Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Issue 9,

Issue 9


AFFECTIVITY in TIMES of COVID-19 and its IMPACT on CIVIC EDUCATION of SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS, PERU

Francisco Alejandro Espinoza Polo; Jaime Luis Alcántara Marcelo; Carlos Alfredo Cerna Muñoz; Gaby Esther Chunga Pingo; Enaidy Reynosa Navarro

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1-9

The positive emotional state of students, in which they accept themselves
physically, accept others, and participate in issues of common good in times of
pandemic, characterizes the learning environment of the subject under study. The
purpose of this research was to determine the impact of affectivity on the learning of
citizenship and civic education of the students in second grade of high school in the
educational institutions Sebastián Barranca and Nuestra Señora de Las Mercedes in the
province of Ica, Peru, in times of the pandemic. There was a population of 150 students
and a sample of 93, chosen by means of a probabilistic sample selection. Two
instruments were applied: the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and the learning
questionnaire in the area of citizenship and civic education, developed by the
researchers of this study. The index r of rho Spearman was used for the correlation and
for the influence the linear regression, having as a result: affectivity influences
significantly (p < 0.01) in the dimension Living respecting himself and the others whose
general values are r = 0.293**; r2 = 0.078; and it has a non-significant impact (p > 0.05)
on the dimensions Participation in public affairs to promote the common good and
Learning in the area of citizenship and civic education (r = 0.072; r2 = 0.5%; r = 0.192;
r2 = 3.7%). As a conclusion, activities focused on affection should be promoted in order
to improve the dimension Living respecting himself and the others.

ASSESSMENT of IMPACT of COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE) on ADULT INDIAN POPULATION: A CROSS SECTIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE BASED SURVEY

Shweta Patel; Manindra Rajak; Kamini Khatak; Ranjana Patnaik; Diwakar Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 10-23

Background As the pandemic COVID-19 (due to novel Corona virus) is widely spreading across the globe, it is creating extensive fear, anxiety, apprehension and stress. These are all inevitable and growing reactions to the changing and uncertain situation in which all of us find ourselves. Objectives This study was carried out to assess the psychological impact of the novel, unprecedented situation arising due to pandemic in adult Indian population. Method The data was collected with self-reported questionnaire based survey. The survey was circulated in social media as Google form and participation was completely voluntary. Data was statistically analysed by using chi square test for the calculation of significance. Results The responders had moderate level of perceived stress and anxiety 71%; 63.1% were found to be above average in terms of wellness, 80% were reported to smoke/chew tobacco/consume alcohol and 98.1% were well aware of COVID-19 and seriously followed social distancing. Conclusion Since disruptive effect of COVID-19 social distancing is dominating our daily lives, it is important to maintain connection. Anxiety and fears of each and every individual should be acknowledged and better understood by other individuals, communities and caregivers.

DRY SOCKET ETIOPATHOGENESIS, MANAGEMENT and PREVENTION: A BRIEF SYSTEMATIC REVIEW of LITERATURE

Nithin Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 24-29

Dry socket is an unavoidable complication of dental extraction facing the dental practitioners on a regular basis. We performed a brief systemic review of the etiopathogenesis, prevention and management of dry socket. The inclusion criteria for including articles were that all the studies discussed the dry socket etiopathogenesis, prevention and management and the exclusion criteria were all the studies that included other complications of tooth extraction. The method used for this systemic review was to search in the PubMed database using MeSH terms “dry socket”, “alveolar ostitis” for etiopathogenesis, prevention and management and published in the English language, 86 articles were identified by abstract for relevance to etiopathogenesis, prevention and management of dry socket and a total of 24 publications were included in the final systematic review according to the specific keywords and materials mentioned above. The audit of the literature showed that the prevention methods include avoiding smoking after surgery, atraumatic extraction, the use of antibiotics and other preventive measures such as use of chlorhexidine rinse or gel to reduce the incidence of dry socket. For management of dry socket, wide range of treatment options are being suggested including using chlorhexidine or saline solution irrigation, placement of non- absorbable obtundent dressing(zinc oxide eugenol dressing) or absorbable dressing(alveogyl dressing) and instruction of home rinsing with chlorhexidine mouthwash. There are also new agents in the field being tried that accelerates the healing of the socket such as PRF and GECB as well as combination of PRF with chlorhexidine gel. This paper is a brief review of the literature on etiopathogenesis, prevention and management of dry socket, in order to best guide clinical practice based on current available evidence

EVOLUTION of DENTIN BONDING AGENTS

Niladri Maiti; Duran Kala; Alisir Babakuliyev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 30-40

This article describes the different types of bonding agents and its concepts of bonding to enamel, dentin, cementum. This also gives idea about different types of changes in chemical composition of bonding agents which varies between different generations. It also emphasizes about the importance of etchants and primers.

IN VIVO AND in VITRO ANALYSES to REVEAL THE POTENTIAL of SOLANUM VIOLACEUM as EFFICIENT HEPATOPROTECTIVE AGENT

Remya K; Balamurali M M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 41-58

Objectives The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Solanum violaceum was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated animal models followed by phytochemical screening of bioactive extracts by GC-MS. Methods The total phenolic and flavonoid content were estimated from the solvent extracted samples. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective studies were carried out with the ethyl acetate extract of Solanum violaceum (SVEE). The hepatoprotective evaluations were carried out with CCl4 intoxicated rats. The levels of Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and proteins were measured in the serum and histopathological studies were carried out with the liver sections. The phytochemical profile of the bioactive extract was revealed from GC-MS analysis. Results The ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Solanum violaceum were rich in phenolic and flavonoid contents respectively. The DPPH and NO scavenging assays revealed better activity for ethyl acetate extract while ABTS assay was better for the alcoholic extract. Therefore further investigations on the hepatoprotective activity were carried out with ethyl acetate extract. The hepatoprotective screening revealed the restoration of enzymes as well as protein to normal levels upon treating intoxicated rats with the bioactive extracts in a dose dependant manner. Further histopathological studies also revealed that the ethyl acetate extract was effective towards restoration of liver cells to normal levels. The phytochemical profile as evaluated from the GC-MS analysis of the extract narrowed down the observed response to four major compounds. Conclusions Solanum violaceum possesses significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. The bioactive constituents attributing to the observed activity were revealed by GC-MS analysis. Viridiflorol, palmitic acid, n-pentacosanal and citroflex A were found to be the major ones

A Study to Evaluate Pattern of Rifampicin Resistance in Seropositive HIV Patients in Tertiary Care Center in Western Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Devinder Kumar Vohra; Dr. Santosh Mittal; Dr. Deepa Yudik Taba

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 59-67

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis in the PLHIV population is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and presents a substantial hazard of nosocomial disease transmission to other patients and health care workers. These risks are heightened when patients have multidrug-resistant TB. To address these challenges, there is a critical need in such a setting for rapid, ef ective screening for TB and the detection of drug resistance and early initiation of treatment. Delayed treatment is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional survey among HIV infected adult patients attending A.R.T Nodal centers, Medicine Opd and ward and chest, and T.B OPD and wards. All the patients with presumptive pulmonary TB were assessed for sputum for microscopy AFB and underwent Drug susceptibility test (CBAAT) for Rifampicin resistance. The primary aim of the Study is “TO EVALUATE PATTERN OF RIFAMPICIN RESISTANCE IN SEROPOSITIVE HIV PATIENTS IN TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH” RESULT: The present study concluded that the prevalence of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis is very high of 39% among presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. BY using CBNAAT we found that 27% of rifampicin resistance was prevalent among 78 patients. In the study population maximum sputum, positive pulmonary tuberculosis was in-between age group 31 to 50 years. Majority 81% of the patients were male. CONCLUSION: Sputum microscopy has very low sensitivity (35.9%) in our study for diagnosing tuberculosis in PLHIV. whereas CBNAAT has a sensitivity of 95 %,it detected double numbers of patients than AFB microscopy

DETECTION of SOME VIRULENCE FACTORS and ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY TEST of ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS ISOLATED FROM SHEEP by MULTIPLEX PCR

Hala Mohammed Majeed; Bashar Sadeq Noomi; Marwan Q. AL-Samarraie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 68-74

Enterococcus faecalis form an important population of commensal bacteria and have been reported to possess numerous virulence factors considered significantly important in exacerbating diseases caused by them. Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluates the presence of virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from sheep. Methods: The study included the collection of 50 samples (25 Milk samples collected from the udder was washed and the teats were disinfected and dried using alcohol, the first milk drop removed. 5ml of milk collected on aseptic tube and 25 Feces samples collected from sheep diarrhea from rectal by aseptic gloves. (from October 2018 to March 2019 ) and transported to laboratory as soon as possible in sterile Brain heart infusion broth that incubated at 37 C for at least 24-28 hours to increasing chances of isolation. Enterococcus faecalis that were recognized by cultural characteristics, Gram stain, and biochemical reactions. Results: The results of the laboratory cultural of 50 cotton swabs used s show that the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. were 32% and 56% from milk and feaces respectively. the result of PCR test for detection of Enterococcus faecalis: show that the Enterococcus faecalis detected in rate of 66.6% from total Enterococcus spp. While the result of Enterococcus faecalis virulence factors showed that the Surface proteins, Gelatinase and Hemolysin were 75%, 33.3%, 25.5% respectively. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed the most bacterial isolated sensitive Nitrofurantoin , Imipenem and Nalidixic acid were 91.6%,83.3% and 58.3% % respectively Conclusion: We report that our simple modification of the existing multiplex PCR had increased the detection of the enterococcal virulence genes. Predominance of virulence genes was in order of Surface proteins, Gelatinase and Hemolysin were 75%, 33.3%, 25.5%. This modified PCR protocol could be useful to resolve the problem of decreased detection of virulence determinants in enterococci.

DETECTION the GENETIC EFFECTS of ANTIBIOTICS and PLANT EXTRACTS on E.COLI BACTERIAL ISOLATED FROM UTI PATIENTS USING RAPD MARKERS

Fatima Mustafa Al-najar; Qanat Mahmood Atiyea; Adnan F. AL-Azzawie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 75-87

Background and Objective: E.coli bacteria is the common cause of the urinary tract infections as it is responsible for about 90% of cases of urinary tract infections and it is considered one of the main problems in hospital infected. So, this study aimed to assess the genetic effects of ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, alcoholic pomegranate Granada extract and alcoholic Trigonella foenum on coliform bacteria. Materials and methods: The bacteria were isolated from urinary tract infections, after they were diagnosed using an optical microscope and conducting biochemical tests, then exposed to the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, and alcoholic extract of pomegranate Granada and Trigonellafoenum. Genomic DNA was extracted for all samples and Random amplified polymorohic DNA - Polymerase chain reaction (RAPD- PCR) marker was carried out using five randomprimers. Results: The results of RAPD-PCR profiles shown thate xposed to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim) and alcoholic extracts (pomegranate Granada and Trigonellafoenum) lead to the disappearance or appearance new bands compared with non-exposed samples, and the highest rate of polymorphisim for all each treats and primers in sample 3 was 105.88% where the ratio % GTS for all treats and primers is 10% in the same sample. Conclusion: All treatments caused genetic changes in the DNA of E.coli bacteria cells especially the pomegranate Granada which gave the highest effect than the rest of the treatments, this indicates its efficiency in treating bacterial infections

REVALENCE of H.PYLORI in CHILDREN with DIARRHEA

Hind Mutar Ibrahim; Shihab Ahmed Khalaf; Luay Farhood Jumaah; Emad Maaroof Thakir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 88-95

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is common in developing countries. H. pylori infection epidemiology is variable, because the prevalence is high and occurrence of infection in happen in young ages in developing or poor countries compared to that which consider as developed countries. Study aim: was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children and to evaluate some epidemiologic characteristics. Methods: prospective cross sectional study was conducted at AL Hijjaj Primary Health Care Center during seven months period from 1 st of April to 31 of October 2018. Totle cases 120 (68 male, 52 female) presented with diarrhoea, their age range from birh to 6 years old. Stool samples were collected from each patient and send for Helicobacter pylori stool Antigen (HpSAg).some relevant factors like sex, source of water, type of feeding, educational level of the mothers and fathers are studied. Results: among 120 total cases,40.8% are positive for H.pylori stool Ag(HpSA), there is weak association between gender and HpSA presence, Very strong association between source of water and HpSA presence, Moderate significant association between type of food and HpSA presence, no significant association between fathers and mothers education and HpSA presence. Conclusion: H.pylori infection present in about 40.8 % of patients presented with diarrhea. Source of water is significantly related to the presence H.pylori infection

SECONDARY MENOPAUSE and its RELATIONSHIP to HORMONAL LEVELS AMONG WOMEN at SALAH AL-DIN HOSPITAL

Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa; Marwan Q AL-Samarraie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 96-104

The research dealt with the study of secondary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea and its relationship to the physiological and hormonal status of women, which is one of the gynecological diseases with serious effects on women with this disease, because cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, infertility and mental state disorder are among the most important complications of this disease. . The study was conducted on (40) serum samples from Secondary Amenorrhea patients after their condition was diagnosed through clinical and laboratory tests. The ages of the patients ranged between (12-42) years. The levels of the hormones LH, FSH, E2, and Prog were measured, and the results were the presence of high significant differences (P <0.05) when measuring the level of hormones LH, FSH, E2, and Prog in the blood serum of the patients with secondary menopause and compared them with their concentrations in the control group. There were high significant differences (P <0.05) in serum levels of LH, FSH, and E2 hormones. The presence of high levels of the hormone LH, FSH, in the serum of most patients. The presence of a decrease in the levels of the hormones E2 and Prog in the serum of the majority of patients

MEASURING the LEVEL of FUCOSE AND SOME ANTIOXIDANTS and MEASURING SOME BIOCHEMICAL VARIABLES in the BLOOD of PATIENTS with TYPE II DIABETES

Nuha ali Hadi; Abdulmonaim Hamad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 105-110

The study aimed to find out the effect of type II diabetes on fucose and some values of antioxidants compared to healthy people, as 30 blood samples were collected from patients with type II diabetes, their ages ranged from 30-55 years, while 20 blood samples were collected from healthy people of the same age group and for both sexes., Where the fucose level was measured, a significant increase was found in the patient group by 0.01 compared to healthy people, and the efficacy of the enzyme catalase was measured, and a significant decrease was found at the probability level of 0.05. Also, glutathione recorded a decrease of 0.01 in patients with diabetes mellitus compared to healthy people, while vitamin C, Malondialdehyde and Peroxynitrite were recorded. An increase in the patient group compared to the healthy group at the 0.01 level. While vitamin A and Glutathione-S-transferase were increased in the group of patients compared to the healthy group, with the probability level 0.05. The study also included the measurement of urea, creatinine, uric acid and basic phosphatase. Urea, creatinine, and basic phosphatase all recorded an increase in the group of people with type II diabetes at a probability level of 0.01 compared to the healthy group, while uric acid recorded a significant decrease at the probability level 0.01. compared to healthy controls

POOR NOCICEPTIVE INNERVATION of NECK SKIN in THREE DOMESTIC RUMINANTS

Ayoub A. Bazzaz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 111-117

Background: Skin innervation in ruminants has received less attention than other animal skins. The objective was to compare the tissue layers of the skin and detect the expression of nociceptive nerve endings and axons within the neck region of these animals. Methods: Sections of neck (cervical) region of three domestic ruminants involved sheep, goat and bull slaughtered at Kerkuk Slaughter House were studied for both histological, using routine stain, hematoxylene and eosin (H&E) and immune- histochemically using substance-P primary antibody. Results: No conspicuous fundamental differences in the skin layers between these three animals do exist except the bull skin was much thicker than that of sheep and goat, respectively; while more adipose tissue was deposited in sheep in comparison with goat and bull with abundant loose hypodermis in all. Immunohistochemical examinations showed scanty expression of substance-P nerve endings in the epidermis and nerve fibers in the submucosa and hypodermis of all three animals except a few at hair follicles were detectable. Conclusion: The neck skin is charcterised either scanty nerve endings and fibers supplied or run perpendicular to skin surface which could be advantageous for such commercially used meat productive animals to minimize pain during the Islamic manner of slaughtering used to eliminate pain during slaughtering in comparison with other painful methods used in Western society

EFFECT of EFFICACY of COMMUNIS MYRTUS on TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM

Thabet Mudheher Khalaf; Husham Naji Hameed; Sohaib SERRI SHAkir; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 118-122

The results of the study showed that there is a positive effect of the plant extract in achieving killing rates, as the alcoholic extract of communis myrtus was significantly superior to the aqueous extract. With a concentration of 3% after 72 hours of treatment on the remaining concentrations in the rate of killing of camels, which reached 88%, while the highest rate of killing of camels in concentration was 3% after 72 hours of treatment with the aqueous extract, reaching 63%

STUDY of MICROBIAL AIR CONTAMINATION IN BIOLOGICAL LABORATORIES/ COLLEGE of SCIENCE

Dunia K. Salim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 123-129

Objective: A study on indoor air play important roles in human health by polluted indoor labrotory and causes some diseases such as infections skin, eyes, respiratory system , allergy and biotoxicity. Air is made up of enormous of microorganisms mainly bacteria. Their estimation is important as an indication of cleanliness of any particular environment. The presence both bacteria and fungi in indoor air is problem of health protection due to a long time period that workers and students stay indoors. Determination of level microbial pollution indoors is necessary to assess the health hazard for indoor air quality control. This study provides information on microbial contamination level of indoor air of biological labrotary was estimated. Material and Methods: Collected air samples from seven bio-laboratories and low, up corridors locations during April-June 2019. Air samples were taken three months : in the in the afternoon. Results: The higher of percentage of isolated airborne bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, it was 58.57% and 26.84% for all biological laboratories respectively at study location, while the lowest percentage were Klebsiella sp. and Protus sp., it was 11.98% and 4.29% for all biological laboratories, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded from the current study that is advisable that estimate to check microorganisms loads in Laboratories and prevent their increase and spread

DIAGNOSIS ALKALOIDIC COMPOUNDS on CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS FRUIT and COMPARE its EFFECT WITH SOME ANTIBIOTICS on ISOLATED BACTERIA GROWTH FROM URINARY TRACT INFECTION PATIENTS

Ayyub J. Al-Bayaty; Huda S. Khuder; Aya J. Rasheed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 130-142

Identification of alkaloidic substances of on Citrullus colocynthis Fruit done by using High Performance Lquid Chromotography(HPLC) technique,the results appeared the fruit containe many compounds as:Citrullo,Cucurbitacin,Colocyanthin and Colocynthitin by 17.68,39.84,29.67 and12.80%.Isolation and Identification of bacteria done at College for women laboratories/Tikrit University, As it was collected (200) median diuresis samples from the reviewers and sleepers in Salah Al-Din General Hospital / Tikrit city / Iraq with urinary tract infections and it included males and females for ages between (15-60) years, The results showed (160) growth samples when cultivated, at a rate of (80%), as they gave two types of growth, negative for the gram stain (65.6) and positive for the gram stain (34.4). The infection rate was higher in females (66.87%) while males (33.13). The susceptibility of the isolated bacterial species to resistance to 6 antibiotics was tested for different groups, in which the bacterial isolates differed in their sensitivity and resistance to the studied antibiotics, The effectiveness of aqueous and alcoholic extracts was also tested at concentrations of 25%, 75% and 100%, where the alcoholic extract was more efficient compared to the aqueous extract, and the concentration of 100% was the most effective concentration on the bacterial isolates.

A PHARMACOLOGICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN the PROBIOTIC PREPARED by the LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS BACTERIA and NITAZOXANID in ANIMALS INFECTED WITH CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS

Maysoon Mustapha Jasim; Rsha shamil Hussin; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 143-156

The study was conducted for the period from April 2016 to March 2017. The study of lactobacilli, which was prescribed by acidophillus Lactobacilli (Probiotics), was included in the treatment of the parasite Cryptosporidium parvam compared to nitazoxanid, based on several criteria including therapeutic efficacy and some blood criteria. The number of egg cyst in the first day of the treatment reached 6640 syst / eggs with a therapeutic efficiency of 22.9%. In the first and second concentrations, the ratio reached 7180, 6460 and 5560 with a therapeutic efficiency of 16.7,25.0 and 35. The number of egg cyst continued to decline to the fifth day. The number of eggs cyst was 40 cysts / eggs and 99.4% The number of red blood cells in total infection compared to control was 5.782 × 109 / L, while there was no significant difference in control. The results showed no significant differences in hemoglobin ratios and the volume of red blood cells between total negative control, total probiotic treatment group, and groups treated with drugs in concentrations II and III, and in the number of white blood cells, granulocyte and monocyte were no differences Between the probiotic group and the negative control group, while all the remaining groups decreased

THE EFFECT OF EFFICACY OF SOME PLANT POWDERS, BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS AND SOME NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS IN THE CONTROL OF ORYZAEPHILUS SERRINAMENSIS BEETLE

Warqaa Latef Salman; Husham Naji Hameed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 157-163

This laboratory study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of the biocide effect of Trichoderma harzianum, silver nanoparticles in the third larval age and the Oryzaephilus full-size beetle, and five concentrations of the biocide T. harzianum (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000) ppm and five Concentrations of silver nanoparticles are (1000, 2000, 3000, 5000, 10000, and 20000) ppm. The results showed that the fungicide T. harzianum had the most recent killing rates for all concentrations, as the highest killing rate for the third larval age was 96.7% at 4000 ppm during 72 hours of treatment, while the lowest killing rate for the third larval age was 16.7% at the concentration 250 ppm during 24 hours of treatment. As for the camels, the highest killing rate with the fungicide was 86.7% at the concentration of 4000 ppm during 168 hours of treatment, while the lowest killing percentage for the adult beetle was 0% at the concentration of 250 ppm within 24 hours of the treatment, as for the effect of particles Silver nanoparticles were the highest killing percentage for the third larval age 100.0% at the concentration of 5000 ppm within 72 hours of the treatment, while the lowest killing percentage for the third larval age was 13.3% at the concentration of 1000 ppm within 24 hours of the treatment. As for the adult beetle have reached the highest rate of killing 88.7% when concentrating 20000 ppm within 72 hours of treatment and concentrating 500 and 1000 ppm during 144 hours of treatment. The lowest killing rate of the adult beetle was 16.7% when concentrating 5000 ppm during 24 hours of treatment

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING for DECREASED ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

Sudakshina Chakrabarti; V. Vijay Anand

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 164-179

Background: For proper academic performance students should be beware of factors which deplete or augmentate their performance in academics so that they can improve their learning and reduce failure rate Aim: This study aimed to identify and analyze multiple factors that affect 1st year student’s academic performance. Objectives: To categorize the low achievers and high achievers in internal examination of anatomy and to evaluate the factors which are responsible to reduce/improve the performance of the students. Methodology: A study was conducted on first year medical students of saveetha medical college via google form after getting ethical approvals. This study is conducted on 50 students studying first year MBBS. The lower achievers and high achievers were categorized based on the academic results in the internal examination of anatomy. They were formed into two groups as low achievers and high achievers by which they are categorized. A questionnaire was framed on the factors which affected the academic performance of low achievers and factors which helped high achievers to gain marks then it was validated. The students were asked to answer the questionnaire and collected from both high and low achievers separately. Student’s information was kept confidential. The responses are analyzed and factors determining academic performance were evaluated and tabulated. Conclusion: The distraction factors and favorable factors for academic performance in first year MBBS students were analysed. The possible ways to reduce/improve the performance of the students will be decided by the management

KNOWLEDGE and AWARENESS of VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG the GENERAL ADULT POPULATION in BAHRAIN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Hala Mohamed Sanad; Gayathri Priya; Jameela Jassim Mukhaimer; Govindaraj V. Asokan; Safia Belal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 180-191

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in many countries, including Bahrain. However, little data exists about the awareness and the level of knowledge of vitamin D among Arab Gulf populations. Method: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to an adult sample of 335 participants seeking information on their knowledge about vitamin D. Findings: 81.2% of the study participants had unsatisfactory total knowledge score of vitamin D. Level of education and the sources of information about vitamin D were the main significant factors that appear to influence the participants’ vitamin D awareness status. Most the participants recognized that exposure to sunlight encourages the production of vitamin D, however, only a small proportion of participants were aware of the sources of vitamin D in daily food intake and health consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: There is inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding vitamin D deficiency among adult Bahrain population. Health campaigns are urgently needed in order to improve the community’s knowledge about the benefits and sources of vitamin D

ASSISTANCE INTERVENTION in THE FORM of DISTRIBUTION of LOCAL FOOD (SERWIT) with the IMPLEMENTATION of INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION- COLLABORATIVE PRACTICES on NUTRITIONAL STATUS of PREGNANT WOMEN

Sudarmi .; ,Bertalina .; Khairun Nisa Berawi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 192-204

The groups most vulnerable to malnutrition are pregnant women, infants and toddlers. Nutritional problems on pregnant women, if not addressed immediately will cause mothers to experience Chronic Energy Deficiency (CEC), a solution to overcome the problem of malnutrition of pregnant women are a form of assistance of local food consumption (serwit), by the implementations of Interprofessional Educative- Collaborative Practices (IPE-CP) The aim of the research is to understand the effect of assistance interventions for local food consumption (serwit) with the application of Interprofessional Education- Collaborative Practice (IPE-CP) to the nutritional status of pregnant women. This research is a quantitative research, a type of quasi-experiment research, Pre-post test group design. Sample of 60 pregnant women in the third trimester, which is divided into 30 intervention groups and 30 control groups. Univariate data analysis uses the Mean formula, bivariate analysis uses the Independent Test T test, and the experiment of the influence of hypothesis uses the Cohen's Effec Size test. Results of the assistance intervention in the consumption of local food consumption (serwit) with the application of Interprofessional Education-Collaborative Practices (IPE-CP) on the nutritional status of pregnant women: Maternal weight with a p-value of 0.003, LiLA size of pregnant women with a p-value of 0,000 and blood Hb levels of maternal with a p-value of 0.025. Effec Test which is the most important measure is maternal height with an effect size index: 0.79 standard big categories. The advice should be an existence of need to always apply IPE-CP and to continue to preserve local food consumption (serwit) to improve the nutritional status of pregnant women

ROTEIN ENGINEERING APPROACHES for BIOMATERIALS EVOLUTION

Brindha J; Balamurali M M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 205-220

Engineering proteins for diverse applications by using evolutionary strategies is currently an active research area. Two broad classifications of protein engineering strategies to develop new or enhanced proteins, include rational and directed evolution approaches. Rational engineering of proteins has found its own limitations of insufficient knowledge about parent proteins, whereas directed evolution finds difficulty in screening, though it does not depend on prior information about the parent proteins. These protein engineering approaches, results in the creation of novel with various desired features. Protein biomaterials are created with a combination of natural/synthetic polymers or engineered proteins/protein domains for its use in biomedical field. Both protein engineering and biomaterials have evolved over time. This review mainly serves to discuss the engineered proteins/protein domains/a combination of natural proteins with synthetic polymers in creating protein biomaterials of enhanced properties for biomedical applications like scaffolds for tissue engineering, wound healing etc. Machine learning is seen as an emerging computational technique that is being explored for use in evolving proteins

THE ROLE OF SPORTS ACTIVITIES IN ALLEVIATING ANXIETY AMONG MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM THE TEACHER’S POINT OF VIEW

Hind Qasim Mhalhal; Hind Imad Sadiq; Ghufran Abd al_Hussein Majeed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 221-231

The research problem crystallized in the following question: To what extent sports activities can alleviate the anxiety of a student in middle school, according to the opinion of physical education teachers. The aim of the message was to build a measure of anxiety among middle school students, with regard to the goals. Identify the level of anxiety of middle school students. Identify the role of sports activities to reduce anxiety among middle school students. As for the research method and its field procedures, the researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method as well as the relational method for its suitability to the nature of the problem. For the academic year 2019/2020, when their total reached (70) teachers, the building sample for the psychological anxiety scale consisted of (60) teachers from middle school schools in the governorate for the year (2019/2020), as it represented (71.85%) of the parent community. The exploratory sample consisted of (10) teachers from the governorate's schools, who were deliberately selected by the percentage (28.14%) of the total community. The procedures for building the scale included, determining the scale, building the scale, determining the goal of construction, determining the phenomenon to be measured, identifying areas, determining the validity of dimensions, preparing paragraphs, determining the validity of paragraphs. The exploratory experiment, the main experiment, correcting the scale, the statistical analysis of the paragraphs, the psychometric characteristics of the scale, the final description of the scale, the main application experiment to apply the tests, the results were presented, analyzed and discussed through the statistical kit (SPSS) to find out the level of psychological anxiety of middle school students, On the light of the results, the researchers reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which are: - The existence of a positive moral correlation between sports activities and reducing anxiety among middle school students.

TRANSFUSION-TRANSMITTED HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV), HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV), HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) DURING WIDOW PERIOD WITHIN IRAQI BLOOD DONORS

Ghinwa S. Majid; Ahmed S. Abdulamir; Abbas M. Ahmed; Orooba I. Abdullah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 232-239

Volunteers of Blood or who called donors are screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by ELISA in the National center of blood bank in Baghdad. The risk of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) negative samples is not estimated till now in Iraq. The aim of this study is to screen the seronegative plasma of blood donors by a commercially available multiplex NAT test with mini-pooling. One thousands (1000) blood donors plasmas were screened by EIA and then NAT was performed on pools of ten blood plasma. A total of 100 minipools donors plasmas were screened by NAT. Positive HBV NAT minipools of plasma were (3%), 3 HCV (3%), and 3 (3%) HIV minipools by NAT. Accordingly, the use of NAT was shown to detect occult HBV and reduce window period in HCV and HIV in sero-negative plasma from blood donors. Therefore, the implementation of NAT with mini-poling for routine blood donor screening will provide a safe and cost-effective mean of screening for blood transfusion in Iraq

THE EFFECT OF TNFAIP3 GENE POLYMORPHISM on DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND RESPONSE of ETANERCEPT in PSORIATIC PATIENTS

Abdulrhman M. Hassan Hadi; Ahmed Abdul-Hassan Abbas; Ahmed Sahib Abdulamir; Basman Medhat Fadheel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 240-246

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease has a strong genetic predisposition. Aim of the work: To study the role of TNFAIP3 rs610604 (C/A) polymorphism in psoriasis, and its effect on Etanercept response. Subjects and methods: One hundred patients with psoriasis, in addition 100 apparently healthy individuals as a control group were included in this study. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR) was performed to evaluate different TNFAIP3 gene polymorphism. TNFAIP3 serum levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Current study showed low serum level of TNFAIP3 protein in psoriatic patients when compared with control group (P<0.01). A considerably higher risk of psoriasis was observed in individuals who had TNFAIP3 rs610604 SNP CC and C allele than people carrying AA genotype and A allele. In relation to the response to treatment, this study observed that the mutant homozygous genotype CC was more frequent in non -responder (71.4%) than responder (1.3%) patients (P<0.01). Conclusion: TNFAIP3 rs610604 (C/A), might be useful for prognosis of psoriatic patients

ROLE OF IL-1Β GENE POLYMORPHISM in DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY in HELICOBACTER PYLORI ASSOCIATED GASTRITIS and GASTRIC CANCER

Ibrahim A. Altamemi; Rana Masheel Salim; Osamah Tahir Muslim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 247-253

Background: Interleukin-1β gene Polymorphisms might be associated with individual variations in the levels of cytokine messenger RNA resulting in different risk of inflammation of the gastric mucosa in response to H. pylori infection. Objective: The aim of present study a role for IL-1B31, IL-1B-511 gene polymorphism (SNP) in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and gastric cancer that could have an effect on disease susceptibility. Patients and methods: A case control study have been conducted and based on three groups, 20 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection associated gastric cancer, Second group was including 20 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection associated Gastritis and Third group was including 40 healthy volunteers. Two milliliter of blood Directly collected in a sterile tube with EDTA for DNA extraction ,then uses (RFLP PCR) technique application to IL-1B31, IL-1B-511 gene polymorphisms, Such these samples will be stored at -20C right away. Results: present study show that IL-1β-511 TT genotype significantly higher in gastric cancer patients than control group (P=0.005). Concerning IL-1B-31 genotype, current result found that, the Frequency distribution of IL-1B-31 CT and CC genotypes show, no significant difference in gastric cancer patients than control (P=0.173) and (P=0.076) respectively. Moreover, IL-1B-31 (C/T), show no significant difference in the frequency of CT and CC genotype between patients with gastritis than control group (P=0.522) and (P=0.291) respectively. IL-1B-31 (C/T), show no significant difference in the frequency of heterozygous (CT), and homozygous (CC) genotype between gastric cancer patients in comparison with gastritis (P = 0.516), and (P = 0.510) respectively. Conclusion: current study has shown that IL-1B 31 C > T (rs1143627) genotype have no impact on individual susceptibility to H. pylori associated gastric cancer and gastritis. Additionally, IL-1B 511 T > C (rs16944) gene polymorphisms act as a risk factor to H. pylori-related diseases including gastric cancer.

MOLECULAR DETECTION of PANTON VALENTINE LEUKOCIDIN (PVL) GENES in METHICILLIN-RESISTANCE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) ISOLATED FROM BURNS INFECTION

Thanaa R. Abdulrahman; Dhefaf R. Mahdi; Jabbar S. Hassan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 254-259

Background: Methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection related to community has been enhanced through the world. One of the significant cytotoxins elaborated by a few strains of S. aureus is the Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), coded by two genes, lukS- PV and lukF-PV which is element of toxin that created pores in the membranes of cells, the role of PVL in the disease process severity of Staphylococcus aureus till known is debated. Amis: This study was planned to detect the Panton Valentine leucocidin (PVL)genes and MRSA isolated from Burn wound infection in community and hospital acquired settings. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study involved 200 patients who presented with burn wounds from third-degree or fourth-degree. The bacteria from all samples were undergone to Cefoxitin disc diffusion testing utilization a 30 μg cefoxitin disc for methicillin resistant determination. Following DNA extraction, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect PVL genes. Results: Twenty-eight samples were positive culture for Staph. aureus, of which 19 (67.8%) patients presented with CAI, and 9 (32.1%) belong Hospital acquired infection A total of 23 (82.1%) showed methicillin resistance. Out of 28 isolates, 7(25%) isolates were harboring PVL gene, all of which were Methicillin resistance community acquired infection. None of S. aureus isolates from hospital acquired infection had PVL. Conclusion: This study indicated high prevalence of PVL among community acquired infection MRSA isolates, and the lack of this gene in Hospital acquired infection

DETECTION THE PROTEIN INITIATES STARFISH EGG ACTIVATION DURING FERTILIZATION

Rana Hussein Naser Al- Qaysi; Alyaa Abdelhameed; Zainab Abd Mohammed; Aalhan Mohammed Alwan; Nada Khalid Alharbi; Wanisa Abdussalam Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 260-268

The role of an interaction between PLCγ and the proteins during fertilization is still unclear. To recognize whether fertilization includes PLCβ- Cа2+ and PLCγ release mechanisms, GST-SH2 fusion protein was designed and injected into the egg of Asterina miniata sp. In this study, the mixture of SH2-pGEMT-Easy vector was combined with the component cell of DH5α, the results proved the success of SH2 domains insertion into SH2-pGEMT-Easy vector using AmPLCγ plasmid. AmPLCγ was treated with EcoR1 to make a GST-SH2 fusion protein. The designed new SH2 primer including EcoR1 and Xho 1 digestion site and clone them into pGEX vector system, could be directly detect the interaction protein with SH2 domain with an easy purification

EFFECT of HIGH TONE POWER THERAPY on NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES and FUNCTION OUTCOME in PATIENTS with DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

Ahmed Magdy Alshimy; Nawal Abou Shady; Amira Mohamed El Gohary; Khalid Taha Yassin Turky

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 269-275

Objective: Investigate high tone therapy effect on neurophysiological measures and function outcome in diabetic neuropathy. Methods: Forty patients assigned randomly into high tone therapy and conventional therapy groups. Patients assessed by neurophysiological studies for median and sural sensory nerves and activities of daily living assessed by Katz Index of Independence. Results: Neurophysiological measures for median and sural sensory nerves were significantly improved in high tone therapy group but not in conventional therapy group. The function outcome was significantly improved in both groups with the best results for high tone therapy group. Conclusion: High tone therapy was able to improve neurophysiological measures and function outcome in diabetic neuropathy patients.

THE ROLE OF ISABA1 AND OXA CARBAPENEMASE GENES, in CARBAPENEM RESISTANT AMONG ACINETOBACTERBAUMANNII ISOLATED from ZAGAZIG HOSPITALS

Yosra A. Osama; Manal M. El-Amin; Hoda A. Ibraheem

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 276-283

Introduction: “Red alert” pathogen this is how Acinetobacterbaumannii identified nowdays in healthcare facilities, due to its extensive antibiotic resistance pattern. Multidrug-resistant A. baumannii infections are best treated with Carbapenems. The aim of the study is to estimate the numbers of blaoxaand ISAba1 producing strains among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates. Method: identification of A. baumanniiwas carried out by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, VITEK 2 compact was used to assess antimicrobial sensitivities and E test used to reconfirm susceptibility to imipenem, multiplex PCR for class D β lactamase genes detection. Mapping PCR carried out in order toestimate the presence of ISAba1 in relation to blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 genes. Results: Fourty eight A. baumanniistrains were isolated from different anatomical sites from surgical patients in Zagazig University hospital. Antibiogram showed that 81.3% (n=39) of the isolates were resistant to Imipenem, while 9 isolates were susceptible (18.7%). Of 39 resistant isolates to Imipenem, ISAba1 was detected in 35 isolates (89.7%). 34 isolates carried blaOXA-23 gene, all contained ISAba1/blaOXA-23 genes, and 20 contained ISAba1/blaOXA-51 genes. Resistant isolates to carbapenemsall had ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-23 gene, WhileISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 found in both susceptible and resistant isolates. Conclusion: The ISAba1/blaOXA-23 genes were prevalent among the carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates and may be responsible forcarbapenems resistance. The present study revealed that the existence of ISAba1/blaOXA-51 in A. baumannii isolates was not conclusive to carbapenems resistance

STUDIES on in VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY of VARIOUS EXTRACT of BUCHANIA LANZAN LEAVES

Bhushan Raghunath Pawar; Gurdeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 284-291

Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent disease among women around the world, and is also the leading cause of death from cancer. Herbal medicine is an actual prehistoric form of healthcare known to mankind. Herbal medicine is being used by people belonging to all the cultures. The present study is based on the antioxidant and anti-cancerous potential of Buchanania lanzan which is also named as Chironji. Buchanania lanzan (chironji) is a tree species which belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is commercially very useful. Methods: In vitro Antioxidant Activity 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay Result: The total antioxidant activity of Buchanania lanzanin leaves was assessed based on scavenging activity of DPPH free radicals, among them pet ether extract of leaves shows 25.54 % inhibition at conc. of 20 μg / ml and at 100 μg / ml it shows 38.95 % inhibition. Ethyl acetate extract at 20 μg / ml it shows 38.41% inhibition and at 100 μg / ml it shows 50.36% inhibition. In methanolic extract at 20 μg / ml it shows 34.42% inhibition and at 100 μg / ml it shows 57.43% inhibition. The IC50 value is defined as the concentration of the substrate that causes 50 % loss of the DPPH activity. Reducing power assay of Petroleum ether extracts, ethyl acetate extract and methanolic extract of Buchanania lanzanwas studied at different concentrations and found to be increase with increase in concentration. Conclusion: Therefore, present study concludes that Buchanania lanzan is an excellent medicinal plant which holds numerous bioactive phytochemicals and it can be used in prevention of cancer

ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL of DIFFERENT SOLVENT EXTRACT ISOLATED from ALANGIUM SALVIFOLIUM

Avinash Shankar Bhosale; Gurdeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 292-299

Background: Medicinal plants are the “backbone” of traditional medicine, which means more than 3.3 billion people in the less developed countries utilize medicinal plants on a regular basis. Medicines derived from plants are widely famous due to their safety, easy availability and low cost. Herbal medicines may include whole parts of plant or mostly prepared from leaves, roots, bark, seed and flowers of plants. Present study established the antioxidant potential of Alangium salvifolium by studying the efficacy in preventing the in-vitro free radical using DPPH and reducing power assay. Methods: In vitro Antioxidant Activity 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay Result: Free radicals are highly reactive compounds that can produce oxidative stress on the body contributing to diseases such as atherosclerosis or cancer. The radical- scavenging activity of the pet ether extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanolic extracts of Alangium salvifolium was estimated by comparing the percentage inhibition of formation of DPPH radicals with that of ascorbic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of pet ether extracts increased with increasing the concentration. The total antioxidant activity of Alangium salvifolium in flower was assessed based on scavenging activity of DPPH free radicals. Conclusion: Therefore, present study concludes that Alangium salvifolium is an excellent medicinal plant which holds numerous bioactive phytochemicals and it can be used in prevention of cancer.

EFFECT of CRITICAL THINKING TRAINING PROGRAM on DEVELOPING REFLECTIVE THINKINGAMONG NURSING STUDENTS

Dalia El-demerdash; Sahar Hamdy El Said; Maha Abdeen Abdeen; Azza Abdeldayem Ata

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 300-308

Background: Requiring for critical thinking in nursing accentuated in response to speed changing health care atmospheres. Nursing students should bethink to give effective care whilst coping with expansion f role for associated by complexities of current health care. Present study aimed to assessment of critical thinking training program effects on developing reflective thinking.
Methods: Quasi-experimental design used in ourinvestigation. A stratified proportionate random sample of 317 students was chosen from faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University that enrolled in the academic year 2017-2018. Data were collected using four tools namely; nursing students' knowledge assessment questionnaire, California critical thinking skills test, reflective thinking questionnaire.
Results: All nursing students (100%) had inadequate knowledge pre implementation program. While, after the program implementation all of them (100%) had adequate knowledge. Additionally, 74.4% of nurses have deficiency of critical thinking pre the program implementation. In contrast, all of them have strong levelspost program implementation (100%). Likewise, 62.5% of nursing students had high level of reflective thinking before the program implementation that had increased to 100% after the program implementation.
Conclusion: there's no statistically significant relation between critical thinking, reflective thinking before the program implementation while there is statistically significant correlation between critical thinking, reflective thinking after the program implementation. Therefore, it is recommended that nurse educators should develop continuous in service- training and education program for refreshing and increasing nursing students' knowledge and skills about concept of critical thinking as well as to emphasize reflective thinking

TRANSFORAMINAL LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSION in the MANAGEMENT of LYTIC SPONDYLOLITHESIS: MINIMALLY INVASIVE VERSUS CONVENTIONAL OPEN TECHNIQUES

Ashraf Yassin Amer; Ahmed Gamil Ahmed; Ahmed Samir Rady; Mohamed Ahmed Raaft; Mahmoud Mohamed Elbakry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 309-324

This study assesses the difference between Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar
Interbody Fusion (MI-TLIF) surgery and conventional open TLIF surgery incases of
lytic spondylolisthesis regarding pain, disability, hospital stay and complications. Lytic
Spondylolisthesis patients may require fusion of one or more spinal segments. The
chances of achieving a successful lumbar spinal fusion have increased. TLIF technique
is gradually being accepted in these cases and widely used by most spinesurgeons.
Minimally invasive TLIF is a recent trend for spinal fusion. This is a prospective
randomized comparative study conducted from March 2016 to December 2018 that
included 40 patients with low grade lytic spondylolisthesis who underwent TLIF. 20
patients underwent MI-TLIF through percutaneous posterior lumbar pedicular screw
fixation, microscopic minimally invasive transform aminal discectomy and interbody
cage fusion (patients group A) and another 20 patients underwent conventional open
posterior lumbar pedicular screw fixation and TLIF (control group B). In our results,
bothsurgical techniques showed improvement in pain and function within 12 months
(follow up period), but group A showed statistically significant improvement in pain
and function in the first 3 months. Regarding blood loss, need for transfusion and
hospital stay, group A showed statistically significant better results. As a conclusion,
MI-TLIF is a better option in surgical management of spondylolisthesis especially in the
early postoperative period.

SERUM MICRORNA-222 EXPRESSION for MALIGNANCY PREDICTION in SAMPLE of EGYPTIAN EUTHYROID PATIENTS with INDETERMINATE THYROID NODULE

Sherihan AboElyazed Mohamed; Mohamed Reda Halawa; Yara Mohamed Eid; Maram Mohamed Maher; Lamyaa Salem; Salah Hussein Elhalawany

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 325-334

Background: The Prevalence of thyroid nodules is rising nowadays, luckily most of
them are benign. The risk of malignancy 5-15%, which necessitates the ultimate need to
accurately distinguish benign from malignant nodule to avoid unnecessary
thyroidectomy with risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, postoperative
hypothyroidism and lifetime thyroid replacement therapy, and other complications
related to surgery and anaesthesia. Recent evidence suggests that circulating miRNA
might have probable advantage as diagnostic or prognostic markers for numerous
cancers. Given their reproducible and constant presence in sera, miRNA profiles have
emerged as a non-invasive method to categorise a wide variety of human cancers. This
study aimed to evaluate a possible relationship between the expression level of
circulating miRNA-222 and the histological outcome of euthyroid patients undergoing
thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNAC. This study included 45
euthyroid patients with inderteminate thyroid nodules diagnosed with ultrasound and
FNAC which planed for thyroidectomy. Quantitative assay of serum micro RNA-222
expression by quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) performed
preoperatively, and results compared with postoperative histopathology.
Results: The incidence of thyroid nodules was predominant in female gender in benign
group and malignant group. Risk of malignancy increases as TI-RADS and Bethesda
scores increases. Also, larger nodule in size has a more risk of malignancy (p= 0.027).
Expression level of circulating miRNA-222 in serum can’t differentiate between benign
and malignant patients where there was no significant difference between them
statistically (p=0.905). Circulating miRNA-222 was a poor predicator for malignant
nodules with sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 32.43%, with high negative predictive
value (NPV=75%).
Conclusion: Although circulating miRNA-222 has been identified as novel minimally
invasive biomarker for preoperative prediction of malignant nodules, but in our study,
it did not show a value as a tool for discrimination of malignant nodules. Ultrasound
remained important procedure in preoperative prediction and management of thyroid
nodules especially when correlating to nodule size which had positive correlation with
malignancy in our study.

MONOSEGMENTAL TRANSPEDICULAR FIXATION OF THORACOLUMBAR BURST FRACTURES

Mohammed Hussien Sosa; Shawkat Ghazal Hafez; Ayman Mostafa Elsheikh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 335-342

Study design: Prospective clinical.
Objective: Evaluate efficacy of monosegmental transpedicular fixation for treatment of
some thoracolumbar burst fractures.
Summary: Short segment posterior fixation become a popular technique to treat
thoracolumbar burst fracture. It is saving more motion segments throughout reducing
fusion segment numbers, Previous investigations which used monosegmental pedicle
instrumentation with placement pedicle screws into fractured vertebral body for
treating thoracolumbar fracture yielded good clinical results.
Method: 20 thoracolumbar burst fractures cases treated with monosegmental
transpedicular fixation. All patients were followed-up radiologically and clinically. The
preoperative, initial postoperative and the latest follow-up radiographs were evaluated
for sagittal index, percentage of anterior body height compression and load sharing
score. Clinically the latest follow-up functional outcomes were evaluated using
Oswestery Disability Index and Low Back Outcome Score.
Results: 20 patients were followed-up successfully with the mean follow up period was
17 months. Sagittal index value of, anterior body height compression fractured
vertebra% are 19.1+/-5.4 degrees and 37.03+/-10.87, respectively, improved
(statistically significant) to 10.4+/- 4.16 degrees, and 19.3+/-9.6.
Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrated that MSPI is effective and reliable
operative technique for selected thoracolumbar burst fractures (type A3.1/A3.2).

THE ROLE of DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING in THE EVALUATION of TREATMENT RESPONSE OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA AFTER TRANS-ARTERIAL CHEMOEMBOLIZATION

Ashgan Moustafa AbdelSabour; Shrouk Mohamed Awadallah; Noha Mohamed Osman; Hesham Mahmoud Mansour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 343-355

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma represents 70 - 85% of the global liver cancer burden.
Diffusion-weighted imaging, a non-invasive diagnostic MRI technique, detects MR signal changes
in hepatocellular carcinoma after trans-arterial chemo-embolization; tumor necrosis accompany
by increasing in ADC values, as such allowing distinction among viable and necrotic tumors
portion. An investigation objective was to elucidate diffusion weighted MRI technique efficiency in
residual/ recurrent diseases detection after transarterial chemoembolization of non operable HCC
lesions.
Results: We performed a cross sectional study over 33 patients with total 49 TACE -treated HCCs
and compared DWI results with those of Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Diffusion weighted
MRI has sensitivity of 86.7%, specificity of 84.7%, positive predictive of 81.2%, negative predictive
of 89.2% and agreement of 85.5%. Differentiation among malignant and negative groups’ ADC
variables were significantly different. ROC curve shows, ADC values could predict
residual/recurrence of tumor after treatment at a cut off level ≤1000.5 with 72.1% and 75.4%
sensitivity and specificity, respectively.
Conclusion: DWI & ADC values may aid as alternative markers in assessment of HCC cases after
TACE in patients having contraindications to contrast administration and in assessing small
lesions adjacent/closely related to vessels where intravenous contrast administration is not most
effective.

CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT of EXTRAARTICULAR DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES in ELDERLY ANDROW

Andrew Gamal Boulis; Hazem Abd El Hameed Abd El Hameed; Karim Ibrahim Okasha Abdallah; Marwan Shams Eldin Mohamed; Mohamed Mostafa Ali Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 356-361

Extraarticular distal radius fractures in the elderly is a common problem. Many authors
discussed treatment options including conservative and operative management. Conservative
management yielded excellent functional results with high patient satisifaction without exposure
to the surgical risks

DARNING TECHNIQUE VERSUS MESH (LICHTENSTEIN PROCEDURE) for PRIMARY INGUINAL HERNIA REPAIR

Dr. Mahmood Shakor Mughir; Dr.Hazim Taha Ismael; Dr. Lateef Mohammed Shinawa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 362-365

The present study was aimed to compare the complications percent in repair of mesh to tension
free repair of Darn. Methods: 127 patients from 20-66 years old, including 93 (73.2%) male and
34 (26.8%) females, reported for direct and indirect inguinal hernia with open
Mesh/Lichtenstein (58 patients) or Darning repair (69 patients) in Khanagin general hospital
and Jalawla general hospital from February 2017 to February 2020. The first point was to
compare hernia recurrence with two types of technique. Results: Complications of recurrence in
Lichtenstein repair were 1 patient (1.7%) with compared to darning repair which had a
recurrence of 3 patients (4.34%). also, 3 patients (4.34%) got seroma in the darning repair
technique while 2 patients (3.45%) in the mesh repair technique. Hematoma was appeared in 1
patient (1.45%) in darning repair group and nil in the mesh/Lichtenstein repair group. 2
patients (2.90%) treated by darning repair suffered from chronic pain while 1 patient (1.7%)
suffered from chronic pain in mesh/Lichtenstein repair group. Conclusion: mesh/Lichtenstein
repair is very promising in comparison to the other technique, darning repair, in complications
in hernia.

THE RELATION BETWEEN ATTENDING GERIATRIC CLINIC and MENTAL DISORDERS in ELDERLY PEOPLE

Dr . Ahmed Abdulameer Ibrahim M . B . Ch . B; Dr . Jawad K . al-Diwan MBChB, MSs, DCN , FIBMS , FFPH.; Dr . Riyadh Al-Rudainy , MB , FICMS / CM3

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 366-374

This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distinguish kinds and related factors
of Mental Disorders among elderly people attending Geriatric Clinic, Baghdad, Iraq.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study conducted and a systematic random sampling technique
was used to select 320 elderly people. We collected data on basic demographics and associated
risk factors using a questionnaire filled through self-reported questionnaire. Mental disorders
(MDs) were defined according to Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) with a cutoff score
of 20+. Accredited tools used by WHO were utilized to identify mental disorders kinds. Results:
The prevalence of MDs in the study sample was 24.4%. The prevalence of MDs types were:
Depression 16.6%, anxiety 12.8%, dementia 5.3%, substance abuse 2.5%, suicide thoughts
5.6%, and suicide attempts 2.5%. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the
determinant factors of elderly MDs revealed the following significant factors: Aging, smokers,
living depends on others, loneliness and social isolation, visual impairment, economic state
deterioration, neglect and mishandling, and chronic diseases are the determinant factors of
elderly MDs. Conclusions: Mental disorders are wide spread among elderly people and
enhanced elderly mental health care services should be provided

SEROPREVALENCE of TOXOPLASMAIGA and its RELATION to SERUM IL-4 LEVEL AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

Zainab Sulaiman Erzaiq

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 375-382

Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of
the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic.
However infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the
developing fetus. The presented study aimed to determination the correlation of Toxo-
IgA seroprevalence among pregnant women to various Toxoplasma antigens with the
serum IL-4 level. From the June 2017 to January 2018 ,300 pregnant women enrolled
in this study attended to Salahalden General Hospitals . The pregnant women were
examined for Toxo-IgA and determine their specificity for various Toxoplasma antigens
by using line immune assay and the serum IL-4 evaluated by using ELISA technique .
The rates of Toxo-IgA seropositive were 22 [7.33 %]. Considering the reactivity of
determined Toxo-IgA against various Toxoplasma antigens; the rates were 12[54.54%],
13[59.09%], 11[50.00%] ,14[63.63%] ,17[77.27%], 13[59.09%] ,11[50.00%] and 18
[81.81%] seropositive for Toxoplasma ROP1C, MIC3, GRA7, GRA8, p30 ,
MAG1,GRA1 and rSAG1 antigens respectively. Regarding to the total serum IL-4
level ,the highest rate of decreased serum IL-4 level among Toxo-IgA seropositive was
59.09%.In the presented study we concluded the highest rates of decreased serum IL-4
levels was 54.55% seen within Toxo-IgA seropositive for GRA7 and GRA1 antigens ,
and the rates of increased serum IL-4 level ranged from 5.88% to 9.09% within all
seropositive groups to various Toxoplasma antigens.

ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION of SOME BACTERIAL PATHOGENS FROM SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS of SHEEP in KIRKUK CITY, IRAQ

Almass.M. AL- bayati; Hala. M. Majeed; Ziyad. T. AL- doori

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 383-391

Background:- Mastitis is the term for a bacterial infection of the udder. It is most
common in ewes raising multiple lambs or with high milk production. Most cases occur
during the first weeks after lambing or immediately before weaning. Good ewe
nutrition and providing a clean lambing environment are important factors in reducing
the incidence of mastitis.
Objective: The study was focused on using of rapid & efficient methods for detection of
Subclinical Mastitis in 4 small holder dairy flock in central of Kirkuk &its affiliated
areas.
Material and Methods:- A total of 94 milk samples sheep were collected from four
farms in October to December 2018 to determine pathogens responsible for subclinical
mastitis in sheep.
Results:- Screening Subclinical Mastitis(of SCM) were done using California mastitis
and White Slide Test (WST). the prevalence percentage of SCM in California mastitis
and White Slide Test according the early stage lactation was(74 % and 70%)
respectively. While the prevalence percentage of SCM in California mastitis and White
Slide test according the according the dry period lactation was(66 % and 64 % )
respectively. identification of the isolates was achieved using Gram’s staining,
hemolytic pattern, colony morphology, Catalase , Coagulase test, IMVIC test and
confirmation of bacteria species by using Vitek 2 compact after identification to the
primary biochemical tests using Analytical Profile Index. Bacteriological examination of
all milk samples found the presence of (82.85% ) isolates where Staphylococcus was
predominant species (74.28 %) and the coagulase negative Staphylococcus (25.7% )
species was identified at the least bacteria .than staph. aureus, while environmental
pathogen represented E. coli second common pathogen followed by klebsiella
pneumonia (14.8% ) , Manhemia haemolytica (12.8 %) proteus spp.( 11.4%) And low
percentage to the Enterobacter spp. (4.3 %) .
Conclusion:- subclinical mastitis seems to be, as deduced from the high prevalence
observed in this study, an important health problem for milking sheeps in the Kirkuk
Application of VITEK system could be practiced at selected samples from time to time
to confirm identification of causative organisms.

THE EFFECT of ANTIFUNGAL and AGO and ZNO NANOPARTICLES on TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES

Hiba younis khalaf; Hala Abdulkhaliq Awadh; Hadeel Mizher Younis; Nawar Ali Jasim; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 392-399

This study aimed to determine the main species of dermatophytes which caused skin
infection and effect of antifungal and Ago and Zno nanoparticles on them. The result of
this study showed that out of 80 sample, 54 sample were positive to fungal isolation with
ratio 67.5%. and according to culture and PCR results 38.8% of isolated type belong
to Trichophytonmentagrophytes.
Trichophytonmentagrophytes resistant to Nystatin and Fluconazole while sensitive to
Griesofulvin, Clotrimazole and Flucytosin. MIC of Ago and Zno nanoparticle
againstTrichophytonmentagrophytes were 250 and 275 μg /ml while MFC were 275 and
300 μg /ml respectively. Results of RAPD PCR showed that both Ago and Zno
nanoparticle effect in genetic material of Trichophytonmentagrophytes

STUDY CORRELATION BETWEEN SOME IMMUNE MARKER in PATIENTS with LICHEN PLANUS

MUNA AHMED ABDULLAH

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 400-407

Lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the body's skin and
multiple mucous membranes. In multicellular species, protein 53 and syndecan-1protein
play an significant role since they control the cell cycle and thus play a major role in
tumor suppression and cancer prevention. The p53 gene was therefore identified as a
"genome protector," referring to its role in preserving the integrity of genetic
information by preventing gene mutations. The purpose of this analysis was to study the
association between certain immune markers in lichen planus patients.
The aim of this study : Study correlation between some immune marker in patients with
lichen planus
Methods 'Thirty formalin-fixed , paraffin-embedded tissue pieces, diagnosed as Oral
Lichen planus(OLP), were included in the sample of this report.
Results: Evaluation of P53 Immunohistochemistry and Evaluation of syndecan-
1protein Immunohistochemistry Conclusion: the marker p53 expression is high in the
patient with Lichen Planus while the second studed marker syndecan-1 protein is less
than marker p53