; Vokhidova N.R.; Tashpulatov J.J; Lobanova I.V.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2186-2193

Capability of different microorganisms to produce nanoparticles of silver (NPAg)
at different pH levels was studied. It was established that pH of the reaction medium
considerably affects form and size of produced nanoparticles. The fact of NPAg formation
produced by the different microorganisms was studied by UV-spectroscopy and AFmicroscopy
methods.It was determined that in the selected conditions of the synthesis both
clusters and nanoparticles of silver are produced ranging in size from 20 to 300 nm and
form absorption bands at max275 nm and 420 nm, respectively. It was revealed that
changeof pH level of the reaction system may result in regulation of the size and form of
the nanoparticles.


A.M. Mavzhudova; B.D. Mamarasulov; A.K.Tonkikh .; G.H. Kadyrova; T.S. Husanov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2194-2203

The new Aral strain Dunaliella salina AR-1 has been isolated and its
development cycle has been studied. The appearance, structure and reproduction of green
microalgae Dunaliella salina is described. It is shown that its main type of reproduction is
reproduction through the formation of palmels. Maximum accumulation of biomass was
observed at the concentration of NaCL 2.5-3.0 M and pH= 6.5-7.0. The composition of β-
carotenes in the biomass of green and brown form of Dunaliella salina AR-1 has been
studied, as well as the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus salts content on this process.


Dr. Tadjibayeva Oltinoy Kasimovna; Melikuziev Ikbal Mamasadikovich; Khusanov Sherzod Tirkashaliyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2204-2215

In this scientific article, determining the role of computer technology and
special effects in cinema as a new visual expression tool and, in this connection to the
filmmaking, the problems associated with film resolution, was analyzed. The purpose of
this article is to identify common features and regularities of the development of computerspecific
effects with the example of renowned films that have been created in this sphere.
This article also clarifies the role of special effects in the development of Uzbek cinema.
Achievements and imperfections in this field, as well as issues of artistic quality in
contemporary Uzbek cinema, and the importance of expanding and enriching the moral
world of the audience through visual aids, were also analyzed.


Melikuziev Ikbal Mamasadikovich; Khusanov Sherzod Tirkashaliyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2216-2232

The object of this research is the photographic art of Uzbekistan, and the subject
of the research is the analysis of the specifics of photographic art as the essential structure
of modern culture of Uzbekistan. The purpose of the work is to identify and analyze the
specifics of the photographic art of Uzbekistan in the historical and cultural context and
the purpose of the work defines the following tasks: To outline the main modern problems
of understanding photos and ways to solve them. In this work we carried out a cultural
analysis of the development of photographic art in Uzbekistan in the XX - XXI centuries;

Ensuring Balance Among Branches of Public Power During the Development of Civil Society in Uzbekistan

Almagul Bayrieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2233-2239

Abstract. The article analyzes the balance of power between sectors of the political system
in Uzbekistan in the context of democratic reforms. This analysis is considered from the
point of view of the development of civil society, and implies a correlation between regional
and central bodies of representative power. In the article, particular attention is drawn to
the value orientations of both government representatives and civil society actors in the
perception of civic activism and civic participation. The article allows us to understand
deeply such institutions as the state, rule of law, and democratic accountability during the


Odilkhon Salimov; Аvzal Akbarov; Nigman Khabilov; Barno Pulatova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2240-2253

Abstract: At present, the implants are performed in the form of one screw element, in
which the intraosseous and extraosseous parts are parts of the whole screw, as well as two
parts in the way of separate screw elements connected, one of which acts as the intraosseous
part and the extraosseous part [4,5,9,11,12,17,27]. The team of the Department of Hospital
and Faculty Orthopedic Dentistry created a domestic dental implant, made in the form of a
screw contains the intracostal part in the form of a rod with a thread and a section with a
smooth surface, the extraostal part for the crown in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped,
which is connected to the screw with a ball head. The intracostal and extraostal parts are
made as one whole.


Diyor Turdikulovich Juraev; Oybek Anvarovich Amanov; Sherzod Dilmurodovich Dilmurodov; Nurzod Bekmurodovich Boysunov; Jabarov Farrukh Odirovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2254-2270

Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is considered one of the world's most important
cereal crops. Every year 704 million tons of grain is produced worldwide. Bread wheat
croplands cover 17% of the total crop area. In recent years, sudden changes in air
temperatures have a negative impact on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and
molecular properties of wheat and grain yield. Therefore, it is important to create highyielding
and resistant varieties of bread wheat to abiotic factors and to develop its primary
source in the condition of different regions. In the result of this study, the influence of
high temperature which varied from 30°С and above continuously during spiking and
maturation period of grain, especially in the period of grain filling, on grain quality and
productivity has been studied thoroughly for southern parts of Uzbekistan. Mostly, winter
bread wheat varieties are grown in these southern regions. The optimal sowing time in
autumn season is the second decade of October. In order to determine the heat resistance
of the winter wheat varieties that are mostly grown in the Republic and selected in the
result of breeding, the experiments and observations were carried out on optimal and late
sowing periods. The optimal planting time was found to be appropriate on the 15th of
October and for late sowing the 15th of November. At the same time, late sown varieties and
samples are divided into resistant and non-resistant groups due to the delay in the
maturation period and greater exposure to heat. At the study, temperatures during the
growth period were calculated and daily temperatures during the grain filling period were
determined too, and the influence of air temperature on growth phases, height of plant
(cm), spike length (cm), number of spikelets in a spike (pieces), grain weight in a spike(g),
weight of 1000 grains (g), grain nature (g/l), protein amount (%), gluten amount (%), its
changes and the results in optimal and late periods were studied by comparing them.


Utkir Adilov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2271-2281

Abstract. Occupational risks affect the health of miners and up to 40% of labor losses
are caused by diseases directly or indirectly connected with unfavorable working conditions.
The research aimed to determine the degree of connection of the disease incidence by
temporary loss of working capacity of coal mine workers with working conditions, which was
estimated for all classes of diseases and the relative risk (OR) value was 1.69 units, etiological
share (EF) - 41% and was estimated as average. These incidence rates for the disease classes
were almost complete: Class XIII (OR=5.08 units; EF=80%) and Class XIX (OR=5.03 units;
EF=80%), and high for the disease classes: Class XI (OR=2.57 units; EF=61%) and Class X
(OR=2.46 units; EF=59%). This relationship by day was almost complete among: Class X
(OR=6.18 units; EF=100%), Class XI (OR=7.27 units; EF=100%), Class XIII (OR=7.79
units; EF=100%), and Class XIX (OR=17.87 units; EF=100%). Among workers engaged in
underground coal mining, the value of ОR=1.4 units, EF=29.3%, was occasionally observed
and assessed as small. Relationship of the disease to underground working conditions was
assessed as very high by disease classes: Class X (OR=3.6 units; EF=72.1%), Class XI
(OR=3.8 units; EF=73.5%) and Class XIII (OR=4.8 units; EF=79.1%). The disease
relationship by day was almost complete: in Grade XI (OR=5.3 units; EF=100%) and Grade
XIII (OR=8.9 units; EF=100%), and high in Grade X disease (OR=3.0 units; EF=100%). The
risk of eating disorders of workers was identified by class XI disease and was assessed as very
high in cases (OR=3.8 units; EF=73.8%). A high degree of occupational conditionality was
determined for Class XIII disease (OR=2.2 units; EF=55.3%).


Mavjuda Rakhmatullaeva; Sabirjan Aminov; Avez Sharipov; Javohir Jumabayev; Nilufar Elova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2282-2291

Abstract: The task of the present paper is to develop scientific bases and technological
solutions for creating a combined pharmaceutical composition for normalization of intestinal
system function. The assigned task is solved by a combination of energy sorbent of
montmorillonite clay with a mixture of probiotic - Lastobacillus plantarum mal and prebiotic
inulin. The creation of such a composition is the most effective for normalization of intestinal
system function since prebiotic products create a favorable and complete nutrient environment
for maintenance and growth of the useful microbial culture of probiotics that were in
annibiosis (inactive state), and the enterosorbent of montmorillonite clay provides "adsorption
activity" for adsorption of toxic substances. The essence of the technology for obtaining a
combined pharmaceutical composition for the normalization of intestinal system function,
containing prebiotic and probiotic, as well as enterosorbent - montmorillonitic clay, in which
from dry inulin - prebiotic prepare aqueous solution, then it is sterilized by autoclaving, added
probiotic culture Lastobacillus plantarum mal, which is restored from the dried state by three
times crossing into the MRS - broth, At the same time, Lastobacillus plantarum mal is
centrifuged, cells are separated from the cultural liquid and thoroughly mixed before
lyophilisation of the substance. The suspension is mixed with a protective medium consisting
of milk, sugar and gelatine, the resulting mixture is also subjected to lyophilic drying, the dry
amorphous biomass is added to autoclaved montmorrillionite clay and the final product is
light brown with a pleasant sour-milk smell. This product serves as a sachet filling station -
sachets with additives.


Adilov U.H .; Khashirbaeva D.M .; Voronina N.V .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2292-2306

Abstract. The scientific work presents the results of dynamic research to study the structure,
level and dynamics of the general, professionally conditioned and professional morbidity of
employees of SE “Ferghana Oil Refinery”, SE “Ferghana Heat and Power Plant” and JSC
“Ferghanaazot”, which are part of the Kyrgyz Industrial Zone of the Ferghana region for 5
years (2010-2014). The main professional qualification groups working at the enterprises
under research at the age of 19 to 40 years with the work experience from 1 to 20 years were
surveyed. 6000 man-days of working observations were made. High morbidity rates were
revealed among the employees of Ferghana Oil Refinery and JSC “Ferghanaazot” in the
groups with the experience of up to 5 years and 11-20 years. The analysis of morbidity rate
among age groups of workers showed high indices at the age above 35 years. In the structure
of morbidity for the period of 2010-2014, the first leading places were occupied by diseases of
respiratory organs, then by diseases of circulatory and digestive organs, traumas and
poisoning, then by diseases of the nervous system, skin and subcutaneous tissue. High
respiratory diseases are associated with long-term exposure to occupational risk factors, where
chemical contamination is the most dangerous.


Rohatoy Takhirova; Shakhnoza Abzalova; Gulchehra Pirnazarova; Kamola Yakubova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2307-2313

Abstract. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory progressive disease of the
connective tissue with a predominant lesion of small joints of the type of erosive-destructive
polyarthritis of unknown etiology with complex autoimmune pathogenesis, which often
leads to combined pathology of the body and disability of children and adults. The disease
is characterized by a rather early manifestation of high disability (70%). The main causes
of death from the disease are infectious complications and renal failure. Treatment focuses
mainly on pain relief, slowing the progression of the disease and repairing injuries
through surgery. Early detection of the disease using modern means can significantly
reduce the damage that can be done to joints and other tissues. The first cases of
manifestation can be recorded after severe physical exertion, emotional shock, fatigue,
during hormonal adjustment, exposure to adverse factors or infection. With all this, it is
necessary to study the intersystemic relationships of this disease. In this regard, the goal of
our research is to study the relationship of immunological parameters and indicators of the
endocrine system in rheumatoid arthritis in children. We examined 98 children, 58 of
which were girls (59%) and 40 boys (41%) aged 7 to 17 years with the JRA. The duration
of the JRA ranged from 6 months to 7 years. Among the patients examined by us, about
half were children with a disease period of 1-3 years. The articular form of the disease was
observed in 66 children (the maximum activity of the disease was in 19, moderate in 27,
minimal in 20), articular-visceral in 32. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children
of the same age. The results of our studies showed that with rheumatoid arthritis,
depending on the form of the disease in children, there was a high level of TSH and ACTH
and a low content of T3, T4 and cortisol. With prolonged exposure to stress, the excretion
of hormones by the effector glands decreases and the level of pituitary hormones increases
according to the principle of negative feedback. A similar type of endocrine system
functioning has been identified in children with rheumatoid arthritis. There are also
significant changes in the immune status: the content of T-lymphocytes in the blood
decreases and the activity of the B-system of immunity increases. Depending on the severity
and form of the disease, the closeness of correlations was also revealed. Based on this, our
observations of children with articular rheumatoid arthritis over three years showed that
changes in the parameters of the immune and endocrine systems persist. The inclusion of
glucocorticoid hormones in therapy in patients with articular-visceral form of rheumatoid
arthritis showed a positive dynamics of indicators, the state of the immune, as well as the


Fatima Mukhamedjanova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2314-2319

Abstract: Preservation and strengthening of the health of children and adolescents is
one of the most essential tasks of the State in the context of the transition to new standards of
education in general education schools, connected with the introduction of innovative
pedagogical technologies, increasing the level of information component and intensification
of mental loads (additional classes, sections, circles), computerization of the educational
process [2, 3, 8]. The beginning of learning at school is one of the most stressful periods of life
activity when the mechanisms of brain support for cognitive activity are formed during a
sharp change of social conditions [1, 2].


Vasila K. Abdullaeva; Temur B. Irmuhamedov; Kamola B. Sultanova; Dilorom S. Abbasova; Anastasiya A. Matveeva; Aleksey V. Rogov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2320-2327

Abstract. The premorbid period of schizophrenia is caused by various factors and
can be considered as one of the most important periods of the patient's life, which affects
the further course of schizophrenia and adaptive capabilities, which in turn indicates that
the features of the premorbid period also affect the ability of patients with schizophrenia to
form therapeutic compliance. The aim of the study was to study the premorbid features of
patients with paranoid schizophrenia with cerebral hemodynamic disorders. It should be
concluded that ontogenetic biological factors, hereditary burden, cognitive disorders,
characterological personal characteristics are risk factors for the development of cerebral
vascular dystonia in patients with paranoid schizophrenia


Yokutkhon , Nurmukhamedova; Botir Daminov; Gulchekhra Kadirova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2334-2342

This article sanctifies the immune system of pregnant women, its role in
maintaining and carrying the fetus, the peculiarities of cellular and humoral immunity of
pregnant women with chronic pyelonephritis. Data on the impact of chronic inflammatory
process on the immune system of pregnant women are presented.


Botir Daminov; Sherzod Abdullaev; Ranokhon Igamberdieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2346-2352

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) develop a tendency to bleed and
thromboembolism, so the indication for anticoagulants at the attachment of atrial
fibrillation (AF) is complex. AF is the most common chronic heart arrhythmia, and
thromboembolism and ischemic stroke in particular are the main complications. In recent
years, new oral anticoagulants have been developed and they have shown superiority over
the classic antivitamin K anticoagulants in preventing the risk of stroke, systemic embolism
and bleeding, providing an effective alternative to these resources


Onarkulov Karimberdi; Yakub Usmanov; G’aynazarova Kizlarhon; Azimov Toolanboy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2353-2358

Abstract: The article discusses the technological aspects of the production of stoichiometric
alloys with the addition of Pb with high thermoelectric properties and their use in the film
version as sensors for volume changes at low temperatures

Cerebrocardial syndrome, ways of full correction

D. T. Abdukadirova; U.T. Abdukadirov; Sh. M. Kobilov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2359-2364

The purpose of the research: to determine the clinical effectiveness of complex
therapy with cholinealfoscerate drugs as a supplement to standard therapy in patients in
the acute period of ischemic stroke of hemisphere localization. Materials and methods:
Sixty patients with acute cerebral stroke were examined, with an average age of 56+_ to
4.38. The main methods of the study were the collection of complaints and history, analysis
of medical records, assessment of somatic and neurological status, paraclinical research
methods (MRI), study of cognitive functions. The examination of patients was carried out
during the acute period of stroke and repeated after 3 months. The results have been
processed statistically. Results.The study revealed that the use of drugs of the group
cholinealphoszerate in the acute phase of stroke and in the next 2 months has a beneficial
effect not only on the restoration of motor and sensitive neurological deficits, improved
cardiac activity, but also reduces the incidence of early post-stroke dementia (high
confidence) and reduces the severity of clinical manifestations of lung and moderate
cognitive disorders. Conclusions. For the comprehensive correction of the manifestations
of ACCD and the prevention of post-stroke dementia, as well as reducing the progression
of cognitive disorders, stroke patients should recommend the use of drugs
chodinoalfoscerat (Cerepro) (in a dose of 2000mg/day intravenous drip for 5 days, then
1000mg/day intravenous5 days, then 1 restorative tablet 2 times a day (800mg/day) - 2
months) from the first days of stroke and in the early period.


Babajanov O.A; Arifov S.S .; Abzalova Sh.R .; Urinbaeva D.A .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2365-2369

The results of the study of the distribution frequency of the genotypes of the
polymorphism of the rs1800629 TNF-α gene involved in the formation and clinical course
of rosacea are revealed, which allows us to predict the development, course of the disease
and to develop the optimal scheme for its prevention and treatment. We studied the
polymorphism of the rs1800629 TNF-α gene in rosacea patients and determined the
effectiveness of therapy depending on the severity and frequency distribution of genotypes


Hilola Fayzullaeva; Oksana Kim; Zarifa Saidmurodova; Kakhhor Halikov; Muhiba Abdullaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2370-2374

The protection of motherhood and childhood is a priority area of health care in
our Republic; this provision is enshrined in fundamental government documents,
programs for reforming the health system, and a program for creating a healthy
generation. According to the International Consensus on Resuscitation of the Newborn,
more than a million newborns die every year in the world, and in 19% of cases the cause of
death is asphyxiation


Muslima Mambetkarimova; Dilfuza Ashurova; Yakutkhon Madjidova; Nadira Zakirova; Sherali Ergashev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2375-2381

This article details the condition of newborn babies from mothers with epilepsy.
The frequency and nature of epilepsy in children born to mothers with epilepsy are
described. Risk factors for the development of epilepsy in children born to mothers with
epilepsy were determined.


Dilfuza Ashurova; Azizakhon Sadirkhodjaeva; Malika Khaldarbekova; Zukhra , Shermatova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2382-2392

Abstract. The presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) significantly
worsens the prognosis and course of the underlying disease. So in patients with diabetes
mellitus (DM) and CAN, the mortality rate for 5 years is five times higher compared to
patients without this complication. Due to the fact that CAN is closely associated with
cardiovascular pathology, many authors consider CAN as a significant factor in
cardiovascular risk. Purpose. To establish clinical, functional and metabolic changes in
diabetic autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in children with type 1 diabetes. Materials and
methods research. The total number of patients studied by us was 114 children with type 1
diabetes mellitus aged 4 to 18 years. We conducted laboratory and instrumental research
methods. Laboratory methods: general clinical research (general analysis of blood and urine,
studies of blood sugar), biochemical methods (total blood protein, bilirubin, cholesterol,
triglycerides, creatinine, urea, electrolytes, glycated hemoglobin), 24-hour heart rate
monitoring with circadian index estimation was used and parameters of time and frequency
analysis of heart rate variability. Conclusion diabetic autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in
children with type 1 diabetes is characterized by the development of tachyarrhythmic rhythm
disturbances, as well as the formation of rigidity of the heart rhythm and a decrease in the
sensitivity of the sinus node to parasympathetic influences according to a temporary analysis
of daily monitoring of heart rhythm.

Nasopharyngial carriage, serotypic landscape and sensitivity to S. Pneumoniae antibiotics in children before and after the implantation of vaccination in Uzbekistan

Elmira Shamansurova; Gulnoza Makhkamova; Shoira Agzamova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2393-2400

Abstract. This article presents the results of a study of the nasopharyngeal carriage of
Streptococcus pneumoniae in 76 organized children before vaccination and 77
unorganized vaccinated children in Tashkent. It was found that the frequency of
nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus is higher in children of closed children's
groups. The disappearance of the most common pneumococcal serotypes after vaccination
indicates the effectiveness of vaccination


Javokhir Khalmukhamedov; Botir Daminov; Yorqin Rasulev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2401-2409

A growing number of publications in the literature show that chronic pain is
also characteristic of patients with terminal renal failure (TRF). The disease tends to be
moderate or severe and affects virtually all aspects of health and quality of life.
Unfortunately, there is a lack of clinical and research focus in nephrology, and TAPN pain
is poorly understood. The article reflects the main aspects of the problem of pain
medication therapy for patients with terminal renal insufficiency receiving chronic
hemodialysis. The main pathophysiological mechanisms of medication influence on kidney
structures are described.


Nigora Ahrarova; Marguba , Umarov; Zilola Sharipova; Aziza Saidova; Iroda Khodjaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2410-2418

Abstract. Insufficient supply of pregnant women with micronutrients leads to the
development of a number of congenital malformations of the fetus. In order to study the
multivitamin-mineral complexes application’s effect on pregnant women during
pregnancy, and on intrauterine fetal growth and development. Was revealed that a
deficiency of bioelements and vitamins in mothers is a common cause of intrauterine
growth retardation, serious violations of organs and systems functioning. So, it is indicates
integrated approach significance in the treatment of microelementosis in pregnant.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2419-2422

Abstract: The article describes odontogenic maxillary sinusitis that occurs in diseases of
the teeth or upper jaw. The main reasons for its occurrence have been given: foreign
bodies such as splinters, roots of teeth embedded in the maxillary sinus during their
removal, filling material brought into the sinus, dental implants that have migrated to its
cavity. Today's methods of treatment of chronic odontogenic maxillary sinusitis are
described. A large number of studies have been devoted to the problem of odontogenic
sinusitis. However, the treatment and diagnostic tactics of otorhinolaryngologist and
dentist at this form of nosological pathology is not determined. The presented data testify to
expediency of the correct approach to treatment of patients with chronic odontogenic


Bunyod Saidkulov; Jurabek Abduraxmonov; Rahimov M. Nodir; Farkhod Raufov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2423-2428

Diagnostic approach and treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer has many
unresolved issues, the relevance of which is associated with late diagnosis and ultimately
low treatment effectiveness and high mortality rates. The clinical manifestation of
recurrent ovarian cancer is variable even within a morphologically similar group of
patients due to the high degree of heterogeneity of the tumor. Questions remain about how
wide the range of molecular genetic markers is and what is the correlation between their
level and the effectiveness of treatment for ovarian cancer recurrence. One of the most
promising ways to obtain information about the nature of the recurrence of the tumor
process in ovarian cancer (OC) can be the study of ascitic fluid (AF).


Sayfullo Abdullaev; Uygun Rahmanov; Lola Abdullaeva; Abdukhomid Toirov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2434-2439

Abstract. In recent years, about 5% of the world's population is herniated. After the
operation of inguinal, umbilical, and femoral hernias, relapses are 5-12% or more. The
specific weight of postoperative hernias of the anterior abdominal wall is growing every
year and their relapses currently account for 20-30% of all operations on the abdominal
organs. The number of complications increases, especially postoperative hernias of the
anterior abdominal wall among the elderly and senile.

Ultrasound assessment of atherosclerotic plaque morphology in patients with carotid stenosis

Rozikhodjaeva G.A.; Ikramova Z.T; Aytimova G.; Yokubov K.R; Rozikhodjaeva F.A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2435-2438

Abstract: This article presents the results of ultrasound assessment of the morphology of
carotid atherosclerotic plaques using duplex scanning and offline videodensitometric
analysis of 160 carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Ultrasonic densitometry analysis of images
may be used to identify vulnerable and potentially unstable lipid-rich carotid plaques,
which are less echogenic in density than stable or asymptomatic, fibrotic plaques.
Atherosclerotic plaques with higher values of energy and greater homogeneity should be
more stable and less prone to rupture.


Sevara Mukhammadieva; Elnora Djuraeva; Nargiza Abduazizova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2439-2449

patients under 30. The control group consisted of 110 healthy middle-aged
individuals. In the surveyed population, those with 1 to 5 years of age were the largest group
(38.3%), followed by those with 5 to 10 years of age (34%). In 66.3% of the patients of RA MT
was used as a base preparation. The average dose (median) of MT over the study period was
10 mg per week. 80% of patients took prednisolone in an average dose of 10 mg/day. The
content of lipids in venous blood was determined by photocolometry on Vitros SYSTEM
Chemistry DT 60 biochemical analyzer (Austria). Results: RA patients who took MT showed a
significant increase in the level of triglycerides (TG). Also, it is characterised by an increase
in TG levels and a decrease in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
(HDL) and an increase in the atherogenicity factor. A more pronounced decrease in HDL
levels. Significantly high indicators of the atherogenicity coefficient, which to a lesser extent
depended on the duration of MT use. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and
triglyceridemia are also proved to be serious risk factors for atherosclerosis and
cardiovascular heart diseases (CHD). Also according to the results of the research, special
attention is paid to the use of hypolipidemic drugs, which is promising in improving the
prognosis and reducing cardiovascular injuries in RA patients. In the group of patients who
received additional lipidex SR, there was a decrease in the level of OHS by 17.1%, an
important shift was observed on the part of TG, this indicator decreased by 29.7% and
practically did not differ from the control indicators. HDL cholesterol in the SR lipidex group
increased significantly by 37.7%. These fibrates have a stimulating effect on all components of


Zulfiya Shamsieva; Yusupbaev R.B.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2450-2454

Abstract. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of obesity in pregnant women in
the development of preeclampsia. All women were divided into 2 groups: the study group
included women with obesity (n=120) and the control group of pregnant women with
physiological course of pregnancy without obesity (n=60).


Yakshimurat Kurambaev; Zevara Karimova; ZulkhumorJumaeva .; Maryam Yakubova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2455-2462

Abstract: We examined the data of appeals to outpatient clinics in order to detect the
incidence of pneumonia in children in areas with different intensities of pesticide usage. It
was found that in the areas of intensive usage of pesticides (cotton growing area) in
children aged 0-4 years, acute pneumonia is recorded 3-5 times more often than in the
zone of limited usage of pesticides (livestock area). The static differences are significant.
The prevalence of acute pneumonia among girls is 7–20% higher than among boys. The
highest level of respiratory diseases is found at the age of 1 to 4 years. With the increase in
the territorial burden of pesticides, the level of perinatal pathology and the number of
premature infants increase. The data confirm that acute pneumonia and other respiratory
diseases are more common in the cotton growing area than in the livestock one. However,
the study of the regional characteristics of the incidence of children has established that in
the general structure of the respiratory diseases, pneumonia occupies the first place.


Zevara Karimova; Yakshimurat Kurambaev; Zulkhumor Jumaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2463-2468

Abstract. More often, the injuries happenas a result of direct trauma, and are rarely
caused by non-direct actiontraumatic force. The definition of tarano-calcaneus corner and
higher index (rentgenological) has great influence on diagnostics and on curing calcaneus
bones in children.On moderate displacement, closed reposition with the skeleton stretching
or compression apparatus distinction osteosinthesis is recommended.On crude
displacement, it is recommended to perform operative treatment and replace defects of
bones bytissues free auto-transplantation

Study of partial kidney function in children of early age with nephropathy of metabolic genesis

M.M. Axmedova; N.A. Rasulova; L.T. Irbutaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2469-2472

Abstract: 121 young children with pneumonia with dysmetabolic nephropathy, as well as
20 children with pneumonia with urinary syndrome, were studied. For these children,
glomerular function was assessed by the clearance of endogenous formation, ammonia,
titratable acidity, osmolarity of urine, and metabolites (oxalates, urates, uric acid). In
children with pneumonia with dysmetabolic nephropathy changes in kidney partial
functions, structural and functional states of erythrocyte cytomembrane as well as
strengthening of lipid peroxidation were observed. In this regard, metabolic corrective
therapy for these children was recommended.


I.I. Bakhriev .; SH.Yu., Beknazarov; S.J. Khojanazarova; E.A. Eshbayev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2473-2482

Abstract: It is known that, against the background of the progression of chronic hepatitis,
significant changes in blood elements are occurring. The number of red blood cells, the
level of hemoglobin, the color index, the content of reticulocytes, platelets and leukocytes
in patients with chronic diffuse diseases of the liver are significantly lower than in people
without diseases of the hepatobiliary system, and blood counts decrease as the activity of
inflammation in the liver and the transformation of chronic hepatitis B increase cirrhosis
of the liver. The purpose of this work is to identify the features of the hemogram in patients
with cirrhosis of the liver.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2483-2487

Abstract: Mortality from the consequences of drug addiction and chronic alcohol
intoxication and the health disorder associated with it constitute an increasingly significant
proportion of the total mortality rate.

Infertility predictors for prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas

Kh.K Nasirova; Z.Yu. Khalimova; Yu. M. Urmanova; G.D. Narimova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2488-2503

Abstract: Purpose of research - To improve reproductive outcomes of women with
prolactinomas by evaluating fertility predictors. Material and methods. We examined 250
women aged 17-35 years (average age 30.5 years) with endocrine infertility (EI) and
hyperprolactinemia. Of these, 71 (28.4%) patients with prolactinoma and endocrine
infertility were selected for an in-depth study. All patients underwent a complete clinical -
hormonal and visualization examination and were divided into patients with EI with
pituitary microprolactinomas (64.7%) and patients with EI with macroprolactinomas
(35.2%). Clinical, imaging, and hormonal studies have been performed. The basal levels of
the pituitary gonadotropic hormones — LH, FSH, as well as PRL, TH, peripheral gland
hormones cortisol (C), estradiol (E) and total testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone
sulfate (DHEA-S), progesterone, inhibins A and B were determined , activin, antimuller
hormone. The research materials were subjected to statistical processing using the methods
of parametric and non-parametric analysis. Results. According to the objectives, the
functional state of the HPO system and the clinical characteristics of infertility in
prolactinomas were studied, an analysis of complaints and anamnestic data of patients
with EI with prolactinomas was made, depending on the size of the formation in a
comparative aspect. The state of ovarian reserve was assessed, with the determination of
FSH, activin, AMH, inhibin A and B in the blood serum. The inhibin A level in both Me
groups was 1.30 ng/ml, which significantly differed from the control group (p₂ ˂0.0001,
p₃ ˂0.0001). The level of inhibin B underwent significant changes in both groups. A
decrease in inhibin B and an increase in FSH can prove a decrease in ovulatory ovarian
reserve. The studied women with EI in both groups showed a decrease in AMH, in the
group with microadenomas ranged from 0.12 to 2.1 and averaged 0.75 ± 0.27 ng/ml, and in
the group with macroadenomas ranged from 0.09-2.2 and averaged 0.97 ± 0.49 ng/ml,
which significantly differed from the control group (p₁ ˂0.05, p₂ ˂0.001 p₃ ˂0.001). The
conducted Spearman correlation and regression analysis showed that between prolactin
and AMH (r = -0.4; p˂0.01), between prolactin and progesterone (21dMC) (r = -0.576;
p˂0.0001) as well as between prolactin and inhibin B (r = -0.67) there is a strong “-“
negative relationship and all indicators were statistically significant. Conclusions:
Endocrine disorders in women with prolactinomas are significantly increased in patients
with macroadenoma compared with microadenoma. Correlation-regression analysis found
a negative relationship between PRL and AMH (r = -0.4, P <0.0001), PRL and
progesterone (r = -0.57, P <0.0001). With an increase in PRL by 1 unit, there is a decrease
in AMH by 0.008 units (P <0.001), a decrease in inhibin B by 0.11 (P <0.001),
progesterone by 0.04 units (P <0.0001) and the degree of hyperprolactinemia and this all
can predict EI development.


Mavludakhon Mamurova; Dilnoza Shomurodova; Malikakhon Mamurova; Davlatkhon Akramov; Nodira Khodjaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2504-2508

Abstract: The aim of the work was to determine the nature of cerebral hemodynamics of
discipatory encephalopathy in the background of arterial hypotension. To do this, all the
patients carried out ultrasound, the nature of clinical and neurological disorders was
revealed, as well as minor focal symptoms with prevailing factors of complaints: the
presence of reduced blood flow rate, confirmation of the absence of compensatory
vasodilation in arterial hypotension


Kim O.A .; Dzhurabekova A.T .; Shomuradova D.S .; Shmirina K.V .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2509-2514

Abstract: Objective: to study the risk factors, clinical and pathogenetic features for the
subtypes of ischemic stroke at a young age in a comparative aspect. During 2017-2019, 74
patients with ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were under
observation, 48 men and 26 women. All patients were divided into 2 groups: I-st (main)
group included 33 patients aged 20 - 44 years (aged of 40.5 ± 3.1 years); II-nd
(comparative) group - 41 patients age group over 60 years (aged of 67,9±3,9 years).
According to the TOAST criteria, a stroke of an unknown etiology occurred in young
people (49%), in old-aged - cardioembolic (39%) and atherothrombotic subtypes (31%).
Among the risk factors for ischemic stroke in young people revealed a combination of bad
habits, and in the old-aged category, such modulated factors as arterial hypertension, 2nd
type of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia are revealed. These findings confirm the
urgency of the problem of cerebral infarction of a young age and the need for further
implementation of the latest examination methods and a deeper study of the cardiovascular


Furkat Shamsiev; Nigora Fayzullaeva; Diloram Musakhodzhaeva; ZakhiriddinSultanov .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2515-2520

Abstract. In order to determine the role of polymorphic variants of the tumor necrosis
factor α gene (TNFα -308G> A) in the development and course of chronic respiratory
diseases, an analysis was made of the frequency of alleles and genotypes in patients with
bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis and healthy individuals of the Uzbek population.
An analysis of the frequency distribution of genotypes and alleles of the studied gene
showed that risk allele A and genotype A/A and A/G are markers of an increased risk of
developing a disease of the bronchopulmonary system both in the group of patients with
bronchial asthma and in children with chronic bronchitis.


Bakhtiyar Gafurov; Zamira Babadjanova; Dilrabo Khalimova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2521-2525

Abstract: Back pain is a syndrome that can be associated with degenerative-dystrophic
changes in the spine, muscle damage and diseases, damage to the nervous system (the spinal
cord, its roots, and peripheral nerves), pathology of the internal organs of the thoracic and
abdominal cavities, pelvis, and mental disorders. The most common cause of acute back pain
is changes that occur when the muscles, ligaments, or joints of the spine are overloaded


Djuraev J.A .; Khasanov U.S .; Vohidov U .N; Botirov A.J. .; Shaumarov A.Z .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2526-2541

Abstract: The marker of mesenchymal cells - vimentin with high and moderate expression
is present in both epithelial and stromal cells with "eosinophilic" forms of polyps and only
in the stroma in patients with "neutrophilic" polyps. The presence of high vimentin
expression indicates a high activity of mesenchymal cells. In the prognostic plan, these
changes indicate future relapses. Detection of the CD68 marker, its low and moderate
expression can mean low participation of macrophages in the formation of nasal polyps of
both forms. The presence of single stained cells in mesenchymal clusters indicates a low
phagocytic activity. The high and moderate expression of CD45 in mesenchymal clusters
located in “eosinophilic” polyps confirms our assumption that these mesenchymal clusters
are a “growth zone” of formations. High and moderate expression of CD138 in mature
epithelial cells in all tissue samples of both forms of polyps and the lack of expression of
this marker in clusters of mesenchymal formations, as well as average expression in cells
located in the stroma, may indicate the origin of the latter from active mesenchymal cells.
With the "eosinophilic form" of polyps, moderate and high expression of CD34 is detected.
These results confirm our assumption about the formation of a new vascular system in
mesenchymal clusters. Near the epithelium and in the stroma, a well-developed vascular
system is also observed. An increase in the number of vessels is a sign of recurrence, and
an increase in the number of newly formed vessels is prognostically unfavorable and
indicates the occurrence of relapse.

Assess The Level Of Depression Among Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) Patients

Ms. Pooja R. Kasturkar; Mr. Prajwal Nagrale; Dr. Manoj Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2542-2550

Abstract: Introduction: In several countries, including India, Pakistan, Malaysia, China,
Canada, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and other South East Asian countries, the usage of
areca nut in its different forms is very widespread and has contributed to the production of
a rare generalized fibrosis of the oral tissues called oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Oral
submucous fibrosis (OSMF) can lead to psychiatric morbidity. Aim: Assess the level of
depression among oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients. Materials and Methods: It
was descriptive research design, carried out at IPD and OPD patients of Acharya Vinoba
Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (M), Wardha, Both males and females with the confirmed
diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) were sample. Total 100 patients were
recruited for the present study by purposive sampling techniques. Beck Depression
inventory used for assessing the depression level. The sample characteristics and level of
depression were described by frequency, percentage and unpaired ‘t’ test and one way
ANNOVA were used to find out the association between the level of depression score of
Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) patients with their demographic variables. Results: The
study result reveled that majority of participants (27%) were in 31-40 years of age group ,
54% were Hindus, 64% were from rural areas, 59% belonged to joint family , 41% had
monthly income of between 5001-10000 Rs, 71% were married, 34% of the OSMF patients
were laborer, 29% had habit of chewing betel nut and tobacco and when assess their
depression level it was found that 8% of the OSMF patients had mild depression, 91% had
moderate depression and only 1% had severe depression. Conclusion: Oral submucous
fibrosis (OSMF) patients suffered from depression so health professionals have to focus on
their mental health.

The spectrum of Non -alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in nursing staff.

Charan Bagga; Rajesh Sarode; Sunil Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2551-2555

Abstract: Background :Looking at non-alcoholic fatty liver infection anthropometric and
biochemical profile with clinical profile and hazard factors. Presentation of NAFLD is
asymptomatic with liver compounds then it advances to cirrhosis later. Commonest reason
for NAFLD is cirrhosis of liver, however reason for essential NAFLD is related with
disabled glucose tolerance, obesity, hypertension, secondary NAFLD and is related with
hypothyroidism, git surgeries, toxins. This study is aimed to see commonness in
understanding with comorbidities albeit accurate aetiology of NAFLD ailment isn't known,
as studies in regards to this in India is inadequate.
Objective To correlate profile & anthropometry of patients of NAFLD

“Assessment of lymph node status in cases of metastatic malignancy by frozen section and imprint cytology”

Dr Miheer Milind Jagtap; Dr Samarth Shukla; Dr Sunita , Vagha; Dr Ankita Tamhane; Dr Sourya Acharya; Dr. Miheer Milind , Jagtap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2557-2551

Abstract: Introduction: Dissemination of cancers most commonly occurs by the lymphatic
route and is generally favoured by carcinomas. The best achievable goal of any surgical
procedure is removal of all the affected tissue and leave behind healthy tissue which is
entirely free of any malignant cells. Though histopathological examination is gold
standard, it is time consuming and cannot be implemented as an intraoperative diagnostic
tool. The present study utilises frozen section analysis and touch imprint cytology as
intraoperative tools and analyses their diagnostic accuracy to detect lymph node metastasis
in comparison with routine histopathology in epithelial malignancies.
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative diagnosis by touch imprint cytology and
frozen section analysis for the assessment of metastatic lymph node deposits.
Materials and methods: Total 76 cases of primary malignancy with suspicious metastatic
lymph nodes were investigated. Metastatic nodes were subjected to frozen section and 
touch imprint cytology and these findings were compared with routine histopathology and
the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy
were calculated.
Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and
diagnostic accuracy of frozen section was found to be 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 97.5% and
98.68%. The values of the same parameters for imprint cytology was found to be 75.68%,
100%, 100%, 81.25% and 67% respectively.
Conclusions: Frozen section analysis proved superior to imprint cytology in detecting
lymph node metastasis intraoperatively. Apart from detecting the presence of metastasis,
frozen section is able to provide details regarding micro-metastasis, macro-metastasis and
perinodal fat invasion. This study predominantly evaluated epithelial malignancies and
thus proves the utility of these two intraoperative modalities in them. It also opens new
avenues for research pertaining to the utility of these modalities in various malignant
mesenchymal tumours.

Modern approaches in the treatment of children under three years of age with congenital clubfoot using the Ponsetí method

1Jasurbek Urinov; Akhror Djuraev; Qayum Ashankhodjaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2572-2579

Abstract: Despite modern advances in paediatric traumatology and orthopaedics in the
treatment of patients with foot deformities, conservative and surgical strategies of cure are
nevertheless considered unsuccessful, to a giant extent if the problem is a recurrent or
justified congenital ailment of the central or peripheral apprehensive system. For the therapy
of children with congenital clubfoot we have used a huge range of treatments, including
purposeful techniques (corrective massage, TPT, carrying functional tires), fixation methods
(bandaging, staged plaster bandages), physiotherapy (electrostimulation, hydrotherapy, UHF,
ultrasound, electrophoresis, etc.). Specialized remedy included: orthopaedic (wearing
orthopaedic footwear with inlays, shafts, bandages made of thermoplastic), conservative and
surgical treatment. Analysis of the bought remedy effects in distinct age groups showed that
the major undertaking of treatment and its success depends on early restoration of anatomical
relations in the joint. Thus, in teenagers under one-year-old, appropriate diagnostics and
software of atraumatic functional methods of remedy primarily based on Ponset approach
allowed achieving good results with a significant discount in the number of plaster bandages
and accordingly decreasing the cure duration in universal to 2 months. The find out about of
the experience of cure of congenital clubfoot based totally on its cloth showed that the use of a
unique cure approach relies upon on the assessment of the severity of foot deformation. The
chosen treatment systems need to be intensive and consistent, beginning from the early
duration after birth, when the foot deformity is cellular and bendy to correction. The new
technique of surgical treatment, change of achillotomyms in accordance to the Ponset method,
allowed us to get suitable beauty result barring lowering the effectivity of the surgical
intervention. Another benefit of this technique reduces the length of the operation and reduces
soft tissue trauma in the Achilles tendon area.

Role of Serum Albumin as a Prognostic marker of mortality and duration of hospital stay among Diabetic Ketoacidosis Patients.

Vinay Verma; Shilpa Gaidhane; Anuj Varma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2580-2584

Abstract: Background: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is an critical and menacing problem
of Type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DKA is associated with high amount
of risk of mortality and morbidity (hospital stay). The prognostic factors of DKA are
important factors affecting the outcome of the patients (as treated or death). S. Albumin is
one of the prognostic factor less studied up till now.
Objectives: To determine Clinical profile of DKA patients: aetiologies, precipitating
factors, biochemical parameters and other complications of T2DM patients and to corelate
serum albumin level with mortality, duration of stay among DKA patients.
Methodology: This cross sectional study will be conducted among 100 diabetic patients
with and without ketoacidosis from May 2019 to May 2021. Biochemical parameters:
glycated Haemoglobin, urine ketones and serum albumin will be gathered to determine the
prognosis. Controls will be adult diabetic patients without ketoacidosis. Data from Cases
and controls will be statistically analysed and then compared accordingly.
Expected Results: It is expected that decreased Sr. albumin will be associated with poor
prognosis in DKA patients. Sr. Albumin might be an indirect prognostic marker of diabetes
control due anabolic effect of Insulin, which affects both ketosis possibility and glucose

THE STUDY OF DISABILITY OF CHILDREN BY CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES (according facts of Yakkasaray region, Tashkent city)

Salomat Sobirova; Orzigul Yusupova; Bahtiyor Duschanov; Dilnoza Ermetova; Sevara Ibadullaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2585-2587

Statistic facts оf Rеpublican invalids sеntrе and mеdical rеpоrt оf Yakkasaray
rеgiоn, Tashkеnt sity wеrе studiеd. Invalidity in childrеn up tо 14 yеars, is cоmpоsеd 46
(55,4%) оf bоys, 37 (44,6%) оf girls. Invalid childrеn up tо 3 yеars оld arеfоrmеd 11, 7
(64%) оf thеm arе bоys, 4 (36%) arе girls.

Study Protocol for a Randomised Controlled Trial comparing the Effect of Lung Recruitment Manoeuvres as an adjunct to conventional Chest physiotherapy in Postoperative Paediatric Congenital Heart Disease patients on Mechanical Ventilation.

Dr. Lajwanti lalwani; Dr. Athuruddin kazi; Dr. Nazli quazi; Dr. Zahiruddin quazi; Dr.Abhay gaidhane; Dr. Amar taksande; Dr. Mangesh choudhari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2588-2597

Abstract- Background- Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are major congenital anomaly
that are present during birth. Repair and corrective surgeries are performed as a line of
treatment and is followed by chest physiotherapy(CPT) to prevent any pulmonary
Lung Recruitment manoeuvres (LRM) is an intervention mostly performed by anaesthetic
or respiratory therapist to recruit the alveoli that are expandable and to reduce the area of
atelectasis and increase the exchange of gases for patients on mechanical ventilation.
Comprehensive literature search was done and have not come across any studies showing
the efficacy of combined lung recruitment manoeuvre [LRM] and [CPT]. So study was
conducted with aim to compare the effect of LRM as an adjunct to CPT in post- operative
paediatric CHD patients on mechanical ventilation. A RCT.
Methodology-The design is randomised, parallel Superiority group, assessor-blinded,
controlled trial in postoperative paediatric congenital heart disease patients on Mechanical
Ventilator. The study aims to answer the research question comparing
standard(conventional)CPT with combined standard CPT along with lung recruitment

Bilateral Optic Disc Edema As Initial Presentation In Case Of Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma – A Case Report

Dr. Pravin.k. tidake; Dr. Neha bajpayee; Dr.Neha bajpayee

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2598-2603

We report a case of 55 year old male who presented in ophthalmology outpatient
department with complaints of diminution of vision along with headache and giddiness
since 20-25 days from presentation. Patient was initially examined in ophthalmology
department , and his fundus showed bilateral papilledema. Patient intraocular pressure
was within normal limit. Optical coherence tomography(OCT) of patient suggested
increased retinal nerve fiber layer thickness.Patient was then send to neurosurgery for
second opinion , where he was advised CT scan and MRI with contrast of brain . Later ,
the scan confirmed the lesion in left cerebello pontine angle with dilated bilateral lateral
ventricles and third ventricle suggestive of secondary hydrocephalus. Patient had no
complaints of diplopia, it was not associated with facial palsy. Patient complaint of on and
off tinnitus.
Vestibular shwannoma is benign and slow growing tumor and ophthalmic manifestation
occur in later stage when diagnosis is missed early. Left suboccipital craniotomy and
subtotal excision of left vestibular schwannoma was performed and patient was followed

A study to assess the perception of postnatal mothers regarding received nursing care

Mr. Bibin Kurian; Ms. Pradhnya M; Ms. Anjali L; Mr. Prashil M; Ms. Ashwini M; Ms. Pooja N; Manoj Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2604-2610

Abstract: Background – Normally, women who had undergone normal delivery will
remain in the hospital for at least two days and who had undergone cesarean section for
five to six days. An accurate and exact care is very important for the mother who is
recovering from the ailments of pregnancy and delivery and also for the health of the
newborn. Anything can be happen in the postnatal period. in order to avoid any unwanted
occurrence or complications, essential care for mother and baby is a must. Objectives: 1)
To assess the perception of postnatal mothers regarding received Nursing care, 2) To
associate the level of perception with selected demographic variables. Materials and
methods: Survey research approach and descriptive study design was used in the study.
The study was conducted at A.V.B.R Hospital Sawangi Meghe, Wardha. 100 post natal
mothers who had undergone cesarean section were selected for the study. Non-probability
convenience sampling was used for the selection of the samples. Result: Each 50% of the
postnatal mothers were moderately and fully satisfied with the nursing care received and
none of the selected demographic variables were associated with level of perception
regarding nursing care received. Conclusion: Mothers who had undergone cesarean
section in AVBR hospital were satisfied with the nursing care provided.

Comparison of intraocular pressure variance in moderate and high myopia

Bhagyashree Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2611-2621

Abstract: Purpose: Intraocular pressure changes have been, and still is, a topic of discussion.
Increasing myopia has been constantly associated with increasing intraocular pressure.
Myopia has long been identified as a risk factor for open angle glaucoma because of the
changes in optic disc and pressure. Thus, repeated evaluation of all the factors that are related
to changes in IOP levels is important. This can help to figure out the risk factors for open
angle glaucoma in the form of variables that can be proved to be associated with IOP level
In this study, we will evaluate the intraocular pressure levels between moderate and high
myopia, also taking age and gender in to account
Methods: This is an Observational, hospital-based study conducted on 35 patients presented in
the HAH centenary hospital in the period of 2 months at Delhi. Data confidentiality was
maintained. The detailed demographic details along with ocular findings, systemic health
findings, were collected for analysis. The test used for statistical analysis were Un-paired, 2-
tailed, T-test, Two way ANOVA test. The software MS EXCEL was used.
Results: The hospital-based study conducted at HAH centenary hospital evaluated 35 myopic
patients (70 eyes) in the period of 2 months. Out of 35 patients, 20(57%) were moderate
myopic (-3.00D to <-6.00D) and 15(42%) were highly myopic (-6.00D and more). Range of the
age being 11- 55years. 20(57%) females and 15(42%) males were present in the sample. Only
one patient had IOP level more than 21mmhg and was further examined for glaucoma tests
which came out negative. All the evaluated patients had a C/D ratio less than 0.5
Conclusion: No significant association was found between IOP and myopia along with other
factors such as age and gender. Small sample size and avoiding various others factors such as
ocular biomechanics, corneal thickness, curvature etc. can be the reason for it. Overcoming these
limitations can help confirming a conclusion and give results that would be different and
convincing. The study needs further research time and evaluation.

A case report on electrical burn: below elbow amputation of left upper limb

Ms. Swapna Morey; Ms. Vaishali Tembhare; Savita Pohekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2627-2632

Abstract: Introduction: These injure result from contact with faulty electrical wiring g or
high voltage power lines passing over the residences. Lighting is also an electrical injure the
extent of injuring is influenced by the duration of contact, current-voltage, type of current
(direct or alternate) the path of current and the resistance offered by tissues. Case
Presentation: A case of a 25-year-old male admitted in the burn unit on the date 22 October
2019 with complaints about he came in contact with the electric pole due to electrical shock
on 12/10/2019. He had wound over left hand up the wrist, wound over over the left axilla,
inner part of both thighs, head and back. The wound over the left hand was associated with
pus discharge, which was foul-smelling and scanty in amount, blood-stained.Interventions:
Generally, the burn victims with major burns are hospitalized and care is providing the burn
unit or ward. The goals during this phase are saving a life, maintaining and protecting the
airway, restoring hemodynamic stability and promoting healing and preventing or correcting
the complication. Outcomes: Over the short course of treatment, the patient significantly
improved in functional mobility, transfers, ambulation, and bed mobility. Progress even
further towards his goal of returning home. Discussion: The patient responded well to
treatment, however additional interventions could be utilized in the future to aid in greater

“Co-relation of liver enzymes with HBsAg among suspected cases of hepatitis B infection”

Rahul Kr Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2633-2638

Abstract- Hepatitis is infection of liver by a group of hepatitis viruses. among the hepatitis
viruses hepatitis B virus is more common and transmitted by blood,semen and other infected
body fluids. The present study was planned with aim to find out HBsAg prevalence in
diff erent age groups along with estimation of liver enzymes.


Shivi Saxena; Sonia Kukreti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2639-2659

Abstarct: The actual aim of this review article is to get a thoroughly search on different in
vitro studies on bactericidal effect of staphylococcus on various extracts of garlic and ginger.
Microbial pathogenecity and other infectious diseases have been controlled by use of
commercially accessible antimicrobial drugs since last many years. In recent years, in sight of
their valuable effects, utilize of spices or herbs is gradually increasing not only in developing
countries but also in developed countries. Garlic (Allium sativum) that belongs to the family of
Alliaceae is widely used in culinary and medicine. In new researches, it is reported that garlic
extract has been proved to be proficient toward Streptococcus mutans, garlic extract mouth
wash may be utilized as a recent line in inhibiting dental caries formation. Garlic is highly
documented in exhibiting dominant antimicrobial activities. Garlic can provide proper
management for bacterial growth ranging from disinfectant, antiseptic, bacteriostatic and
even bactericidal characteristics. Zingiber officinale plays role as powerful food maintenance.
In limited studies, ginger was found to have better usefulness than placebo in relieving disgust
produced by sea dizziness, morning dizziness, despite ginger is not reported to be preferred on
placebo in relieving surgical sickness. The plant is reported to have antibacterial, anti-oxidant,
antiprotozoal, anti-fungal, anti-emetic, anti-rhinoviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-insecticidal
activity. Staphylococcus aureus is the most medically important member in terms of
pathogenicity of the group, two other less important members are Staphylococcus epidermis
and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.


Abigail KT Zaizai; Jaya Gawai; Sr. Tessy; Pooja Kasturkar; Manoj Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2660-2665

Abstract: Introduction: Obsessive compulsive disorder is a disorder in which an individual
experienced unwanted thoughts, like the insistency of words or ideas perceived by the
patient to be inappropriate or nonsensical. It is an obsessive urge or idea changed the
personality of people. The lifetime prevalence of OCD in India is about 2-3% which means
that at least two to three people out of hundred are suffering from this illness.
Case Presentation: A case of Obsessive compulsive disorder is found in a 47 years old man
from Nalwadi, Wardha. He has a symptoms like over disciplined, perfectionist, overly
maintaining self-hygiene. All these symptoms started 2 years back and the intensity has
increased. The purpose of this study is to be aware of what Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
is and aware that it is an illness that can be treated.
Conclusion: In the study, we mainly focused on OCD and how it affects people’s mental

Molecular medicine in the current scenario of COVID-19; A clinical and radiological study

Fahad Mohammed Alshehri, M.D.; Prof. SusanGilbert, M.D.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2666-2675

Introduction: The field of molecular medicine includes radiology, Proteomics, genomics, and
vaccinations. Ever since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, molecular medicine has played a
significant role in regulating and predicting the virus's symptoms. The most optimal strategy for
containing the epidemic is predicting the expected future conditions that the virus might bring.
The records and accumulated data from the previously administered SARS-COV-2 virus cases
have helped indicate the potential risks and biological alterations caused by the virus.

Role of clinical medicine and radiology in the complication of pulmonary hypertension

Fahad Mohammed Alshehri, M.D.; Prof. Lewis Morgan aBay, M. .D; Prof. Lewis Morgan aBay, M.D.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2676-2688

Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is a diversified group of entities affecting the pulmonary
vasculature. Early detection is pivotal in the appropriate treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
The initial and the simplest step in the detection of pulmonary hypertension is the performance
of a combination of chest radiography, transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, and ECG.
An extensive literature review on the role of radiology and clinical medicine in pulmonary
hypertension complication.
The study showed that Computed Tomography (CT) was the best imaging modality in the
determination of the early onset of PH. Multiple clinical medicines like epoprostenol, nitric
oxide, iloprost, and imatinib have been used to enhance and improve the exercise capacity,
cardiac output, and hemodynamic function of the patient suffering from PH.
No meaningful decrease in the time from the onset of symptoms to the PH diagnosis has been
achieved in the last 20 years. However, multiple detection methods, such as the introduction of
radiology and the use of texture-based lung graph models, have been slowly bridging this gap.
Newer techniques in radiology will help in early detection of the disease and thus help in
controlling it.


Sergey F. Gladkov; Nina K. Perevoshchikova; Yulia S. Pichugina; Marina A. Surkova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2689-2698

Nowadays, in the absence of a common doctrine and conceptual schemes, both of
treatment and prevention of atopic diseases, we have practically uncontrolled growth of
this pathology. This dead-end situation can only be changed, if there are clinical atopy
biomarkers, thus making preventive therapy possible. The article presents the program
development and implementation results for primary prevention of atopic dermatitis
based on identified biomarkers. A preventive treatment method, based on the correction 
of intestinal microbiota through selective decontamination of opportunistic microflora
using bacteriophages has been substantiated. The results of ten-year experience in
secondary and primary prevention of atopic diseases are presented


MirzakarimovaMalokhat .; KamiljanovAbduvahit .; AdilovUtkir .; KhashirbaevaDinora .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2699-2710

Background: Among the many hygiene problems of a large industrial city,
one of the most important is the protection of the environment from pollution by
emissions from motor vehicles and industrial enterprises. In the case of chemical
pollution of the environment, very resistant and capable of bioaccumulating in
large quantities chemicals - substances that have carcinogenic or mutagenic
properties or have adverse effects, in particular on the reproductive, endocrine,
immune and nervous systems - pose a particular threat to public health. The
development of various sectors of the national economy (non-ferrous and ferrous
metallurgy), chemical industry, production of synthetic fibers, pesticides and
mineral fertilizers and thermal power plants and motor transport in cities is
associated with the emission into the atmosphere of a bouquet of toxic substances
containing gas, steam and aerosol mixtures of 1-4 classes of danger: hydrogen
fluoride (Hf), ammonia (Am), formaldehyde (Fo), acetate lead (Al), dust (D),
phenol (Ph-ol), sulphur dioxide (SD), nitrogen dioxide (ND), suspended solids


Adilov Utkir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2722-2737

This work aimed to analyze professional morbidity in the coal industry of Uzbekistan.
The method of data copying from outpatient cards of professional patients and its statistical
processing was used for analysis. The professional morbidity rate in the coal industry was 108
cases per 10 thousand workers and 6.8 times higher than in other industries. At surface coal
mining in the open pit, as compared to underground mining in a coal mine, the number of
cases of first detected occupational diseases was, on average, 2.6 times lower. Thus, the
vibratory disease was most frequently met among workers of open-cast mining in comparison
with underground mining 1.4 times, and professional bronchitis, bronchial asthma and
pneumoconiosis - among workers of underground mining in comparison with open-cast
mining in 2.3 times.Vibration disease is diagnosed among workers of underground mines at
the work experience of 16 years, while among workers engaged in open-cast coal mining - 21
years and more. The analysis of results of medical and labor examination with professional
diseases of coal industry workers showed that among 48.3 ‰ of workers, there were 30.4 ‰
disabilities of Group III and 17.8 ‰ disabilities of Group II. These indicators had differences
depending on the brand of coal mined, so in the mining of brown coal (SiO2-10%), the
disability of professional genesis amounted to Group II 7.5 ‰ and Group III 31.3 ‰, while in
the mining of coal (SiO2-4%) 4.4 times more established Group II disability (73.3 ‰
workers) than Group III - (16.7 ‰). Conclusion: Coal dust of hard and lignite differ in
chemical and physical properties and degree of dispersion, which affects the level of
occupational morbidity and disability of workers.


KhamrakulovaMukaddaskhon .; AdilovUtkir .; SadikovAskar .; NarkhojaevaShahnoza .; SaginbekovKadirjan .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2738-2746

Background: The broad development of the chemical industry, the use of
pesticides in agriculture has led to an increase in hepatitis. At the same time,
different substances in their structure can cause liver function failure.
Objective: The objective of this work was to assess the functional state of
the liver of animals poisoned with the pesticide Bagira, using in their diet dishes
made from local food and additional introduction of a complex of local herbal
medicines into the diet.
Methods: The study involved patients with toxic hepatitis who had
industrial contact with chemicals. The total number of patients was 80 males,
aged 35 to 78 years.
Results (Findings): Based on the results of our research, the antioxidant
phyto tea helps to eliminate cytolytic, cholestatic, inflammatory syndrome,
improve the protein-synthetic function of the liver, improve the functional
activity of the liver, remove toxins from the body, maintain the function of
organs and systems. It is a natural, safe, powerful antioxidant.
Conclusions: 1) Studies have shown that patients diagnosed with chronic
hepatitis have disorders of the functional state of the liver, as well as the
gastrointestinal and nervous systems.
2) Change of biochemical indicators indicates a violation of metabolic, proteinsynthetic,
biliary, antitoxic functions of the liver: increase of bilirubin fractions,
the activity of alanine transferase (ALT), AST, the level of alkaline phosphatase,
gamma-glutaminetranspeptidase (GGT) in serum.
3. The use of phyto tea "Antioxidant" in patients with toxic liver damage
contributed to the increase of liver functional activity.


D.I. Akhmedova .; N.R. Akhmedova .; D.M. Ruzmatova .; S.B. Akhmedova .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2747-2755

Cardiomyopathy is a severe pathology, which requires careful
study of clinical parameters and data of functional diagnostics methods (ECG,
ECHO) for early detection. The study aimed to study the role of clinical and
instrumental, biochemical, and immunological investigation methods for early
detection and prognosis of cardiomyopathy course in children. Materials and
methods of study: 85 children with cardiomyopathy under 18 years of age were
examined, including 60 children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP), 16
children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP) and 9 children with
restriction cardiomyopathy (RCMP) who were hospitalized in the
cardioreumatology department of the Republican Specialized Scientific-
Practical Medical Center of Pediatrics of the Ministry of Health of the Republic
of Uzbekistan. The control group consisted of 30 practically healthy children.


Aziza Nishanova; OishaAlaviya .; AdilovUtkir .; KhamrakulovaMukaddaskhon .; SadikovAskar .; ImanovFurkat .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2769-2784

Introductory information/relevance (Background): Widespread
prevalence of toxic hepatitis from chemical factors, the growth of chronic forms
of the disease, leading to a decrease in working capacity of the working
population, determine the multidimensionality of the problem and the relevance
of the development of new methods of prevention and treatment using a set of
herbal medicines.
Objective: Experimental study of the influence of the pesticide parargyte
on the functional state of hepatocytes and correction of metabolic processes with
the use of decoction from the complex of plant preparations.
Methods: Experimental studies were carried out on 146 white male rats
weighing 190-210. The mechanism of biological action of hepatotropic factors
was studied in acute and chronic experiments and correction of metabolic
processes with the addition of plant antioxidants.
Results (Findings): Experimental studies revealed that under the
influence of the pesticide propargit was observed a disturbance of carbohydrate
energy metabolism in the liver in all study periods. Application of a complex of
plant preparations to poisoned animals normalized the carbohydrate energy
metabolism and improved the functional state of the liver.
Conclusion: Application of the complex of herbal medicines - nettle
leaves, black currant fruits, rose hips, mountain ash fruits, green tea with
pesticide poisoning has a hepatoprotective effect on liver metabolism.


Aziza Nishanova .; OishaAlaviya .; PastumiyaSharipova .; LutfiyaYakubova .; NilufarMirzaaxmedova .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2756-2768

Abstract. At present, the attention of specialists is drawn to a new highly pathogenic strain
of influenza A (H1N1) 2009, first isolated from cases in late March-April 2009 in
California and Mexico, the spread of which led to a pandemic, which was announced by
WHO on June 12, 2009.
The aim of the study. Conduct a randomized cohort study of therapies for pregnant
women with acute respiratory infections.
Materials and research methods. To achieve this goal, 45 pregnant women were
examined. Pregnant women were included in the examination at 12 weeks of gestation. All
patients signed written consent to participate in the experiment. Of the total number of
examined 22 pregnant women who did not have somatic pathology made up a comparative
group. 23 pregnant women suffered influenza of varying severity in the I-II trimesters of
pregnancy. The diagnosis of highly pathogenic influenza A H1N1 was confirmed by
virologic testing. Of the 23 pregnant women, the main group consisted of 14 pregnant
women who were treated with Viferon - the main group and 9 pregnant women who were
treated with symptomatic therapy.
Research results. However, in 43% of women, ARVI symptoms developed gradually over
several days, which was the reason for the later admission of patients to the hospital and
was often associated with the development of bacterial complications in the form of
sinusitis, otitis media, acute community-acquired pneumonia or complications during
pregnancy (threat of termination) ... From the analysis of the case histories, it was found
that from the moment the first symptoms of acute respiratory viral infections appeared to
hospitalization, it took from 2 to 7 days, on average 3.8 ± 1.2 days. In the 1st group of
patients, antiviral therapy was prescribed from the first day of admission to the hospital.
The effectiveness of treatment was assessed by the duration of clinical symptoms of the
disease, the development of complications and pregnancy outcomes. Typical
manifestations of ARVI in pregnant women upon admission to the hospital were: rhinitis -
in 82% of patients, cough - in 64.2% of pregnant women, sore throat - in 57.1% of women.
Dyspeptic manifestations in the form of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea occurred in 5.2% of
patients. Intoxication symptoms in the form of weakness, chills, headache were recorded in
86% (20 women).


IskandarovTulkin .; AdilovUtkir .; Romanova Liliya; Natalia Slavinskaya; Iskandarov Aziz - Ph.D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2785-2794

Abstract. The article presents data on toxicological and hygienic characteristics of
new plant protection means introduced into the Republic's agriculture. As a result of the
research, it was established that new pesticides are low hazardous; they have irritating effects
on mucous membranes of eyes and skin in different degrees; they have functional cumulation.
Hygienic norms and standards of pesticides in environmental facilities and regulations for
their safe use - sanitary protection zones and employment terms.


TulkinIskandarov .; Liliya Romanova .; GulnozaIskandarova .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2795-2802

The article presents the parameters of toxicity of new defoliant
of "Ecodef" cotton, materials on the substantiation of maximum permissible
concentration of the preparation in air, water, soil and maximum permissible
levels in food products; sanitary-protective zones, terms of coming to work after
the application of the preparation.


Iskandarov Aziz; AdilovUtkir .; Natalia Slavinskaya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2803-2809

Abstract: Nowadays,the issues of labor hygiene of women working at
modern, modernized grainage plants of the republic are not studied, the levels of
harmful production factors are not established, the degree of their influence on
biological age is not defined.The research aim was to study the working
conditions of women working at modern grainage plants of Uzbekistan with
further assessment of their biological age, taking into account their work
experience. The research results of the biological age of women working in
unfavorable conditions of grainage production are presented. The work
experience in grainage production has been determined (10 years), which causes
premature aging and increased risk of health impairment.


MukaddaskhonKhamrakulova .; SabirovaGulchehra .; SadikovAskar .; SadikovKhumoyun .; NavruzovErnazar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2810-2822

The energy supply of liver functions is carried out mainly by aerobic mitochondrial
processes. We have studied some aspects of carbohydrate energy metabolism in
mitochondria of the liver at the chronic influence of dichloroethane complex of factors,
noise and vibration on experimental animals’ organism. The research aims to study some
parameters of carbohydrate energy metabolism in mitochondria of the liver under the
chronic influence of dichloroethane, noise and vibration. The researchers carried out
experiments on 98 purebred white male rats weighing 160-180 g. Dichloroethane in the
form of 10% oily solution was injected into the animal’s stomach in a dose of 1/20 LD50
(255 mg/kg), in conditions of noise (95-110dBa) and vibration (2-16dBa) during 15 and 90
days. After the experiments end in 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after exposure cessation to
chemical and physical factors, the rats were decapitated and determined some indicators of
carbohydrate and energy metabolism in the liver and blood of experimental animals.
Presented results of experimental studies show that at repeated exposure to dichloroethane,
noise and vibration there was observed an increase in the intensity of anaerobic glycolysis
in blood, which is confirmed by the accumulation of lactic acid and reduction of glycogen.
Similar changes were observed in the reduction of activity of alkaline phosphatase in the
liver. Inhibition of enzyme activity (dehydrogenase) in all studied biospheres can be
explained by the influence of dichloroethane, noise and vibration on enzyme functional
activity. Inhibition of enzymes GDG, MDG, SDG and alkaline phosphatase in the liver is
observed at multiple effects of dichloroethane, noise and vibration. As a result of the
reduction of redox enzymes, under-oxidized products of anaerobic glycolysis of lactic,
pyruvic acid are accumulated and the level of glycogen is reduced. Prolonged exposure to
various chemical and physical factors in concentrations causing external effects in the
experimental animals’ organism is manifested by hidden changes in several physiological
reactions, biochemical indicators of the individual organs function and systems.


Mirzakarimova Malohat .; Kamiljanov Abduvakhit .; Adilov Utkir .; Dinora Khashirbaeva .; Sagdullaeva Barno .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2823-2835

Lead and its compounds are continuously detected in environmental objects at
various concentrations and doses. Lead is a general plasma poison that affects the nervous,
bone, endocrine system, blood and blood vessels, parenchymatous organs, gastrointestinal
tract, metabolism, reproductive function, immune status and resistance. In this regard, there
is an acute need to study in the experiment features of the response of the body of rats at
the same time aerogenic and oral intake of lead and the development of its permissible
values in the air, water and food products, taking into account the complex effects.
Objective: to determine experimentally the peculiarities of biological response of
experimental animals at simultaneous aerogenic complex intake of lead and development
of its permissible values in air, water and food products.
Methods: Concentration (dose) - time-effect relationship was used. For inhalation,
200-liter chambers were used in the experiment, proposed by B.A. Kurlyandsky. Modern
highly sensitive biochemical, physiological, gonad and embryotoxic indicators were used
to assess the resorptive toxic effect of lead.


Adilov Utkir Khalilovich; Kabilova Gulshan Abdurashidovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2826-2836

The methods of control and assessment of professional risk applied in
the republic do not include the method of assessment of the degree of impact
of harmful and dangerous factors of working conditions on specific
employees, as well as the analysis of actual loss of working capacity of
employees after long periods of labor activity. As a result of incorrectly
chosen assessment methods and methodological approach, working
conditions have a high risk of developing professional and professionally
conditioned morbidity among groups of professions in industries. The purpose
of this work was to determine the improved approaches to professional risk
assessment and instrumental control over their implementation. Assessment
of workers' health indicators depending on working conditions at the
workplace is based on recommendations of the International Labor
Organization. We have developed a package of normative and methodical
documents, including 14 methodical recommendations, as well as Sanitary
Rules and Norms, providing requirements to the hygienic assessment of the
impact of various physical, chemical and biological factors on the health of
workers. Conclusions were made to integrate the characteristics of the factors
of working conditions through the transition from the normalization of
individual parameters of the factors to complex indicators, changing the
methodology of recording the working conditions at the working places to
ensure a comprehensive assessment of all risks in a single procedure and their
systematic monitoring. The use of modern software complexes as part of
special devices for instrumental measurements have a loaded algorithm of
measurements, pre-compiled a special computer program control planning,
which offers the performer an operational hint on the choice of place and
number of measuring points.


Khamrakulova Mukaddaskhon .; Sabirova Gulchehra .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2847-2862

Background:Experimental studies have confirmed the probability of
changes in some carbohydrate and protein metabolism indicators during
dichloromethane intoxication under the conditions of noise and vibration. It is
necessary to use Phytotea’ Gepalyuks’ with potassium for prevention and
treatment by correcting metabolic processes to avoid the adverse effects of
physical and chemical factors on the body.
Objective: Experimental study of the effectiveness of phytotea
“Gepalyuks” and potassium on carbohydrate energy metabolism of the liver and
blood under the influence of chemical and physical factors.
Methods: The experiments were conducted on 98 purebred white rats -
males weighing 160-180 years, contained in vivarium’s usual diet. Animals were
divided into control and experimental groups. Control animals received an
equivalent volume of drinking water, food and were kept in vivarium conditions.
Animals of the experimental group were divided into two groups: The first group
was intragastrically injected 10% of oiled dichloromethane solution in the dose of
1/20 LD50 (255 mg/kg) in conditions of noise (tape recording) at the level of 95-
105 dBA and vibration of 5-16 dBA during 90 days.
with intragastric administration of 10% oily solution of dichloromethane in a dose
of 1/20 LD50 (255 mg/kg), was administered a decoction of phytotea
“Gepalyuks”(1 ml of phytotea per 100 g of animal body weight) in conditions of
noise exposure (tape recording) at the level of 95-105 dBA and vibration of 5-16
dBA during 90 days. Phytotea “Gepalyuks” consists of immortelle sand flower,
yarrow herb, licorice root, peppermint leaves, corn snouts, and rosehip fruit.
Animals were slaughtered on 15, 30, 60 and 90 days from the beginning of the
experience. We took the liver, blood and determined biochemical indicators of
carbohydrate, protein, and pigment metabolism for research.
We studied some carbohydrate energy metabolism indicators to study the
effectiveness of phytotea“Gepalyuks” and potassium orotate under chronic
exposure to dichloromethane, noise and vibration.
Findings: When administered within 90 days, biologically active vegetable
and synthetic preparations in the form of decoction lead to an increase in the
activity of GDG, SDH and MDH and a decrease in the level of pyruvic and lactic
acids in serum and liver.
As a result of experimental studies, it was found that when administered
phytotea “Hepallux” in combination with potassium orotate for 90 days (15, 30,
60 and 90 days) under chronic exposure to dichloroethane, noise and vibration in
biochemical indicators - protein and lipid metabolism and activity of enzymes of
aliphatic amino acids remineralization (AST, ALT) and the content of cholesterol,
total and direct bilirubin in the liver and blood revealed a positive effect.
Conclusions: Application of phytotea “Hepallux” in complex
Potassium orotate causes a pronounced pharmacotherapeutic effect under
the toxic effects of chemical and physical factors - dichloroethane, noise and
vibration. Normalizes or approximates indices of carbohydrate energy (pyruvic,
lactic acids, the activity of GDG, SDG, MDG) metabolism and alkaline
phosphatase to those of the control group in blood and liver. The content of totalprotein, total and free bilirubins, the activity of AST, ALT in serum and liver is
approaching the norm.


Suvonov K.J .; Adilov U.X .; Kuryazov A.K.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2863-2870

The aim was to study the prevalence and risk factors of dental disease development in
pregnant women living in different Uzbekistan regions. The prevalence and intensity of dental
caries among pregnant women are 1.3 times higher in the Urgenchdistrict of the Khorezm
region compared to the Kibray district of the Tashkent region. These figures increase with
each subsequent pregnancy. The same pattern is observed for periodontal and oral mucosa
diseases. The most significant medical and biological factors contributing to the development
of dental diseases in pregnant women were age, several pregnancies, intergenerational period,
course and terms of pregnancy, the presence of extragenital diseases. Among medical and
social risk factors, the most significant were education, living conditions, oral hygiene,
sanitary culture, and medical activity of pregnant women.


Adilov U.H .; Khashirbaeva D.M .; Voronina N.V .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2871-2879

This work aimed to identify harmful factors in the production environment, identify risk
factors, and assess their impact on the health of workers of the Ferghana Oil Refinery Plant. The
research was conducted in 2010-2014 at the Fergana Oil Refinery. Sanitary and hygienic, labouratory,
calculation and statistical methods of research were used to achieve the goal. The research results
showed that the activity of professional groups of the main production shops of the refinery is
accompanied by an unfavourable impact of a complex of factors of the production environment and
labour process. The workplaces of these categories of specialists correspond to the general class of
working conditions according to the hygienic classification - 3 class 1, 2, 3 and 4 degrees (3.1, 3.2,
3.3, and 3.4), where the high level of gas pollution, industrial noise and vibration, the severity of the
labour process is observed. The technological cycle of production, consisting of sequential production
operations, based on a multistage chain of chemical reactions, allowed identifying one of the leading
harmful production factors - chemical. The composition of chemical pollutants of the working zone
included a wide range of gases and chemical substances: carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen
sulfide, chlorine, toluene, benzene, acetone, hydrocarbons, kerosene, mineral oils, phenol, sulphur oil,
gasoline, methylethyl ketone, diesel fuel. Thus, based on the obtained research results, the nature and
intensity of unfavorable production factors have been revealed, the level of professional risk for the
employees' health has been assessed, the risk factors determining the employees' professional health
have been identified, the priorities in implementation of preventive measures at the enterprise have
been determined.


Farfieva Komola; Islamova Dildora

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2880-2895

In this article it was discussed the role of socio-psychological factors
influencing the scientific and creative thinking and behavior of young people.
The authors discussed the psychological characteristics of modern media
coverage and the role of social media in influencing the maturity, thinking,
and behavior of young people. They focused on the benefits of messages in
the information space among young people and the formation of a culture of
using different messages on social networks.


Gulnara Muminova; Anvar Alimov; Fakhriddin Shamsiev; Kamola Abduyusupova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2896-2903

Using the method of scanning electron microscopy learned the
state of the surface of dentures and the oral mucosa in individuals that
intolerant to acrylic dentures.
It was found that in case of intolerance to acrylic dentures significant
accumulation of microorganisms and their proliferation are determined on the
surface of the prosthetics in contact with the oral mucosa.
These microorganisms along with micro trauma of the surface of the oral
mucosa may be one of the etiological factors in the development of
intolerance to acrylic dentures.


Тuxtasinova Nigina Bashirovna; Zoirova Aziza Ibragimovna; Umurzakova Fotima Irisbaevna; Yakhyoyeva Zebiniso Musayevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2919-2931

During Covid-2019, this article is dedicated to the investigation of the
hagiographic works, including some information about the research, scientific
view and investigation of major scholars of the world. The materials studied
showed that foreign scientists conducted numerous studies within the
framework of hagiographic works, their language, style, originality of literary
and linguistic variants, linguistic and non-linguistic factors, historicaletymological
basis. They also deeply studied the teachings of the Saints, the
angios, the Pirs, their lives and activities.
Although in Uzbek linguistics and literary studies there are some
scientific works devoted to the study of hagiographic works, scientific studies
devoted to the translation of hagiographic works have practically not been
carried out.


S.S. Murtazaev; G.E. Aripova; J.M. Kadirov; S.R. Rasulova.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2932-2941

Edward H. Angle described III class of bite anomalies where the lower first molar is
located mesially relative to the upper first molar [4,7]. This ratio may be the result of the normal location
of the upper jaw and mesial skeletal location of the lower jaw or develop due to a combination of the
upper jaw in retrusion and the lower jaw in protrusion. Dental relations of class III are found in persons
with normal jaw relations [1,3,6]. Patients with class III anomalies usually have a concave facial profile,
their lower lip often protrudes concerning the upper lip. Sometimes, the class III anomaly ratios are
formed by shifting the lower jaw forward to avoid incision. This is a false form of class III anomalies.
Undoubtedly, the etiological factors of class III bite disorder and oral cavity functions are influenced by
environmental factors, but the causes of this phenomenon are not fully known (] [1,2,5,8].


Shakhnoza Askarova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2943-2953

This article examines the German borrowings existing in the
Uzbek and Russian languages, many of which have been developed in a
particular language environment.In particular, the condition and features of
interlanguage relations were discussed, which is one of the reasons for the
most significant changes and interactions in the semantic, lexical and
grammatical structure of languages, as well as the influence of borrowings on
the phenomena of bilingualism and polylingualism.
The purpose of the study. The work is devoted to identify German
borrowings in the Uzbek and Russian languages in the context of the
sociolinguistic sphere. Against the background of consideration of borrowing,
it is necessary to define the scope of their value and use.
1) To find out the reasons for the transition of German borrowing
words with the help of the Russian language to the Uzbek
2) To analyze the similarities and differences of lexical borrowings in
the recipient language.
Materials and methods. The material for this study was linguistic
scientific articles, abstracts and monographs. In the course of the study,
a descriptive method was used to establish the status of German borrowings in
the Uzbek and Russian languages, which implies the interpretation and
classification of the material, which makes it possible
to understand and generalize the corresponding theoretical material.
Results. The research results are as following: to identify three main periods
of adaptation of borrowings in the recipient language: penetration into
speech, selective borrowing, rooting in the language. Determine the level of
borrowing, the impact of German borrowing on the development and changes
of Uzbek - German and Uzbek - Russian bilingualism. The specificity of
the development of the number of borrowings at all levels of the language
systems of the Uzbek and Russian languages is one of the important points in
the study of bilingualism.
Conclusions. Despite different opinions and definitions of the term
borrowing, most linguists agree that borrowing is the process of moving from
a source language to a target language, whether in a direct or indirect 
form. Under the influence of interference, this article examines changes in the
borrowing of languages, as well as the use of the recipient language in
the system. Features of these stages may have an impact to
the internal and external factors. The impact of extra linguistic situations on
bilingual speech needs to be monitored. Borrowing is a process, appropriate
for both bilingual and monolingual situations. In many situations,
the borrowed elements of the language are adapted to one stage or another at
all language levels, i.e. are transformed in accordance with the norms of the
recipient language.


Aniyoz Khudayberganov; Shirin Ruzmetova; Munis Kurbonov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2977-2987

this scientific article analyzes the significance of the
phenomenon of motivation in educational processes. It was emphasized that
one of the tasks facing modern pedagogy is to awaken motivation to acquire
knowledge among students and young people, to encourage them morally and
to attract them to new achievements. The issues of using modern pedagogical
technologies, interactive methods and methodologies were also discussed
during the training.


Yanova Elvira Umarjonovna; Mardieva Gulshod Mamatmuradovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2989-2997

It was found that the joint presence of bone and vascular changes in the
craniovertebral region, or even one of them, can lead to a clinically significant
decrease in cerebral blood flow. One of the fairly common anomalies is the arcuate
foramen, which does not have a characteristic clinic and is disguised as other
Purpose.To analyze the computed tomographic characteristics of the bone
jumper of the first cervical vertebra.
Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of computed tomographic
examinations of the upper cervical spine in 479 patients using 3-dimensional (3D)
reconstruction was carried out. The patients' age ranged from 12 to 85 years. In 61 
patients, Kimmerle anomaly was diagnosed. The average age of men was 39.7 ± 6.3
years, women - 44.8 ± 6.7 years.
Results.When conducting a computed tomography of the brain of patients with
Kimmerle's anomaly, in 25 cases out of 42 - signs of vascular encephalopathy, in 11
cases signs of cerebellar atrophy and in 5 cases - single cysts. In 84% of patients with
Kimmerle's anomaly, who underwent 3D CT of the cervical spine, osteochondrosis
was noted and in 21% - spondylosis, in 74% of cases combined with degenerative
changes in the intervertebral disc. In 70% of patients with Kimmerle's anomaly, there
is a bilateral arrangement of the atlas bone jumper. With a one-sided arrangement, the
atlas bone jumper is often located on the left. The vaulted hole was located on both
sides equally often. The anteroposterior dimension of the arcuate foramen on the right
is 5.4 ± 2.32 mm, on the left - 5.9 ± 2.43 mm. Vertical dimension - 3.35 ± 1.83 mm
on the right, 3.49 ± 1.87 mm on the left. The incidence of the anomaly was 12.7%.
Conclusions.A spondylogenic factor, in the form of Kimmerle's anomaly, can
cause impaired craniovertebral circulation, given the combination with ischemic
changes in the computed tomographic picture of the posterior parts of the brain.
Additional research is needed to assess the state of the vascular bed and blood flow in
the vessels, which will provide the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular
disorders in patients with Kimmerle's anomaly.


Sharipov R.; Akhmedova M.M.; Rasulov A.S.; Dilmuradova K.R.; Rabbimova D.T.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2988-2995

In recent years, special attention has been paid to in-depth study of
perinatal lesions of the central nervous system, and this is not accidental,
since the problem of perinatal lesions of the nervous system has acquired
particular relevance in connection with the increase in the frequency of this
pathology. Perinatal brain damage accounts for more than 60% of all
pathology of the nervous system of childhood, is directly involved in the
development of diseases such as seizures, cerebral palsy, and minimal brain


RizaevJ. A.; Ashirov Z.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2996-3002

The Majority of dermatovenereological diseases belong to the category
of socially significant diseases. In this regard, changes in the socio-economic
development of the country affect the epidemiological situation and the quality of
medical care. Historical experience shows that any socio-economic changes in
society entail the need to modernize the existing system. In the third Millennium,
the state of the epidemiological situation and socio-economic development of
society indicates the need to manage the quality of medical care, improve the
organizational basis for preventing the spread of STIs and providing
dermatovenereological care to the population.


F.Sh. Mavlyanov; M . Kh . Mukhammadiev; F.M. Shukurov; S.Zh. Kamolov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3003-3007

To explore the possibilities of different methods
of surgical treatment of severe acute pancreatitis , two groups of surgical
patients were selected depending on the method of surgical treatment,
which were produced by different types
of " open " and laparoscopic operations. To assess the effectiveness of
the applied methods of treatment, in the postoperative period, we used
the following laboratory and physiological parameters: progression
or regression systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS ), neutro
phil-lymphocyte ratio ( NLR), as well as integral scales for assessing
severity Ranson , APACHE - II and SAPS . The results obtained
demonstrate the advantages of laparoscopic surgical methods


Jamshed Turdumatov; Gulshod Mardieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3009-3028

At present, the important role of comorbid diseases, including diabetes
mellitus, in the course of COPD has been determined. Concomitant diabetes
mellitus accelerates the progression of ventilation disorders and worsens the
prognosis, increasing the risk of mortality from COPD. Diabetes mellitus is
associated with COPD from 2 to 16%. Potential mechanisms underlying the
high incidence of the combined course of COPD and type 2 diabetes mellitus
include: chronic systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic
Purpose. determination of clinical, functional and radiological features
of COPD in diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods. We examined 75 patients and studied the
features of the course of COPD in combination with diabetes mellitus in
comparison with the results of examining patients with COPD and patients
with diabetes mellitus by X-ray and MSCT.
Results. Patients with COPD in combination with diabetes mellitus are
characterized by more pronounced respiratory failure and chronic cor
pulmonale, frequent exacerbations and more pronounced hypoxemia in
comparison with patients with COPD. Standard radiography did not reveal
pronounced differences between the examined groups of patients with COPD.
COPD is formed as a result of damage to the small bronchi, which determines
the characteristic clinical and radiological symptom complex. In the structure
of COPD, there is a pulmonary component and systemic manifestations that
aggravate the disease. The manifestations of diabetes mellitus are based on
micro- and macroangiopathies that affect pulmonary microcirculation.
Conclusions. Diagnostically significant for COPD during MSCT is a
symptom of expiratory "air trap", combined with expansion and deformation of
the bronchi, up to bronchioectasis. At MSCT in patients with COPD and
diabetes mellitus, pathognomic changes characterizing microangiopathy:
dilated parenchymal vessels, focal-like shadows of vascular origin with a
diameter of 2-5 mm, a clear-cut shape of the vessels, which are considered as a
consequence of specific microangiopathy and fibrotic changes in COPD.

Improving the epidemiology, epizootology, and prevention of echinococcosis in Uzbekistan

Sh.M. Rasulov; G.S. Matnazarova; A. Mirtazayev; N.T. Xamzayeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3029-3052

Echinococcus (Echinococcus granulosus) is a parasitic disease
that occurs in some mammals and humans, is transmitted orally, infects human
parenchymal organs (liver, lungs, spleen, and various other organs), and is
chronic, causing echinococcal vomiting. The Republic of Uzbekistan is an
endemic area for echinococcosis. According to official data, the damage rate is
6-9 people per 100,000 population. The number of surgeries performed
annually due to echinococcosis ranges from 1,000 to 1,500. The article
provides an analysis of the prevalence of echinococcosis among humans and
animals, the long-term (1994-2019) dynamics of echinococcosis among the
population of the Republic of Uzbekistan, routes of transmission, infectious
factors, epidemiological and epizootiological features.

Сlinical and pathological features and prevalence of gestational trophoblastic disease

MalikaRustamovna Mamatova; NargizaNematovna Zakhirova; NilufarMahmudovna Akhmedova; ZilolaMakhammadovna Nazirova; MehriyorbegimMansurjonovna Mamadaliyeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3053-3066

The prevalence, clinical and pathological features of Gestational
trophoblastic disease (GTD) was studied. GTD is a term that unites a group of
pathological conditions associated with pregnancy that develop as a result of
abnormal cell proliferation of the trophoblast after fertilization. The aim of the
research was to study the clinical and pathological features and the prevalence
of various forms of gestational trophoblastic disease in Uzbekistan. A
retrospective analysis of the case histories of women with gestational 
trophoblastic disease was carried out.As a result of the research, the following
conclusions were made: there is a tendency to increase the incidence of
gestational trophoblastic disease. Established the single center for monitoring,
diagnostics and treatment of trophoblastic disease in the republic will improve
the quality of diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of this category of
patients. It is necessary to use markers to predict the malignant transformation
of trophoblastic disease using modern diagnostic methods.


Mavlanov Normumin Normamatovich; Abdullayev Abror Bozarboyevich Bozarboyevich; Kalandarova Nargiza Narimanovna; Ochilov Olmos Ikrom ugli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3067-3081

In the article methods of evaluating and analyzing
creditworthiness of entities have been discussed. Current order of
creditworthiness and its improvement in case of Uzbekistan have been
accomplished. Adopting of complex analysis in credit scoring model of
creditworthiness valuation and its advantages have been proved in case of JV
―UZGERMED PHARM‖ LLC. Theoretical and practical proposals on solving
current shortcomings of evaluating creditworthiness by developing complex
analysis have been described.


Muratkhadjayeva A.V.; Khakimova U.R.; Ibragimova D.T.; Yakubova K.N.; Akilova F.A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3082-3090

Rhabdomyoma of the heart refers to benign neoplasm, often diagnosed in
the first year of life, can cause serious disorders in the work of the heart. In some cases,
rhabdomyoma of the heart is observed with tuberoussclerosis e, in this regard, it is necessary to
conduct a full examination of the child and promptly prescribe treatment and regular
monitoring.Early detectionof rhabdomyoma of the heart and дprenatal observation of a
cardiologist and cardiac surgeon with symptomatic treatment will allow you to choose the right
treatment strategy, since in some cases there isa regression of rhabdomyoma.


Raimkulova D.F.; Rizaev J.A.; Sadikov A.A.; Aladova L.Yu; Babadjanov O.A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3091-3101

The purpose of this study was to study the content of free and bound carnitine in
the blood of young athletes involved in various sports. 101 young athletes of
various sports qualifications at the age from 15 to 17 years old were examined.
For the research, young men were divided into two groups: I - types of sports of
complex impact (football) - 38 people, II - cyclic type (rowing) - 31 people.
Girls (32) are divided into three groups: I - types of sports of complex impact
(football) - 14 people, II - a cyclical sport that predominantly develops
endurance (rowing) - 6 people, and III - a complex coordination sport (rhythmic
gymnastics) - 12 person. It was revealed that the assessment of carnitine
metabolism indices allows predicting the degree of physical working capacity of
athletes involved in various sports. At the same time, it was found that indicators
of carnitine metabolism, body composition, have prognostic value in assessing
the physical performance of young athletes.

SYNDROME KARTAGENER IN CHILDREN (clinical case of observation)

I.A. Dauksh; A.L. Aliev; G.S. Shaislamova; G. Z. Pirnazarova; Y.Sh. Maxkamova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3102-3111

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome) refers to inherited
rare diseases, characterized by the reverse location of internal organs, the development of
secondary chronic diseases of the bronchi, hypoplasia of the sinuses and the development
of chronic rhino-sinusitis.
In the article the peculiarities of clinic, diagnostics and treatment of children with
the syndrome of Kartagener. A clinical caseof diagnosis of this pathology in a child in the
first year of life is presented.Early diagnosis and regular adequate conservative therapy
contribute to the slow progression of the disease without signs of bronchiectasis.


Yakutkhon Madjidova; Durdona Mukhammadzhanova; Nodira Azimova; Gulchekhra Isakova; Aziza Dzhurabekova; Shavkat Kabilov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3112-3117

The article presents the results of a study of 52 children with various forms
of cerebral palsy. The analysis of risk factors for the development of cerebral palsy. The
diagnosis of cognitive impairment, including memory impairment in children with cerebral
palsy, is one of most significant tasks, since it determines the characteristics and prognosis of
both medical and social rehabilitation, while the differentiation of retardation of mental
retardation and marked retardation is extremely significant.

Enhancing student’s writing through pre-writing activities

AllanazarovaMamura Akhmedovna; AkhmedovaKhulkar Olimjonovna; DjuraevaKhosiyatkhon Khamidovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3118-3130

Writing is a complicated capability that provides communication between the people by
means of graphic signs. Like speaking, it is a productive skill; we record our messages to
convey them to the recipient.
Many writing initiatives have been discussed as ways to improve student writing.
However, in order for teachers to successfully teach writing, they must be exposed to a
variety of classroom-tested approaches (Williams J, 2012, p.89). Besides, teaching how to
write effectively is one of the most important life-long skills educators impart to their
students. When teaching writing, educators must be sure to select resources and support
materials that not only aid them in teaching how to write, but that will also be the most
effective in helping their students learn to write.
According to the ideas of Dan Kirby and Tom Liner (Inside Out: Strategies for Teaching
Writing, p.32) succeeding as a writing teacher requires a pragmatic awareness of
educational politics and the conflicts and questions within our discipline and a solid grasp
of public notions about how writing classes should look, what skills are most important for
students, and why writing might be useful or important. Public opinion often disagrees
with instructional practices that are informed by research and by teachers’ experiences with
students. They also mentioned that teaching writing is challenging; it may be one of the
toughest jobs a teacher faces. If we are teaching in a middle school or a high school
classroom, we know the depth of the challenges that large classes, students whose first
language isn’t English, or russian and excessive absences—as well as the challenges we
discussed previously—present for teaching and learning anything. Too many teachers
work in schools clogged with test-prep demands and follow-the-script teaching
expectations. It’s not much of a surprise, then, if some teachers try to avoid writing
instruction entirely while others adopt the latest ―Teach Writing Quickly!‖ off-the-shelf
product to make their lives a little easier. Effective teaching of writing takes time: time for
practice, time to share writing, time to complete pieces of writing, and time to respond to
and evaluate all of that writing. Many teachers are afraid of teaching writing precisely
because it takes lots of time, in class and out. To teach writing well, we don’t look some
place ―out there‖ for rules, formulas, and mimicry. We begin, instead, by teaching students
to attend to their inner language, to their individual sensations, perceptions, emotions,
incipient understandings, observations, and perspectives. Writing, like all other acts of
creation, develops from the inside out.
Last but not least, it should also be noted that teaching and learning to write can seem
complicated for both teachers and students, but with the huge contribution of writing
techniques and activities the writing classes are more likely to be intriguing and

Some сonsiderations on the study of history of humanitarian sciences and medicine in Uzbekistan through GIS systems

Uljaeva Sh. M.; Ismailova Z.K.; Nazarov K.N.; Djumaniyazov R.M.; Nishanbaeva G. J.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3131-3141

Nowadays, in all spheres in the world arena and in our country, largescale
reforms and best traditions are being introduced in all spheres.
Today, great steps are being taken to explore the humanities in
innovative ways. Historical periods, events, archives and other material and
written sources are modeled through information technology and focuses on
the quick and easy study of history, comparing events, sources, summarizing
and comparing statistics.
The article analyzes issues related to archival documents and written
sources, electronic copies, digitization of the total number of periods and 
topics, presentations for lessons, audiovisual, animated and electronic
materials, manuals and textbooks.
The article emphasizes the study of the ancient Turkic peoples' writing,
their culture, their modern-day territories, languages, language families and
networks, and should be explored through digital humanities and more.


Aliev M.M.; Terebaev B.A.; Abzalova Sh.R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3142-3146

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of four surgical procedures to treat
Hirschsprung’s disease (HD) in children.
Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-eight children with HD were included in this retrospective study. The
children underwent four types of pull-through procedures between 2015 and 2020. Sixty-one (44%) children were
older than 3 years of age at the time of surgery. In this study, we evaluated the functional outcome by measuring the
incidence of postoperative complications.
Results: The surgical procedure consisted of 90 transabdominal (modified Soave – n=72; Swenson procedure – n=8;
Swenson-like – n=10) and 48 transanal endorectal pull-through (TEPT) procedures. Early postoperative
complications were seen in 13 children and consisted of faecal incontinence (5; 3.6%), anastomotic stricture (4;
2.8%), and cuff abscess (2; 1.4%); one child had dysuria and anastomotic dehiscence (0.7%). Nine of these early
postoperative complications were after modified Soave pull-through. Episodes of Hirschsprung-associated
enterocolitis occurred more often after transabdominal pull-through procedures (14.4% vs 8.3%; p=.04).
Conclusion: Children who underwent TEPT had a lower rate of postoperative complications, especially episodes of
postoperative Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis. Therefore, in the treatment of HD in children, preference
should be given to TEPT, which is less traumatic, has better cosmetic outcomes and has low incidences of
postoperative complications.