Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Issue 9,

Issue 9


Francisco Alejandro Espinoza Polo; Jaime Luis Alcántara Marcelo; Carlos Alfredo Cerna Muñoz; Gaby Esther Chunga Pingo; Enaidy Reynosa Navarro

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1-9

The positive emotional state of students, in which they accept themselves
physically, accept others, and participate in issues of common good in times of
pandemic, characterizes the learning environment of the subject under study. The
purpose of this research was to determine the impact of affectivity on the learning of
citizenship and civic education of the students in second grade of high school in the
educational institutions Sebastián Barranca and Nuestra Señora de Las Mercedes in the
province of Ica, Peru, in times of the pandemic. There was a population of 150 students
and a sample of 93, chosen by means of a probabilistic sample selection. Two
instruments were applied: the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and the learning
questionnaire in the area of citizenship and civic education, developed by the
researchers of this study. The index r of rho Spearman was used for the correlation and
for the influence the linear regression, having as a result: affectivity influences
significantly (p < 0.01) in the dimension Living respecting himself and the others whose
general values are r = 0.293**; r2 = 0.078; and it has a non-significant impact (p > 0.05)
on the dimensions Participation in public affairs to promote the common good and
Learning in the area of citizenship and civic education (r = 0.072; r2 = 0.5%; r = 0.192;
r2 = 3.7%). As a conclusion, activities focused on affection should be promoted in order
to improve the dimension Living respecting himself and the others.


Shweta Patel; Manindra Rajak; Kamini Khatak; Ranjana Patnaik; Diwakar Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 10-23

Background As the pandemic COVID-19 (due to novel Corona virus) is widely spreading across the globe, it is creating extensive fear, anxiety, apprehension and stress. These are all inevitable and growing reactions to the changing and uncertain situation in which all of us find ourselves. Objectives This study was carried out to assess the psychological impact of the novel, unprecedented situation arising due to pandemic in adult Indian population. Method The data was collected with self-reported questionnaire based survey. The survey was circulated in social media as Google form and participation was completely voluntary. Data was statistically analysed by using chi square test for the calculation of significance. Results The responders had moderate level of perceived stress and anxiety 71%; 63.1% were found to be above average in terms of wellness, 80% were reported to smoke/chew tobacco/consume alcohol and 98.1% were well aware of COVID-19 and seriously followed social distancing. Conclusion Since disruptive effect of COVID-19 social distancing is dominating our daily lives, it is important to maintain connection. Anxiety and fears of each and every individual should be acknowledged and better understood by other individuals, communities and caregivers.


Nithin Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 24-29

Dry socket is an unavoidable complication of dental extraction facing the dental practitioners on a regular basis. We performed a brief systemic review of the etiopathogenesis, prevention and management of dry socket. The inclusion criteria for including articles were that all the studies discussed the dry socket etiopathogenesis, prevention and management and the exclusion criteria were all the studies that included other complications of tooth extraction. The method used for this systemic review was to search in the PubMed database using MeSH terms “dry socket”, “alveolar ostitis” for etiopathogenesis, prevention and management and published in the English language, 86 articles were identified by abstract for relevance to etiopathogenesis, prevention and management of dry socket and a total of 24 publications were included in the final systematic review according to the specific keywords and materials mentioned above. The audit of the literature showed that the prevention methods include avoiding smoking after surgery, atraumatic extraction, the use of antibiotics and other preventive measures such as use of chlorhexidine rinse or gel to reduce the incidence of dry socket. For management of dry socket, wide range of treatment options are being suggested including using chlorhexidine or saline solution irrigation, placement of non- absorbable obtundent dressing(zinc oxide eugenol dressing) or absorbable dressing(alveogyl dressing) and instruction of home rinsing with chlorhexidine mouthwash. There are also new agents in the field being tried that accelerates the healing of the socket such as PRF and GECB as well as combination of PRF with chlorhexidine gel. This paper is a brief review of the literature on etiopathogenesis, prevention and management of dry socket, in order to best guide clinical practice based on current available evidence


Niladri Maiti; Duran Kala; Alisir Babakuliyev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 30-40

This article describes the different types of bonding agents and its concepts of bonding to enamel, dentin, cementum. This also gives idea about different types of changes in chemical composition of bonding agents which varies between different generations. It also emphasizes about the importance of etchants and primers.


Remya K; Balamurali M M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 41-58

Objectives The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Solanum violaceum was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated animal models followed by phytochemical screening of bioactive extracts by GC-MS. Methods The total phenolic and flavonoid content were estimated from the solvent extracted samples. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective studies were carried out with the ethyl acetate extract of Solanum violaceum (SVEE). The hepatoprotective evaluations were carried out with CCl4 intoxicated rats. The levels of Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and proteins were measured in the serum and histopathological studies were carried out with the liver sections. The phytochemical profile of the bioactive extract was revealed from GC-MS analysis. Results The ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Solanum violaceum were rich in phenolic and flavonoid contents respectively. The DPPH and NO scavenging assays revealed better activity for ethyl acetate extract while ABTS assay was better for the alcoholic extract. Therefore further investigations on the hepatoprotective activity were carried out with ethyl acetate extract. The hepatoprotective screening revealed the restoration of enzymes as well as protein to normal levels upon treating intoxicated rats with the bioactive extracts in a dose dependant manner. Further histopathological studies also revealed that the ethyl acetate extract was effective towards restoration of liver cells to normal levels. The phytochemical profile as evaluated from the GC-MS analysis of the extract narrowed down the observed response to four major compounds. Conclusions Solanum violaceum possesses significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. The bioactive constituents attributing to the observed activity were revealed by GC-MS analysis. Viridiflorol, palmitic acid, n-pentacosanal and citroflex A were found to be the major ones

A Study to Evaluate Pattern of Rifampicin Resistance in Seropositive HIV Patients in Tertiary Care Center in Western Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Devinder Kumar Vohra; Dr. Santosh Mittal; Dr. Deepa Yudik Taba

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 59-67

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis in the PLHIV population is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and presents a substantial hazard of nosocomial disease transmission to other patients and health care workers. These risks are heightened when patients have multidrug-resistant TB. To address these challenges, there is a critical need in such a setting for rapid, ef ective screening for TB and the detection of drug resistance and early initiation of treatment. Delayed treatment is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional survey among HIV infected adult patients attending A.R.T Nodal centers, Medicine Opd and ward and chest, and T.B OPD and wards. All the patients with presumptive pulmonary TB were assessed for sputum for microscopy AFB and underwent Drug susceptibility test (CBAAT) for Rifampicin resistance. The primary aim of the Study is “TO EVALUATE PATTERN OF RIFAMPICIN RESISTANCE IN SEROPOSITIVE HIV PATIENTS IN TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH” RESULT: The present study concluded that the prevalence of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis is very high of 39% among presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. BY using CBNAAT we found that 27% of rifampicin resistance was prevalent among 78 patients. In the study population maximum sputum, positive pulmonary tuberculosis was in-between age group 31 to 50 years. Majority 81% of the patients were male. CONCLUSION: Sputum microscopy has very low sensitivity (35.9%) in our study for diagnosing tuberculosis in PLHIV. whereas CBNAAT has a sensitivity of 95 %,it detected double numbers of patients than AFB microscopy


Hala Mohammed Majeed; Bashar Sadeq Noomi; Marwan Q. AL-Samarraie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 68-74

Enterococcus faecalis form an important population of commensal bacteria and have been reported to possess numerous virulence factors considered significantly important in exacerbating diseases caused by them. Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluates the presence of virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility among Enterococcus faecalis isolated from sheep. Methods: The study included the collection of 50 samples (25 Milk samples collected from the udder was washed and the teats were disinfected and dried using alcohol, the first milk drop removed. 5ml of milk collected on aseptic tube and 25 Feces samples collected from sheep diarrhea from rectal by aseptic gloves. (from October 2018 to March 2019 ) and transported to laboratory as soon as possible in sterile Brain heart infusion broth that incubated at 37 C for at least 24-28 hours to increasing chances of isolation. Enterococcus faecalis that were recognized by cultural characteristics, Gram stain, and biochemical reactions. Results: The results of the laboratory cultural of 50 cotton swabs used s show that the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. were 32% and 56% from milk and feaces respectively. the result of PCR test for detection of Enterococcus faecalis: show that the Enterococcus faecalis detected in rate of 66.6% from total Enterococcus spp. While the result of Enterococcus faecalis virulence factors showed that the Surface proteins, Gelatinase and Hemolysin were 75%, 33.3%, 25.5% respectively. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed the most bacterial isolated sensitive Nitrofurantoin , Imipenem and Nalidixic acid were 91.6%,83.3% and 58.3% % respectively Conclusion: We report that our simple modification of the existing multiplex PCR had increased the detection of the enterococcal virulence genes. Predominance of virulence genes was in order of Surface proteins, Gelatinase and Hemolysin were 75%, 33.3%, 25.5%. This modified PCR protocol could be useful to resolve the problem of decreased detection of virulence determinants in enterococci.


Fatima Mustafa Al-najar; Qanat Mahmood Atiyea; Adnan F. AL-Azzawie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 75-87

Background and Objective: E.coli bacteria is the common cause of the urinary tract infections as it is responsible for about 90% of cases of urinary tract infections and it is considered one of the main problems in hospital infected. So, this study aimed to assess the genetic effects of ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, alcoholic pomegranate Granada extract and alcoholic Trigonella foenum on coliform bacteria. Materials and methods: The bacteria were isolated from urinary tract infections, after they were diagnosed using an optical microscope and conducting biochemical tests, then exposed to the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, and alcoholic extract of pomegranate Granada and Trigonellafoenum. Genomic DNA was extracted for all samples and Random amplified polymorohic DNA - Polymerase chain reaction (RAPD- PCR) marker was carried out using five randomprimers. Results: The results of RAPD-PCR profiles shown thate xposed to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim) and alcoholic extracts (pomegranate Granada and Trigonellafoenum) lead to the disappearance or appearance new bands compared with non-exposed samples, and the highest rate of polymorphisim for all each treats and primers in sample 3 was 105.88% where the ratio % GTS for all treats and primers is 10% in the same sample. Conclusion: All treatments caused genetic changes in the DNA of E.coli bacteria cells especially the pomegranate Granada which gave the highest effect than the rest of the treatments, this indicates its efficiency in treating bacterial infections


Hind Mutar Ibrahim; Shihab Ahmed Khalaf; Luay Farhood Jumaah; Emad Maaroof Thakir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 88-95

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is common in developing countries. H. pylori infection epidemiology is variable, because the prevalence is high and occurrence of infection in happen in young ages in developing or poor countries compared to that which consider as developed countries. Study aim: was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children and to evaluate some epidemiologic characteristics. Methods: prospective cross sectional study was conducted at AL Hijjaj Primary Health Care Center during seven months period from 1 st of April to 31 of October 2018. Totle cases 120 (68 male, 52 female) presented with diarrhoea, their age range from birh to 6 years old. Stool samples were collected from each patient and send for Helicobacter pylori stool Antigen (HpSAg).some relevant factors like sex, source of water, type of feeding, educational level of the mothers and fathers are studied. Results: among 120 total cases,40.8% are positive for H.pylori stool Ag(HpSA), there is weak association between gender and HpSA presence, Very strong association between source of water and HpSA presence, Moderate significant association between type of food and HpSA presence, no significant association between fathers and mothers education and HpSA presence. Conclusion: H.pylori infection present in about 40.8 % of patients presented with diarrhea. Source of water is significantly related to the presence H.pylori infection


Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa; Marwan Q AL-Samarraie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 96-104

The research dealt with the study of secondary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea and its relationship to the physiological and hormonal status of women, which is one of the gynecological diseases with serious effects on women with this disease, because cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, infertility and mental state disorder are among the most important complications of this disease. . The study was conducted on (40) serum samples from Secondary Amenorrhea patients after their condition was diagnosed through clinical and laboratory tests. The ages of the patients ranged between (12-42) years. The levels of the hormones LH, FSH, E2, and Prog were measured, and the results were the presence of high significant differences (P <0.05) when measuring the level of hormones LH, FSH, E2, and Prog in the blood serum of the patients with secondary menopause and compared them with their concentrations in the control group. There were high significant differences (P <0.05) in serum levels of LH, FSH, and E2 hormones. The presence of high levels of the hormone LH, FSH, in the serum of most patients. The presence of a decrease in the levels of the hormones E2 and Prog in the serum of the majority of patients


Nuha ali Hadi; Abdulmonaim Hamad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 105-110

The study aimed to find out the effect of type II diabetes on fucose and some values of antioxidants compared to healthy people, as 30 blood samples were collected from patients with type II diabetes, their ages ranged from 30-55 years, while 20 blood samples were collected from healthy people of the same age group and for both sexes., Where the fucose level was measured, a significant increase was found in the patient group by 0.01 compared to healthy people, and the efficacy of the enzyme catalase was measured, and a significant decrease was found at the probability level of 0.05. Also, glutathione recorded a decrease of 0.01 in patients with diabetes mellitus compared to healthy people, while vitamin C, Malondialdehyde and Peroxynitrite were recorded. An increase in the patient group compared to the healthy group at the 0.01 level. While vitamin A and Glutathione-S-transferase were increased in the group of patients compared to the healthy group, with the probability level 0.05. The study also included the measurement of urea, creatinine, uric acid and basic phosphatase. Urea, creatinine, and basic phosphatase all recorded an increase in the group of people with type II diabetes at a probability level of 0.01 compared to the healthy group, while uric acid recorded a significant decrease at the probability level 0.01. compared to healthy controls


Ayoub A. Bazzaz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 111-117

Background: Skin innervation in ruminants has received less attention than other animal skins. The objective was to compare the tissue layers of the skin and detect the expression of nociceptive nerve endings and axons within the neck region of these animals. Methods: Sections of neck (cervical) region of three domestic ruminants involved sheep, goat and bull slaughtered at Kerkuk Slaughter House were studied for both histological, using routine stain, hematoxylene and eosin (H&E) and immune- histochemically using substance-P primary antibody. Results: No conspicuous fundamental differences in the skin layers between these three animals do exist except the bull skin was much thicker than that of sheep and goat, respectively; while more adipose tissue was deposited in sheep in comparison with goat and bull with abundant loose hypodermis in all. Immunohistochemical examinations showed scanty expression of substance-P nerve endings in the epidermis and nerve fibers in the submucosa and hypodermis of all three animals except a few at hair follicles were detectable. Conclusion: The neck skin is charcterised either scanty nerve endings and fibers supplied or run perpendicular to skin surface which could be advantageous for such commercially used meat productive animals to minimize pain during the Islamic manner of slaughtering used to eliminate pain during slaughtering in comparison with other painful methods used in Western society


Thabet Mudheher Khalaf; Husham Naji Hameed; Sohaib SERRI SHAkir; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 118-122

The results of the study showed that there is a positive effect of the plant extract in achieving killing rates, as the alcoholic extract of communis myrtus was significantly superior to the aqueous extract. With a concentration of 3% after 72 hours of treatment on the remaining concentrations in the rate of killing of camels, which reached 88%, while the highest rate of killing of camels in concentration was 3% after 72 hours of treatment with the aqueous extract, reaching 63%


Dunia K. Salim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 123-129

Objective: A study on indoor air play important roles in human health by polluted indoor labrotory and causes some diseases such as infections skin, eyes, respiratory system , allergy and biotoxicity. Air is made up of enormous of microorganisms mainly bacteria. Their estimation is important as an indication of cleanliness of any particular environment. The presence both bacteria and fungi in indoor air is problem of health protection due to a long time period that workers and students stay indoors. Determination of level microbial pollution indoors is necessary to assess the health hazard for indoor air quality control. This study provides information on microbial contamination level of indoor air of biological labrotary was estimated. Material and Methods: Collected air samples from seven bio-laboratories and low, up corridors locations during April-June 2019. Air samples were taken three months : in the in the afternoon. Results: The higher of percentage of isolated airborne bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, it was 58.57% and 26.84% for all biological laboratories respectively at study location, while the lowest percentage were Klebsiella sp. and Protus sp., it was 11.98% and 4.29% for all biological laboratories, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded from the current study that is advisable that estimate to check microorganisms loads in Laboratories and prevent their increase and spread


Ayyub J. Al-Bayaty; Huda S. Khuder; Aya J. Rasheed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 130-142

Identification of alkaloidic substances of on Citrullus colocynthis Fruit done by using High Performance Lquid Chromotography(HPLC) technique,the results appeared the fruit containe many compounds as:Citrullo,Cucurbitacin,Colocyanthin and Colocynthitin by 17.68,39.84,29.67 and12.80%.Isolation and Identification of bacteria done at College for women laboratories/Tikrit University, As it was collected (200) median diuresis samples from the reviewers and sleepers in Salah Al-Din General Hospital / Tikrit city / Iraq with urinary tract infections and it included males and females for ages between (15-60) years, The results showed (160) growth samples when cultivated, at a rate of (80%), as they gave two types of growth, negative for the gram stain (65.6) and positive for the gram stain (34.4). The infection rate was higher in females (66.87%) while males (33.13). The susceptibility of the isolated bacterial species to resistance to 6 antibiotics was tested for different groups, in which the bacterial isolates differed in their sensitivity and resistance to the studied antibiotics, The effectiveness of aqueous and alcoholic extracts was also tested at concentrations of 25%, 75% and 100%, where the alcoholic extract was more efficient compared to the aqueous extract, and the concentration of 100% was the most effective concentration on the bacterial isolates.


Maysoon Mustapha Jasim; Rsha shamil Hussin; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 143-156

The study was conducted for the period from April 2016 to March 2017. The study of lactobacilli, which was prescribed by acidophillus Lactobacilli (Probiotics), was included in the treatment of the parasite Cryptosporidium parvam compared to nitazoxanid, based on several criteria including therapeutic efficacy and some blood criteria. The number of egg cyst in the first day of the treatment reached 6640 syst / eggs with a therapeutic efficiency of 22.9%. In the first and second concentrations, the ratio reached 7180, 6460 and 5560 with a therapeutic efficiency of 16.7,25.0 and 35. The number of egg cyst continued to decline to the fifth day. The number of eggs cyst was 40 cysts / eggs and 99.4% The number of red blood cells in total infection compared to control was 5.782 × 109 / L, while there was no significant difference in control. The results showed no significant differences in hemoglobin ratios and the volume of red blood cells between total negative control, total probiotic treatment group, and groups treated with drugs in concentrations II and III, and in the number of white blood cells, granulocyte and monocyte were no differences Between the probiotic group and the negative control group, while all the remaining groups decreased


Warqaa Latef Salman; Husham Naji Hameed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 157-163

This laboratory study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of the biocide effect of Trichoderma harzianum, silver nanoparticles in the third larval age and the Oryzaephilus full-size beetle, and five concentrations of the biocide T. harzianum (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000) ppm and five Concentrations of silver nanoparticles are (1000, 2000, 3000, 5000, 10000, and 20000) ppm. The results showed that the fungicide T. harzianum had the most recent killing rates for all concentrations, as the highest killing rate for the third larval age was 96.7% at 4000 ppm during 72 hours of treatment, while the lowest killing rate for the third larval age was 16.7% at the concentration 250 ppm during 24 hours of treatment. As for the camels, the highest killing rate with the fungicide was 86.7% at the concentration of 4000 ppm during 168 hours of treatment, while the lowest killing percentage for the adult beetle was 0% at the concentration of 250 ppm within 24 hours of the treatment, as for the effect of particles Silver nanoparticles were the highest killing percentage for the third larval age 100.0% at the concentration of 5000 ppm within 72 hours of the treatment, while the lowest killing percentage for the third larval age was 13.3% at the concentration of 1000 ppm within 24 hours of the treatment. As for the adult beetle have reached the highest rate of killing 88.7% when concentrating 20000 ppm within 72 hours of treatment and concentrating 500 and 1000 ppm during 144 hours of treatment. The lowest killing rate of the adult beetle was 16.7% when concentrating 5000 ppm during 24 hours of treatment


Sudakshina Chakrabarti; V. Vijay Anand

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 164-179

Background: For proper academic performance students should be beware of factors which deplete or augmentate their performance in academics so that they can improve their learning and reduce failure rate Aim: This study aimed to identify and analyze multiple factors that affect 1st year student’s academic performance. Objectives: To categorize the low achievers and high achievers in internal examination of anatomy and to evaluate the factors which are responsible to reduce/improve the performance of the students. Methodology: A study was conducted on first year medical students of saveetha medical college via google form after getting ethical approvals. This study is conducted on 50 students studying first year MBBS. The lower achievers and high achievers were categorized based on the academic results in the internal examination of anatomy. They were formed into two groups as low achievers and high achievers by which they are categorized. A questionnaire was framed on the factors which affected the academic performance of low achievers and factors which helped high achievers to gain marks then it was validated. The students were asked to answer the questionnaire and collected from both high and low achievers separately. Student’s information was kept confidential. The responses are analyzed and factors determining academic performance were evaluated and tabulated. Conclusion: The distraction factors and favorable factors for academic performance in first year MBBS students were analysed. The possible ways to reduce/improve the performance of the students will be decided by the management


Hala Mohamed Sanad; Gayathri Priya; Jameela Jassim Mukhaimer; Govindaraj V. Asokan; Safia Belal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 180-191

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in many countries, including Bahrain. However, little data exists about the awareness and the level of knowledge of vitamin D among Arab Gulf populations. Method: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to an adult sample of 335 participants seeking information on their knowledge about vitamin D. Findings: 81.2% of the study participants had unsatisfactory total knowledge score of vitamin D. Level of education and the sources of information about vitamin D were the main significant factors that appear to influence the participants’ vitamin D awareness status. Most the participants recognized that exposure to sunlight encourages the production of vitamin D, however, only a small proportion of participants were aware of the sources of vitamin D in daily food intake and health consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: There is inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding vitamin D deficiency among adult Bahrain population. Health campaigns are urgently needed in order to improve the community’s knowledge about the benefits and sources of vitamin D


Sudarmi .; ,Bertalina .; Khairun Nisa Berawi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 192-204

The groups most vulnerable to malnutrition are pregnant women, infants and toddlers. Nutritional problems on pregnant women, if not addressed immediately will cause mothers to experience Chronic Energy Deficiency (CEC), a solution to overcome the problem of malnutrition of pregnant women are a form of assistance of local food consumption (serwit), by the implementations of Interprofessional Educative- Collaborative Practices (IPE-CP) The aim of the research is to understand the effect of assistance interventions for local food consumption (serwit) with the application of Interprofessional Education- Collaborative Practice (IPE-CP) to the nutritional status of pregnant women. This research is a quantitative research, a type of quasi-experiment research, Pre-post test group design. Sample of 60 pregnant women in the third trimester, which is divided into 30 intervention groups and 30 control groups. Univariate data analysis uses the Mean formula, bivariate analysis uses the Independent Test T test, and the experiment of the influence of hypothesis uses the Cohen's Effec Size test. Results of the assistance intervention in the consumption of local food consumption (serwit) with the application of Interprofessional Education-Collaborative Practices (IPE-CP) on the nutritional status of pregnant women: Maternal weight with a p-value of 0.003, LiLA size of pregnant women with a p-value of 0,000 and blood Hb levels of maternal with a p-value of 0.025. Effec Test which is the most important measure is maternal height with an effect size index: 0.79 standard big categories. The advice should be an existence of need to always apply IPE-CP and to continue to preserve local food consumption (serwit) to improve the nutritional status of pregnant women


Brindha J; Balamurali M M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 205-220

Engineering proteins for diverse applications by using evolutionary strategies is currently an active research area. Two broad classifications of protein engineering strategies to develop new or enhanced proteins, include rational and directed evolution approaches. Rational engineering of proteins has found its own limitations of insufficient knowledge about parent proteins, whereas directed evolution finds difficulty in screening, though it does not depend on prior information about the parent proteins. These protein engineering approaches, results in the creation of novel with various desired features. Protein biomaterials are created with a combination of natural/synthetic polymers or engineered proteins/protein domains for its use in biomedical field. Both protein engineering and biomaterials have evolved over time. This review mainly serves to discuss the engineered proteins/protein domains/a combination of natural proteins with synthetic polymers in creating protein biomaterials of enhanced properties for biomedical applications like scaffolds for tissue engineering, wound healing etc. Machine learning is seen as an emerging computational technique that is being explored for use in evolving proteins


Hind Qasim Mhalhal; Hind Imad Sadiq; Ghufran Abd al_Hussein Majeed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 221-231

The research problem crystallized in the following question: To what extent sports activities can alleviate the anxiety of a student in middle school, according to the opinion of physical education teachers. The aim of the message was to build a measure of anxiety among middle school students, with regard to the goals. Identify the level of anxiety of middle school students. Identify the role of sports activities to reduce anxiety among middle school students. As for the research method and its field procedures, the researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method as well as the relational method for its suitability to the nature of the problem. For the academic year 2019/2020, when their total reached (70) teachers, the building sample for the psychological anxiety scale consisted of (60) teachers from middle school schools in the governorate for the year (2019/2020), as it represented (71.85%) of the parent community. The exploratory sample consisted of (10) teachers from the governorate's schools, who were deliberately selected by the percentage (28.14%) of the total community. The procedures for building the scale included, determining the scale, building the scale, determining the goal of construction, determining the phenomenon to be measured, identifying areas, determining the validity of dimensions, preparing paragraphs, determining the validity of paragraphs. The exploratory experiment, the main experiment, correcting the scale, the statistical analysis of the paragraphs, the psychometric characteristics of the scale, the final description of the scale, the main application experiment to apply the tests, the results were presented, analyzed and discussed through the statistical kit (SPSS) to find out the level of psychological anxiety of middle school students, On the light of the results, the researchers reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which are: - The existence of a positive moral correlation between sports activities and reducing anxiety among middle school students.


Ghinwa S. Majid; Ahmed S. Abdulamir; Abbas M. Ahmed; Orooba I. Abdullah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 232-239

Volunteers of Blood or who called donors are screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by ELISA in the National center of blood bank in Baghdad. The risk of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) negative samples is not estimated till now in Iraq. The aim of this study is to screen the seronegative plasma of blood donors by a commercially available multiplex NAT test with mini-pooling. One thousands (1000) blood donors plasmas were screened by EIA and then NAT was performed on pools of ten blood plasma. A total of 100 minipools donors plasmas were screened by NAT. Positive HBV NAT minipools of plasma were (3%), 3 HCV (3%), and 3 (3%) HIV minipools by NAT. Accordingly, the use of NAT was shown to detect occult HBV and reduce window period in HCV and HIV in sero-negative plasma from blood donors. Therefore, the implementation of NAT with mini-poling for routine blood donor screening will provide a safe and cost-effective mean of screening for blood transfusion in Iraq


Abdulrhman M. Hassan Hadi; Ahmed Abdul-Hassan Abbas; Ahmed Sahib Abdulamir; Basman Medhat Fadheel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 240-246

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease has a strong genetic predisposition. Aim of the work: To study the role of TNFAIP3 rs610604 (C/A) polymorphism in psoriasis, and its effect on Etanercept response. Subjects and methods: One hundred patients with psoriasis, in addition 100 apparently healthy individuals as a control group were included in this study. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RFLP-PCR) was performed to evaluate different TNFAIP3 gene polymorphism. TNFAIP3 serum levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Current study showed low serum level of TNFAIP3 protein in psoriatic patients when compared with control group (P<0.01). A considerably higher risk of psoriasis was observed in individuals who had TNFAIP3 rs610604 SNP CC and C allele than people carrying AA genotype and A allele. In relation to the response to treatment, this study observed that the mutant homozygous genotype CC was more frequent in non -responder (71.4%) than responder (1.3%) patients (P<0.01). Conclusion: TNFAIP3 rs610604 (C/A), might be useful for prognosis of psoriatic patients


Ibrahim A. Altamemi; Rana Masheel Salim; Osamah Tahir Muslim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 247-253

Background: Interleukin-1β gene Polymorphisms might be associated with individual variations in the levels of cytokine messenger RNA resulting in different risk of inflammation of the gastric mucosa in response to H. pylori infection. Objective: The aim of present study a role for IL-1B31, IL-1B-511 gene polymorphism (SNP) in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis and gastric cancer that could have an effect on disease susceptibility. Patients and methods: A case control study have been conducted and based on three groups, 20 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection associated gastric cancer, Second group was including 20 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection associated Gastritis and Third group was including 40 healthy volunteers. Two milliliter of blood Directly collected in a sterile tube with EDTA for DNA extraction ,then uses (RFLP PCR) technique application to IL-1B31, IL-1B-511 gene polymorphisms, Such these samples will be stored at -20C right away. Results: present study show that IL-1β-511 TT genotype significantly higher in gastric cancer patients than control group (P=0.005). Concerning IL-1B-31 genotype, current result found that, the Frequency distribution of IL-1B-31 CT and CC genotypes show, no significant difference in gastric cancer patients than control (P=0.173) and (P=0.076) respectively. Moreover, IL-1B-31 (C/T), show no significant difference in the frequency of CT and CC genotype between patients with gastritis than control group (P=0.522) and (P=0.291) respectively. IL-1B-31 (C/T), show no significant difference in the frequency of heterozygous (CT), and homozygous (CC) genotype between gastric cancer patients in comparison with gastritis (P = 0.516), and (P = 0.510) respectively. Conclusion: current study has shown that IL-1B 31 C > T (rs1143627) genotype have no impact on individual susceptibility to H. pylori associated gastric cancer and gastritis. Additionally, IL-1B 511 T > C (rs16944) gene polymorphisms act as a risk factor to H. pylori-related diseases including gastric cancer.


Thanaa R. Abdulrahman; Dhefaf R. Mahdi; Jabbar S. Hassan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 254-259

Background: Methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection related to community has been enhanced through the world. One of the significant cytotoxins elaborated by a few strains of S. aureus is the Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), coded by two genes, lukS- PV and lukF-PV which is element of toxin that created pores in the membranes of cells, the role of PVL in the disease process severity of Staphylococcus aureus till known is debated. Amis: This study was planned to detect the Panton Valentine leucocidin (PVL)genes and MRSA isolated from Burn wound infection in community and hospital acquired settings. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study involved 200 patients who presented with burn wounds from third-degree or fourth-degree. The bacteria from all samples were undergone to Cefoxitin disc diffusion testing utilization a 30 μg cefoxitin disc for methicillin resistant determination. Following DNA extraction, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect PVL genes. Results: Twenty-eight samples were positive culture for Staph. aureus, of which 19 (67.8%) patients presented with CAI, and 9 (32.1%) belong Hospital acquired infection A total of 23 (82.1%) showed methicillin resistance. Out of 28 isolates, 7(25%) isolates were harboring PVL gene, all of which were Methicillin resistance community acquired infection. None of S. aureus isolates from hospital acquired infection had PVL. Conclusion: This study indicated high prevalence of PVL among community acquired infection MRSA isolates, and the lack of this gene in Hospital acquired infection


Rana Hussein Naser Al- Qaysi; Alyaa Abdelhameed; Zainab Abd Mohammed; Aalhan Mohammed Alwan; Nada Khalid Alharbi; Wanisa Abdussalam Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 260-268

The role of an interaction between PLCγ and the proteins during fertilization is still unclear. To recognize whether fertilization includes PLCβ- Cа2+ and PLCγ release mechanisms, GST-SH2 fusion protein was designed and injected into the egg of Asterina miniata sp. In this study, the mixture of SH2-pGEMT-Easy vector was combined with the component cell of DH5α, the results proved the success of SH2 domains insertion into SH2-pGEMT-Easy vector using AmPLCγ plasmid. AmPLCγ was treated with EcoR1 to make a GST-SH2 fusion protein. The designed new SH2 primer including EcoR1 and Xho 1 digestion site and clone them into pGEX vector system, could be directly detect the interaction protein with SH2 domain with an easy purification


Ahmed Magdy Alshimy; Nawal Abou Shady; Amira Mohamed El Gohary; Khalid Taha Yassin Turky

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 269-275

Objective: Investigate high tone therapy effect on neurophysiological measures and function outcome in diabetic neuropathy. Methods: Forty patients assigned randomly into high tone therapy and conventional therapy groups. Patients assessed by neurophysiological studies for median and sural sensory nerves and activities of daily living assessed by Katz Index of Independence. Results: Neurophysiological measures for median and sural sensory nerves were significantly improved in high tone therapy group but not in conventional therapy group. The function outcome was significantly improved in both groups with the best results for high tone therapy group. Conclusion: High tone therapy was able to improve neurophysiological measures and function outcome in diabetic neuropathy patients.


Yosra A. Osama; Manal M. El-Amin; Hoda A. Ibraheem

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 276-283

Introduction: “Red alert” pathogen this is how Acinetobacterbaumannii identified nowdays in healthcare facilities, due to its extensive antibiotic resistance pattern. Multidrug-resistant A. baumannii infections are best treated with Carbapenems. The aim of the study is to estimate the numbers of blaoxaand ISAba1 producing strains among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates. Method: identification of A. baumanniiwas carried out by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, VITEK 2 compact was used to assess antimicrobial sensitivities and E test used to reconfirm susceptibility to imipenem, multiplex PCR for class D β lactamase genes detection. Mapping PCR carried out in order toestimate the presence of ISAba1 in relation to blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 genes. Results: Fourty eight A. baumanniistrains were isolated from different anatomical sites from surgical patients in Zagazig University hospital. Antibiogram showed that 81.3% (n=39) of the isolates were resistant to Imipenem, while 9 isolates were susceptible (18.7%). Of 39 resistant isolates to Imipenem, ISAba1 was detected in 35 isolates (89.7%). 34 isolates carried blaOXA-23 gene, all contained ISAba1/blaOXA-23 genes, and 20 contained ISAba1/blaOXA-51 genes. Resistant isolates to carbapenemsall had ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-23 gene, WhileISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 found in both susceptible and resistant isolates. Conclusion: The ISAba1/blaOXA-23 genes were prevalent among the carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates and may be responsible forcarbapenems resistance. The present study revealed that the existence of ISAba1/blaOXA-51 in A. baumannii isolates was not conclusive to carbapenems resistance


Bhushan Raghunath Pawar; Gurdeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 284-291

Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent disease among women around the world, and is also the leading cause of death from cancer. Herbal medicine is an actual prehistoric form of healthcare known to mankind. Herbal medicine is being used by people belonging to all the cultures. The present study is based on the antioxidant and anti-cancerous potential of Buchanania lanzan which is also named as Chironji. Buchanania lanzan (chironji) is a tree species which belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is commercially very useful. Methods: In vitro Antioxidant Activity 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay Result: The total antioxidant activity of Buchanania lanzanin leaves was assessed based on scavenging activity of DPPH free radicals, among them pet ether extract of leaves shows 25.54 % inhibition at conc. of 20 μg / ml and at 100 μg / ml it shows 38.95 % inhibition. Ethyl acetate extract at 20 μg / ml it shows 38.41% inhibition and at 100 μg / ml it shows 50.36% inhibition. In methanolic extract at 20 μg / ml it shows 34.42% inhibition and at 100 μg / ml it shows 57.43% inhibition. The IC50 value is defined as the concentration of the substrate that causes 50 % loss of the DPPH activity. Reducing power assay of Petroleum ether extracts, ethyl acetate extract and methanolic extract of Buchanania lanzanwas studied at different concentrations and found to be increase with increase in concentration. Conclusion: Therefore, present study concludes that Buchanania lanzan is an excellent medicinal plant which holds numerous bioactive phytochemicals and it can be used in prevention of cancer


Avinash Shankar Bhosale; Gurdeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 292-299

Background: Medicinal plants are the “backbone” of traditional medicine, which means more than 3.3 billion people in the less developed countries utilize medicinal plants on a regular basis. Medicines derived from plants are widely famous due to their safety, easy availability and low cost. Herbal medicines may include whole parts of plant or mostly prepared from leaves, roots, bark, seed and flowers of plants. Present study established the antioxidant potential of Alangium salvifolium by studying the efficacy in preventing the in-vitro free radical using DPPH and reducing power assay. Methods: In vitro Antioxidant Activity 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay Result: Free radicals are highly reactive compounds that can produce oxidative stress on the body contributing to diseases such as atherosclerosis or cancer. The radical- scavenging activity of the pet ether extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanolic extracts of Alangium salvifolium was estimated by comparing the percentage inhibition of formation of DPPH radicals with that of ascorbic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of pet ether extracts increased with increasing the concentration. The total antioxidant activity of Alangium salvifolium in flower was assessed based on scavenging activity of DPPH free radicals. Conclusion: Therefore, present study concludes that Alangium salvifolium is an excellent medicinal plant which holds numerous bioactive phytochemicals and it can be used in prevention of cancer.


Dalia El-demerdash; Sahar Hamdy El Said; Maha Abdeen Abdeen; Azza Abdeldayem Ata

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 300-308

Background: Requiring for critical thinking in nursing accentuated in response to speed changing health care atmospheres. Nursing students should bethink to give effective care whilst coping with expansion f role for associated by complexities of current health care. Present study aimed to assessment of critical thinking training program effects on developing reflective thinking.
Methods: Quasi-experimental design used in ourinvestigation. A stratified proportionate random sample of 317 students was chosen from faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University that enrolled in the academic year 2017-2018. Data were collected using four tools namely; nursing students' knowledge assessment questionnaire, California critical thinking skills test, reflective thinking questionnaire.
Results: All nursing students (100%) had inadequate knowledge pre implementation program. While, after the program implementation all of them (100%) had adequate knowledge. Additionally, 74.4% of nurses have deficiency of critical thinking pre the program implementation. In contrast, all of them have strong levelspost program implementation (100%). Likewise, 62.5% of nursing students had high level of reflective thinking before the program implementation that had increased to 100% after the program implementation.
Conclusion: there's no statistically significant relation between critical thinking, reflective thinking before the program implementation while there is statistically significant correlation between critical thinking, reflective thinking after the program implementation. Therefore, it is recommended that nurse educators should develop continuous in service- training and education program for refreshing and increasing nursing students' knowledge and skills about concept of critical thinking as well as to emphasize reflective thinking


Ashraf Yassin Amer; Ahmed Gamil Ahmed; Ahmed Samir Rady; Mohamed Ahmed Raaft; Mahmoud Mohamed Elbakry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 309-324

This study assesses the difference between Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar
Interbody Fusion (MI-TLIF) surgery and conventional open TLIF surgery incases of
lytic spondylolisthesis regarding pain, disability, hospital stay and complications. Lytic
Spondylolisthesis patients may require fusion of one or more spinal segments. The
chances of achieving a successful lumbar spinal fusion have increased. TLIF technique
is gradually being accepted in these cases and widely used by most spinesurgeons.
Minimally invasive TLIF is a recent trend for spinal fusion. This is a prospective
randomized comparative study conducted from March 2016 to December 2018 that
included 40 patients with low grade lytic spondylolisthesis who underwent TLIF. 20
patients underwent MI-TLIF through percutaneous posterior lumbar pedicular screw
fixation, microscopic minimally invasive transform aminal discectomy and interbody
cage fusion (patients group A) and another 20 patients underwent conventional open
posterior lumbar pedicular screw fixation and TLIF (control group B). In our results,
bothsurgical techniques showed improvement in pain and function within 12 months
(follow up period), but group A showed statistically significant improvement in pain
and function in the first 3 months. Regarding blood loss, need for transfusion and
hospital stay, group A showed statistically significant better results. As a conclusion,
MI-TLIF is a better option in surgical management of spondylolisthesis especially in the
early postoperative period.


Sherihan AboElyazed Mohamed; Mohamed Reda Halawa; Yara Mohamed Eid; Maram Mohamed Maher; Lamyaa Salem; Salah Hussein Elhalawany

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 325-334

Background: The Prevalence of thyroid nodules is rising nowadays, luckily most of
them are benign. The risk of malignancy 5-15%, which necessitates the ultimate need to
accurately distinguish benign from malignant nodule to avoid unnecessary
thyroidectomy with risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, postoperative
hypothyroidism and lifetime thyroid replacement therapy, and other complications
related to surgery and anaesthesia. Recent evidence suggests that circulating miRNA
might have probable advantage as diagnostic or prognostic markers for numerous
cancers. Given their reproducible and constant presence in sera, miRNA profiles have
emerged as a non-invasive method to categorise a wide variety of human cancers. This
study aimed to evaluate a possible relationship between the expression level of
circulating miRNA-222 and the histological outcome of euthyroid patients undergoing
thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules with indeterminate FNAC. This study included 45
euthyroid patients with inderteminate thyroid nodules diagnosed with ultrasound and
FNAC which planed for thyroidectomy. Quantitative assay of serum micro RNA-222
expression by quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) performed
preoperatively, and results compared with postoperative histopathology.
Results: The incidence of thyroid nodules was predominant in female gender in benign
group and malignant group. Risk of malignancy increases as TI-RADS and Bethesda
scores increases. Also, larger nodule in size has a more risk of malignancy (p= 0.027).
Expression level of circulating miRNA-222 in serum can’t differentiate between benign
and malignant patients where there was no significant difference between them
statistically (p=0.905). Circulating miRNA-222 was a poor predicator for malignant
nodules with sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 32.43%, with high negative predictive
value (NPV=75%).
Conclusion: Although circulating miRNA-222 has been identified as novel minimally
invasive biomarker for preoperative prediction of malignant nodules, but in our study,
it did not show a value as a tool for discrimination of malignant nodules. Ultrasound
remained important procedure in preoperative prediction and management of thyroid
nodules especially when correlating to nodule size which had positive correlation with
malignancy in our study.


Mohammed Hussien Sosa; Shawkat Ghazal Hafez; Ayman Mostafa Elsheikh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 335-342

Study design: Prospective clinical.
Objective: Evaluate efficacy of monosegmental transpedicular fixation for treatment of
some thoracolumbar burst fractures.
Summary: Short segment posterior fixation become a popular technique to treat
thoracolumbar burst fracture. It is saving more motion segments throughout reducing
fusion segment numbers, Previous investigations which used monosegmental pedicle
instrumentation with placement pedicle screws into fractured vertebral body for
treating thoracolumbar fracture yielded good clinical results.
Method: 20 thoracolumbar burst fractures cases treated with monosegmental
transpedicular fixation. All patients were followed-up radiologically and clinically. The
preoperative, initial postoperative and the latest follow-up radiographs were evaluated
for sagittal index, percentage of anterior body height compression and load sharing
score. Clinically the latest follow-up functional outcomes were evaluated using
Oswestery Disability Index and Low Back Outcome Score.
Results: 20 patients were followed-up successfully with the mean follow up period was
17 months. Sagittal index value of, anterior body height compression fractured
vertebra% are 19.1+/-5.4 degrees and 37.03+/-10.87, respectively, improved
(statistically significant) to 10.4+/- 4.16 degrees, and 19.3+/-9.6.
Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrated that MSPI is effective and reliable
operative technique for selected thoracolumbar burst fractures (type A3.1/A3.2).


Ashgan Moustafa AbdelSabour; Shrouk Mohamed Awadallah; Noha Mohamed Osman; Hesham Mahmoud Mansour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 343-355

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma represents 70 - 85% of the global liver cancer burden.
Diffusion-weighted imaging, a non-invasive diagnostic MRI technique, detects MR signal changes
in hepatocellular carcinoma after trans-arterial chemo-embolization; tumor necrosis accompany
by increasing in ADC values, as such allowing distinction among viable and necrotic tumors
portion. An investigation objective was to elucidate diffusion weighted MRI technique efficiency in
residual/ recurrent diseases detection after transarterial chemoembolization of non operable HCC
Results: We performed a cross sectional study over 33 patients with total 49 TACE -treated HCCs
and compared DWI results with those of Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Diffusion weighted
MRI has sensitivity of 86.7%, specificity of 84.7%, positive predictive of 81.2%, negative predictive
of 89.2% and agreement of 85.5%. Differentiation among malignant and negative groups’ ADC
variables were significantly different. ROC curve shows, ADC values could predict
residual/recurrence of tumor after treatment at a cut off level ≤1000.5 with 72.1% and 75.4%
sensitivity and specificity, respectively.
Conclusion: DWI & ADC values may aid as alternative markers in assessment of HCC cases after
TACE in patients having contraindications to contrast administration and in assessing small
lesions adjacent/closely related to vessels where intravenous contrast administration is not most


Andrew Gamal Boulis; Hazem Abd El Hameed Abd El Hameed; Karim Ibrahim Okasha Abdallah; Marwan Shams Eldin Mohamed; Mohamed Mostafa Ali Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 356-361

Extraarticular distal radius fractures in the elderly is a common problem. Many authors
discussed treatment options including conservative and operative management. Conservative
management yielded excellent functional results with high patient satisifaction without exposure
to the surgical risks


Dr. Mahmood Shakor Mughir; Dr.Hazim Taha Ismael; Dr. Lateef Mohammed Shinawa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 362-365

The present study was aimed to compare the complications percent in repair of mesh to tension
free repair of Darn. Methods: 127 patients from 20-66 years old, including 93 (73.2%) male and
34 (26.8%) females, reported for direct and indirect inguinal hernia with open
Mesh/Lichtenstein (58 patients) or Darning repair (69 patients) in Khanagin general hospital
and Jalawla general hospital from February 2017 to February 2020. The first point was to
compare hernia recurrence with two types of technique. Results: Complications of recurrence in
Lichtenstein repair were 1 patient (1.7%) with compared to darning repair which had a
recurrence of 3 patients (4.34%). also, 3 patients (4.34%) got seroma in the darning repair
technique while 2 patients (3.45%) in the mesh repair technique. Hematoma was appeared in 1
patient (1.45%) in darning repair group and nil in the mesh/Lichtenstein repair group. 2
patients (2.90%) treated by darning repair suffered from chronic pain while 1 patient (1.7%)
suffered from chronic pain in mesh/Lichtenstein repair group. Conclusion: mesh/Lichtenstein
repair is very promising in comparison to the other technique, darning repair, in complications
in hernia.


Dr . Ahmed Abdulameer Ibrahim M . B . Ch . B; Dr . Jawad K . al-Diwan MBChB, MSs, DCN , FIBMS , FFPH.; Dr . Riyadh Al-Rudainy , MB , FICMS / CM3

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 366-374

This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distinguish kinds and related factors
of Mental Disorders among elderly people attending Geriatric Clinic, Baghdad, Iraq.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study conducted and a systematic random sampling technique
was used to select 320 elderly people. We collected data on basic demographics and associated
risk factors using a questionnaire filled through self-reported questionnaire. Mental disorders
(MDs) were defined according to Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) with a cutoff score
of 20+. Accredited tools used by WHO were utilized to identify mental disorders kinds. Results:
The prevalence of MDs in the study sample was 24.4%. The prevalence of MDs types were:
Depression 16.6%, anxiety 12.8%, dementia 5.3%, substance abuse 2.5%, suicide thoughts
5.6%, and suicide attempts 2.5%. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the
determinant factors of elderly MDs revealed the following significant factors: Aging, smokers,
living depends on others, loneliness and social isolation, visual impairment, economic state
deterioration, neglect and mishandling, and chronic diseases are the determinant factors of
elderly MDs. Conclusions: Mental disorders are wide spread among elderly people and
enhanced elderly mental health care services should be provided


Zainab Sulaiman Erzaiq

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 375-382

Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of
the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic.
However infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the
developing fetus. The presented study aimed to determination the correlation of Toxo-
IgA seroprevalence among pregnant women to various Toxoplasma antigens with the
serum IL-4 level. From the June 2017 to January 2018 ,300 pregnant women enrolled
in this study attended to Salahalden General Hospitals . The pregnant women were
examined for Toxo-IgA and determine their specificity for various Toxoplasma antigens
by using line immune assay and the serum IL-4 evaluated by using ELISA technique .
The rates of Toxo-IgA seropositive were 22 [7.33 %]. Considering the reactivity of
determined Toxo-IgA against various Toxoplasma antigens; the rates were 12[54.54%],
13[59.09%], 11[50.00%] ,14[63.63%] ,17[77.27%], 13[59.09%] ,11[50.00%] and 18
[81.81%] seropositive for Toxoplasma ROP1C, MIC3, GRA7, GRA8, p30 ,
MAG1,GRA1 and rSAG1 antigens respectively. Regarding to the total serum IL-4
level ,the highest rate of decreased serum IL-4 level among Toxo-IgA seropositive was
59.09%.In the presented study we concluded the highest rates of decreased serum IL-4
levels was 54.55% seen within Toxo-IgA seropositive for GRA7 and GRA1 antigens ,
and the rates of increased serum IL-4 level ranged from 5.88% to 9.09% within all
seropositive groups to various Toxoplasma antigens.


Almass.M. AL- bayati; Hala. M. Majeed; Ziyad. T. AL- doori

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 383-391

Background:- Mastitis is the term for a bacterial infection of the udder. It is most
common in ewes raising multiple lambs or with high milk production. Most cases occur
during the first weeks after lambing or immediately before weaning. Good ewe
nutrition and providing a clean lambing environment are important factors in reducing
the incidence of mastitis.
Objective: The study was focused on using of rapid & efficient methods for detection of
Subclinical Mastitis in 4 small holder dairy flock in central of Kirkuk &its affiliated
Material and Methods:- A total of 94 milk samples sheep were collected from four
farms in October to December 2018 to determine pathogens responsible for subclinical
mastitis in sheep.
Results:- Screening Subclinical Mastitis(of SCM) were done using California mastitis
and White Slide Test (WST). the prevalence percentage of SCM in California mastitis
and White Slide Test according the early stage lactation was(74 % and 70%)
respectively. While the prevalence percentage of SCM in California mastitis and White
Slide test according the according the dry period lactation was(66 % and 64 % )
respectively. identification of the isolates was achieved using Gram’s staining,
hemolytic pattern, colony morphology, Catalase , Coagulase test, IMVIC test and
confirmation of bacteria species by using Vitek 2 compact after identification to the
primary biochemical tests using Analytical Profile Index. Bacteriological examination of
all milk samples found the presence of (82.85% ) isolates where Staphylococcus was
predominant species (74.28 %) and the coagulase negative Staphylococcus (25.7% )
species was identified at the least bacteria .than staph. aureus, while environmental
pathogen represented E. coli second common pathogen followed by klebsiella
pneumonia (14.8% ) , Manhemia haemolytica (12.8 %) proteus spp.( 11.4%) And low
percentage to the Enterobacter spp. (4.3 %) .
Conclusion:- subclinical mastitis seems to be, as deduced from the high prevalence
observed in this study, an important health problem for milking sheeps in the Kirkuk
Application of VITEK system could be practiced at selected samples from time to time
to confirm identification of causative organisms.


Hiba younis khalaf; Hala Abdulkhaliq Awadh; Hadeel Mizher Younis; Nawar Ali Jasim; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 392-399

This study aimed to determine the main species of dermatophytes which caused skin
infection and effect of antifungal and Ago and Zno nanoparticles on them. The result of
this study showed that out of 80 sample, 54 sample were positive to fungal isolation with
ratio 67.5%. and according to culture and PCR results 38.8% of isolated type belong
to Trichophytonmentagrophytes.
Trichophytonmentagrophytes resistant to Nystatin and Fluconazole while sensitive to
Griesofulvin, Clotrimazole and Flucytosin. MIC of Ago and Zno nanoparticle
againstTrichophytonmentagrophytes were 250 and 275 μg /ml while MFC were 275 and
300 μg /ml respectively. Results of RAPD PCR showed that both Ago and Zno
nanoparticle effect in genetic material of Trichophytonmentagrophytes



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 400-407

Lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the body's skin and
multiple mucous membranes. In multicellular species, protein 53 and syndecan-1protein
play an significant role since they control the cell cycle and thus play a major role in
tumor suppression and cancer prevention. The p53 gene was therefore identified as a
"genome protector," referring to its role in preserving the integrity of genetic
information by preventing gene mutations. The purpose of this analysis was to study the
association between certain immune markers in lichen planus patients.
The aim of this study : Study correlation between some immune marker in patients with
lichen planus
Methods 'Thirty formalin-fixed , paraffin-embedded tissue pieces, diagnosed as Oral
Lichen planus(OLP), were included in the sample of this report.
Results: Evaluation of P53 Immunohistochemistry and Evaluation of syndecan-
1protein Immunohistochemistry Conclusion: the marker p53 expression is high in the
patient with Lichen Planus while the second studed marker syndecan-1 protein is less
than marker p53

Serum Ferritin And Hepcidin Levels In Hepatitis C Patients

Ali Sami Mohammed; Layla Abd-Al-Sattar Sadiq Laylani; Mostafa Ali Abdulrahman; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 408-411

The aim of the study detects the relation between serum ferritin and hepcidin with hepatitis C virus One hundred subjects (men and women) were taken in the current study. Forty-four subjects without infection used like control group and fifty-six subjects with hepatitis C virus. The results demonstrate high significant (P < 0.05) elevate in levels of serum ferritin and hepcidin in subjects with hepatitis C compare with health subjects. It was concluded that there is positive relationship between serum ferritin, hepcidin and hepatitis C.

Preparation Of Graphene Oxide And Its Reduction By Lemon Peel To Graphene And Diagnosed By Several Techniques

Rusul Rifat Jameel; Liqaa Hussein Alwan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 412-421

The research included the preparation of graphene oxide by Hummer and Modified Hummer method through a simple chemical reaction and in the presence of plant extracts, as the product was reduced by an aqueous extract of lemon peel, and the result was diagnosed using several techniques, including Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) BET surface area, as the results of the (FT-IR) spectrum showed the appearance of oxygen groups in graphene oxide that were reduced into wafers. The results of XRD showed that the average crystal size of the prepared particles was 3.11nm, and the (SEM) showed that the prepared graphene minerals with enlargement strengths of 4.16μm and 41.6μm with diameters (1-10μm) had a large number of pores, and were in the form of transparent and thin plates And in a fluffy and folded shape, the results of the BET measurements indicated that the prepared graphene has a surface area of 169.16 m2 g / with an average pore diameter of about 3.58nm. In addition to studying some of the physical characteristics of graphene, such as the pH and the percentage of moisture, where the moisture content was (8.1%) and the pH was (7.1).

Antimicrobial Activity Of Aloe Vera And Opuntia Ficus Extract Against Certain Pathogenic Bacteria

Lina Qays yaseen; Sura Hameed Nayyef; Nadia Ibraheem Salih; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 422-428

The aim of current study is detect the activity role of Aloe vera and Opuntia ficus extract against certain pathogenic bacteria and evaluation of Aloe vera and O. ficus extract against certain pathogenic bacteria inhibition in vitro. 100 samples were obtained from patients with different diseases at age 6 Mon. to 65 years from both genders. This study was carried out in Lab. of Biology Dept., Science College/Tikrit University, at the period from 1st of June 2019 to end of January 2020. The antimicrobial activity was performed with the agar well diffusion method. The results show the ability of Aloe vera for inhibition of bacteria according on concentration and the concentrations of 100 was caused in inhibitory effect on E. coli, Acinetobacte, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates at diameter 13, 12, 11, 9.8 and 15 mm respectively. While, Opuntia ficus extract at 100% concentration was caused in inhibitory effect bacteria isolates at diameter 10, 9.7, 8.2, 7 and 12 mm respectively. The results also show Aloe vera was found to be able for inhibition of bacteria concentration of 40% was caused in inhibitory effect on E. coli, Acinetobacte, S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates at diameter 14, 12, 11, 9 and 15 mm respectively. While, Opuntia ficus extract at 40% concentration was caused in inhibitory effect bacteria isolates at diameter 11, 10, 8, 7 and 13 mm respectively, while other concentrations 10%, 20, 30% show less inhibitory effect compare with 100% and 40% concentrations

Role Of Lincrna-P21 And Lncrna-H19 In Multiple Sclerosis Disease

Laila M. Meber; Olfat G. Shaker; Amr H. El-Sayed; Nermien E. Waly

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 429-442

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) disorder with several environmental and genetic factors. To participate in the regulation of immune responses, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been published. As a result, aberrant expression of lncRNAs has been proposed as an underlying cause of MS. In the current research, by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we assessed the expression levels of two lncRNAs with putative functions in the regulation of immune response, namely lncRNA-H19 and lincRNA-p21, in serum of 74 Egyptian patients with MS relative to healthy people. Significant downregulation of lncRNA-H19 and lincRNA-P21 expression levels relative to controls in the serum of MS patients was observed (P < 0.001). Correlation analyses of lncRNA expression levels and MS patient clinical data showed a substantial moderate positive linkage among lincRNA-p21 serum expression levels and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), a substantial moderate negative linkage among lncRNA-H19 expression levels and MS onset age and no substantial correlation among these lncRNAs and patient age. Furthermore, we showed no significant correlation among lncRNA-H19 and lincRNA-p21 serum expression levels. In brief, in MS patients, we have shown dysregulation of two lncRNAs. To explore the precise mechanisms through which lncRNAs engage in the regulation of immune responses, more studies are required

Design And Development Of Herbal Tablet Containing Ethanolic Extract Of Diplocyclos Palmatus (L.) Jeffry. For The Treatment Of Inflammation

Paras Gupta; Alok Mukerjee; Anil K. Singh; Bhupesh K. Verma; Sumeet Dwivedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 443-452

Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffry. commony known as Shivlingi belongs to family Cucurbitaceae had been widely used for its reported biological activities in indigenous system of medicine. The present investigation was designed to develop herbal tablet containing ethanolic extract of leaves of Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffry. for the treatment of inflammation. The developed herbal tablet was evaluated as per IP. Hence, present investigation established pharmacological evidences to support the folklore claim that Diplocyclos palmatus (l.) Jeffry. is used as anti-inflammatory agent.

Reducing The Histological Effect Of Doxorubicin By Artemisinin Compound On Kidney In Najaf

Zahraa Falah AbdAlaali Annooz; Qassim.M. Hashym

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 452-456

The current study included a statement of the effect of the chemical compound on the kidney organ and how to reduce the effect of the chemical compound on the organs through the use of artemisinin compound and the mixture between the two compounds. Where the results showed that the compound doxorubicin affects the tissue of the kidney, where damage in cell tissue and the results of artemisinin were similar to the results of normal muse tissue, whereas the results of mixture of the two compounds had the least effect on the tissue from the effect of doxorubicin.

Molecular Investigating Class I, Ii And Iii Integrons In Pseudomonas Aerginosae Isolated From Diabetic Foot Infection Patients In Najaf Province

Israa Abdul Ameer Al-Kraety; Sddiq Ghani Al-Muhanna; Enas Jalil Baqer Almayali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 457-463

The study aimed to isolate and diagnose Pseudomonas aerginosae from clinical specimens of diabetic foot infection patients, study the resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agent and molecular detection of class 1, 2 and 3 integron-associated gene cassettes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Najaf province. Sensitivity test was examined via disk spread, method antibiotic, the insulated shows 100% resistance to cefepim, amoxiclave, ceftazidime, gentamicin, cefotaxime and cephalexine though the carry-on of the antibiotics showed various activity against the isolates. At molecular study, the investigated the presence of integrin's genes (intI, intII and intIII) using PCR technique and electrophoresis systems, PCR analysis showed that the integrin IntI, IntII and IntIII were detected in 12/30, 16/30 and 6/30 respectively in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

The Correlation Between Anti-Gliadin And Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase Autoantibodies With Gender In Iraq Celiac Disease Patients

Lara Ghali A. Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 464-470

For finding or inquiring the efficiency of measuring the concentrations of IgG and IgA anti-gliadin autoantibodies (IgG and IgA AGA, respectively), IgA and IgG anti-transglutaminase (TGA), for gluten sensitivity diagnosis and study the relationship between those antibodies with age and gender of patients. The number of coeliac patients that enrolled in current study was 169. Concentrations of IgA, IgG for AGA as well as IgG, IgA for TgA was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the present study, the mean±SE of IgA antigliadin and IgA antitransglutaminase in age group 1-9 years was higher than 10-19 years without significance differences between them p>0.05, while the result show significant differences p<0.05 among age study groups in respect to IgG antiglidin and IgG transglutaminase since the mean of concentration in smaller ages was higher than older (10-19) years. In respect to gender, the females IgA antigliadin and tissue transglutaminase concentrations was higher than their concentrations in males with no significance differences detected between studied groups, while in other autoantibody tested, IgG antigladin and antitrasglutaminase concentrations there is significance differences between females and males with higher mean in females than males. According to the present study results, there are significant correlation between IgG antigliadin and anti-tissue transglutaminase with age and gender of celiac disease patients, since there concentration was higher in females younger than 10 years

Immune Effect Of Tnf-Α On Patients With Rheumatic Heart Disease Containing Streptococcal Pyogenic Infections

Dr. Venus H. Al-Saffar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 471-475

Forty patients were diagnosed with Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) by PCR of spel gene. ELISA used to compare the immunologic evaluation TNF-α in 40 patients with RHD and 40 in the healthy group. The consequences presented that there was significantly greater difference at patients through rheumatic illness from healthy people.

Prevalence Of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In Al-Najaf / Iraq

Muna Hashim Ghezzai; Khalida Kadim Abbas; Emad Sad iq Ali AL-Hilli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 476-485

Cutaneous leishmaniasis, is a diseases transmitted by sand-flies, which infect both genders and all age groups; the study was conducted in Al-Najaf /Iraq, during the period (September 2018 - April 2019). Data collected from four Hospitals (Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital, Al-Hakeem Teaching Hospital, Al-Forat Teaching Hospital and Al-Sajad Teaching Hospital). Data included 321 patients of both genders aged (≤10- ≥51),from urban and rural areas and different occupations; infection was Clinically examined by a physician (skin specialist).The results recorded high rate of infection with cutaneous leishmaniasis during the period of the study, in January reaching to 26.7 % ,While it was less in April 7.7 %, with a statistical significance between months of the study, also results indicated that the highest infection was in age range (11-21 ) year old reach to 7.7 according to age groups. Also the results showed the high rate of infection in males reaching to 9.3 as compared in females, with statistical significance between age groups and gender. The results showed that the highest incidence was 33% on the patients’ hands, multiple lesions more than single lesion, with significant differences between number and location of lesions on the patient's body. In the present study, the results state that leishmaniasis is prevalent in rural (54.3%) more than in urban areas (45.7 %.), also the military is more susceptible to infect with leishmaniasis .As compared with other occupations with significant differences between rural and urban areas as well as different occupations.

No Considerable Evidence In Cytokines Profile Among Latent Toxoplasmosis Infertile Women. Cytokines In Toxoplasmosis Women

Alaa Tareq Shakir al-hassnawi; Luma Hakim Ali; Hassan Raheem Khudhur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 486-493

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite causes toxoplasmosis, is one of the most prevalent human diseases in many countries [2, 19]. Reports on the prevalence of T. gondii infection among infertile females are limited, No previous reports about the relation between T. gondii infection and female infertility although about 21% of abnormal embryos and 24.2% of miscarriages and stillbirths have been related to T. gondii infection [21]. The present study aimed to survey the infertile females and Toxoplasma infection investigating a possible relationship with infertility. Sera from 18 Toxoplasma infected women and sera from 30 free Toxoplasma infertile women were tested by ELISA IgM and IgG toxoplasma antibodies, and the level of serum IL4, IL-8, IL10 and IL33 was tested using ELISA technique.

Stopping Power For Carbon, Oxygen And Proton Interacting With Adipose Tissue, Skeletal Muscle And Brain Using Different Formulas

Ahlam Habeeb Hussien

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 494-503

In this research , the energy loss of electronic to projected carbon, oxygen and protons were calculated in targets (Adipose tissue, Skeletal muscle, and Brain)With using Bohr equation and Bethe equation with Bloch correction and Shell correction at the energy range of (20_500) MeV . The calculations were compared with the experimental data of the SRIM 2012 .Since Bohr equation is classic, its results were a difference from the results of the practical program. As for Bethe's quantum equation, its results were Bloch correction that was closest to the practical program. As for the shell correction, it recorded a difference at specific energies and then began to approach with increasing range of used energy.

Density Functional Theory (Dft,B3lyp/6-31g) Of Acyclovir And Some Its Derivatives

Nidaa A . Jasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 513-523

In this study the density theory (DFT ) Ab initio quantum chemistry methods and Gaussian 09) program were applied to the calculation of the balanced geometry (bond lengths, length angles in Angstrom) of acyclovir (2-amino-9-(2- hydroxyethoxymethyl)-1H-purin-6-one Some its Derivatives Methylacyclovi (2-Amino-9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-1-methyl-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one ) and Ganciclovir (2-amino-9-(((1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl)oxy)methyl)-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one) .The thermodynamic functions ( E0 , H0 ,A0 ,S0 ,CV ) was calculated of compounds studied and also some physical properties (EHOMO,ELUMO , ΔE , IP ) was also calculated . The research paper concluded that the (2-amino-9-(((1,3-dihydroxypropan-2-yl)oxy)methyl)-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one) ganciclovir compound has the larger HOMO-LUMO gap and larger thermodynamic functions Compared to the compounds studied this always indicates to higher kinetic stability and lower chemical reactivity.

Study Of The Prevalence Of Some Intestinal Parasites And Its Effect On Some Blood Parameters Aspect Among Children Patients Of Al Muthanna Province / Iraq

Farhan A. Obiead; Eqbal A. Gatea; Farah J. Alhnon

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 524-534

The present study was carried out in Al Muthanna province through the period from June, 2017 to May, 2018. A (551) and (566) of stool samples were collect from urban and rural respectively from children under 12 years. The percentages of prevalence in urban and rural monthly changes (highest and lowest) were: Entamoeba histolytica (urban: 21.41%, rural: 23.49%, and total: 22.47%, urban: 28.12% in July, 5.0% in January, rural: 31.74% in June, and 5.0% in January). Giardia lamblia (urban: 21.41%, rural: 27.20 and total: 24.35, urban: 31.03% in June, 5.0% in January, rural: 36.50 in June, 0.0% January) and Enterobius vermicularis (urban: 12.15%, rural 21.55%, and total: 216.92%, urban: 15.51% in June, 5.0% January, rural 29.03 in July, 0.0% in January) respectively. The incidence according to the age and sex of children was: E. histolytica (10-24% in male), (18-24% in female), G. lamblia (13-12% in male and female), the highest infection at age groups (3-6), (6-9) in both sexes of the two parasites, and E. vermicularis (13-12% males and females), the most affected at age group (3-6). There is a significant effect of age and sex of incidence at (0.01). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and white blood cell (WBCs) for (20) patients and (20) control were as following: E. histolytica (Hb 9.88 ±0.455, PCV 31.61±1.359, WBCs 9.55 ±2.81), G. lamblia (Hb 9.71±0.519, PCV 31.12 ±1.549 and WBCs 7.94±1.117) and E. vermicularis (Hb 9.62± 0.423, PCV 30.84 ±1.265 and WBCs 8.22± 0.767) and control group (Hb 11.01±2.597, PCV 36.73± 0.475 and WBCs 7.41±1.179). Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the three parasites on the level of Hb at (0.05), PCV and WBCs at (0.01).

Study Of Some Virulence Factors And Virulence Genes Produced By Gram (+Ve) And Gram (-Ve) Cocci Isolated From Clinical Samples In Al-Anbar Province/Iraq

Rawaa Turki Abdul Ghafoor; Asst. prof. Hana Abdel Latif Yassin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 535-547

This study aimed to isolate the G (+ve) and G(-ve) cocci from different clinical samples and study some virulence factors and virulence genes produced by them .
In this study, (177) samples were collected from different clinical sources, including (49) blood samples, (43) urine samples, (30) pus swabs, (40) cervical swabs and (15) sputum samples from patients attending Ramadi Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Children, Ramadi Teaching Hospital in Ramadi in Al-Anbar province/Iraq during the period from 19/12/2018 to 12/5/2019, and (203) isolates were identified as Gram (+ve) and Gram (-ve) bacteria, then (166) Gram (+ve) and Gram (-ve) cocci were chosen as study samples.
After diagnosis of the isolates, results of Gram staining showed that the highest number and percentage of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were from urine samples 48(28.9%) followed by blood samples 44(26.5%) then pus swab and cervical isolates 37(22.3%) and 23(13.9%) respectively, while the lowest number and percentage of isolates were from sputum 14(8.4%). Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest number and percentage of isolates 48(28.9%). For gram (-ve) cocci, only (10.4%) of Neisseria gonorrhea was isolated from urine samples and (14.2%) of Moraxella catarrhalis was isolated from sputum samples
Regarding virulence factor production, the hemolysin producer isolates were the highest 103(62.04%), and results of hemolysin producing bacteria was S.aureus, S.hominis, S.haemolyticus, S.chromogenes, S.xylosu and S.warneri showed (100%) beta hemolysis, while only one isolate of the genus Micrococcus was beta-hemolytic all isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae showed (100%) beta hemolysis (β), whereas the isolates of Strept. pneumoniae, Aerococcus urinae and Aerococcus viridans showed (100%) partial or alpha (α) type hemolysis, and (8) isolates of E.faecalis showed complete hemolysis (β-haemolysis).
All S. aureus isolates were (100%) gelatinase producers Kocuria kristinae was (100%) producer, all Strep. pyogenes, Strep. Agalactiae, Strep. Anginosus, Strep. Lc. lactis lactis and Strep.mitis isolates showed (100%) ability to produce this enzyme, The (24) isolates of the genus Enterococcus bacteria were (100%) able to produce the enzyme gelatinize, including (19) E.faecalis isolates and (5) E. faecium. As for the genus Gram (-ve) cocci, two isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis showed (100%) ability to produce the gelatinase enzyme.
The number and percentage of urease enzyme producers were 49(29.51%), where 38(79.16%) of S.aureus isolates were able to produce it. Also, 3(17.64%) of S.hominis isolates were able to produce it, while only one isolate of S.lentus (20%) was able to produce it. Moreover, both S.xylosus and S.warneri isolates were (100%) urease-producers.
From the total (166) isolates, 20(12.04%) isolates formed biofilms. E.faecalis bacteria was the most biofilm-producing isolate 9(47.36%), followed by S.aureus bacteria 3(6.25%) then
S. lentus isolates (40%), while Kocuria rosea bacteria produced biofilm as 1(100%), Strep.pneumoniae and Strep.pyogenes produced as 1( 25%) for each isolate, and 1(50%) for Strep. anginosus isolate, whereas Strep.salivarius and Strep.mitis produced biofilm as 1(100%) isolate for each of them.
Also (100%) of the virulence genes icaC, srtC, and Emm were detected in S.aureus, E.faecalis and Strep.pyogenes isolates, which produced strong, moderate and weak biofilm types by using the PCR technology.

Diffusion Rate Effect Study On Kinetic Of Controlled Release Of Insecticide Chlorpyrifos From Hybrid Nanocompund

EussurNoory Al-khafaji; Maryam Mansoor Mathkoor; Alaa A. Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 548-560

insecticide chlorpyrifos Mg/Fe –LDHs was prepared by indirect and direct ion exchange. description of this compound Mg/Fe–LDHs and hybrid nanocompound done by FT –IR spectrophotometer before and after intercalation formation of hybrid nano compound , then cooperation to ensure the form hybrid nanocompound and the two and three dimensional image of the above compound in (AFM) for the layer and hybridnanocompound. The aim of this study is the synthesis hybrid nanocompounds for limited of environment pollution and study the effect of diffusion rate caused by insecticide chlorpyrifos released from the hybrid nanocompound layers by the diffusion rate anion that effect on kinetics of different aqueous solution. The results study of effect all aqueous solution on diffusion rate anionin same time fromhybrid nanocompound layer, appeared that thediffusion rate of hybrids to liquids in different carbonate, phosphate and sulfate concentration0.5Mthe diffusion rate release in to aqueous solution carbonate>phosphate>sulfate. The results of the study number of active sites of hybrid nanocompound in the aqueous and alcoholic medium by direct and indirect ion exchange process showed that is better for preparation in alcoholic medium and that the number active sites is higher in hybrid nano compound prepared by indirect ion exchange fromprepared by direct ion exchange

Hotair (Homeobox Antisense Intergenic Rna) And Gas-5 (Growth Arrest–Specific 5) Expressions As Biomarkers For Early Diagnosis Of Multiple Sclerosis (Ms)

Marwa M Kamel; Shaker O; Amr Hassan; Nermien E. Waly

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 561-576

Background: Multiple sclerosis is a central nervous system autoimmune illness that is characterized by chronic inflammation, gliosis, demyelination, and neuronal loss. Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) play a significant role in regulating immune response, as well as the development of immune cells.
Objective: This study aims investigate the role of lncRNAs; HOTAIR (HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA) and (HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA) in MS pathophysiology and their impact on clinical course of the disease.
Patients and methods: The present study was conducted on 134 subjects; 74 patients with MS (relapsing remitting and secondary progressive types) and 60 age and sex matched controls. Expression of both lncRNAs; HOTAIR and GAS-5 was assessed in serum using Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The clinical disability in the patients was evaluated using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at the time of patient enrollment.
Results: The relative expression levels of HOTAIR were significantly down-regulated in serum samples of MS patients relative to the control group; (p value < 0.001) while relative expression levels of GAS-5 were significantly up-regulated in serum samples of MS patients relative to the control group; (p value = 0.002). There is significant positive association between GAS-5 expression level and age of onset in MS patients (P value= 0.020).
Conclusion: This differential expression of both lncRNAs may have an important role in MS pathophysiology. This study clarified the molecular pathways through which those lncRNAs contribute to MS clinical presentation.

Study Of Serum Micro-Rna 221 Expression In Patients With Thyroid Nodules And Its Relation To Outcome

Sherief Samy Bayomy Mohamed; Prof. Dr. Raef Malak Botros; Prof. Dr. Emad El Din Farid Ibrahim; Dr. Alyaa Ahmed ElSherbini; Dr. Hanan Mahmoud Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 577-587

Background: Thyroid nodules are extremely common and are usually benign. 4%-6.5% from thyroid nodulesaremalignant. Among Thyroid cancer investigations manydiagnostic molecular biomarkers were found to have applications in thyroid nodules managment and avoid unnecessary thyroidectomy.(1)
This study aims:To detect value of micro-RNA 221 expression in sera of Patients with thyroid nodules and its relation to outcome after surgery.
Patients and Methods: Forty-five adult subjects aged between 18 to 70-years old who were diagnosed with suspicious thyroid nodules that required total thyroidectomy were offered participation in the study. In addition, five healthy Subjects, were included as a control group, based on the patient’s history, physical examination, US and FNAB findings. Patients who had thyroid nodules with U/S pattern suggestive of malignant potential (TIRADS score ≥ 3),also with indeterminate FNAB results (Bethesda III, IV)were selected. Samples of human plasma were collected from selected patients visiting outpatient clinics. Results was correlated with postoperative pathology results.
Results: In our study there was no significant difference regarding outcome in patients (benign or malignant) with respect to serum microRna 221. There was a significant difference between benign and malignant outcomes regarding size of dominant nodules by ultrasound with a mean value equals 4.6 cm in largest dimension in patients with malignant thyroid nodules and p value equals 0.027 indicating increased size of nodule may be associated with increased risk of malignancy.

Chlorine Concentration Decay In Water Distribution System

Rakesh Chandra Bhadula; Nishu Chawla; Vinay Devrani; Satya Jeet Singh; Ankur Singh Bist

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 588-594

We report here, the first order kinematics decay model for calculating chlorine concentration decay in water distribution system. Furthermore, age factor is also included in our model. A detailed analysis of bulk decay coefficient, wall reaction coefficient, ageing factor and temperature are compared. The results showed that chlorine decay strongly depends upon the temperature ageing factor of the distribution system, time and wall reaction coefficients. Experiments were carried out to determine the chlorine decay in water distribution system and decay pattern was analysed every hour.

Premise Of Madness Or Higher Perception In Lessing’s Briefing For A Descent Into Hell And The Four Gated City

Dr. Laxmi R Chauhan; Ms. Devika Gaba; Ms. Yachna Suryavanshi; Ms. Vinika Panchal; Dr Ankur Singh Bist

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 595-598

Doris Lessing is one of the best writers of twentieth century. The way she explores the human mind is unique in itself. Lessing very easily gets into the mind set of different characters. She not only gives the sketch of the central character but also goes deep into all the characters. As for the The Four Gated City she says “….various aspects of me were parceled out between the different characters. They were a fairly interesting map of myself, the role of the characters.” During the 1970s, Lessing began writing what she called "inner space fiction." ‘These works reveal the influence of Carl Jung and particularly R. D. Laing, a well-known radical psychologist who proposed that insanity is merely a convenient label imposed by society on those who do not conform to its standards of behavior..

E-Services In Indian Commercial Banks Customers Response - An Empirical Study

Dr. R.K. Uppal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 599-614

The present paper analyzes the perceptions of the bank’s customer regarding e-banking services.The survey was conducted in Ludhiana district of Punjab in October, 2020. The customers of almost all the bank groups exhibit their perceptions in favour of e-delivery channels. Among all the e-delivery channels ATM is the most preferred e-delivery channel. Age-wise, upto 25 and 35-45 age groups more preferred e-delivery channels. Similarly professionals more preferred e-services. Chi-sq test used to know difference in the opinion of the three bank group’s customers. The paper concludes suggesting some strategies to enhance the e-banking services

Students’ Perception To Different Types Of Reasoning Questions For Histology Practical Training

Dr. Sudakshina Chakrabarti; Mr. Vignesh Srikanth

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 615-623

Background: Educators world over are constantly looking for new ways to improve student understanding and performance. While the traditional methods of teaching are effective as is, introduction of newer, fresher methods may prove useful in providing an additional level of thinking and reasoning in students. Peer-framed reasoning questions is one such example that has been reported to show considerable improvement in student knowledge, and hence, performance. In a subject like histology, reasoning could prove useful to explain the microanatomy of structures and their relation to physiological functions.
Aim and objectives: To determine students’ perception to different types of reasoning questions for histology practical training, and to assess their performance and response to the same.
Methodology: This study is conducted on 50 first year medical students if Saveetha Medical College. The students were given 2 questions framed with the help of two first year medical students for histology slides over a period of 6 histology hours. The answers to the questions were collected and corrected. The performance of the students was evaluated. To assess the perception of students towards the questions given in the above sessions, they were subjected to answer a validates questionnaire, the results of which were evaluated.
Results: The students showed considerable interest in the programme and participated diligently. The answers to the feedback questionnaire showed positive responses in the whereabouts of 60% to all questions, with negative responses in the range of 10-15%. The rest remained neutral. Hence, most students found this practice useful and interesting.
Conclusion: The participating students felt the programme was useful and refreshing, being a change from routine classes. The different approach to the subject helped them understand gaps in their knowledge as well as fill them. By going through the slides and information themselves, the students were able to understand how microanatomy of various body tissues goes hand in hand with their physiological functions.

Study Of Some Enzymatic And Histopathological Variants Of The Effect Of Sodium Benzoate On Rabbits

Asma hassan Jumaa Alsamarrai; Zinah Ibrahim khaleel; Mohammed Ahmed Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 624-635

This study was conducted in 2019-2020 for the purpose of determining the histopathological effects of sodium benzoate on the liver and kidneys and the effects on the level of enzymes for ALT and AST, where twelve rabbit eggs were used. Where the animals were divided randomly into three groups, namely: the control group: - which includes four rabbits and the first treatment group N1 (oral dose with sodium benzoate at a concentration of 100 mg / kg of body weight) and the second treatment group N2 (oral dose of sodium benzoate at a concentration of 200 mg / (Kg), where the totals were dosed orally daily for a period of 30 days.
The animals were killed after the end of the experiment and then the liver and kidneys were removed for the purpose of conducting a study of the changes in them. These changes appeared in the liver tissue represented by the presence of hemorrhage and lymphocyte infiltration with the rupture of the cells lining the central vein, and there were also a few cases of karyolysis with the presence of some nuclei that Small size and condensation suffered by Pyknotic Nuclei.
In the kidney tissues, the histological lesions were represented by a general necrosis of the tissue, Necrosis and Vacuolated Necrosis, with the presence of degeneration within a section of the glomeruli within the cells that made it, with the observation of dense and small nuclei, which is on the way to death.
As for the enzymatic effects, the results of the statistical analysis indicated the presence of significant differences (P <0.05), the level of ALT and AST enzymes between the two concentrations of sodium benzoate when compared, while the level of enzymes increased significantly (P <0.05) with increasing concentration

The Oxidative Effect Of Nlrp3 And Cyp2e1 In Development Of Renal Failure Associated With Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus Diseases

Alyaa Abdulhadi Salih; Kareem Hamadx Kareem Hamad Ghali2

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 636-644

Renal Failure (RF) is devastating pathology with several causative factors, resulting in dialysis or kidney transplantation needed by end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The progression of RF is closely related to systemic oxidative stress, which causes various complications such as hypertension and diabetic mellitus . The current study was focusing on the oxidative effects of NLRP3 and CYP2E1 gene expression in the pathological development of renal failure disease with hypertension and diabetic mellitus as complications associated diseases. This study involved 100 patients diagnosed clinically and seriologicaly with renal failure 52 males and 48 females, their age from 17 to 80 years . Also the study comprise (18 males and 12 females) healthy volunteers as control group. RNA extracted from blood samples and converted to cDNA which subjected to real-time PCR for detection gene expression . The results detected that Hypertension and diabetic mellitus are the important risk factors that causes and advances renal failure disease . NLRP3 and CYP2E1 have significantly overexpression (1.60 folds and 5.37 folds ) respectively in RF patients compared with healthy group ( p <0.05). However, the expression of NLRP3 and CYP2E1 increase in diabetic mellitus (2.16 and 1.58 ) respectively than hypertension in RF patients with and control group (p<0.05). Diabetic mellitus generate free radical consequently causes ROS, hence elevated expression in oxidative NLRP3 and CYP2E1 genes in diabetic RF patients .

Prime Determinants Of Profitability Of Major Bank Groups In The Liberalized And Globalized Era

Dr. R.K. Uppal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 645-660

Profitability is an important criterion to evaluate the overall efficiency of a bank group. The present paper examines the comparative trends in profitability behavior of five major bank groups in the post liberalization and globalization era. The paper further examines the factors, which are affecting the profitability of these bank groups. The paper concludes that average profitability is the highest in case of New Private Sector Banks and in Foreign Banks. The selected factors have differently affected the profitability of these bank groups. With the help of Correlation Co-efficient Matrix and R - Square, paper examines the impact of each selected variable on the profitability of each group. The paper offers suggestions on the basis of empirical results to increase the profitability and measures should be taken to increase the level of spread and curtail the burden. On the basis results the present paper also suggests some emerging issues particularly for our Public Sector Banks. The new private sector and foreign banks have become threat for Public sector banks and at the same time they are motivation also. It is the right time that all public sector banks should adopt latest technology and compete with their counterparts

Effect OF Underwater Exercises ON Treating Postmenopausal Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Walaa K. Swar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 661-672

Our investigation was aim to study effect of underwater exercises on relieving the symptoms of fibromyalgia during postmenopausal life. Sixty women complaining from the symptoms of postmenopausal fibromyalgia were randomly selected according to American College of Rheumatology criteria from the physical therapy clinic in Horus University in Egypt to share in this study, their age ranged between 50-60 years old with at least 3-4 years post menopause. Their body mass index did not exceed 30 km/m2. A rheumatologist diagnoses all women as having fibromyalgia symptoms. Women were divided to 2 equal groups, (A) treated by Hydrotherapy in form of underwater exercises for four limbs and trunk while group (B) received land exercises for the four limbs and 2 times/ week for 8 weeks. Each session took about 30 minutes as the following: 5 minutes warming up, 20 minutes aerobics, strengthening and flexibility exercises for the upper and lower limbs, and trunk using the bodyweight and the resistance bands at different degrees of resistance as the patient's ability permitted and 5 minutes of cooling down. Women in the usual care group received general physical activity guidelines. Exercise interventions had aerobics, muscular strengthens and flexibility. Weight and height scale was used to assess BMI, VAS was used to assess pain, and FIQ using for assessment the fibromyalgia-depending on symptom for both groups A and B before and after treatment. Results of the study found that, BMI, VAS and FIQ showed no significant differences between both groups A and B before treatment. After treatment, VAS in (A) showed decreasing in mean when comparing to its corresponding values(B), Also the value of FIQ in group A showed a statistically significant decrease when comparing to its corresponding values(B).
It can be concluded that underwater exercises are very effective in treating fibromyalgia postmenopausal symptoms.

Effect Of Therabite Exercises Versus Ketoprofen Phonophoresis On Tempromandibular Joint Pain And Trismus After Tonsillectomy

Zakaria Mowafy Emam Mowafy; Mohamed Hamed Askar; Alaa Anwar Ahmed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 673-681

Purpose: To assess TheraBite influence versus ketoprofen phonophoresis on tempromandibular joint pain and trismus after tonsillectomy.
Methods: (Vernier caliper gauge to evaluate maximum mouth-opening capability, visual analogue scale for the assessment of pain and Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) to assess tempromandibular joint disorders. Forty patients with ages range from 15 to 22 years complaining from tempromandibular joint pain and trismus following tonsillectomy. Participants were randomly allotted into two groups equivalent in number; every group consisted of twenty patients. The first study group (A) contained 20 patients who undertook the routine medical care in addition to the TheraBite exercises five times per day, each time for 2 minutes. The second group (B) was composed of 20 patients who received the routine medical care in addition to the ketoprofen 2.5% gel phonophoresis on the mastication muscles area for 5 minutes for each side of the face at an intensity of 1.0 w/cm² and frequency of 1.0 MHz with pulsed mode. Measurements will be done before the initial management as a primary score and at the termination of the third week of management as a second last record.
Results: Results revealed that the TheraBite exercises and ketoprofen phonophoresis reduced tempromandibular joint pain and trismus after tonsillectomy but TheraBite exercises showed significant effect.
Conclusion: TheraBite exercises and ketoprofen phonophoresis were advantageous and fruitful in decreasing the tempromandibular joint pain and trismus after tonsillectomy but TheraBite exercises was more successful

Cd Coexist With Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

Karrar Hassan Obaid; Mahdi M. Murshd; Naeel H. Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 682-686

(CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the upper small intestine caused by an inflammatory T-cell response to the ingestion or storage proteins in wheat (gliadin), rye (secalin), and barley (hordein), which are collectively called “gluten”, and possibly oat products. (ATD) is the most common autoimmune condition, an acting approximately 2% of the female population and 0.2% of the male population. Thyroiditis has been repeatedly associated with celiac disease. (TTG-A) has proved to be a very specific indicator to identify patients with CD. (anti-TPO), (anti-TG) and (anti-TSHR) is a main feature of autoimmune thyroid disease.
Methods; One hundred and sixteen submitted in this study 86 patient for CD and 30 control (healthy), tested for (TTG-IgG, TTG-IgA, Anti-TSH Anti-TPO and Anti-TG) by use ELISA method.
Results; (TTG-IgG) with (TTG-IgA, Anti-TSH) show statistical significant, (TTG-IgG) with (Anti-TPO, Anti-TG) show statistical non-significant. (TTG-IgA) with (TTG-IgG, Anti-TSH) show statistical significant. (TTG- IgA) with (Anti-TPO, Anti-TG) show statistical non-significant.
Conclusion; There are a strong association between CD and autoimmune thyroid disorders

A Clinical Study Of The Incidence And Prevelence Of Salivary Gland Tumors In Zakho City

Hanan Abdulqader A. Dijwar; Salih I.Ibrahim Naqid

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 687-691

(Background: The salivary glands have an important role in the functions of digestion by making lubrication fluid, respiration, speech, and overall homeostasis, and they also contain antibodies. Generally, the salivary gland tumors might be categorized into non inflammatory, inflammatory, and neoplastic swellings such as calculi, benign tumors like Warthin tumor, oncocytoma, pleomorphic adenoma, malignant tumors involving undifferentiated carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Methodology: This epidemiological study is carried out at the Department of histopathology, Zakho general hospital, thirty salivary glands cases are involved in this work in a period of 15-years.
Results: There are 30 patients with major salivary gland tumors, while 26 patients (86.666) had parotid and 4 patients (13.333) had sub-mandibular major salivary gland tumors. In the presented work, 26 (86.666) cases from a total of 30 salivary tumor cases have been benign, while only 4 (13.333) are malignant, from a total of 26 patents of parotid tumors, overall of 20(76.923) cases have been identified in superficial lobe, whereas only 6(23.076) cases have been in deep lobe, from a total of 30 salivary gland tumors, overall of 26(86.666) cases are pleomorphic adenoma and just 3 (11.538%) cases are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and only single case (3.333%) has been acinic cell carcinoma.
Conclusions: The parotid gland has been defined as the major site of origin which is related to benign as well as malignant tumors, also the pleomorphic adenoma is the major benign salivary gland tumor and mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the major common malignant tumor. The rest of the cases are autoimmune disease and minor salivary gland tumors.

Assessment Of Subcondylar Fracture Treated Using Two Four-Hole Straight Miniplates Versus The Synthes® Matrixmandible Trapezoidal Plate: Randomized Controlled Trial

Mohamed A. El-Mahdy; Moustafa K. Ezz; Moustafa I. Shindy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 692-708

Background and objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate subcondylar fracture treated with two four-hole straight miniplates versus the MatrixMANDIBLE Trapezoidal plate. Patients and Methods: A total of 18 patients having subcondylar fractures indicated for open reduction and plate fixation were chosen from the outpatient clinic of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, and randomly divided into two equal groups. Intervention group was treated using MatrixMANDIBLE Trapezoidal plates, and the control group was treated using two four-hole miniplates (2.0): one is parallel to the mandible's posterior border and the other is parallel to the sigmoid notch. The clinical and radiological outcomes of the treatment such as accuracy of reduction and stability of fixation, pain, occlusion, mandibular movements, facial nerve affection and time of operation were assessed and statistically analyzed. Results: There were no statistically significant differences among the two groups in all comparisons except time of operation, as MatrixMANDIBLE Trapezoidal plates were time saving. Conclusion: MatrixMANDIBLE Trapezoidal plate has clinical and radiographic outcomes comparable to two four-hole miniplates, offering less hardware and less operative time.

Comparing the Efficacy of the Contasure-Needleless Sling Technique with a Conventional Midurethral Sling in the Surgical Management of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence

Abd El-moneim Abd El-Aziz Saleh; Mahmoud Ahmed Ghareb; Diab Alsayed Mohamed Ibrahiem; Walid Mohamed Elnagar; Mohammed Hassan Elsayed Barakat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 709-719

Objective: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the Contasure-Needleless (C-NDL) technique with the Transvaginal Tension Free Vaginal Tape-Obturator (TVT-O) technique in the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Methods: This prospective observational study was performed on adult women with urodynamic proved SUI who failed or declined conservative treatment between August 2017 to October 2019. The cough Stress test was performed for all patients, and they underwent urodynamic evaluation preoperatively. Follow-up visits were performed at one month, six months, and 12 months after surgery. For statistical analysis, we used the Statistical Packages for Software Sciences (SPSS) version 21.
Results: Forty patients were divided equally into two groups (TVT-O subgroup and C-NDL subgroup). Regarding the operative time and pain scale, there were no significant differences between both groups (p= 0.078 and 0.054). A higher blood loss was observed in the TVT-O group than the C-NDL group (p= 0.001). At three, six, and 12 months of follow-up, no significant difference was observed in terms of the cough test (p= 0.4708, 0.7256, and 0.6644). Moreover, there was no significant difference in terms of complications (all p>0.05). Regarding the relationship between Valsalva leak-point pressure and cough stress reflex at the last follow-up visit, we detected a significant difference among the studied patients (p= 0.001).
Conclusions: C-NDL is a promising technique for treating SUI cases, with low complication rates and a good patient satisfaction level. Furthermore, the procedure's efficacy holds encouraging results that need to be affirmed and tested by long-term outcomes.

The Efficacy Of Intralesional Bleomycin In The Treatment Of Recalcitrant Warts: An Open Therapeutic Trial In Iraq

Ahmed Yahya Abbas; Mustafa Hazim Ahmed; Hiba Hikmat Maqdasi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 720-728

Aesthetically, warts affect on face and hands duo to great discomfort to the patient. The common treatment methods cause pigmentary changes and scarring. Moreover, recurrence of infection. Because bleomycin is considered an anti-tumor agent, this project is considered a pioneering study in Iraq to evaluate the efficacy of bleomycin intralesional in treating intractable warts.
Patient and Methods:
A total of 23 patients with (104) rebellious warts were treated with intralesional bleomycin. The response to treatment was followed after 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months. The follow-up method was calculated by a special recording system (no response = 0), (response = 1) and (complete recovery = 2).
Results showed at 2 weeks follow up (13.1%) of the palmoplantar, (19.4%) of the periungual and (25%) of the other sites warts improved to score 1. After 1 month the score 1 response for palmoplantar, periungual and other sites warts were (39.2%), (41.9%) and (25%) respectively, while the score 2 response for palmoplantar, periungual and other sites warts were (30.4%), (32.3%) and (75%) respectively. After three month, reaction in periungual and other sites warts is 100%, whereas in palmoplantar warts were 94.2% with a total response rate of 96.1 % according to the scoring system.
Our findings suggest that Bleomycin is significantly effective in the medication for insurgent warts. It's safe and free of side effects apart from minimal local pain with no recurrence rate of warts after bleomycin treatment.

Evaluation of oxidative stress in response to examination stress in dental students Bama

Rajanayagam .; Manikandan S; Selvaraj S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 728-735

Oxidative stress gained the attention recently in behavioral medicine and been contributes to various psychological disturbances and mental stress in Medical and Dental students. This study is to evaluate the level of oxidative stress markers in undergraduate students caused by examination stress.
This cross sectional study was conducted at Priyadharshini Dental College. Fifty healthy final year dental students were participated and the level of oxidative stress (Lipid peroxidation and Antioxidant status) were assessed on the day of examination “stress condition” and compared with the same parameters obtained from the same students after the exam “non-stress condition”.
The results shows that oxidative damage and sensitivity to lipid oxidation were significantly increased in “stress condition” (P<0.05) when compared with the same parameters in “non- stress” conditions. A significant decrease in plasma antioxidant level was observed (P<0.05) under stress.
There is significant higher in oxidative stress its adversely affects the student performance and mental health during the examination.

In-Vitro evaluation of anti-cancer and genotoxic potential of medicinal herb Saussurea lappa extract in human cancer cell lines

Ayyub A. Patel; Mohammed Amanullah; Fahmy G. Elsaid; Tamer Soliman; Mohamed Eissa; Hani Alothaid

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 736-747

For centuries, plants are known to play part in the daily routine from providing food to the management of human health. During the last few decades, diverse phytochemicals have been characterized as agents that possess a potential to execute cancer cells. The oil extracted from the root of Saussurea costus; has been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Purpose: This study was carried out to assess the effect of Saussurea lappa aqueous extract on five different cell lines; Human Lung Fibroblast cells (MRC5), Human Dermal Fibroblast adult (HDFa), Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK), breast cancer cells (MCF7) and human colonic cancer (Caco2). Results: On normal cell lines; the extract showed cytotoxic activities with the half maximal inhibitory concentration; IC50 values, ranging from 0.85 to 2.5 mg/ml whereas MRC5 was the most sensitive cell line (IC50 values: 0.85). On malignant cell lines; MCF7 cells showed inhibition in cell proliferation with activity from 67.17% to 91.01% by the extract treatment concentration 0.50 to 2.0 mg/dl. However, Caco2 cells exhibited inhibition in proliferation ranging from 37.10% to 69.45% by the same treatment dose. Thus, breast cancer cells were more sensitive than colon cancer cells to Saussurea costus extract. The genotoxic potentialities of the crude extract showed increase in expression of proapoptotic genes; P53, IκBα, BAX and TNF and decrease in the expression of antiapoptotic genes; Bcl2, Survivin, and MMP-7. Conclusion: Our work pointed out that Saussurea lappa extract could be a potential candidate that has the capability to fight cancer.

Effect of Examination Stress and its Consequences in Dental Students

Bama Rajanayagam; Manikandan S; Selvaraj S; Bhuvaneswaran D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 748-754

Objective: Medical education being very arduous and laborious, students faces enormous stress during the course of education. It gets even worse as the exams progresses, which causes various mental and physiological changes affecting student’s health and their academic performances. The aim of the study was to find out the stress level in students by evaluating the salivary cortisol levels before written and oral exam respectively and comparing it with the salivary cortisol level after the exams are completed.
Study design:
Methods: In this study, 100 healthy individuals of first year dental students aged between 17 to 19 years were included. Salivary samples from the students were collected before the written exam and oral exam respectively and were considered to be samples during the stressful period. Likewise samples were collected from the same students a week after the completion of university exams and were considered as samples during their relaxed period. Both the samples, during stressful period and relaxed period were taken for cortisol analysis.
The cortisol level was found to be significantly increased in stressful period which is before both oral and written exams (P≤0.05*) compared to relaxed period which is after 
the completion of all the exams. A marked increase in cortisol secretion was found before oral exams (216.41±17.31) in comparison to the cortisol secretion before written exams (119±5.48) which could signify the severity of stress posed by the students before oral exams.
Conclusion: Examination is important and should be faced with a challenging spirit. If not it would affect the students both physically and psychologically causing anxiety and stress and
thereby affecting their performance.

Comparative Study On The Evaluation Of Cyclo Oxygenase 2 Expression On The Dysplastic And Non Dysplastic Oral Leisions By Immunohistochemistry.

Dr Rajalakshmi. G (MDS); Dr B S Sreenivasan( MDS); Dr Soma Susan Varghese (MDS); Dr Joseph Sebastian(MDS)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 755-767

Tumors of oral cavity are characteristically preceded by Potentially Malignant Disorders which may elucidate various morphological and histopathological changes, known as Oral Epithelial Dysplasia. Histopathological evaluation of dysplasia has greater variability and may not always predict the malignant transformation rates. Identification of molecular markers which can augment the diagnosis before the malignant transformation can increase the survival rates. Hence to ascertain the prognostic significance of OED, we designed a study evaluating the expression of COX 2, a novel marker in histopathological confined OED. Material and Methods: 20 cases of Oral epithelial dysplasia, 20 cases of gingivitis, 10 cases of normal mucosa and positive control (colon cancer) were studied for COX 2 IHC expression. COX-2 staining was evaluated based on the positive cells and staining intensity. Statistical Analysis: The statistical tests used in this study were t-test and Chi-square test using SPSS (version Interpretation and Result- In our study, COX 2 was significantly expressed on study group I, suggestive of its complementary roles during oral carcinogenesis. More over the expression of COX 2 was evident on all grades of dysplasia, even the mild dysplastic epithelium showed an increased staining intensity than a non-dysplastic lesion .Our findings indicate that COX 2 expression can be a specific marker for PMDs and can reduce the risk of developing malignancy. Our study also suggests classification of epithelial dysplasia to be tailored along with molecular alterations so that it reduces the incidence of disease progression and mortality

Prosthetic Knee Joint -A Survey And Using Reinforcement Learning For Natural Gait

Deepali Salwan; Shri Kant; Roopali S Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 768-776

Machine Learning has been an area of humungous research recently, nowadays reinforcement learning is being widely used in solving gaming problems and in other domains too. Prosthetic is one such field where Reinforcement Learning Algorithms take intelligent decisions and are being use to imitate natural human movement. Amongst these prosthetic devices is prosthetic knee where the patient/amputee always long for a natural gait. Prosthetic Knee is a replacement of a natural leg which is lost due to multiple reasons such as the diabetes, peripheral vascular diseases to name a few. Number of lives which is affected by amputation is huge. The amputee is not only deprived of physical capabilities, but psychological setback. With the advent of sensor driven devices which are personalized as per the users and Artificial Intelligence being use to develop real world applications, it is believed that human life will be easy. In this paper, a survey has been done on the work done until now in developing a prosthetic knee joint and a review is done as to how Reinforcement Learning is impacting lives and being used in real time applications and out the best performing agent for prosthesis.

The Role of HE4 in diagnosis and preoperative staging of epithelial ovarian cancer

Mohammad Fouad Taher , Iman Attia Abdelgawad, Mohamed Ahmed Fawzy ,Rasha Mahmoud Allam, Ahmed Mohamed Lymona , Maher Hasan Ibraheem

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 777-789

BACKGROUND: The goal was to evaluate human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosis and preoperative staging.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: All females presented in the period from 1/3/2018 to 1/3/2019 to the National Cancer Institute -Cairo University with an adnexal mass and had initial serum tumour marker levels and pathology documented. We collected Patients' data from hospital records. Statistical analysis and data correlations were done to compare HE4 with pathological type and stage and with other markers.
RESULTS: We included 111 females. Forty-five patients were diagnosed with EOC. Postmenopausal HE4 was statistically significant, with the area under curve (AUC) 0.711 and p-value 0.005.HE4 showed a sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 60 %, PPV of 83.3%, NPV of 56.3%, and total accuracy of 70.6% by using a cut-off value of 64.6 Pmol/L. For premenopausal women, HE4 was statistically insignificant. Higher levels of preoperative HE4 were associated with advanced stages of EOC (III, IV) more than early stages.
CONCLUSION: HE4 represents a promising marker of EOC. It does not show high levels in benign conditions. Preliminary results indicate that HE4 can play a role in the diagnosis and preoperative staging of EOC.

Effect of a Pedometer Based Aerobic Walking Program on Pain and Function among Elderly Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

Noha Fathy Shahine, Neamit Ibrahiem El Ashri , Mohammed Kamal Senna, and Soad Hassan Abd Elhameed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 790-799

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) contributes to disability more than other type of arthritis because it affects on the elderly patients' daily living activity level and increases the level of dependency on their caregivers. Walking is a simple and safe form of isotonic exercise that can be effectively used to decrease knee joint pain, enhance the joint function. Objective: evaluate the effect of aerobic walking program on pain and function of elderly patients with KOA. Methods: randomized control research design was used in this study. Purposive sample of the present study composed of 66 elderly patients of both sexes who met inclusion criteria and divided alternatively into two equal groups. Results: before the application of aerobic walking program the result indicates that, WOMAC average score in study group was 78.2±13 and for control group was 79±15.6 with no significant difference between both groups P= 0.609. After application of aerobic walking program, a significant improvement in mean total WOMAC score was found in study group (27.6±14.5) than control group (79.8±15.9) (P= 0.000). Conclusion: Based on findings of the current study, we can conclude that aerobic walking program was successful in improvement of function and decreasing knee pain.

Contasure-Needleless mini-sling for female stress urinary incontinence: a review of outcomes at 12 months Randomized control trial

Mohammed Hassan Elsayed Barakat, Walid Mohamed Elnagar, Abdalla Hassan Gad, Walid A. Abdelsalam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 800-806

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate Contasure-Needleless (C-NDL) technique in the surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI).
Methods: This prospective observational study was performed on 80 women with urodynamically proven pure SUI (40 underwent Contasure + 40 underwent TVT-O KIM®) at Zagazig university hospital, obstetrics and gynecology department from August 2017 till October 2020 ,then they had 12 months follow up with  9 drop out cases (4 in TVT-O group, 5 in C-NDL). Detailed history, investigations ,urodynamics and physical examination were done before. Contasure was implanted through small anterior vaginal wall incision to both obturator muscles. Postoperatively, we evaluated patients’ pain, status of continence, satisfaction rate.
For statistical analysis, we used the Statistical Packages for Software Sciences (SPSS) version 21.
Results:Mean age of patients was 45.9 &44.3  years old , BMI was 28. 1 & 27.8 kg/m ² in TVT-o & Contasure respectively. Mean operative time was 18.25 & 17.1 minutes, blood loss was estimated as 77.9 & 62.55 ml, there was statistically non-significant difference between two groups regarding presence of pain, urinary complications or dyspareunia in favor of Contasure. Both techniques have similar success rate
Success and satisfaction rates of Contasure mesh is hopeful without significant different lower complications ,but with higher cost 415$ versus 340$ KIM TOT . Furthermore, the procedure's efficacy holds encouraging results that need to be affirmed and tested by long-term outcomes

Trans-Tibial Pull-Out technique in repair of posterior root tear of medial meniscus

Mahmoud Ali Abdelazim, MD., Tarek Abdul Rahman Mohammed, MSc, Mahmoud Abdelbaset Hasan, Mostafa Mamdouh Meleegy, Mohamed Farouk Abdelghaffar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 807-813

Background: Damage to the medial meniscus root, destroyed knee to withstand hoop strain abilities,  came from increasing the contacting pressures and osteoarthritis progression and kinematic alterations. Many techniques were developed for repairing medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT), Available surgical techniques were proved to failed on reducing meniscus extrusion and associated with osteoarthritis developing, despite  improving  which observed in postoperative clinical were achieve. Technical Note was described as arthroscopic technique for the medial meniscus posterior root tear  and repair was augmented by centralization technique to restored and maintaining medial meniscus function by reduced meniscus extrusion.
Patients and Methods: Thirty patients presented with posterior root tear of medial meniscusmanaged arthroscopically by Trans-tibial pull-out technique.
Results: Between March 2018 and July 2019, 30 patients aged from 25-55 years, were operated, lysholm score increase from 56.5 ± 10.34 preoperative to 78.25 ± 7.13 after 3 months postoperative and increase to 89 ± 8.16 at last follow up visit.
Conclusion: Arthroscopic repairing  medial meniscus posterior root tears using Trans-osseous pull out sutures techniques showed significant improvement to the studied population in terms of functional knee scores (Lysholm and Tegner) and meniscal integrity.

The role of human resources in the success of sports investment in the Maysan Directorate of Youth and Sports

Dr. Hussein Karim Hassoun

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 814-826

The research included the introduction and its importance, and the researcher touched on the role of investment in human resources, and the importance of the research came in defining the role of sports investment in the Directorate of Youth and Sports in Maysan, in relation to the research problem. Activating the role of human resources in achieving investment in light of an analysis of strengths, weaknesses and opportunities that must be prepared for existence. I have worked to develop mechanisms to increase sports investment in the Youth and Sports Directorate in Maysan, so the researcher said I decided to study this problem and develop solutions to it. As for the fields of research, they included the human field, which represents members of the Premier League clubs in football and determines the temporal and spatial domain on the website of the Directorate of Youth and Sports in Maysan. The researcher used the descriptive approach, and the research sample consisted of (41) members from the Premier League football clubs, if the researcher used a scale (to invest human resources for the Youth and Sports Directorate in Maysan), and the (SPSS) system to obtain the results of the research, and the researcher concluded that a large proportion of The directorate’s research sample have positive opinions about human resources for sports investment in the Directorate of Youth and Sports in Maysan. The researcher recommended investment, which is the level of understanding demonstrated by the research sample of the role of the people in charge of sports.

The Effect of the Partial Method Using Aids to Learn and Improve the Technical Performance of the Three-Jump Event for Students

Dr. Hussein Nour Abbas , Dr. Mohammed Abdullah Muhaibis

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 827-833

Teaching methods and methods have had a great impact on improving the level of artistic performance and developing it for many sporting events, including athletics, which have received wide attention by researchers, because they promote hostility not only in terms of physical, but in psychological, social and health terms. in addition to as it occupies a prominent place in the Olympic Games and World Championships as it holds the largest number of medals. The triple jump event is one of the athletics activities that has received great attention in recent times, as learning and its various methods played an effective and essential role in developing the level of performance for this event. And modern learning methods have appeared, consistent with the nature of each activity. After the survey process of previous studies, it was found that there are many of them that dealt with different methods in many aspects of acquiring, mastering and developing learning, and the other side has dealt with other means and their relationship to kinetic achievement and the importance of the aids in improving the movements required to be performed to implement a specific activity as well as the methods and methods of learning and repetitions that are appropriate Its harmony with the effectiveness, capabilities, abilities and capabilities of the learners and their age stages within the time allocated for learning, so we must produce the learning process in the best way through creativity and innovation, this method depends on dividing the movement into main parts, then starts to teach each part separately, and after controlling All parts of the movement and the teacher confirmed that, here we wonder which part of the movement should we start with? To answer this question, we will review two methods for that: The first method: This method is represented by starting to teach the main and important part of the movement, then the less important parts, and so on. The second method: This method is based on starting to teach the parts according to their movement sequence. Hence the importance of the research in a scientific attempt that the researcher wishes to try through the effect of the partial method using the proposed means of assistance to create suitable educational conditions in order for the researcher to achieve the important and main factors for effective learning and to invest time and effort in accelerating the learning process.

Difficulties facing physical education teachers in Misan governorate schools

Hayder Abood Jabir, Mohammed Malik Saleem, Hasan Salim Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 834-845

The importance of the research lies in shedding light on the difficulties facing the physical education teacher. As for the research problem, it was summarized by the question about the possibility of meeting the physical education activities for the needs and desires of students in all educational stages in Misan governorate, and the aim of the research is to identify many of the difficulties facing physical education teachers, which are It is considered a challenge factor facing teachers in their schools, and its repercussions on students of public schools affiliated to Misan Governorate and the proposed solutions. A random sample was selected consisting of (240) Physical education teachers.

A Novel Fuzzy Knowledge Based Glaucoma System for Diabetic Retinopathy using Vessel Extraction from Fundus Images

R Karthikeyan; Mr. V.R.Sathish Kumar; Dr.V. Balamurugan; Ms. M. ShanmugaPriya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 846-855

The fuzzy knowledge based on the glaucoma will be designed for the working location of the
private opthomoligist. The status of various circumstances of the patient’s will be implemented
by a modular decision method with help of monitor detection. The modular decision technique
will consist of fuzzy standards and neural classifiers. This technique can able to process the
perimetry and fundus images. The diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a one mode of diabetes
complication and it will have strong impact on the eyes of a human body. This disease will be
caused by destruct to the blood vessels at the retina. Initially the diabetic retinopathy may not
have any symptoms and it just causes a little vision issue. The diabetic retinopathy will have
different treatments like intravitreal clinical treatment and sutureless standards plana
vitrectomy. These treatments will provide a great relief to the disease related to eyes. The
vessel extraction approach dependent on image improvement procedures and
individualgrouping strategies incorporate fuzzy technique. The photographicof the rear eye
will be called as fundus images. The vessel extraction from retinal fundus images will able to
determine the various ophthalmologic sicknesses like diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and
hypertension. It is a difficult challenge because of presence of various noises embedded with
thin vessels. In this paper, the visibility issue of the eye will be detected based on fuzzy
knowledge using glaucoma and will capture the fundus images with help of the process of
vessel extraction.


Vibin chandar; Dr. Krishnapriya . V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 856-865

The rapid growth of genomics and proteomics in science has led to the
exponential development of information that requires a complex computational analysis to
find details. Review of statistical science or bioinformatics using knowledge mining centres
using bioinformatics to resolve a range of certifiable problems in the field of medical services.
Breast cancer malignant growth is the second most deadly form of disease that causes a
woman to die. Numerous experts have led to the early detection, visualisation and improved
management of malignancy in the breast cancer over the last 20 years, contributing to a
reduction in the rate of death. However the problem of malignancy in the breast
cancer remains concerning and requires further study in the territory of the development of
locations and forecasts other than treatment methods. This article explore the present
situation with the technique of estimating breast cancer disease status, which includes the
study on breast cancer malignancy, breast cancer, the prediction of the risk of malignant
growth, and the prediction of survival for breast cancer disease.

Development of Smart Health Monitoring System

D.S. Dayana; G. Kalpana; D. Godwin Immanuel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 866-874

In the last few eras the humanity has witnessed an increase in visiting and downloading of
fitness applications. The theme of this project is to provide every possible tool which can be
helpful for Ones fitness journey. This app is used to track the fitness level of a person. It
shows user the holistic view of their health so that they never lose the track of their fitness.
This app is having certain options through which user can keep check on their fitness. It
can be used to track user’s progress by keeping check on their weight and their Calorie
Intake. This app will let user calculate BMI, BMR, calorie requirement and accordingly
provide meal plan and workout plan. There are researches and studies are going on
every day on various aspects of fitness, healthy living and diet. This app is also having a
discussion forum where people can post about various researches and their personal
health issues which can be resolved in the further posts.


Dr. D. Brindha; N.R. Deepa; Dr.Y. BabyKalpana; Dr.K. Murugan; Dr.A. Devipriya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 875-891

Segmentation of Spinal Cord (SC) part has a major role in assessing spinal cord atrophy.
Spinal Cord segmentation is not similar to that of brain segmentation, although Magnetic Resonance
Imaging (MRI) sequence are greatly deployed for spinal cord examination. There is always a great
challenge in spinal cord MRI segmentation which has been investigated by many researches. Also,
considerable accuracy and degree of complexity for segmentation have been presented and elucidated in
prevailing researches. A new approach namely combining Iterative Random-Walk (RW) solver and a
Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) has been suggested, thus facilitating direct homogenous and
heterogeneous SC measurements comparison. An interactive RW solver with CSA is greatly utilized for
complete cascaded pipelining in automatic manner. The initialization of automatic segmentation pipeline is
done through powerful voxelwise classification via Online Kernel Learning (OKL) classifier. Therefore,
SC topology refinement is done iteratively along with cascading of RW-CSA solvers for attaining proper
segmentation outcomes in less iteration, even for cases including bone fractures and lesions. The
segmentation experimental outcome mainly relies on MRI images indicating achievement of improved
accuracy when compared with prevailing approaches


Neelam Sharma; Rahul Boadh; Ravendra Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 892-914

The present study has been conducted for analysis the performance of five dissimilar
Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) parameterizations schemes [Mellor-Yamada-Janjic
(MYJ), Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN), Asymmetric Convective Model
(ACM2), Yonsei University (YSU) and Quasi Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE)] in the
WRF model (version 4.1) over a tropical site Gurugram (28.4595° N, 77.0266° E). January
(winter), April (summer), August (monsoon) and November (post monsoon) have been
used as season’s representative month in the present study according to India
Meteorological Department (IMD). The five days (12-17, 2017) in each study month have
beencarefully chosen as non-synoptic activity days (clear weather days) for reproduction
and identification of vertical variables as well as meteorological variables from WRF with
high resolution (3 km in inner most domain) and 31 vertical levels. For the model
validation, the meteorological variables observation during the study period collated from
near airport station and upper radiosonde observations obtained from University of
Wyoming ( carefully examination,
it has been originated that many parameters well performed by YSU and YSU followed by
MYJ and ACM2 schemes produced better comparisons with observations.A statistical
investigationcreatedby using four different errors methods such as correlation coefficient,
mean bias, root mean square and mean bias exposedfinestpresentation of YSU tracked by
MYJ and ACM2 schemesfor integrating various vertical thermal structure parameters over
Gurugram. Within the restrictions, this study advised that YSU trailed by one non-local
ACM2 and one local MYJ schemes PBL turbulent dispersal parameterizations of weather
research model are suitable over Gurugram.


M. Deepa; Dr.P. Sumitra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 915-922

Data mining is now used by many institutions widely and generally. Intrusion detection
for network operators & security specialists is one of the top priorities and challenges.
Sensitive data, anonymity and device availability from attacks are protected by the Intrusion
detection system. In order to describe resources from those in the database through a network,
IDS uses data mining techniques. A robust algorithm must also be built to produce successful
rules for the detection of attacks. In this paper, optimization algorithms focused on
classification were used to detect attacks over the NSL KDD dataset. Depending on this
stranglehold, the current method is explained an improved Hoeffiding Induction Tree
algorithm to resolve the drawbacks. The results demonstrate that the proposed HITNB
algorithm has improved precision, a lower alarm rate and the ability to detect a new type


L. Sheeba; Dr.V.S. Meenakshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 923-937

Sybil attack is the most threatened issues found in the network which will cause
consumption of more network spaces. Preventing the Sybil attack is difficult task where
every fake identity generated by the attacker will looks like genuine id to the other nodes.
In our previous work Sybil attack detection is performed through presenting an approach
named Latency and Power aware Reliable Intrusion Detection System (LP-RIDS).
However, this methodology failed in preventing Sybil attack occurrence which is focused in
this work. In this work, Sybil attack prevention is ensured by introducing Privacy
concerned Anonymous Authentication Method (PAAM). In this work, secondary cluster
head selection is accomplished through Hybrid genetic with ACO algorithm. Here the
secondary cluster head selection is done with the concern of higher energy value. The node
that have energy lesser than threshold will not be considered for the Sybil node attack
detection. And then anonymous authentication is performed to detect the Sybil attack. This
is done by initializing the registration phase where all cluster members will share their
temporal identity with the cluster head. Here temporal identity is generated randomly by
each cluster member which is not possible to guess by other nodes. By using this temporal
identity cluster head will generate the secret key which will be divided into two shares.
Here first share will be given to the corresponding cluster member and second share will
be given to the secondary cluster head. Thus no node can identify the privacy information
of other users. This secret information will be utilized for the authentication process.
Secondary cluster head will verify the cluster members at the time of data communication
with the help of first share of secret key. This research method avoids the Sybil attack
presence accurately. NS2 is greatly utilized in this research for validating the proposed
techniques which offers better result when compared with prevailing work.
The overall implementation of the research work is done in the NS2 from which it is
proved that the proposed techniques tends to provide better outcome than existing work.


Sree Rajeswari; Dr.M. Rajalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 938-957

In image search re-ranking, a major problem restricting the image retrieval
development is a intent gap, which is a gap between user’s real intent and query/demand
representation, besides well-known semantic gap. In the past, for achieving effective web
image retrieval, classifier space or feature space is explored at a time by researchers. Visual
information and images initial ranks with single feature are only considered in conventional
re-ranking techniques for measuring typicality and similarity in web image retrieval, while
overlooking click-through data influence. For image retrieval, various image features
aggregation shows its effectiveness in recent days. But, uplifting the best features impact for a
specific query image presents a major challenge in computer vision problem. In this paper,
Weight based Multi-Feature Fusion (WMFF) is fused by Improved Artificial Bee Colony
(IABC) for presenting a re-ranking algorithm to retrieve web image. Based on web query,
features are assigned with weights, where different weights are received by different queries in
ranked list. IABC algorithm used to compute weights is a data-driven algorithm and it does
not require any learning. At last, in a web, color and texture features are fused using fusion
and these features are extracted with respective modalities. A Semi-supervised Consensus
Clustering re-ranking with click-based similarity and typicality procedure termed as SCCCST
is used in re-ranking technique. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier with Multiple
Kernel Learning (CNN-MKL) is used here for performing click-based similarity. Its operation
is depends on selection of click-based triplet’s and a classifier is used for integrating multiple
features into a unified similarity space. The web image search re-ranking performance is
greatly enhanced using proposed technique.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 956-969

In software engineering, Detection of software root cause failure is a considerable issue to be resolved for increasing the reliability. Few research works are introduced for predicting the software failure causes with help of diverse classification algorithm. However, False Positive Rate (FPR) of failure detection process was higher. Therefore, a novel software failure cause prediction model called Adaptive Dimensional Particle Swarm Optimization Based Hyper Basis Function Neural Network (ADPSO-HBFNN) Model is proposed to increase the software reliability through predicting the root cause of software failure at an early stage. ADPSO-HBFNN Model initially gets number of event log files as input. Next, ADPSO-HBFNN Model applies Hyper Basis Function Neural Networks (HBFNNs) for discovering the software fault root cause by means of classifying the event log files. Subsequently, ADPSO-HBFNN Model applies Adaptive Dimensional Search Based Particle Swarm Optimization (ADS-PSO) algorithm where it considers the cost sensitive factor such as expected cost of software failure misclassification. The ADS-PSO algorithm lessen mean square error (MSE) during the learning process by optimizing the weights of network. From that, ADPSO-HBFNN Model correctly find outs the root cause of software failure with higher accuracy. Simulation outcome of ADPSO-HBFNN Model increase the accuracy and lessen time required for software fault root cause prediction as compared to conventional works. 


Manoj Prabhakar; Preethi Murali; Sivapathasundharam B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 978-985
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.98

Disaster is an event of serious magnitude causing severe damage to life and property. It could be natural, accidental, industrial or man-made. Mass disaster management comprises a team of civil and medical experts who are responsible for investigation and identification of the remains. The central role played by the forensic odontologistin victim identification has changed in recent years, due to the advancement in the field with improved chances of victims being identified beyond recognition. The role of the forensic odontologist includes criminal investigation using bite marks, ante-mortem and post-mortem dental records and DNA analysis using saliva. Recent molecular biological method like dental DNA fingerprinting has taken forensic dental investigation a step ahead in the ladder of victim identification. Even though the role of a forensic odontologist is highlighted in many domains and researches, under whom are they organised and when are they invited in the scene, remains uncertain for a medical/dental professional. This review will therefore provide an ‘eye of a needle’ perspective about the position of forensic odontologist in Disaster Victim Identification team and their significant role played during any such event. 


Fabiola M. Dhanaraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 986-990
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.99

Corona virus hit the world by January 2020, after which it slowly started to lurk into India by March 2020. This sudden catastrophe started to take a big toll of lives all over the world and had the same effect in India also. The enormous numbers of patients getting admitted were massive and at the same time, the patients recovering were also inversely proportionate. The patients were being diagnosed, and some of them were admitted in the hospitals and the others were advised to being quarantined at home, as there was no space in the hospitals. The stress of being diagnosed positive for corona virus can bring lots of unresolved conflicts for any human.  These clients had a very poor mental state. They had symptoms of loneliness, depression, fear and anxiety about the outcome of the disease. A registry was maintained in a hospital for such clients and they were counselled through their mobiles. The process was challenging and a mind-blowing experience for the counsellor.


Sanjay Sundararajan; Janani Jayapal; Srinivasan Boovaraghavan; R. Devaki Vijayalakshmi; Ratna Parameswaran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 991-1001
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.100

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate maxillary and mandibular skeletal changes, and OP inclination changes in combined surgical-orthodontically treated patients skeletal class III patients by Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy setback. Further analyze the variations of OP inclination related to functionality, esthetics, and subset-based dentition analysis, and analyze the correlation between skeletal and Occlusal plane parameters.
Methods: A research for the pre besides post treatment cephalograms in patients with a mean age of 23± 2.7 years who met the requirements for inclusion was conducted.  The skeletal and occlusal plane parameters were mapped and calculated using the programme of Ilexis, (Sweden) FACAD AB-2017 Version 3.9.0.  To compare the variables between occlusal parameters and skeletal pre in addition post treatment the opposite t-test was used.  The Correlations between skeletal parameters and occlusal plane variables were determined with the bivariate correlation coefficient.
Results: The results show a very high statistically significant increase in the FOP and BOP. However, based on the inclination changes of OP related to subset dentitions, the maxillary dentition shows no significant changes. The inclination of OP related to mandibular subset dentition shows significant changes. The correlation analysis reveals a skeletal parameter of the inclination of the mandible relates to the changes in the inclination of OP.
Conclusion: The surgical-orthodontic approach involving BSSO setback resulted in a significant change concerning the occlusal lane inclination.


Anitha C; Senthamarai S; Sivasankari S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1002-1014
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.101

Detection of biofilm, slime and motility patterns in Pseudomonas spp. can be valuable in empathetic the virulence of the creature. Here studies on the phenotypic methods of biofilm production, slime production and the motility patterns exhibited in 69 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and 2 environmental isolates were performed. Nineteen strains produced biofilm in which 6 were from HIV and 13 were from Non-HIV patients. All the 19 isolates positive for biofilm production were taken for detection of biofilm genes by PCR. The gene coding for alkaline protease aprA gene was detected in 13 (68.42%) isolates. The gene for phenazine biosynthesis phzA1 gene was detected in 14 isolates. The house keeping gene acpP was found to be positive for 18 (94.7%) isolates. 48 isolates were found positive for slime production. Pellicle formation was positive in 39 isolates. Swarming motility was positive in 42 isolates 29 were from HIV and 11 were from Non-HIV. Swimming motility was exhibited in 31 isolates. Twitching motility was exhibited in 35 isolates. The 2 environmental isolates were found to be positive only for slime production, swarming, and swimming motility. Among the clinical isolates, HIV isolates showed high production of slime, pellicle and positivity for the motility patterns seemed to be high in HIV compared to Non-HIV isolates except for the biofilm production which is high in Non-HIV isolates.


B. Sabarinath; Preethi Sundaraman; B. Sivapathasundharam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1015-1019
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.102

Background: Tissues are fixed and preserved and protected from putrefaction and autolysis before routine histopathological or cytological examination. Ethanol is commonly used as a cytological fixative due to its better preservation of nuclear details. Honey, a natural product which possess antibacterial; acidic; dehydrative properties which classify it as fixative than a preservative. Aim:The aim of this study is to compare ethanol with honey as a cytological fixative. Materials and Methods: Smear samples of buccal mucosa from patients submitted to the Outpatient Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, were included in the study group. The study consisted of two groups. Group I that used alcohol as the fixative comprising of 30 smear samples and Group II that used 10% honey to fix 30 smear samples.A double-blind study was conducted. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test was the statistical method applied for the study using SPSS software (Version 17). Result: The results are discussed. Conclusion: Honey can be used asan alternate fixative to alcohol in cytopathology.


S. Sivasankari; S. Senthamarai; C. Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1020-1024
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.103

Viral infection like Hepatitis B is a major global health issue and also for death it is a
leading cause.[1] Over 1,00,000 die annually because of the disease related with Hepatitis B
infection and in India Hepatitis B carries about 40 millions [2]. Employees in health care are at
higher risk of exposure to infection by percutaneous injury (e.g. needle stick, cut with sharps) [3]
HBV workplace exposure rises in millions of health care personnel and it is estimated that they
experience from 600,000 to 8, 00,000 cut and puncture injuries every year [4]. Since blood
contains the highest HBV titres and acts as an essential mode of virus transmission in people
who are not vaccinated. The illness can be spread even after a single incident of needle stick
infection and even 0.00001 ml of blood [5]. The seroprevalence of HBV in health care
professionals are four times higher than the general public. While it is a transmissible virus, it is
also one of the diseases preventable by full vaccination.[6]


Sivasankari. S; Senthamarai. S; Anitha. C; Akila. K; Sijimol .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1025-1030
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.104

Background: One of the public health threats in India is intestinal infections. Transmission by fruit, water, nails and fingers of intestinal parasites and enter opathogenic bacteria happens either directly or indirectly. These diseases endanger hospitalised patients and patients with immune defects. In our hospital, the present research was conducted to investigate the incidence of entry opathogenic bacterial infection in food service institution areas among food handlers.
Materials and methods: This analysis was carried out by 62 food handlers working in different food facilities (male 28, female 34). Using sterile cotton tipped swabs; swabs from both hands (palm, swabs, underneath, finger nails) were obtained from each subject. A clean big mouthed tub of all 62 participants gathered freshly passed stool samples. After 24 hours, all the plates were inspected and marked with a test script according to normal protocol. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococus aureus was conducted according to CLSI guidelines using cefoxitin disc 30μg and ESBL detection.
Result: Among the 62 food handlers, males were 28 and females were 34 out of 62 samples, 47 (74.80%) samples had growth. Females 32 (51.61%) were found to be more infected and the age group between 18 – 30 yrs. Among 62 samples 15 had no growth, 39 had a single bacterial growth. Staphylococcus aureus 21 (33.87%) is the predominant isolate among gram positive organisms. E.coli 34 (54.83%) was the predominant isolate among gram negatives. No enteropathogenic bacteria like salmonella, shigella grown in culture. None of the Staphylococci isolates were MRSA positive,  and ESBL producing organisms like E.coli &klebsiella were positive  6 (17.6%)  & 2 ( 7.40%) respectively. All the food handlers positive for bacterial growth were appropriately treated and health education given.  Repeat swab culture from all the food handlers were done after 6 weeks and it showed negative.
Conclusion:  In order to control intestinal diseases, proper personal hygiene and productive means of educating all workers, stringent infection control policies and daily monitoring are very important.


Saravanan Pushparajan; C. Burnice Nalina Kumari; Pradeep Devadoss; T. Ramakrishnan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1031-1036
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.105

Gingival recession has anatomical, physiologic, or pathological causative factors apart from a 17% lack of etiology. Although surgical techniques are available in plenty for the root coverage procedures, choice of technique often influences successful outcome. Buccal pad of fat for root coverage (a specialized adipose and well-vascularized tissue) is a nuovo not yet popular technique for regenerative procedures as root coverage in severe recession defects, especially in the maxillary posterior region of the oral cavity. In this case report root coverage procedure using pedicled buccal pad of fat in Miller’s Class III recession on the maxillary posterior teeth is performed


kavitha L; Kavitha B; Sivapathasundharam B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1037-1044
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.106

Sebaceous glands are exocrine glands that constitute an integral part of the skin. Ectopic sebaceous glands commonly seen in the buccal mucosa and the lateral part of the vermillion border of the lips in the oral cavity are called fordyce granules and are observed in 80% of the population. Sebaceous elements in odontogenic cysts are relatively rare. Pluripotency of odontogenic epithelium explains the concurrent occurrence of sebaceous glands with odontogenic cystic lesions. A case report of orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst with sebaceous differentiation in a 24-year-old male patient is discussed in this article with emphasis on histogenesis, literature review and differential diagnosis.


Selvakumar Jayaraman; Jaideep Mahendra; Little Mahendra; Shruthi Chandrasekaran; Revathi Kasturi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1045-1052
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.107

Geriodontology refers to the field of dentistry that mainly encompasses diagnosis, treatment and prevention of oral diseases and conditions in the elderly individuals. With increasing life expectancy attributed to the developments in the field of medicine, there is concomitant increase in the comorbidities and complications in the older population. In the dental perspective, increased attrition of teeth, xerostomia induced dental caries, chronic periodontal diseases and partial edentulousness are the most frequently encountered problems. The management in these instances requires additional considerations, keeping in mind the presence or absence of other systemic diseases, age and the social and environmental factors. In order to provide efficient treatment and also to encourage their constant maintenance protocols,a multimodal treatment planning has to be designed and dentists must be specifically educated and specialised in dealing with the geriatric patients. This review paper highlights the various aspects on periodontal management of geriatric patients with few futuristic suggestions in order to improve their oral healthcare in this phase of life.


B. Sivapathasundharam; Protyusha Guha Biswas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1053-1063
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.108

Stereognosis refers to the ability to identify and discriminate the form of an object solely based on the sensation of touch. Similarly, oral stereognosis is the capability of an individual to discern the form and shape of an object inside their oral cavity without any visual assistance. The oral stereognostic ability evaluates the oral functioning of an individual and also determines the response of patients towards various dental therapies. This is accomplished by the association of more than one group of mechanoreceptors that are located on several oral structures. Oral streognostic testing greatly depends on the design of the experiment, since both the method and the material used for this kind of studies dramatically influences its result. The subject of oral stereognosis is closely linked with the overall oral health of an individual and their treatment per se, and needs wide exploration. This review is thus an attempt to comprehend the various aspects of oral stereognosis and provide clearer guidelines for further research in this field.


Sankaralingam P; Parthasarathy M.P; ThulasiRaman D; ArulVignesh .; Aravind MC; Vijay MSV

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1064-1074
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.109

Background: Total knee replacement has arisen, with outstanding pain relief and work, as a safe, longer-lasting form of knee arthroplasty. The goal of this research was to examine the therapeutic, functional and radiological aspects of complete knee replacement with Buechel-Pappas knee Prosthesis for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Material and Methods:
Material: Buechal Pappas spinning bearing prothesis was implanted in all the surgeries.
Method: The study is a prospective study in which the Meenakshi Medical College& Research Institute from OCT 2016 to SEP 2018 included patients over 50 years of age who have primary knee osteoarthritis and those with rheumatoid arthritis knee who do not respond to conservative treatment. Both cases were implanted with Complete knee arthroplasty using the Buechel Pappas implant Distance balance procedure above the age range of 50yrs. Both patients have cases that do not lead to conservative management. Serious brain defects, poliomyelitis with muscle weakness, or knee joint sepsis were omitted from the study. The study involved 45 total knee replacements. Initially, both patients were judged by the American Knee Society Ranking. To come to a conclusion, pre and post-operative scores were compared.
Results: In the American knee society ratings, there was a major change. The pre-operative average score was 27.44 and the post-operative score was 91.5. After the TKR, there was a 70% increase in the ratings. The average functional preoperative score was 34.6 and the postoperative score was 83.5, indicating a functional score improvement of 80 percent after TKR.
Conclusions: Total knee arthroplasty with Buechel-Pappas knee resulted in an increase in the patient's functional capacity to return to the pre-disease state, as demonstrated by the post-op society score improvement.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1075-1082
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.110

The goal of the random group experimental research was to figure out the impact of yoga therapy on the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of asthmatic adult women and stress. For the purposes of the study, 30 adult asthmatic women were randomly selected using the Chennai random group sampling method between the ages of 45 and 55 and were divided into two groups, A and B, each with 15 subjects. It was speculated that substantial discrepancies within the control group on selected physiological and psychological variables among asthmatic adult women would occur due to Yoga Therapy. The pre-test on the chosen physiological variable such as Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and psychological variable such as Stress before the start of the training program was conducted for both groups (A and B).Yoga Therapy was given to Group A; Group B (Control Group) received no specific treatment, but were in active rest after the trial duration of eight weeks, all groups were retested on the selected dependent variables. The dependent variables tested were measured and compared using the Study of Co-variance (ANCOVA) approach to figure out the essential variations between the classes. The importance test has been set at a confidence level of 0.05. There was a major increase in the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and depression after eight weeks of yoga therapy. Group A remained significantly relevant relative to Group B at the conclusion of the intervention; it is concluded that yoga therapy had a significant impact among asthmatic adult women on physiological and psychological variables. Yoga therapy is therefore useful in increasing the Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and overcoming stress for asthmatic adult women.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1083-1089
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.111

Introduction: The role of Color Doppler USG and MRA in the evaluation of extracranial carotid arteries in stroke patients and to detect the atherosclerotic plaque and to characterize the atherosclerotic plaque with the help of Doppler ultrasound and MRA is described in this purpose of study.

Materials and Methods: NASCET Grading of percentage of stenosis, Doppler ultrasound was done and compared with MR Angiography TOF sequence and IV contrast in detection of plaque, plaque characterization and percentage of stenosis.

Results: Males are seen to be affected grossly more than females. Systemic hypertension is found to be the most common risk factor associated with stroke and the least was found to be ischemic heart disease. The right side is seen to be more commonly affected by atheromatous plaque followed by left side, with less bilateral involvement. ICA was found to be the most commonly involved site. Most of the cases had no significant stenosis, only few cases showed significant stenosis with hemodynamic changes. Homogenous soft plaques were found to be common than calcified and ulcerated plaques.
Conclusion: Both modalities of ultrasound and MR Angiography the advantage of endarterectomy in symptomatic patients is clearly seen with more percentage of stenosis.  In combination with MRI, Doppler USG has shown to be a safer, non-invasive and precise way of diagnosing and measuring an extracranial component of carotid disease and thereby helping to accurately treat it.


M. Subha; S. Murugesan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1090-1095
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.112

To access the influence of the yogic behaviours of Low density lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein random group laboratory study was accessed which is the aim.  Using the Chennai random sampling group method 30 middle aged hypersensitive women were randomly selected in the age group of 35-45 years which were further divided into two groups of 15 participants, I and II. In hypertensive middle aged women than in control group low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) have been predicted for important differences in selected biochemical variables.  Before the launch of the training programme a preliminary test for two types of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was performed. Yogic practice for 60 minutes, 6 days a week for a total period of eight weeks were given to Group I subjects.  For group II (Control Group) there was an active resting place.  On the same selected dependent variables after the experimental period the two groups were retested again.  Between the experimental group and the control group to determine the important discrepancies the study of (ANCOVA) was used.  The significance test was set at a degree of confidence of 0.05.  Due to the Yogic behaviours among hypertensive middle aged people such as Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) the experimental group showed important differences on selected biochemical variables which was revealed by the study.


K.K. Indulekha; R. Elangovan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1096-1102
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.113

The aim of the experimental random group research was to establish the influence of Condensed Kundalini Yoga on systolic blood pressure and blood sugar among sedentary middle-aged women. Because of Simplistic Kundalini Yoga on anxiety among middle-aged sedentary women, it was hypothesised that there would be substantial discrepancies from the control group. For the purposes of the research, 30 middle-aged sedentary women were randomly selected using Chennai's random sampling group design between the ages of 40 and 50 and were divided into two groups, A and B, each of 15 subjects. For the two classes (A and B), a pre-test was performed on the chosen dependent variable prior to the start of the training programme. Simplified Kundalini Yoga was given to Group A; Group B (Control Group) did not undergo any special care, but was in active repose. The two classes (A and B) were retested on the same preferred dependent variable after an experimental period of eight weeks. The values for systolic blood pressure and blood sugar (fasting) were reported. Co-variance analysis (ANCOVA) was used to assess the relevant distinctions between the experimental group and the control group. The significance test was set at a degree of trust of 0.05. It was concluded that among middle-aged sedentary women, Simplistic Kundalini Yoga reduced Systolic blood pressure and blood sugar(Fasting). The theory was therefore agreed at a degree of confidence of 0.05.


B. Shalini; R. Elangovan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1103-1109
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.114

To determine the effectiveness of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Testosterone yoga therapy in adult women the random group experimental research was the main goal. Thirty adult women between the ages of 20 and 35 years were randomly chosen using the Chennai random sampling group method for the purpose of study and were split into two groups, I and II, of 15 subjects each. It was hypothesised that the physiological and hormonal variables chosen, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and testosterone, will vary substantially from the control group among adult people. Before the start of the training programme, a preliminary evaluation for two classes on Body Mass Index (BMI) and testosterone was carried out. Community I subjects earned 60 minutes of yoga practise, 6 days a week for a cumulative duration of eight weeks. Group II (Control Group) had an active resting place. After the experimental period, the two groups were retested on the same selected dependent variables again. The study of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to determine the important discrepancies between the experimental group and the control group. The significance test was set at a degree of trust of 0.05. The research findings found that the Intervention Group showed substantial variations between adult women with PCOS compared to the Placebo Group attributable to yoga therapy on selected biochemical and hormonal factors such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and testosterone. The theory was agreed at a confidence level of 0.05. It is also concluded that yoga therapy is effective in preserving a stable body mass index (BMI) and testosterone amount for adult women with PCOS.


T. Sujatha; R. Elangovan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1110-1117
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.115

The purpose of scientific study by a random sample was to figure out the impact of yogic practices among obese adult women on selected physiological variables. For the purpose of the research, 30 obese adult women residing in Chennai City between the ages of 25 and 35 years were randomly selected from 15 subjects in two categories, experimental group I and group II, using a random sampling group method. It was speculated that there will be substantial variations in selected physiological variables such as Systolic Blood Pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI) relative to the control group owing to yogic practices among obese adult people. For this analysis, the training time was eight weeks. Experimental group-I had yogic practice in the morning, for an hour, six days a week. Community II was held in successful repose. For all the participants, the pre-test and post-test were done before and after the testing. Study of Co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the data to figure out the essential variations between the groups. The significance test was set at a degree of trust of 0.05. Because of yogic meditation on chosen physiological factors such as the index of body mass (BMI) and the control group among obese adult women, the findings revealed that there were substantial variations. It was concluded that as compared to Group II on physiological variables such as Systolic Blood Pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI) in obese adult people, there was a positive influence on yogic practices and the result was agreed at a level of confidence of 0.05. It was concluded that yogic activities are required to maintain a healthy weight and blood pressure for obese adult people.


K. J. Sridevi; R. Elangovan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1118-1124
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.116

The aim of the random group experimental research was to figure out the impact of yogic practices on teenage stressed girls' body mass index (BMI) and stress. For the purpose of the study, 30 stressed adolescent girls were chosen randomly using random sampling group method They came from Chennai between the ages of 14 and 18, and were split into two classes, I and II, each with 15 subjects. It was hypothesized that there will be substantial variations in physiological and psychological factors such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and Depression in the teenage depressed girls than in the control group. Preliminary test was conducted for two Groups on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Stress before the start of the training program. Group I subjects were given Yogic practices for 60 minutes, 6 days a week  for a total period of eight weeks. Group II (Control Group) were in active rest. After the experimental period, the two groups were retested again on the same dependent variables. Co-variance analysis (ANCOVA) was used to assess the relevant distinctions between the experimental group and the control group. The significance test was set at a degree of trust of 0.05. The results of the study proved that the Experimental Group showed significant differences on selected physiological and psychological variables such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and Stress than the Control Group due to Yogic practices among adolescent stressed girls. The theory was agreed at a confidence level of 0.05. Therefore it is concluded that teenage girls benefit from Yogic activities to sustain a balanced Body Mass Index (BMI) and to overcome stress.


Swapna C Senan; Anitha C; Sarala Gopalakrishnan; Dinesh Roy D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1125-1132
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.117

An increased complication rate during or after pregnancy and birth leads to a condition known to the mother or child when High Risk Pregnancy (HRP) and may be for both. An attempt was made here to find the role of TORCH infection in high-risk pregnant women; oxidative stress and somatic DNA damage, leading to congenital anomalies(CAs).The patients were referred from various infertility clinics and maternity centers of Kerala to Advanced Genetic Study Centre (Genetika), Trivandrum, Kerala. Study population includes 170 study subjects and 105 healthy controls. Blood sample was collected for TORCH IgG (ELISA), oxidative stress evaluation (Malondialdehyde by thibarbituric acid assay) and somatic DNA damage (CBMN assay). Among 275 subjects, 170 (61.81%) had the history of high-risk pregnancy with a mean age of 35.65±6.30 years. The control group included 105 women with previous normal pregnancy with a mean age of 34.03±6.10 years. TORCH infections had a significant role in HRP (p-value<0.001). Study group population showed a mean MDA value of 2.95 ± 2.09 and that of control group was1.67 ± 0.70. The mean value of CBMN frequency was 12.44 ± 1.01 in study subjects and that of controls was 9.98 ± 0.58. Study group showed a higher CBMN frequency and MDA value than control group. Proper diagnosis and intervention during early stage can be done by routinely screening of sample for TORCH agents, oxidative stress and somatic DNA damage even if the case is asymptomatic which shows high risk in postnatal periods. This can manage and reduce adverse foetal outcomes efficiently, thus reducing morbidity and mortality.


M. Bhuvaneswari; Preetha Chaly Elizabeth; J. E. Nijesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1133-1140
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.118

Aim:To assess the effectiveness of Triphala against gingivitis and periodontitis. Triphala is a mixture of three myrobalans known as Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), Terminalia chebula (Haritaki)
Methods: A search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus database was conducted.
Results: Triphala possess varying therapeutic potentials. Particularly antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, anti collagenase and anti oxidant properties are of greater importance in dentistry. Various studies show that Triphala is equally as effective as a standard chemotherapeutic agent that is chlorhexidine in treatment and prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis respectively.
Conclusion: Triphala can be a promising therapeutic agent in treatment of gingivitis and peridontitis with no side effects on long term use.


RoopaRechal. T; P.Rajesh Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1156-1167

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a sort of developmental issue of the
nervous system, with center impedances in social connections, creative mind,
communications, adaptability of thought,intrigue andrestricted range of activities.
Examination of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals based on autism is explored in
this work. Even so, it is critical to identify autism by the analysis of the EEG signal.
Hence feature extraction based on the EEG signals takes part a prominent role in
autism recognition. A practical feature extraction technique variational mode
decomposition (VMD) to diagnose autism is narrated in this paper. Further, the features
extracted are fed to classifiers ANN, KNNand SVM to stratify autism.SVM classifier
shows a finer classification performance when compared to extant techniques


J Sujithra; M Ferni Ukrit

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1168-1183

Almost all over the world, the economy mainly depends on the production of food.
Computer vision technology plays a pivotal role in the field of agriculture. The dream of this
research is to produce successful crops in the agricultural sector. Successful farming can
increase crop production in terms of both quality and quantity. The farming performs eight
major phases which begin from crop selection to harvesting. At any of these phases, the
disease and pest may destroy plants. However, the leaves are found to be the most damaged
part in disease identification. A lot of articles are taken out for the survey that endorses the
mechanism of image processing and deep learning for the detection and classification of
diseases from the crop leaves. This survey provides an overview of the pros and cons of all
such articles on various research aspects. The effectiveness of state-of-the-art methods is
explored to identify the techniques that seem to work well across different crops. This paper
indicates that algorithms like Support Vector Machine and Neural Network play an important
role in the crop disease identification and classification.


Happy Kurnia P; Dhanang Puruhita T R; Muhammad Nazhif H; Rizq Threevisca C

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1184-1197

Eugenol is a phenylpropanoid group compound found in cloves, nutmeg,
cinnamon, and bay leaves. Apart from being used as a cosmetic, perfume, and food
ingredient, eugenol is known to have an antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and
anti-cancer profile. Eugenol has therapeutic potential by increasing reactive oxygen
species formation, decreasing anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, increasing the release of
cytochrome c that leads to apoptosis in cancer cells, and inhibit the epithelial to
mesenchymal transition (EMT) process that could reduce the cell ability to migrating.
We synthesized eugenol loaded chitosan nanoparticles (Nano-EU) by ionic gelation
method to overcome its shortcoming which is volatile and to increase its bioavailability.
The nanoparticles were characterized by using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS).
Anticancer activity of Nano-EU was investigatedin cervical cancer HeLa cell line by flow
cytometry using Annexin-V/PI staining, and by measuring cleaved-caspase-3 protein
expression which is the executor of the apoptosis process by immunofluorescence.
The results of the study evidenced that Nano-EU inducing apoptosis and increasing
activated caspase-3 expression in HeLa cells. Nano-EU could also inhibit cell migration by
reducing vimentin and Snail as mesenchymal markers leading to inhibition of the EMT
process. Further research is still needed to investigate the anticancer potential of Nano-EU
in HeLa cells to in vivo and clinical studies.

Assessment of accurate landmark for the horizontal cut in Sagittal split ramus Osteotomy: A Tomographic study

Dr. Vidya B; Dr. Murari Washani; Dr. Ramkrishna T; Dr. ShruthiWashani; Dr. Harish Kumar A; Dr. PrashanthTomar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1198-1209

Purpose of the study : This study aimed to determine the height at which both the lateral
and medial cortical bone layers of mandibular ramus merge, using a reference point on the
anterior margin of the mandibular ramus and comparing with lingula as another
reference point, using cone beam computed tomography, thus establishing an effective
method of determining the level of the horizontal cut of sagittal split osteotomy.
Material and Methods: The mandibular ramus of 15 patients were analysed on a three
dimensional (3D) model constructed using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Starting at
reference point (A), a line was marked from the anterior border of the ramus of mandible
till the posterior border on lateral surface. On three vertical section of the ramus (1/3rd
and 2/3rd and lingula), the level at which both lingual and buccal cortices meet were
determined- A1 and A2 and L respectively.
The results of the study showed that mean height of fusion of medial and lateral cortices at
1/3rd and 2/3rd and lingula were 8.96mm, 4.62mm and 11.00mm respectively.
Conclusion:The point A is a safe and easy to locate anatomic reference point to establish
the level of horizontal cut in sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO).


Dr. Vidya B; Dr Sunny Deshmukh; Dr Sneha D Sharma; Dr. Harshini. G; Dr Mohd Zeeshan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1210-1218

Background :Gloves are used during all patient-care activities that involve exposure to
blood and all other body fluid, during contact precautions and outbreak situations.. The
non sterile gloves are appropriate for examination and non surgical procedures and sterile
gloves for surgical procedures. In developing countries like India where the money set
aside for public health is less than 1% of the gross domestic product (GDP), routine use of
disposable materials like gloves for examining patients as well as for minor surgical
procedures can be a drain on the resources. The use of surgical gloves when not indicated
represents a waste of resources and increases the treatment cost. Recently there have been
studies indicating use of clean examination gloves while performing minor oral surgical
procedures. So we decided to conduct study to ascertain microbiological quality of
surgical and clean examination gloves in oral surgery to determine if there was a
significant difference in bacterial colony forming count (CFUs) and evidence of post
operative infection between two types of the gloves.
Material and method: A randomised comparative double-blind study was conducted on
100 patients requiring minor oral surgical procedures like extractions of multiple teeth
using sterile or clean examination gloves. The microbiological specimens were collected
from gloves by saline dilution method and incubated for 7 days on trypticase soy agar.The
number of colonies were counted and expressed as total colony forming units. The patients
in both groups were examined for assessment of post operative complications like infection
to compare the co relation between no of CFU s and infection rate.
Statistical analysis:All results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS
version 20.
Results: The intergroup comparison of the pre- and postoperative bacterial counts (CFUs)
with the t-test paired showed highly significant 1 percent significance difference (P < 0.01)
. The patients in both groups were examined for assessment of post operative complications
like infection to compare the co relation between no of CFU s and infection rate and was
found that none of the patients were found to be infected at 7th day recall in both groups. .
Conclusion:It was concluded that minor oral surgical procedures can be carried out with
clean examination gloves, without any increased the rate of infection

Comparison of 3 dimensional airway volume in class I patients, class II and class III skeletal deformities.

Dr Vidya B; Dr. Dinesh G; Dr. Ramdas Balakrishna; Dr Asim Mustafa Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1219-1241

Background and objectives: The upper and lower airway has always been an area of interest because the oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal structures play important roles in the growth and development of the craniofacial complex. Significant relationships between the pharyngeal structures and both dento-facial and craniofacial structures have been reported. The aim of the study were to evaluate Oropharyngeal and nasal passage volumes of patients with normal nasorespiratory functions having different dentofacial skeletal patterns using CBCT and the correlations between different variables and the airway Material and Methods: The study consisted of 45 patients (23 males, 22 females), divided into 3 equal groups as Class I , Class II and Class III based on evaluation of facial profile and molar relation. After obtaining CBCT, the Oropharyngeal airway volume (OPV), Nasopharyngeal airway volume (NPV), vertical height of oropharynx (HOP), Constricted minimum axial area (CMinAx), and Constricted posterior airway space (CPAS) were measured. Differences between groups were determined by using the Tukey Post Hoc test. Correlations between the variables were tested with the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean OPV of the Class II subjects (6876.40 mm3) was significantly lower when compared with that of the Class I (8294.73 mm3 ) and Class III subjects (10941.43 mm3 ). The only statistically significant difference for NPV was observed between the Class I (9889.57 mm3) and Class II groups (7916.48 mm3 ). The CMinAx had a high potential in explaining the OPV.Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that mandibular growth deficiency patients had less airway volume, minimum axial area and constricted posterior airway space than the patients with good growth anteroposterior relationship between maxilla and mandible. The results of this research can be used as a guideline for subsequent works related to the airway study and presurgical assessment for orthognathic surgeries


Eliza Alymkulovna Bulakrieva; Marat Akimovich Sagymbaev; Ermek Maratovich Sagymbaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1242-1252

The article provides a brief overview of the main problems and improvement of the
system of medical rehabilitation in the sanatorium-resort institutions (SRI) of the Kyrgyz
Republic, and also presents the results of treatment, i.e. the effectiveness of rehabilitation
In Kyrgyzstan, the initiated process of privatization of sanatorium-resort organizations
changed the form of ownership of more than half of state, departmental and public-owned
health resorts. In 2000, the share of state ownership in health resort organizations was 49.6%
(Data of the Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic, 2017).
We notice that for more than 20 years of independence of the republic, the
rehabilitation service has not been able to reach those former heights, there are internal and
external factors for this. Even the fact that today in the structure of the authorized body for
health protection (Ministry of Health) there is no department that would work on the
development of the rehabilitation service of restorative medicine, balneology and sports
medicine, which in turn caused the need to analyze and substantiate the activities of the
rehabilitation service in health resort institutions.


Dr. Hawra A. Al Janobi; Dr. Asim Mustafa Khan; Dr. Badr Al Jandan; Dr.Nebras Al Rayes

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1253-1260

Osteoma is usually a slow growing, asymptomatic benign boney neoplasm that occurs most
commonly in the paranasal sinuses and the mandible. Osteoma treatment depends on the size
and the location of the lesion and the symptoms it is causing. Treatment options include
surgical excision, debulking, shaving, condylectomy, or no treatment with observation. We are
reporting a case of 56-year-old female who presented with a peripheral osteoma of the base of
the skullof a considerable large sizewith a history of dizziness and tinnitus. However, inthis
case, surgical intervention was not done due to the sensitive anatomical location and the size
of the lesion.


Dr. E. Chandra Blessie; P.Pradeep Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1261-1274

Grid computing is a group of computers that are physically connected to perform
dedicated tasks together over a network or the Internet, such as analyzing e-commerce data,
solving a complicated problem, and other complicated jobs. In this new market, several
companies and research organizations have previously worked to solve current problems and
are now in the process of developing existing working methods to achieve better results. In this
paper, the authors proposed an improved model to boost the efficiency of some existing
methods in the resource scheduling algorithm that includes Semi – Global Scheduler and
Perfect – Global Scheduler. The job assigning based method is handled in the proposed
method to improve the efficiency and performance of the resource allocation schedulers. In
the comparison section, it shows that better results were provided by the proposed model than
by some existing models. In order to sustain the efficiency needed for real-time scenarios, grid
computing must be improved with a certain interval limit.


Nooralhudaa Saadon Khalaf; Hasan Ismail Sultan; Ammar Lateef Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1275-1282

Background: World Health Organization declared the COVID 19 epidemic as a
public health emergency of international concern. COVID 19 pandemic strain
health systems worldwide.
Objective: to show the characteristics of COVID 19 infection in in Samara General
Hospital, Salahaddin Province, Iraq.
Patients and Methods: this study includes 150 symptomatic patients who attend
Samara General Hospital during the period from August to October 2020. COVID
19 infection was confirmed by PCR testing.
Results: The mean age of patients was 42.4±14.3 years. The disease commonly
affected male patients (66%). The most common symptom at the time of
presentation of patients with COVID19 infection in this study were fever (90%),
cough (86.7%), fatigue (81.3%), hyposmia (80%), sweating (78.7%), Hypogeusia
(76.7%), chills (65.3%), sputum (59.3%), headache (54.7%), anorexia (52%), and
dyspnea (39.3%). Moreover, there were significant differences among mild,
moderate and severe cases regarding oxygen saturation, ESR and alanine
aminotransferase level.
Conclusion: COVID 19 infection is higher among young adults’ patients.
Hyposmia and hypogeusia are important associated symptoms. The risk factors of
severe illness include age of patients over 40 years, hypoxemia, and elevated ESR
and ALT levels.

Multilayer Perceptron Approach for Character Classification

Anita Venugopal, Mukesh Madanan, Akhil Venugopal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1283-1289

Multilayer perceptron (MLP) is a classification of feed forward artificial neural network which utilizes the processing techniques of human reasoning. Multilayer perceptron consists of numerous linear layers of trained network cells called as perceptron along with threshold function. In this paper, we are evaluating particle swarm and multilayer perceptron computational models. The first approach, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm deals with principle components of artificial neural network model to recognize handwritten characters. Handwritten character strokes are collected as feature vectors and based on these vectors, classification of characters takes place. The second approach, bounding box technique is used by MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptron) neural network. The results are compared and their performance and stability in handwritten recognition is evaluated.

Applying an Optimal Feature Ranking and Selection Algorithm and Random Forest Classifier Algorithm along with K-Fold Cross validation for Classification of Blood Cancer Cells

Mukesh Madanan, Anita Venugopal, Nitha C.Velayudhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1290-1307

Technological inventions and researches have pushed various emerging fields to overwhelm information technology and its applications. Bioinformatics, medicines and drug discovery have found significance use of Artificial intelligence for aiding in various discoveries and patient centered care. One of the most critical area of medical concern is blood cancer that has limitations in detection and classification at a proper stage. By applying artificial intelligence techniques to the blood genetics, physicians and oncologists all over the world could find a solution for early detection and classification of the disease. Susceptibility, recurrence and survival rates of cancer are questions to be answered while detecting and classifying stages of cancer. Artificial intelligence techniques and models proposed by researchers for characterizing various stages of blood cancer have aided in providing treatment to certain extend. Applying artificial intelligence framework models on genetics has been found to provide results that satisfies the detection of the disease. However, an efficient methodology that focuses of selecting particular features of blood cancer and ranking these features and then classifying them into various stages is still lacking. This research focuses of using an optimal feature selection and ranking algorithm for ranking and selecting features and then employing random forest algorithm for classifying the blood cancer stages in the blood sample. This technique allows to provide better patient centered care and early classification of cancer stages.

Count of Equivalent Pixel (CEP): A Novel Algorithm to Extract Most Relevant Images from the Medical Image Database

DNVSLS Indira, Kalyanapu Srinivas, Kavitha Chaduvula, J N V R Swarup Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1308-1316

Now a day images or pictures play a prominent role in the world. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems are used to retrieve similar images based on query image. This system is capable of identifying similarities between query image and the set of images placed in the database. Even though it is an important research area from the last two decades, still there is scope for new technologies and algorithms to manipulate large amount of image databases in different fields like medical, social media and space images. Image contents are colors, texture and shape play significant role for image retrieval. All most all image retrieval systems are based on efficient feature extraction methods which are well-organized. This paper mainly concentrates to extract exact or most relevant images from the image database, here we compare query image with database image using pixels present in intensity vector. To accomplish this, the images are converted into gray scale. To achieve this, we are proposing a novel algorithm called as CEP (Count of Equivalent Pixel). This paper compares the existing sum of values of local histograms results with proposed system. The proposed system gives best results in retrieval of medical images in large database.


Bobomurodov Ziyodullo Rustamovich; Akhmedov Mukhomod- Umar Bakhriddinovich; Khasanova Munisa Ziyodulla kizi; Bekmirov Sherzod Choriyevich; Berdiyev Nurmon Ochilovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1322-1328

This article examines important theoretical and methodological aspects and practical
recommendations for improving the professional training of future fine arts teachers in the art
and graphic faculties and pedagogical universities and colleges departments, defines the
pedagogical conditions that contribute increasing this process efficiency: the first condition is
the sustainable professional interest formation among future fine arts teachers by rethinking
the goals and objectives of artistic and creative activity in accordance with modern artistic
education and upbringing, the artistic and creative activities guiding specifics of
schoolchildren; the second condition is the theoretical knowledge, practical skills and abilities
actualization in the artistic and creative activity on the basis of logical and semantic models;
the third condition is an "Integrative workshop" creation which is a developmental tasks
system for students’ independent work, focused on guiding the artistic and creative activities
of schoolchildren; the fourth condition is the special courses introduction that strengthen the
future fine arts teachers training to guide the artistic and creative activities of schoolchildren;
the fifth condition is the students’ methodological and pedagogical reflection formation by the
creative training method.


Tukhtarov B. E.; Fayziboyev P. N.; Abdumuminova R.N.; Baratova R. Sh.; Gapparova G.N.; Preeti Bala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1329-1333

At present, the provision of food security in maintaining a healthy lifestyle remains largely
dependent on the composition of fruits and vegetables. It is known that the excessive use of
mineral fertilizers in increasing the yield of agricultural products increases the amount of
nitrate in the composition of fruits and vegetables from the permissible norm. Also, the
application of biological (green manure) fertilizer, which is an alternative to mineral fertilizers
in the prevention of poisoning from nitrate, is considered acceptable in all respects


Khujanazarov Uktam Eshtemirovich; Mirkhamidova Parida; Alimova Ra’no Abbosovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1334-1341

This paper involves the description of medical plants, preparation and quality of raw
sources; chemical composition, indicators of application of the medicinal plants in the
pharmaceutical industry and determination of vitamin C content on some medicinal plants
growing in Kashkadarya basin adyr and mountain ranges. The amount of vitamin C in
different vegetation periods in the medicinal plants which antioxidant properties were studied
in Mentha, Ziziphora, Melissa, Rubus, Trichodesma, Bunium.


A.J. Kurbanbaeva; U.A. Aleuov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1342-1347

In all periods of human development, every nation around the world had its own
special and personal folk descriptions and methods of treatment. Folk healing originated in the
first stages of the formation of human life. She was not guided by any scientific rules. only with
the help of approximate indicators of the development of achieving the properties of a kind of
folk treatment, there was a further continuation. However, it is not so difficult to determine the
origins of the history of healing, the objects and goals of treatment are always similar, relevant
and common. Only the concepts of diseases, the ways of their presentation and the practice of
treatment were not always similar to each other. this does not mean that the number of diseases
has increased, just that identical methods of treatment have been formed.


Irismetov M.E.; Jongirov S.A.; Saleev B.V.; Mamatkulov K.M.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1348-1358

The analysis of literature data, which made it possible to characterize the main modern stages
in the development and establishment of diagnosis and treatment of shoulder joint instability,
was carried out. The purpose of this review was to highlight the main directions in the
treatment of chronic instability of the shoulder joint and identify problematic issues requiring
further scientific research. The main results of observation of patients undergoing various
types of arthroscopic treatment are presented. The modern level of diagnostics makes it
possible to accurately determine the indications for surgical treatment. Isolation of all possible
links of pathogenesis and individual preoperative planning are the main tasks of preventing
recurrence of instability.


Davronov Rahmon Davronovich; Davronova Shahnoza Rahmonovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1359-1366

The thymus is the central organ of T-lymphocytopoiesis, in it the formation of T-lymphocyte
precursor cells and a number of thymic hormones occurs. Structural and functional
rearrangements of the thymus under the influence of the temperature factor are characterized by
cyclicity, where periods of early changes, peak and distant changes are distinguished. Each of the
periods is characterized by its own characteristics, which determine the essence of the organ's
adaptive rearrangements in response to temperature exposure.


Bakhtiyor Burtkhanovich KHASANOV

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1367-1373

The aim of the research was to study the occurrence of autoimmune processes in chronic
hepatitis and its effect on the hematological parameters of the mother and offspring in the
dynamics of lactation. Material and research methods - the work was carried out on white
outbred female rats, in which, after heliotrine intoxication before pregnancy, the presence of
antihepatic antibodies in female rats was carried out by a passive hem agglutination reaction
according to Boyden's method, as well as hematological parameters in the mother and
offspring in the dynamics of lactation by conventional methods. The presence of
antihepatocytic autoantibodies during lactation was established, mainly in blood serum, and in
small amounts in the milk of female rats, therefore, antihepatic antibodies of the mother in
toxic hepatitis are not a pathological agent for offspring during breastfeeding. In the body of
female rats and offspring, anemia develops, progressing until the second week of lactation,
that is, the transition of pups to a mixed diet, therefore, it is more expedient to carry out
therapeutic measures before this period.


V. Shanthi; G. Sridevi; R. Charanya; J. Josphin Mary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1374-1378
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.140

The abnormal growth of skin cells is skin cancer. Early skin cancer diagnosis is important. The dermoscopic images of the watershed algorithm are presented for the detection of skin cancer. The Gaussian philtre eliminates unnecessary areas of the skin. Then normal and abnormal pictures of the pre-processed skin cancer segment are provided to the water-shifting algorithm. The findings demonstrate the efficacy of a method for classifying skin cancer using a watershed algorithm.


V. Shanthi; G. Sridevi; R. Charanya; Josphin Mary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1379-1383
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.141

Glaucoma is a type of eye disease affecting the optic nerve, which is important for good vision safety. The effect is usually an abnormally high pressure of the eye.In this study, an efficient method for glaucoma diagnosis using Histogram Matching (HM) algorithm and color space is presented. Initially, the red, green and blue color components are separated. Finally, HM is used for glaucoma diagnosis. The experimental results and discussion shows the performance of the proposed system.


V. Shanthi; G. Sridevi; R. Charanya; J. Josphin Mary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1384-1389
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.142

Lung cancer is the one of the deadliest disease in the world. Cancer is a disease in which cells develop out of balance in the body. Lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer mortality among both men and women in the United States, and the second most diagnosed disease. After decades of growth, lung cancer levels decrease nationwide, with fewer cigarettes being consumed. The most frequent source of lung cancer is cigarette-smoking. Lung cancer may also be induced by the usage of certain kinds of cigarettes. In this paper we propose a classification of predictive analysis through Deep Belief Network and K-Nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier.


R. Charanya; J. Josphin Mary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1390-1393
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.143

Lung cancer is an early lung cancer. The world's greatest cause of death is lung cancer. Lung cancer typically does not cause signs or symptoms in its early stages. In order to reduce the mortality rate early detection of lung cancer is required. Computed Tomography (CT) lung images classification for nodule detection is discussed in this study. At first energy features are used for feature extraction. Then maximum likelihood classifier is used for classification. The experimental results show the performance of pulmonary nodules classification in terms of accuracy.


G. Sridevi; V. Shanthi; J. Josphin Mary; R. Charanya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1394-1397
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.144

The cancer starts in the lungs is known as lung cancer. The leading world cause of death is lung cancer. In its early stages, lung cancer does not usually cause signs and symptoms. The early diagnosis of lung cancer is required to reduce the mortality rate. A parallel algorithm for pulmonary nodule classification with the help of Bayes theorem is discussed in this study. At first parallel algorithms like task, pipeline and data parallel for feature extraction. Then Bayes theorem is used for classification. The experimental results show the performance of pulmonary nodules classification in terms of accuracy using parallel algorithms and Bayes classification.


S. Ranjana; R. Manimegala; K. Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1398-1406
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.145

The prevalence of malignant melanoma is increasing worldwide. This cancer is one of the leading causes of death in young people at any age. This cancer can be identified very early on because it's curable because it is noticeable on the face. New technologies have been a possible possibility to completely accurately diagnose early melanoma. First, a significantly better scientific detection capacity than melanoma in the clinic to be observed at the very earliest point with the advent of dermoscopy.The global implementation of this method has allowed vast collections of dermoscopic photographs of histopathologically confirmed melanomas and benign lesions to accumulate. In the fields of image recognition and machine learning, the advancement of advanced technology has allowed us to differentiate malignant melanoma from the several innocuous fake pictures without any biopsy. Such modern techniques would not only enable melanoma to be diagnosed sooner but should also reduce the large number of unnecessary and costly biopsy procedures.Although some of the latest systems in preliminary trials demonstrated a potential for these innovations, more technological improvement must be anticipated in precision and reproductiveness. We offer an outline on melanoma computerized detection in dermoscopic images in this article. First, the various types of lesion segmentation are discussed. We then offer a brief description of the segmentation of clinical characteristics. Finally, we are addressing the classification process in which machine learning algorithms are used to predict melanoma attributes produced by segments.


G. Sridevi; V. Shanthi; J. Josphin Mary; R. Charanya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1407-1412
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.146

SCA is a legacy community of diseases of red blood cells. Persons with sickle cells in their red blood cells have abnormal protein. Sickle cell anemia is a red cell condition that is inherited and does not produce enough rotary cells in the body to hold oxygen. It may cause severe pain, anaemia and other symptoms. It is dangerous. The early diagnosis is required for sickle cell anemia. In this study, the integration of multi-modal features for sickle cell anemia identification using multilayer perceptron of SCA system is discussed. Initially, the input images are given to multimodel feature is used for feature extraction and Multilayer Perceptron (MP) classifier is used for classification. The performance of SCA system produces the classification accuracy of 95%using MP classifier.


J. Josphin Mary; R. Charanya; Konda Srinivas, M. Varaprasad Rao , B. Kavitha Rani, G. Mdhukar, K. Srujan Raju

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1413-1417
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.147

Glaucoma is a category of eye disorders that are important for good vision and damage the optic nervous. The abnormally high pressure in your eye is often responsible for its damage. Glaucoma is one of the major blindness causes for people aged 60 or over. The glaucoma detection using Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) algorithm is described in this study. The input retinal images are given to frequency domain for feature extraction and SGD algorithm is used for detection. Experimental results show the performance of proposed system.


G. Sridevi; V. Shanthi; J. Josphin Mary; R. Charanya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1418-1421
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.148

Diabetes people who also take antibiotics to combat different infections are particularly vulnerable to fungal mouth and tongue infection. The fungus prospers in the saliva of uncontrolled diabetes to high glucose levels. An efficient method for Tongue image classification using Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NNMF) and various Support Vector Machine (SVM) kernels are presented in this study. The input tongue images are given to NNMF for feature extraction and stored in feature database. Finally, SVM kernels like linear, polynomial, quadratic and Radial Basis Function (RBF) are used for prediction. The system produces the classification accuracy of 92% by using NNMF and different SVM kernels


R. Charanya; J. Josphin Mary; G. Sridevi; V. Shanthi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1422-1425
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.149

Plasmodium is a type of unicellular eukaryote compulsory for vertebrates or insect parasites. The early diagnosis is required for malaria. In this study, the automatic classification of malaria system is discussed. Initially, the input images are given to gaussian filter, then energy feature is used for feature extraction and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifier is used for classification. The performance of malaria system produces the specificity of classification 93%using KNN classifier.


R. Charanya; J. Josphin Mary; G. Sridevi; V. Shanthi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1426-1430
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.150

Malaria is an infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes that affects humans and other animals. Malaria is responsible for the effects of fever, tiredness, vomiting and headaches. Yellow skin, convulsions, a coma, or death can lead to severe cases. Symptoms usually start 10-15 days after a mosquito is bitten. The early diagnosis is required for malaria. In this study, the automatic classification of malaria system is discussed. Initially, the input images are given to Fourier–Mellin transform for feature extraction and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used for classification. The performance of malaria system produces the classification accuracy of 92%using SVM classifier.


R. Charanya; J. Josphin Mary; G. Sridevi; V. Shanthi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1431-1434
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.151

In IVUS, not only the lumen of the coronary arteries can be correctly shown but also the atheroma hide within the wall. In clinical research, IVUS has thus allowed progress to be made to provide a more comprehensive perspective and understanding. The cardiovascular arteries are the most common IVUS imagery target. IVUS is used to assess the quantity for atheromatous plaque in the coronary artery at any particular level. In IVUS, regression progress is a special approach for learning. The IVUS image classification using Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) algorithm is described in this study. The IVUS images are given to frequency domain for feature extraction and SGD algorithm is used for detection. Experimental results show the performance of proposed system.f


R. Charanya; J. Josphin Mary; G. Sridevi; V. Shanthi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1435-1438
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.152

Diabetes people who take antibiotics regularly to treat multiple infections are more likely to develop a fungal mouth and language infection. The fungus thrives in people with uncontrolled diabetes at high levels of glucose in the saliva. A yeast infection called oral thrush is common among people with diabetes. It looks like a white layer coating your language and your cheeks' insides. The Yeast grows in a higher amount of sugar found in your saliva. The early diagnosis is required for tongue image classification. In this study, the automatic classification of tongue image classification for diabetes detection system is discussed. Initially, the input tongue images are given to median filter for pre-processing. Then the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Haralick features are extracted. Finally, Random Forest (RF) classifier is used for Prediction. The performance of proposed system produces the classification accuracy of 95%using RF classifier.

Segmentation on Brain Cancer Disease using Deep Learning Techniques

J. Josphin Mary; R. Charanya; V. Shanthi; G. Sridevi; Meda Srinivasa Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1439-1446
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.153

Segmenting brain tumors is a major challenge in the production of scientific pictures. To order to maximize care outcomes and increasing the hospital success rate, early detection of brain tumors plays an important part. A challenging and time-consuming job is the manual segmentation of brain tumors from large quantities of MRI images produced in clinical routine. Automatic brain tumor segmentation is possible. This article aims to analyze strategies for the segmentation of brain tumors dependent on MRI. Automatic segmentation using deep learning approaches has recently been proven common because these approaches accomplish the latest findings much better than other methods would solve this issue. Deep learning approaches may also provide for effective analysis and unbiased interpretation of vast volumes of picture evidence dependent on MRI. There are many papers on MRI based brain tumor segmentation which focus on traditional methods. Different from others, we concentrate on the recent trend in the field of deep learning. Next, the brain tumors and techniques for segmenting the brain tumor are added. Then, the new architectures are explored with a emphasis on the current development in deep learning methods. Finally, an evaluation is introduced and further improvements are discussed to standardize brain tumor segmentation procedures dependent on MRI in the day-to-day clinical practice.


J. Josphin Mary; R. Charanya; V. Shanthi; G. Sridevi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1447-1453
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.154

Glaucoma is a persistent, permanent eye disease that contributes to vision and quality of life loss. Within this paper we build a deep learning system for the automatic diagnosis of glaucoma with a Convolutionary neural network. Deep learning algorithms, such as CNNs, that infer a hierarchical representation of images to differentiate between glaucoma and NG trends of diagnostic decisions. The DL architecture proposed contains six learning strategies: four Convolutionary strata and two entirely linked layers. Strategies for drop-out and data rise were implemented to further enhance the treatment of glaucoma. Extensive validation of ORIGA and SCES databases is carried out. The findings show that the recipient's operating curve field under curve (AUC) is significantly higher than the state of the art algorithms in glaucoma identification at 0,831 and 0,887 in the two databases. The method may be used for the detection of glaucoma.

Healthcare Android Application for Patient Data Viewer

J. Josphin Mary; R. Charanya; V. Shanthi; G. Sridevi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1454-1460
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.155

Technology-based health treatment in today's environment is even more important. Doctors tend to track patients in hospitals on an daily basis.The condition of patients operated on must be tracked on an ongoing basis. There could be no extremely qualified physicians in the hospital throughout the day.Now, healthcare systems are technically driven. In recent years, mobile devices and their use have also increased. This article describes the concept and implementation of an Android smartphone device implementation framework for a patient data display system. This device helps doctors to remotely monitor and react to the critical parameters of a patient.


R. Manimegala; K. Priya; S. Ranjana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1461-1464
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.156

A brain tumor is an abnormally growing cell in the brain. Replicating a tumour cell is uncontrollable. Early diagnosis is dependent on the size and location of tumor. A technique is explored in this study to extract entropy features of sample entropy by the Magnets of Resonance Imaging (MRI) sample entropy, Dual Tree Wavelet Transform (DTWT), sample entropy and NB classifier. The experimental results illustrate the efficiency of the device proposed. The DTWT, sample entropy and NB classifier produces 96% precision, sensitivity and specificity.

Colour texture analysis of fundus image for glaucoma diagnosis using hidden Markov models

R. Manimegala; K. Priya; S. Ranjana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1465-1469
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.157

Glaucoma is an eye disease category that affects the optic nerve, whose protection is important for good vision. It is typically caused by an abnormally high eye pressure. This is more widespread in older adults but can occur at any age. It will be treated early otherwise it leads to loss of vision. In this study, an efficient method for glaucoma diagnosis using hidden markov models is presented. Initially, the red, green and blue color components are separated. Finally, Hidden Markov Models (HMM) is used for glaucoma diagnosis. The experimental results and discussion shows the performance of the proposed system.


R. Manimegala; K. Priya; S. Ranjana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1470-1475
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.158

Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders that damage the optic nerve, essential for good vision. Often this damage comes from an abnormally high pressure in the eye. The early diagnosis of glaucoma detection is required because it leads to loss of vision. The fundus images are decomposed by Multi Wavelet Transform (MWT). Then the sub-band coefficients of MWT are extracted by using energy features. Then the redundant features are reduced by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, Random Forest (RF) classifier is used for prediction. The classification results are obtained in the experimental results and discussion section. The system produces classification accuracy of 93% by using MWT based PCA reduction and RF classifier.


R. Manimegala; K. Priya; S Ranjana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1476-1485
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.159

A program has been planned and developed to diagnose and identify brain cancer. The program employs computer-based techniques in the detections of tumor fragments or tumors, and in photographs of various Astrocytoma brain tumor patients, it classifies the type of tumor utilizing Artificial Neural Network. For the diagnosis of the brain tumor, photographs of the patients afflicted by cancer were created utilizing image processing technique such as imaging segmentation,histogram equalization, image enhancement, morphologic surgery and feature extraction.Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is used for the detection of surface characteristics in the observed tumor. Such properties are contrasted with the functionality contained in the knowledge base.To order to identify various forms of brain cancers, a neuro fuzzy concept was eventually created. The entire system was verified in two stages: first, the phase of learning / training as well as second, the phase of recognition / testing.The device was equipped through documented MRI images from patients with impaired brain cancer from the Department of Radiology of Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH). Known brain cancer tests of impacted MRI scans are often obtained from TMH and used for device monitoring. The method has been shown to be effective in classifying these samples.


K. Priya; S. Ranjana; R. Manimegala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1486-1495
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.160

This paper discusses the concept as well as application of an adaptive networked ehealth program. In particular after an incident or an disaster, the program is targeted at avoiding manual data entry and improving the capacity to have beds in hospitals, especially at mass occasions where a huge amount of people gather in one location.The device design is focused on medical devices that utilize wireless network sensor (WSNs) to calculate patients' physical parameters.Such sensors move information from the patient's devices to the cloud setting through the wireless network. The e-health smart network provides medical personnel with real-time data processing, reduces manual data collection and allows the tracking of


K. Priya; S. Ranjana; R. Manimegala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1496-1506
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.161

MedPlant provides this work as a modern smartphone leaf picture recognition tool for medicinal plants. The software operates on the operating system Android. MedPlant has two key functions, i.e. recognition of medicinal plants and quest data for medicinal plants. To identify the picture, we have used local binary patterns to extract texture and probabilistic neural network. In this study, 30 Indonesian species of medicinal plants were used and there are 48 digital pictures of growing species.We used a questionnaire focused on heuristic assessment to assess user feedback for the program. The findings of the assessment indicate that MedPlant is effective in distinguishing medicinal plants. MedPlant can help to classify medicinal plants, explore new plant varieties and plant taxonomy in the botanic garden or in the maintenance of natural parks. This also lets individuals, organizations and societies discover their capacity to maximize the value of health plants without usage and without growth. The results would improve MedPlant's wealth, capital and economic richness.


K. Priya; S. Ranjana; R. Manimegala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1507-1514
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.162

Deep learning in pattern recognition and classification is considered a common and potent tool. There are, be that as it may, very few profoundly composed frameworks utilized in the field of clinical imaging conclusion, since there isn't constantly a wide store accessible for clinical pictures. In this investigation we tried the possibility of utilizing the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database cases to utilize profound learning calculations for lung disease conclusion. The knobs were portioned by the imprints given by the radiologists on each figured tomography cut. In the wake of inspecting and turning down we gained 174412 examples with 52 by 52 pixels each and the relating records of truth. Three profound learning calculations, including the Convolutionary Neural Network (CNN), Deep Belief Networks (DBNs), Stacked Denoising Auto encoder (SDAE), have been created and executed. We built up a plan with 28 picture highlights and bolster vector machine to analyze the presentation of profound learning calculations with traditional PC helped determination (CADx) system. CNN, DBNs, and SDAE correctness’s are individually 0.7976, 0.8119, and 0.7929; our fabricated regular CADx precision is 0.7940 which is possibly lower than CNN and DBNs.

Deep Learning System for Skin Disorder Segmentation using Neural Network

S. Ranjana; R. Manimegala; K. Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1515-1522
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.163

Skin issue is extremely normal in the day by day lives of people. Consistently a huge number of American individuals are influenced by skin issue of different types. Skin condition conclusion regularly includes a high level of information because of the scope of visual perspectives thereof. Since human judgment is constantly discretionary and infrequently reproducible, a PC helped indicative gadget ought to be considered for accomplishing an increasingly objective and precise conclusion. In this paper, we investigate the plausibility of utilizing profound Convolutional neural system (CNN) to make a widespread structure for determination of skin infection. We train the CNN engineering utilizing the Dermnet dataset's skin illness pictures and check its yield with both Dermnet and OLE, another information assortment for skin ailment, pictures. Our program can accomplish Top-1 exactness of up to 73.1 percent and Top-5 precision of 91.0 percent while running on the Dermnet dataset. Top-1 and Top-5 correctness’s for the OLE dataset check are 31.1 percent and 69.5 separately. We show that if all the more preparing pictures are utilized, those correctness’s can be additionally improved.


S. Ranjana; R. Manimegala; K. Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1523-1529
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.164

Nowadays, to monitor or run the machines, there is little need for active human interaction, it is being automated.Some devices can be remotely controlled with the available technologies. Runways at airports to analyze, to analyze the animals in the zoo, amazing image of capturing videos, capture videos and cover the whole stage, an industry monitoring of the environment, waste and the removal of this technology is very useful, because it's the Earth Hangs from above. This robot would significantly reduce the costs of inspection and repair that the ground or aircraft crews now have to bear, particularly in remote areas, but with this technology, it is becoming smaller and cheaper."Alternatively, the robot has DC motors and a portable camera with sophisticated image processing to record videos. The primary goal of this project is to simplify the industrial security deployment data collection and control system. Industries operate in a systematic manner. Maintaining & monitoring the record of each process is quite difficult. To acquire and control an industry’s environmental values such gas, temperature, and light density automatically with a movable hanging device using cables, (i.e.) Hanging Robot. It contains the required sensors like gas, fire, light and etc., in it. The Controlling unit is designed using Matlab or Lab View and it is designed in such a way that is able to control the hanging robot from a remote location.The received data from the sensors in the personal computer can be graphically represented in real time.


S. Ranjana; R. Manimegala; K. Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1530-1534
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.165

SCA is a genetic category of red diseases of the blood cells. People in their red blood cells contain an abnormal protein. Part of a group of SCA diseases is sickle cell anaemia (SCA). Sickle cell anaemia is a red blood cell condition that has not been inherited in the body with ample red cells to hold oxygen.. It is dangerous because it can cause extreme pain, anemia and other symptoms. The early diagnosis is required for sickle cell anemia. In this study, the automatic classification of SCA system is discussed. Initially, the input images are given to median filter for pre-processing. Then the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Haralick features are extracted. Finally, Random Forest (RF) classifier is used for Prediction. The performance of SCA system produces the classification accuracy of 95%using RF classifier.


S. Bhuvaneswari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1535-1539
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.166

In the day to day working of people, the tongue plays a significant role.The tongue is an organ connected to each other parts.Diabetics classification using tongue images are described in this study. Diabetes detection using tongue image using extraction of texture and random forestis described in this study.Initially, the input tongue images are given to global feature for feature extraction and finally, the decision treeclassifieris used for classification. Experimental results show the performance of proposed system using texture and RFC.


K. Kalyani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1540-1543
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.167

Mammography is a method for the diagnosis and screening of the human breast using low-energy X-rays. Mammograms tend to detect breast cancer early, usually by detecting standard masses, or by detecting microcalcifications.Adescriptive analysis of mammogram diagnosis using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)for spectral detection is presented in this study.Initially, the color components are separated as red, green and blue. Only green channel is used for analysis because green is sensitive for humans. Finally,CNN is used for mammogram color spectraldetection. The performance of proposed system is analyzed by CNN in terms of accuracy.

Internet of Things Network Management System Architecture for Smart Healthcare

Jayaprakash. D; Sathish Kumar. R; Nivedha. K; Anitha. K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1544-1552
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.168

A phenomenal growth of sensor networks, Rule, apps and Internet as a global container of the (IoT) has provided the Internet of Things (IoT) a rapid and broad progress, which has began the initiative of many emerging industries to have the enormous things as part of their envisioned dreams in the upcoming years which is to come. Schools have also developed initiatives that extensively explore the ability of IoT and work on latestprotocols in each and every rates to fit IoT implementations & modify the very recent Internet protocols. According to the Gartner report, several organizations have already adopted IoT and some organizations intend to adopt it. There is no exception to the healthcare business, which has already embraced the IoT and aims to utilize it widely for the support of doctors, seniors and caregivers over the coming years. We are designing a program model to handle a ton for intelligent health care in this research article.For the progress of a lot of health care, secure, accurate, productive, healthy and successful caregivers should be accomplished. It guarantees the patients and seniors are ensured a consistent process and program to avoid any safety hazards.


Nivedha. K; Anitha. K; Jayaprakash. D; Sathish Kumar. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1553-1557
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.169

Infant care is an important challenge facing parents today. Recognizing a menace at its initial point would be the finest way of preventing any dangers it may cause. The child being examined is not always in the career’s vicinity. This led directly to various remote baby control services designing and deploying them. This paper explores the advantages and drawbacks of the various control systems built and currently on the market. This article introduces a modern approach to monitor children and infants. The monitor calculates the precise location of the subject in the crib and shows the three separate behaviours, warning that a risky position or action has been detected. These alerts are shown on a computer screen, and on a mobile phone. The device needs a computer that is operated over a display panel or mobile phone using the microcontroller. There is also discussion of the area for future studies on this subject.

Low cost Automated Hand Sanitizer provider to prevent novel Corona Virus

Nivedha. K; Anitha. K; Jayaprakash. D; Sathish Kumar. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1558-1562
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.170

COVID-19 is an epidemic that has been multiplying rapidly across the globe. To order to regulate its growth, several nations have implemented home-stay or lockout policies. Prolonged domestic residency, though, can cause worse effects such as economic instability, homelessness, food shortages and individuals' mental health issues. This article presents an intelligent consumer electronics solution for secure & gradual launch after residence restrictions have been lifted. Completely automatic hand sanitizer supplier to prevent quickly spreading novel corona virus. It is implemented to restrict the development of new positive cases through auto touch tracking and by promoting critical social distancing.


Nivedha. K; Anitha. K; Jayaprakash. D; Sathish Kumar. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1563-1567
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.171

Hardware and software innovations are directly engineered into the shoe itself, creating an immersive intelligent footwear that continuously assesses and gives you personalised feedback. These shoes will be a modern interface for those who do not see to aid with environmental sustainability. Without the use of any stick, it can help the mentally disabled to navigate and see objects and even alert them to any barriers in the way.When it is a blind person it also become very common for the lost places in the situation..


Sathish Kumar. R; Nivedha. K; Anitha. K; Jayaprakash. D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1568-1580
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.172

There is a rising concern in designing options for elderlies residing in a society with an increased population ageing. IoT is a revolutionary phenomenon that transforms our life entirely as well as aims to revolutionize current healthcare into a more individualized, precautionary and inclusive approach to treatment. In order to integrate these two main problems, this research provides an IoT-ready approaches for elderly living treatment that can track and record critical details for patients in emergencies and include protocols for activating alarms.The strong low / low-cost / wireless capabilities make this approach into a secure and convenient wristband, perfect for anywhere and anywhere. There has been a strong device efficiency for incorporated functionalities and an overall battery life time of 306 hours (around 12 days) has been reached with respect to autonomy. Without the need of the out - of-range alarm, the device has demonstrated its output within a distance of 60 metres.

IOT Based Driver Drowsiness Detection and Health Monitoring System

Sathish Kumar. R; Nivedha. K; Anitha. K; Jayaprakash. D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1581-1590
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.173

This guide discusses driver somnolence and fatigue-related safety criteria. FatigueDriver exhaustion is usually a very severe issue in many thousand bridge crashes a year. The exact number of accidents can not be calculated due to sleepiness, but research shows that 20% of accidents occur only through fatigue (rospa).This platform gives the Eye-Blink Surveillance System USB camera and provides a buzzer that warns the driver during a state of sleep. Driver health monitor is provided through a wearable heart beat sensor, temperature sensor, by means of the proposed web application design manager will check system parameters and send a message to his college colleague. The alcohol indicator is used to measure the drug level of a driver and the pace of the car reduces if this condition occurs


Sathish Kumar. R; Nivedha. K; Anitha. K; Jayaprakash. D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1591-1595
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.174

In previous years various cases of cardiac disease and abnormal heart rate and blood pressure adjustments have been reported. Even such accidents lead to death. Hence, awareness of critical circumstances concerning swimming and children is essential to an organization. This thesis suggests a heart and blood pressure monitoring-based swimmingsave program. There are two units: the swimmer and the rescuer. The machine checks the pulse rate and blood pressure of the swimmer, and then stores the hero''s cell app attributes. Those values are related to standard pulse and pressure levels. When such values are not within the standard range, the program may trigger an alert.

Development of IntravenousDrip Infusion Bottles for HealthcareCenters

Sathish Kumar. R; Nivedha. K; Anitha. K; Jayaprakash. D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1596-1601
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.175

Thanks to the technical developments in recent years, many advanced procedures have emerged to ensure the patients' quick recovery in hospitals. The key thing is the need for proper nutrition, solvent & electrolyte research and treatment in hospitals. In both clinics, the service / child staff is responsible for ensuring the amount of the container of electrolytes. Unfortunately, though the observer may fail to adjust the bottle at the right time due to their hectic schedule. A IoT-based automatic warning and signalling system, using a sensor as a level sensor or weight sensor, is proposed in order to address this crisis situation.This is built on the idea that when fluid level / weight is below some limit the performance of the sensor shifts. If fluid level / weight is small, the observer will be notified at the control room via the monitor or mobile to indicate the patient's room number for rapid recovery. When such a surveillance system is installed, the risks of patient accidents will be minimized and the quality of hospital healthcare improved. We may build a ready-mate portable cover system for these bottle in the future.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1602-1620

People are using lot of cloud storage service (CSs) to store documents. The cloud storage
services are used to conserve people personal data and facilitate data transferable. The
computer which connected via internet is adequate to access the data anywhere without
carrying any physical drives like Pen drive, CD, etc. In existing techniques like, CSs providers
are using 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and 128-bit (AES) encryption
algorithm. This is one of the best techniques to secure data, but once the intruder gets
encrypted data, there is possibility for data insecurity by means of applying brute force
attacking technique in future increasing the speed performance of computer. The objective of
this paper to analysis cryptographic algorithm which perfume on various data formats and
data security attacks and threads in cloud storage environment. The aim to overcome this kind
of attacks and key tampering technique, the key generation and maintain process handover to
user’s itself. It makes cloud storage service provider to maintain data only, with high efficientencryption technique that provides strong protection for data.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1621-1627

Right now, through a cell phone application is introduced. It has an exceptionally enormous potential
market for merchants and purchasers. This undertaking, An Online Closeout Framework has two
classifications as client interface and administrator interface. The task includes thestructure and
execution of an online sale framework. This framework presents an online showcase of class wised
items they need to sell or offer. There is an administrator board by which an administrator can control
the entire offering framework. Administrator can favor items by the grouping, and furthermore can
control the enrolled clients. The investigation arrange is performed first for the contextual
Analysis[1]. Additionally, the aim to set up what goes on operationally inside the online sales
management firm. It additionally characterizes the format in the android application


Mrs. Surya . S.R; DR. G. Kalpana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1628-1637

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a psychiatric disorder which leads to
neurological anddevelopmental growth of a person which starts in early age and gets
carried throughout their life.It is a condition associated with significant healthcare costs
and early diagnosis can reduce these.Unfortunately, waiting time is lengthy for an ASD
diagnosis and it is cost effective. Due to theincrease in economy for autism prediction and
the increase in the number of ASD cases across theworld is in need of easily implemented
and effective screening methods by GUI results. Toovercome the time complexity for
identifying the disorder advanced technologies can be used suchas machine learning
algorithms to improve precision, accuracy and quality of the diagnosisprocess. Machine
learning helps us by providing intelligent techniques to discover the affectedpatient, which
can be utilized in prediction and to improve decision making. And hence, wepropose the
data set features related to autism screening of adult and child to be used for
furtheranalysis and to improve the classification of ASD cases.


Arti Malik; Khursheed Alam; Nitendra Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1638-1650

The effect in the present paper inflict with the inverse problem in the epidemiology based
on SIQR model with time dependent infectivity and recovery rates , authorizing for a better
prognosticate of the long term darwinism of a pandemic. We used the method to analyze the Covid-19
spread by the solution of an inverse problem to find the infectivity and recovery rates from the
original data and then the approximate rates are used to compute the examine of the disease. We used
the time dependent parameters to estimate the spread of disease Covid-19 in the country India.


Mahadev Rama Kokane; K. Revathi; K. Sundaravalli; A. Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1651-1658
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.180

Pulicat Lake constitutes a unique and interesting fragile ecosystem in Coromandal coastal zone in South East coast of India. Lake serve as a nursery and breeding ground for many species of aquatic flora & fauna and nesting ground for several species of native & migratory birds.  Physico-chemical parameters are the important indicators of environmental degradation like Temp. Salinity, pH, Turbidity, DO, BOD, COD, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Ca, Mg, Nitrate, Phosphate, Carbonate and Bicarbonate, which are essential for ecological balancing and supporting growth of many aquatic organisms. The water samples were collected on monthly basis using small outboard engine motor by reaching particular habitat sits/location of Bursatella leachii species were earlier it found, since sudden out break and sudden disappearance of B. leachii has been noticed worldwide. It was made an attempt to co-relate the availability of B. leachii with Physico-chemical parametrs.  In the present study it has been observed that the physico-chemical condition requires for the species Bursatella leachii present in the Pulicat lake. Lake is not affected by the sea water as there are sand bars and shoals in the eastern side of the Lake.   

Effects of Curcumin on Free Radicals Released From Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: A Randomized Controlled Trial

C. Thiagu; N.M.Vijay Kumar; R. Priya; R. Devaki Vijayalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1659-1669
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.181

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of curcumin mouthwash on oxidative stress levels in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment by assessing the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in GCF.
Design and Setting: 50 patients (27 females and 23 males) participated in the study and were randomly allocated between two groups. Group 1 - subjects who were given curcumin mouthwash and toothpaste; group 2 – subjects who acted as control group (only toothpaste).
Methods: The levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine from GCF samples of patients were used to assess the oxidative stress levels of the periodontiumat three time periods: pretreatment (T0),3 months of treatment (T1) and 6 months of treatment (T2). Kruskal Wallis test was used to test the null hypothesis that there was no difference in biomarker levels across the three time periods for both experimental and control group followed by Dunn’s post hoc analysis.The non-parametric Mann Whitney U test was used to perform the comparisons between the experimental and control group during the three time periods (P <0.05).
Results: The median value for 8 hydroxydeoxyguanosine level was lowest when taken at the 6 months interval (8.24 ng/L; IQR=6.94-9.84) in experimental group (Curcurmin mouthwash + toothpaste group). The results of Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was statistically significant difference between experimental (Curcurmin mouthwash + toothpaste) and control groups (Toothpaste group) during the 6th month.
Conclusion: Curcumin mouthwash can serve as an effective way of reducing the oxidative stress levels in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1675-1700

The foremost goal of the review of literature is to Collect, Study and highlight the previous
research works conducted by numerous authors(researchers) in an area of the FSW of an
alloy of 13Al. Formulating the problem is a central stage in research work with the
objectives. In this literature review, the selected main topics are FSW Process analysis,
Mechanical properties, Microstructural properties, Experimental designs, bending strength
of the welds, Corrosion of the joints, Analysis of wear and Fatigue strength analysis were

Comparative study of Crow Search Algorithm with Social Spider Optimization in the Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1701-1710

Even the Permutation Job Shop Scheduling issue (PJSP) is just really a renowned
dilemma from the scheduling investigation area. It's definitely really an NP-hard
combinatorial optimization issue that's of use real-time software. Inside this issue,
locating a helpful algorithm to manage the vast levels of tasks needed to recover an
actionable permutation sequence in a fair quantity of time is essential. The newly
constructed crow search algorithm (CSA) can be just really a publication swarm-based
meta-heuristic algorithm formerly suggested to fix mathematical marketing issues. Inside
this article, a study of CSA is proposed to diminish the makespan of all both PFSPs.
Initially, to produce the CSA ideal for resolving the PFSP, the smallest spot significance
principle is employed to change endless amounts in to project sequences. Then the SSO
algorithm is used for job shop scheduling and then the comparative study of SSO with
CSA is used.

Positional Errors in Orthopantomograph – A Comparative Systematic Review with analysis of 1014 additional cases

Arishiya Thapasum Fairozekhan, Faraz Mohammed, Reshma Veerankutty Jameela, Asim Mustafa Khan, Suhayla Mubarak, Sonali Sharma, Dr. Ashwin C. Shetty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1711-1723

The purpose of our systematic review was to investigate the most common errors in the panoramic radiography and their impacts on the resultant radiographic film. The knowledge about the common positioning errors and the ways to rectify the errors, will benefit in producing high quality radiograph.
Material and methods
PubMed, ProQuest, Google scholar, Science direct and Scopus were screened for studies. Article selection and data extraction was done by one investigator and other investigator confirmed its accuracy.
Four hundred and seventy articles were initially identified from which eleven articles were full-text reviewed and included in the review. Additional 1014 radiographic cases were retrieved from the department of oral radiology and was assessed for various errors. Out of the eleven studies, the most common panoramic error encountered was, the tongue not placed on the palate and on the radiograph, it appeared as radiolucent band on the apex of the maxillary teeth.
To produce high quality radiograph, it is necessary for the operator to have a better communication with the patient and also to know about proper patient positioning.

Design and Analysis of Pepper Leaf Disease Detection Using Deep Belief Network

S Jana, A Rijuvana Begum , S Selvaganesan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1724-1731

The quality of crop yield is reduced due to leaf diseases in agriculture. Therefore, it is possible to automate the recognition of leaf diseases to improve yield in the farming sector. However, most systems lack in performance due to different patterns of leaf disease that influence the precision of detection. In this paper, a computer vision framework is developed by framing a model that consists of image acquisition, feature extraction and image classification. A deep learning classifier namely Deep Belief Network (DBN) is used for classification of real-time images. The experimental results on pepper plant leaf disease detection show that the proposed method has improved rate of classification than other existing methods. The classification result shows that whether the leaf is diseased or not.

An Efficient Zernike Moments with Logistic Regression Classifier based Skin Lesion Diagnosis using Dermoscopic Images

R.Thanga Selvi, A. Ramalingam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1732-1742

Diagnosis of skin cancer acts as a vital part of the early and accurate detection of skin lesions using dermoscopic imaging. However, the automatic skin lesion diagnosis becomes hard owing to the existence of artifacts, indistinct boundary, poor contrast, and distinct size and shape of the lesion. This study introduces a novel Zernike Moments (ZM) with Logistic Regression Classifier (LRC), named ZM-LRC model for skin lesion diagnosis using dermoscopic images.  The presented ZM-LRC model comprises four stages namely pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. The ZM-LRC model performs image segmentation using Shannon’s Entropy with Brainstorm optimization (BSO) algorithm. Besides, the ZM based feature extraction and LRC oriented classification processes are carried out. Elaborative experimental analysis was carried out on ISIC dataset and the obtained results are investigated with respect to distinct performance measures. The attained simultaion values signified the effective diagnostic outcome of the ZM-LRC model with a higher sensitivity of 95.78%, specificity of 97.86%, and accuracy of 98.56%.

An Automated Tongue Color Image Analysis for Disease Diagnosis and Classification using Deep Learning Techniques

S. Rajakumaran, Dr. J. Sasikala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1743-1759

Tongue diagnosis is considered an effectual and non-invasive technique commonly used to carry out the secondary diagnosis at anytime and anywhere. Opportunely, computational models for image processing approaches in tongue are presented in the literature and obtained significant performance. Several tongue image analysis techniques are available, it is still needed to design an automated deep learning (DL) models for diagnosing the diseases through tongue image analysis. In this view, this paper devises a new automated DL based tongue color image analysis for disease diagnosis and classification. The presented technique makes use of distinct processes such as preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification. At the preprocessing stage, the presented model performs data augmentation and gaussian filtering (GF) techniques for noise removal. Besides, the DL based Visual Geometry Group (VGG 19), a convolutional neural network (CNN) model is applied to extract the useful set of feature vectors from the preprocessed image. In addition, the presented model utilizes two machine learning (ML) based classifiers such as random forest (RF) and gaussian naïve bayes (GNB) to perform classification processes. For the assessment of the classification outcome of the presented technique, benchmark tongue image dataset is used. The experimental values pointed out that the presented VGG19-RF model has reached a higher precision, recall, accuracy, and F1-Score of 93.80%, 93.70%, 93.70%, and 93.68% respectively.

Anti-oxidant, Anti Inflammation and Anti diabetic Activity of Novel Schiff Base of Derived from 2-Hydroxy benzoic acid (4-Chloro benzylidine)-Hydrazide and 2-Hydroxy benzoic acid (3,4-Dimethoxy benzylidine)-Hydrazide

V.Anusuya, G. Sujatha, G. L. Balaji

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1760-1769

            A series of new 2-Hydroxy benzoic acid (4-Chloro benzylidine)-Hydrazide and 2-Hydroxy benzoic acid (3, 4-Dimethoxy benzylidine)-Hydrazide based Schiff base derivatives, have been synthesized. Synthezied Schiff base ligands were screened for anti- oxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-diabetic activity. The compounds were screened for their Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging method and compared with standard ascorbic acid.Anti inflammation activity were examined by albumin denatuation and compared with standard aspine. antidiabetic activity against α-amylase enzyme and compared with standard drug acarbose.

CFD technique based Spectrum Sensor for Hardware-Efficient and Fast Sensing of Cognitive Radio Network

E.Gnana Manoharan, K.Vadivelu,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1770-1776

Cognitive radio (CR) is an innovative technology with profound potential for reducing the spectrum shortage within wireless networks of the next decade. Unlicensed users are able in this technology to reach unused parts of the spectrum, commonly known as white spaces, which increase their use of the spectrum. Each of the unauthorised user nodes needs a spectrum sensor to detect white space to transmit and receive data. In this paper, a Cyclostationary Spectrum Sensor (CFD), for CR skill is available that uses less hardware and less time to sens. The obstacle of designing innovative CFD spectrum sensing algorithms based on frequencies was addressed. In particular, a multi-level resource has been provided for optimization with the VLSI 2048-point FFT module. In regards, outcomes of projected spectrum sensor production analyses are provided for 1024, 2048 and 40.096 FFT size and shape where appropriate detection-probability of 0.9 is offered in the proposed design at -5 dB SNR. It was implanted by FPGA and demonstrates that the hardware usage was improved due to a 100% lowered memory necessity, and that a shortened sensing period of 0.3 ms was indexed.

IoT based BFOA-CNN Model for Automatic Glaucoma Detection

R.Anandh, Dr.G.Indirani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1777-1795

Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing are two related domains that depends on each other through which the physicians monitor and support the remote patients. Effective treatment of diseases need a model designed with IoT equipments to identify the diseases. This paper proposes a novel automated glaucoma recognition method for identifying the lesion region present in the given fundus image. The proposed BFOA-CNN model executes in five steps, viz., i) calibrate the image, ii)  preprocess the image, iii) segment the image, iv) extract the features and v) classify the image. The image given as input is first calibrated and involved into preprocessing stage so as to make the image suitable to process further for successful classification. Next, optic disc is removed by the entropy method and CRF (Conditional Random Fields) based segmentation process is used for detecting the presence of lesion region in the given fundus image. Further the extraction of shape features is executed and it is followed by the classification using Random Forest classification model. BFOA-CNN model performance is investigated with a set of 101 retinal fundus image and the results proved the best efficiency of the model.

Salient features of the Writing of M’asumi

Dr. Raysul Hoque

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1796-1800

Arabic language developed in India owing to the business relation with Arab nationals before
Islam. After Islam religious aspect was added to enhance the spread of Arabic in India. With
the flourish of these relations, large numbers of Indians have adopted Arabic language,
culture and literature in their daily practices with due amalgamation of their traditional ones.
Now, there are lot of people who have attained expertness in and stood as resource person
Arabic. Abu Mahfuz is among them whose life and work is the main subject matter of
research works.
Abu Mahfuz Al-Karim Ma’sumi, the vigorous writer, poet, columnist, journalist and
litterateur was born in Bihar (India), in 1931. He was a genius, got both conventional Islamic
and modern knowledge from India and abroad. He also got mastery over Arabic, English,
Urdu and others. He taught in numbers of Schools and colleges and became a man of high
profile with his teachings and writings He firstly, was appointed as the additional lecturer in
Aliah Madrassa (Aliah University).
He wrote lot of articles in Arabic, English, Urdu and others in different journals and
magazines which attracted scholars from native and abroad. He has one and only published
book Buhuth Wa Tanbihat, compilation and assemble of his Arabic articles.


Mahmudov Mirabbos Fazlitdinovich; Kadirova Khadicha Turaevna; Bustonov Mansurjon Mardonakulovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1808-1822

The process of globalization, the formation of new regional centers in the form of
large agglomerations, growth points and special economic zones is leading to increased
competition in attracting investment, highly skilled labor and promising infrastructure
projects. At present, the study of the process of effective use of production capacity in the
development of industry in the world's leading countries pays special attention to increasing
the share of innovative components in production capacity, identifying factors influencing the
priority development of new promising industries. In particular, the uneven distribution of
economic resources in the regions and reducing their negative impact, optimizing
interregional economic relations, the use of a cluster system in the establishment of mutually
beneficial activities of various economic entities, increasing the share of innovative
components in production capacity, priority development of new promising industries ,
significant research work is being carried out to identify the factors influencing the
development of the industry, their rational use and purposeful regulation.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1823-1840

Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless network without an access point or node
physical infrastructure cooperation. Protection of data communication is because the nature
of MANET is a major challenge.A particularly challenging problem is how to detect and
maintain viable routing protocol possible attacks. In the mobile ad-hoc network, each node
must be capable of routing data, self-organization, and taking care of the routing domain. The
current implementation of laws and regulations has been a complex issue due to the lack of
fast-moving and fixed infrastructure nodes. The existing system of malicious nodes in the adhoc
network destroys the network performance of the original system. When a new node joins
the network, the network does not have other nodes based on trust any major difficulties in the
relationship between ad-hoc networks. Thus, the proposed system provides ad-hoc network
routing security and authentication. In this proposed system, each node needs to introduce a
Distance Vector Report Authentication Adjustable Routing Protocol (DVRAARP) and Secure
Verification-Based Dynamic Node Selection (SVBDNS) algorithm. DVRAARP provides
solutions to the greater threat of mobile ad-hoc network attacks. Enhanced SVBDNS requires
its next hop to send confirmation emails to the originating node by maintaining the
DVRAARP table. After receiving the route reply and confirmation routing path, the data was
forward to the destination with encrypted using anRSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) proxy with
re-encryption. An SVBDNS algorithm is improved and extended by adding more realistic
strategies such as varying node position, movement, speed, and data verification. Also, to
identify the malicious nodes, it has been observed that this method will lead to the proposed
system fewer savings and less breakage of communication.


EronimusA , Ganesa Murthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1841-1846

Abstract: Rupee value against foreign countries' currency is one of the important factors influencing the foreign currency inflow of India. It also decides the currency power in the globalized market. During the last decades, Indian rupee value has fallen continuously, and the exporters are getting less foreign currency for their export. The exchange rate of Indian rupee value against US dollar has doubled from the year 2008 to the year 2020; it shows that the rupee value deflated nearly half of the value during from the year 2008 to the year 2020. The rupee value also has highly depreciated during the period of global financial crisis, 2008 and novel coronavirus disease, 2019 crisis. The attempts made to analyze the Indian rupee value volatility during the period of two crises. The secondary data of the monthly average value of Indian Rupee against US dollar from July 2008 to November 2008,for analysis of Indian rupee exchange rate volatility during global financial crisis 2008, and from January 2020 to May 2020 for analysis of Indian rupee exchange rate volatility duringa pandemic situation of Covid-19 is taken in this study. The trend line, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and t-test were used in this study. The result shows that the rupee value depreciated in the same direction, but it has depreciated more during the period of the global financial crisis in 2008.


Mehr Khan, Dr. Suruchi Pandey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1847-1861

Orientation: Selection process by nature could involve bias and prejudices of the interviewers on interviewees. This study is an attempt to evaluate whether there is any bias in recruitment process for a tattooed interviewee in IT industry
Research Purpose: The study intends to evaluate and examine the nature and extent of bias prevalent in selection of candidates in IT Industry. The study is specific to identify the biases which could be there for tattooed interviewees.
Motivation for the study: The dimension of tattooing has been researched to a lesser extent empirically in India. The issue of bias in recruitment process has also not been explored or studied very much – these research gaps have motivated the study

Occupational Stress among Indian Doctors during COVID-19

Stuti Prakash, Dr. Vanishree Pabalkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1862-1880

Abstract: Background: There is growing evidence that psychiatric illnesses due to workplace stress (Wong, 2008) are more common in medical professionals worldwide (stress, depression, anxiety and insomnia) and feelings of emotional exhaustion, and it was found to be related to shortfalls in regime of health and wellness.Emerging content in support of the truth that Indian health care professionals (Dasgupta, 2009) are now operating under pressure due to the workplace condition, and the current COVID-19 pandemic has also amplified (Elbay, 2020), and we need to research the occupational stress among Indian doctors more than any other time, that can carry out observations from the data gathered during this review, which will be crucial in identifying the problem at hand and providing appropriate data-backed recommendations for changing the status quo.


Shriya KT

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1881-1899

Covid 19 catastrophe has eventually stopped the functioning of Indian corporates and it has affected it to the core. The study is an empirical and quantitative study to evaluate the nature and prevalence of financial risks which are prevalent in Indian organizations. The study would also evaluate its implications on financial management strategies for Indian corporates.
 In this study Mixed research method is used which would be a combination of Exploratory, conclusive and action oriented research. The research method chosen for this study would be survey method with Questionnaire. For this study a sample of 100 senior managers, financial managers, accountants and auditors would be contacted who are working in India. Data analysis has been done using SPSS. It was found from this study that company rules and regulations led to more financial risks in Indian corporates. The government policies and procedures had very less influence on company’s financial risks in India. It is concluded that companies must change their policies and procedures to reduce the prevalence of financial risks in their companies.

The impact of influencer marketing in the fitness industry on consumer trust

Abhishek Singh Tomar, Ruby Chanda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1900-1911

Abstract: With well-being and wellness being tremendous themes throughout the most recent few years, logically added people endeavor to that profit from design through their social media objections covering on it, especially on Instagram. As this condition could benefit each included assembling – influencers, the associations, and the end purchasers it is basic to acknowledge step by step instructions to win the trust of the admirers through checking the greatest impressive trust of factor as a rule. However there are a couple of assessments covering trust in web business, not alone one has sorted out some way to analyze the situation regarding influencer displaying, extensively more unequivocally wellbeing related influencers on Instagram. To deal with this issue, the three most by and large referred to components in trust of in the taken under composing was the circle, liberality, uprightness, and capacity. Every given out factor was three associated, Like-scaled requests in an online study that were used, which by then aided in driving a different backslide assessment. The assessment Instagram showed customers particularly recognize straightforwardness, inciting the end that influencers similarly as associations who work with them should be 100% unrefined, genuine, and considerate to win the buyers' trust.

Analysis of the Effectiveness of a Floating Septic Tank with BOD, TSS, pH, Temperature, and MPN Coli as parameters from Black Water Waste in Kodingareng Island, Makassar City

Mohammad Anugerah; Agus Bintara Birawida; Syamsuddin Toaha; Hidayat .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1912-1919

One of the important aspects of the environment is sanitation. Sanitation is human effort to create a safe and comfortable environment. Processing of liquid waste through a floating septic tank is a form of environmental sanitation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of floating septic tanks in Kodingareng Island, Makassar City, in terms of parameters of BOD, TSS, pH, temperature and MPN Coli.This research is experimental. This research begins by reviewing related literature, environmental survey, preliminary study, making a model of floating system waste management and checking the results of the effluent. This floating septic tank is expected to be the right sanitation facility to be used by people on the coast and islands. After 45 days of septic tank installation and 3 effluent sampling with a span of 2 days at the same effluent point, the research shows several results. Measurement of BOD and TSS and MPN Coli levels in the effluent of waste treatment, with a septic tank, showed results above the quality standard of the Minister of Environment and Forestry Regulation No. 68 of 2016 concerning domestic waste requirements. The decrease in BOD levels from the first test sample to the third test sample was 40.9% (580 mg / l, 483.24 mg / l, 342.3 mg / l). At TSS levels, the decrease from the first to second test samples was 22.7% (180 mg / l, 139 mg / l, 207 mg / l), while the temperature and pH were still in accordance with the quality standard. For MPN Coli parameter is still far above the quality standard. The result of parameter test is an extrapolation or estimation model. This method can show the estimation model of the residence time of wastewater in the treatment system so as to achieve the estimated time of effluent according to quality standards.


P. Dhanalakshmi; Dr. G. Satyavathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1920-1937

The medical diagnosis and clinical practice greatly demands medical image classification, an emerging area of research which includes modern medical imaging technology. Recently, Fuzzy Bat Algorithm (FBA) with Mean Weight Convolution Neural Network (MWCNN) algorithm was proposed for Region of Interest (RoI) area detection in the lung images in order to increase the classification accuracy. The image processing system outcomes are influenced by edge detection e.g. region segmentation, objects detection. Edge detection is done through Blended Kernel Based Fuzzy Local Information C-Means (BKFLICM) technique and construction of gradients in the scale is achieved by clustering of all image pixels in a feature space. The image segmentation mainly relies on the pixel intensity which is used for assessing resemblance amidst pixels. The edge detection using BKFLICM is performed by formation of new kernel range which is obtained by merging hyperbolic tangent kernel and Gaussian kernel. The special feature of BKFLICM is the fuzzy local (gray level) similarity measure through the kernel function. This does the edge detection perfectly while preserving the image details following which FBA and MWCNN classifier are utilized for segmentation and classification respectively. The training of lung image classification deprived of severe over-fitting is mainly done through MWCNN with sufficient labelled images and improved accuracy is also obtained for (LIDC-IDRI) database. The performance metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure values are also enhanced using the proposed algorithm which is validated by the experimental outcomes.

Analytical study of Vinod Kumar Shukla's novel 'Noukar ki kamij’

miss Priyanka Borah; M.A M.Phil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1938-1940

Poet, novelist and narrator Vinod Kumar Shukla is one of the distinguished creators of the second half of the twentieth century who has given a new direction to contemporary Hindi literature. Pleased with diverse qualities, Vinod Kumar Shukla's personality is characterized by happiness, sensitivity, simplicity, simplicity and mythology. Vinod Kumar Shukla has lived the simple life of the middle class, so his works have a subtle and lively depiction of the reality of life. Vinod Kumar Shukla is identified in Hindi literature as a strong storyteller. He has made a special identity in the field of novel, story and poetry. Human novels prevail in his novels. He gives a message of morality, non-violence, love and compassion to a society riddled with violence, malice, selfishness, immorality. Born on 1 January 1937 in a middleclass family of Radnandgaon, Madhya Pradesh, Vinod Kumar Shukla got inspiration from literature from home. His uncle Pandit Kishori Lal was associated with politics and his cousin Bhagwati prasad himself was interested in literature. Due to which Vinod Kumar Shukla got to learn the first lesson of writing in the home school.

Isolation, Identification, Validation of Determination Alpha Mangosteen on Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia mangostana L.)

Mr Kurniawan; Azis Saifudin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1941-1947

Mangosteen rind is currently widely used by people as an ingredient in health drinks. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the quality of raw materials, extract preparations and their compounds in order to meet the quality requirements as stated in the Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The content of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana L.) consists of various kinds of xanthones, especially αmangosteen and γ-mangosteen. The presence of these two compounds can be a standard quality parameter of the mangosteen rind extract as an herbal medicinal ingredient. The method of determining the standard content in the methanol extract of mangosteen rind using the HPLC method. The extract was prepared by maceration method using methanol. Then fractionated and purified to obtain fractions into isolates using various chromatography techniques. The identification of isolated compounds by TLC used the mobile phase of hexane: ethyl acetate (2: 3), H-NMR and reverse-phase HPLC with the mobile phase of water: acetonitrile (80: 20). The assay results for the α-mangosteen standard compound had a mean value of 0.155 mg / mL. The validation of the α-mangosteen content determination method in methanol extract of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana L.) was carried out by determining the values of linearity parameters, detection limits and quantitation limits. The αmangosteen linearity study shows that the analysis carried out in the concentration range (0.4; 0.2; 0.1; 0.05; 0.025) mg / ml provides a measurement of the relationship coefficient (r) of 0.993 with a detection limit (LOD). ) of 0.043 mg / ml and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.129 mg / ml. So that in this range α-mangosteen gives a linear response. The specificity value of the α-mangosteen spectrum purity test results obtained a correlation value above 0.99. The results of the α-mangosteen test met the validation criteria.


Saidakbar Raxmonkulov; Jalolov Khurshidbek; Chariyeva Hilal Dustmurotovna; Danabaev Abdumurot Berdievich; Ochildiev Najmiddin Norboevich; Abdishukurov Buri Radjapovish; Dadakhujayev Hassanboy Tulanboyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1948-1951

The article presents the results on the correlation of some economically valuable traits in interline hybrids of F2 cotton with various colors of seed puffs. Revealed positive average correlations between the productivity of plants and the weight of raw cotton one boll; strong negative to strong positive - between 1000 seeds and fiber yield; weak, medium and strong - between 1000 seeds and fiber length.

Knowing the origin of the Deoris of Assam in the broader context of Folklore

Atrayee Kashya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1952-1958

In the contemporary society we are constantly struggling to go back to our roots and to maintain
our ethnic identity. ‘Who am I?’ is a question that has been scrutinized by us in diverse forms in
our lives. How important do we think folklore in defining cultural identity? Culture is the
creative expression of a particular society through its symbols, stories, ballads, myths, literature,
art, music and for some its institution. An oral composition may be added to or subtracted from at
any time and by different people. The date regarding the historical background of the Deoris is
largely wanting due to scarcity of relevant ancient documents and other evidences. Regarding the
origin and pre-history of the Deori community few legends as well as traditional songs can be
considered as these appear to have represented real facts. How does a community foster its bond
between people and their folklore and exactly which of its aspects relate to the society at large:
the themes, the language, the forms, or the particular tales, songs and proverbs? The forms of
folklore are thus regarded as the cores at the hearts of artistic forms. Identity is an outcome, a
condition created largely through heritage which may or may not be conveyed through rituals as
the vehicle of transmission. The Deori culture is facing danger from the clutches of globalization
and striving hard to flourish. Such endangered culture so sprung -up by the nature thousand
years past now deserve preservation and propagation by the government itself from being extinct.
Thus, this working paper is a humble endeavour to deal with the notions of authenticity, locality,
vitality of oral culture and cultural identity of the Deori Community, in the realm of folklore.


Javkharov Oybek Zulfiqorovich; Amirov Shavkat Kuzibaevich; Sobirov Ilhom Abdullaevich; Karimov Sherali Allaberdievich; Esonov Hasanboy Abdumutallibovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1959-1965

The experiment examined the effect of the use of Introvit A + WS-amino acidvitamin
nutrient mixture in the diet of dairy cows on the efficiency of milk production. The use of
Introvit A + WS-amino acid-vitamin in the diet resulted in an increase in milk productivity due to
balancing the protein-energy ratio in cows, an increase in milk fat and protein content, and a 5%
reduction in feed consumption due to efficient cow nutrition.

Rejuvenation of severe acne scars by microneedling

Qasim S. Al Chalabi; Mohammed N. Al Malah; Haitham B. Al Badrani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1966-1973

Objectives: To find the effect of microneedling dermapen© on dark skin individuals and
severe form of atrophic acne scar.
Patients and methods: The study was conducted as open clinical trial in dermatology clinic at
Ibn-Sina Teaching Hospital in Mosul, Iraq. Twenty-five patients were included in the study.
The severity of acne scars was determined by using Goodman and Baron global quantitative
acne scar grading system (GBGQASGS). Patients with grade 3 and 4 were eligible for the
study. All patients underwent 4sessions of dermapen microneedling treatment at six-week
Results: The studied individuals consisted of 15 (60%) patients with Grade 3, and 10 (40%)
patients with Grade 4 acne scars. The results revealed that 12% of the patients had minimal
improvement, 48% had a moderate improvement, 40% had good improvement and no patients
showed excellent improvement according to GBGQASGS. The mean ± SD of GBGQASGS
was reduced from 16.39±3.43 to 7.78±2.79 at the end of sessions (p-value <0.0001). The
results showed an inverse relationship between the baseline severity score and the degree of
improvement of acne scars. The effect of dermapen© on acne scars showed the largest effect
on the depth of scar (Cohen d =1.53), then on number of scar (Cohen d =1.37), and lastly on
size of the scar (Cohen d =1.26). No serious post treatment complications were reported.
Conclusion: Dermapen© microneedling therapy can be used for the treatment of atrophic
acne scars, but it is not the treatment of choice in severe form of acne scars.


P.Mohana and Dr.A.Enoch

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1974-1995

Employees are the primary pillars of an organization’s success, and desire to grow and scale new heights professionally. Given adequate career development opportunities, an employee can pursue his career goals by utilizing his potential fully. He is encouraged when the organization also supports him with a clear career path that is aligned with its corporate goals. Unfortunately, as John Leach points out, organizations are paying scant attention to this particular aspect, owing to a variety of reasons. As a result, they are unable to match employee expectations with their own special needs. Mentoring helps organizations attract the right people, shape them into future leaders, and retain their loyalty for the long term. A survey reported that 67% of all companies will choose to opt for mentoring programs as training and development tools, effective 2014 onwards.
Miscellaneous studies on employee retention indicate that career development is a key factor that determines how long employees choose to stay on. A career development plan is a win – win for both employers and employees. It focuses on employees’ need for growth and development. The organization, for its part, supports employees develop and pursue a career path through access to opportunities and information, resulting in helping employees at personal and professional levels. Naturally, IT organizations have introduced career development programs to help retain their employees. The researcher has chosen this area as the topic of the study and intends to explore mentoring functions and their influence on the career development of protégés in the organization.This study was conducted in the city of Chennai. All IT companies with branches in Chennai are presumed to be good sources of information on employees in this niche sector, especially in terms of the companies’ perception of mentoring functions and their influence on career development.

Synthesis, antimicrobial assays and docking study of new triazolo cum tetrazolo quinoline derivatives.

Amol H. Kategaonkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1996-2010

A series of triazolo cum tetrazoloquinoline derivatives viz 4-((4-phenyl 1H-1,2,3 triazol 1 yl)-methyl) tetrazolo [1,5-a] quinoline derivatives (4a-g) were synthesized utilizing 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (click chemistry) reaction of 4-(azido-methyl) tetrazolo [1,5-a] quinoline derivatives (3a-3g) with alkyne hydrocarbon containing a phenyl group using copper (I) catalyst has been achieved in good yield. In vitro antimicrobial assays of all corresponding synthesized derivatives were performed. Significant antimicrobial activity observed against all the tested strains for majority of the synthesized compounds. From the results of biological activity and docking study it is observed that the Novel triazolo cum tetrazoloquinoline derivatives 4b, 4d and 4f can serve as important lead moiety for further exploration.


V. R. Jadhavar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2011-2018

Physico-chemical characteristics of the water samples from the study area were analyzed by following the standard methods to determine the quality of drinking water from three types of sample viaRaw water, Tap water andWater after treatment at the Nagothane town from June 2019 to January 2020. The average values of the parameters like pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Chloride, etc. were found within permissible limits for drinking water as prescribed by WHO especially for tap and after treatment water. However, the values observed in raw water samples were above the permissible limits. Therefore it may give severe health problems to the people residing in the study area and was found unsuitable for direct human consumption without treatment. Therefore, the present study states that there is an urgent need for a regular monitoring of water quality, so that further pollution of water can be prevented


Pancham Kulkarni,Aastha Parekh,Kalika Bandamwar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2019-2032

Aim: To investigate the quality of vision post-short-term open eye orthokeratology (OK) lens wear.
Methods: A total of thirty young adults with myopia between 1.00D to 5.00D wore OK contact lenses for 2 hours in open eye condition in their right eye only. The root-mean-square high order aberrations (RMS-HOA) of the corneal front surface were recorded using Scheimpflug camera. Additionally, unaided visual acuity (VA), objective spherical equivalent refraction (SER), and contrast sensitivity (CS) were recorded using logMAR chart, open field autorefractometer, and CSV-1000 (VectorVision) chart respectively. Data were captured at baseline and post 2 hours of OK lens wear.
Results: Significant improvement in VA and SER of 0.42 ± 0.03log (Mean ± SEM, p < 0.0001) and 0.71 ± 0.06D (p < 0.0001) was seen post-OK lens wear respectively. The CS displayed a significant improvement for all spatial frequencies post lens wear. Total RMS values of HOA, RMS spherical aberration (SA; Z12), RMS higher order astigmatism (Z3+Z5) and RMS coma (Z7+Z8) increased by 0.12 ± 0.03µm (p = 0.001), 0.15 ± 0.02µm (p < 0.0001), 0.07 ± 0.06µm (p > 0.05) and 0.08 ± 0.02µm (p = 0.004) respectively post lens wear.
Conclusion: Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity demonstrated significant improvement post open eye OK lens wear. However, there was a degradation of visual quality due to an increase in RMS-HOA, SA, and coma post lens wear.


Madhukar A. Badgujar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2033-2039

The aim of the study to describe a simple, precise sensitive, rapid, accurate and economical simultaneous equation method for the determination of chlorzoxazone and diclofenac sodium in tablet dosage form. The method involved solving simultaneous equations based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 244nm and 280nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range 5- 20 µg/mL for Chlorzoxazone and 1- 4µg/mL for Diclofenac sodium. The percentage recovery was found to be 98 - 101% for Chlorzoxazoneand 98 – 100% for Diclofenac sodium indicates that the method was accurate and precise for simultaneous estimation of Chlorzoxazone and Diclofenac sodium in tablets.


Pritpal Singh; Mohd Farhan; Parampal Singh.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2040-2048

Aim: This research focuses on studying the association between workplace efficiency and
customer satisfaction in tertiary hospitals of Punjab. Material and Methods: Study to find
efficiency was conducted with the help of data envelopment analysis. Data envelopment analysis
focuses on finding efficiency through input /output-based model which follows linear
mathematical formulas. Demand of health services are increasing but availability of health
services is still big issue. In that case, it will become very important for hospitals to optimally
utilize their existing resources with proper efficiency measurements. Hospitals of different sizes
are selected and size is dependent upon bed strength of hospitals. Results: Result explains that
efficiency is considered to be negative moderator between relation of number of specialized
doctors and patient satisfaction. Conclusion :Results in research suggested that higher level of
efficiency level of hospitals lessen the positive effect of specialized doctors on patient
satisfaction In this study medical hospital efficiency applies a negative control between
accessibility of specialists and patient satisfaction,. This study gives the proof that medical
hospital size has a critical negative impact on efficiency of hospital i.e. Present research
indicates that smaller hospitals have a higher level of efficiency than larger and medium-size
hospitals, smaller size hospitals average efficiency is .80. The average efficiency of medium size
hospitals is .75 and the large hospital is .71.


Biju P; Dr. P Vinayagamurthy; Dr. Reeja P S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2049-2054

The present research aimed at understanding the urban women's health and hygien
e consciousness and selfsteem level in Kottayam municipality, Kerala state. Health is a
dynamic, multidimensional term that encompasses an individual's physical, mental and
emotional elements. Municipality of Kottayam in Kerala was seen as the universe of the
current research. 410 samples were selected from the beneficiaries of the Kottayam
municipal area, Kerala. Beneficiaries who had completed the construction of their urban
homes were considered. The study mainly focused on demographic factors to figure out the
health and hygiene of the respondents. Face to face questionnaire survey method was used
for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed on the gathered data. The result
indicates that, respondents vary in their standard of health and hygiene on the basis of
education. The research also demonstrates the variation in level of health and hygiene of
the respondent on the basis of family type. Therefore, relative to nuclear family
respondents, the joint family has a stronger outlook on wellbeing and grooming. It is also
assumed that after the building of own homes, there is still a major connexion between
self-esteem than before. Individuals have a good optimistic self-esteem relationship after
creating their own home.


Digbijoy Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2055-2063

The paper presents a bibliometric study of the Journal of Chemical Sciences for the
period of 10 years (1987-1996) in which articles were published. The study focuses
on necessary bibliometric analysis forms, authorship pattern analysis, year wise
distribution of articles, issue wise distribution of articles, subject wise distribution
analysis.The study revealed that that the maximum number of articles were
published in the year 1993 (127) and minimum in the year 1994 (21) articles. The
authorship pattern of the articles published during the period of study was
contributed maximum by two authors 265 (27.20%), followed by three authors with
253 (25.98%) articles, five and more authors contributed 184 (18.89 %) articles,
four authors with 177 (18.18%) and single author with 9.75% of the total articles.
Out of 717 articles in the Journal of Chemical Sciences joint authors contributed
599 (83.54%) articles while the rest 118 (16.46%) articles were contributed by single
author. Most of the works were done on physical and theoretical chemistry with 291
articles followed by inorganic and analytical chemistry with 208 articles.

Role of Polyphenolic Compounds in Management of Oxidative Stress Associated With Glaucoma

Chandrashekhar Mahadeo Chakole; Meenakshi Kanwar Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2064-2084

Glaucoma is a first rank common cause of irreversible vision loss. It is also
recognized as a neurodegenerative disease which progress with age, results in optic
neuropathy. The exact cause of glaucoma remains unclear although oxidative stress
considered as one of the reasons for cell death in the retinal ganglion cell and retinal
pigment epithelium. Oxidative stress could result after imbalance between formation and
utilization of reactive oxygen species. Current pharmacotherapy of glaucoma includes
lowering down of elevated level of IOP, which is not sufficient enough to retard
irreversible vision loss in some instances. Hence, alternative neuroprotective therapy is
warranted. Polyphenolic compounds possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties and
also show the neuroprotective effect in an experimental model. Amongst the natural
polyphenolic compounds resveratrol, curcumin, rutin, quercetin, myricetin have been
studied and showed potential as neuroprotection against cell apoptosis. Moreover, the extra
supplement of a polyphenolic compound may also improve antioxidant status, which was
underestimated in glaucoma disorder. Despite the potential, the polyphenolic compounds
yet to explore for clinical use in ocular disorder. Hence it is an excellent opportunity for
the future researcher to transform these substances from lab to clinic as neuroprotectants
in glaucoma.


G.Sampath Kumar; D.Varun Kumar; A. Kalyani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2085-2091

Concrete is one of the primary materials in a variety of studies in the building industry. In order
to increase its properties such as workability, strength, durability and other applications, as well
as to reduce production costs, alternatives in concrete are also required in civil technology.
Containing the fibrous content, fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) increases the structural strength
of this material. It comprises small, equal sized and randomly-oriented discrete fibres. Fibers
include steel, glass fibres, synthetic and natural fibres, each with a range of properties.
Furthermore, fiber-reinforced concrete change characteristics with various concretes, fibre
materials, geometry, distribution, orientation and permeability. In shotcrete, fibre-reinforcement
is used especially but can also be used in regular concrete. Normal fibre reinforced concrete is
used mainly for ground floors and floors but can be used for a wide variety of construction


Sunnatullo Amrulloevich Gafforov; Gayrat Elmurodovich Idiev; Feruza Ikromovna Ibragimova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2092-2103

According to some literature data, special attention in the diagnosis of dysfunction
of the temporomandibular joint is given to a detailed analysis of complaints, the collection of
anamnesis and data of the main research methods characterizing the dental status of profile
patients in the form of structural algorithms using databases focused on this pathology [10,
12, 16, 25, 35, 37, 43], as well as generalized clinical methods for the diagnosis of functional
disorders of the dentoalveolar system, taking into account modern scientific views [6, 7, 8, 18,


Tilyakov Aziz Burievich; Tilakov Buri Tilakovich; Tilyakov Khasan Azizovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2104-2109

The results of locked intramedullary osteosynthesis in 48 patients with pseudarthrosis and nonunion of the tibia, from 6 months to 4 years, have been observed. In 27 cases the patients had been previously operated by means of external fixation with Ilizarov apparatus, and with plates. We achieved union in 44 patients (91,6%) at 10 - 1,3 months, including 4 from 6 patients with bone defects and osteomyelitis of the tibia with remission. The results of treatment allow the application of locked intramedullary osteosynthesis in complicated pseudarthrosis.


Muminov Shuxrat Manapovich; Valiev Erkin Yuldashevich; Xamidov Baxtiyar Pulatovich; Kim Dmitriy Lvovich; Alimuxamedov Jahangir Jamalovich; Valiev Odil Erkinovich; Tilyakov Xasan Azizovich; Ismailov Anvar Djamshidovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2110-2121

The analysis of the results of examination and treatment of 15 operated patients with deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities and pelvis in combination with skeletal trauma in the departments of vascular surgery and traumatology of the RSCEMP for the period from 2017 to 2019 was carried out. All patients underwent a simultaneous operation, the purpose of which was the prevention of pulmonary embolism and the elimination of skeletal trauma. Depending on the level of the thrombotic process, 13 patients underwent IVC clipping and 2 patients underwent ligation of the femoral vein in combination with the traumatological stage of the operation.


Khasanjanova Farida Odilovna; Khaydarova Dilrabo Davronovna; Muradova Raila Rustamovna; Nuralieva Rano Matyakubovna; Nasirova Dilangiz Akbarovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2123-2139

Recently, the prevalence of unstable variants of angina pectoris (NVS) among men at a young age has increased markedly. A significant role in the inflammation of the atherosclerotic plaque, which underlies the pathogenesis of NVS, is assigned to cytokines by the mediator. To date, the role of cytokine gene polymorphism in the development of NVS associated with inflammatory processes has been proven.


Soujannya Diwan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2140-2141

This paper is an in- dept exploration of the connection between the Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore and the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy. As both, Tolstoy and Tagore were great humanists, made strong holds against colonialism and imperialism. The main motto of these writers was to have peace bent of mind globally. According to Tolstoy, A belief system should be strengthened in accordance with reason and knowledge, which an individual establishes with the infinite world around him/her, that leads to the practical rule of life. Leo Tolstoy understood religion lies in the true connection to the universe. The essence of any religion exists solely in the answer to the self-questioned is Why Do I exist? Hence the concept of existence is much appreciated in the art works of Tolstoy. Tagore’s concept of self is all about analyzing the capabilities of being human with nature. An individual finds her/him in finding an intimacy with nature. Tagore’s vision was to lift an individual out of stale air of common life to regions where man’s ordinary existence is subsumed by a life of passion and power.Therefore, the art of supreme being is overviewed in the flair works of Tagore.

Disorders of Sexual Development: Ambiguous genitalia presenting with 45, X/46X, idic(Y) karyotype

Manpreet Kaur Ph.D.1, Abhay Kumar Yadav Ph.D.1, Ashish Ph.D.1, Nitish Kumar Singh Ph.D.1, Royana Singh, M.D., Ph.D.1∗

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2142-2150

Ambiguous genitalia constitute a rare phenotypic presentation of the urogenital system that can signal an underlying life-threatening disorder. The present case relates to a 3 months old infant reared as male child with the mosaic karyotype 45, X/46, X, idic(Y) who presented with ambiguous genitalia. Genital ambiguity was present in the form of partial fusion of labioscrotal folds and microphallus with single opening at the tip of phallus. The child underwent orchidopexy for right inguinal testis at age of 2 months while left testis was present in labioscrotal sac. Basal testosterone level was 160 ng/dl and LH 3 IU/L. Pelvic ultrasonography did not reveal presence of Mullerian structures.
Material and method: First Karyotype was performed with peripheral lymphocytes, GTG banded chromosome analysis, the presence and location of SRY gene was investigated using FISH, respectively.
Result: Karyotyping confirms the 45, X (monosomy X), while the FISH analysis revealed presence of two cell lines: one cell line with single copy of X chromosome with absence of SRY gene in 70% of cells. Second cell line with one copy of X chromosome and 2 copies of SRY gene in 30 % cell analyzed.

An Review of Student Sentimental Analysis For Educational Database Using Unsupervised Machine Learning Approaches

Laishram Kirtibas Singh , R.Renuga Devi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2151-2165

With the World Wide Web's growth at a relatively high rate, a huge increase in network communications has become inevitable. Online communication data includes feedback posted by students. Sentiment analysis, natural language processing, computational linguistics and text analysis, application recognition and text retrieval of information.Social media platforms are considered to be the most popular form of online communication. Through platforms such as the e-learning education system, multiple pieces of information that reflect student opinions and attitudes are published and shared among users every day. These platforms have recently focused on tracking and monitoring the reputation of their study time and student review and helping decision-makers and politicians assess their public opinion on policy and political issues. The opinions and emojis of understanding its important role in influencing student study opinion decisions are becoming more important for the educational field. It is possible to consider how emotions are used to advance e-learning intelligence tasks so that organizations can gain access to analyze education and detect unfavorable rumor risk management capabilities. Machine Learning is widely used for reputation analysis, and many sentiment analysis systems use unsupervised learning methods. This existing sentimental analysis for dictionary-based approaches is to provide a higher time complexity. The words are utilizing unsupervised learning based lexicon pattern methodology. The educational, sentimental pattern dependency factor between aspects and the sentiment word isconsidered. This approach evaluates the sentimental information to find the aspect and provides less complexity and a higher classification rate than existing methods.

The Comprehensive Review of Novel Data-Mining Approaches for Sentiment Classification In Tourism Applications

Chingakham Nirma Devi, R.Renuga Devi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2166-2180

Many places considered as tourist sites have grown rapidly. Many tourists find it difficult to get the right information about the tourist site due to technological advancements.Because there are so many sites that provide user ratings and feedback, not all of them are readable, and it isn't easy to find relevant information to get the overall picture.Communication between emotions and individuals is considered an important aspect of communication.Text emotion extraction is used to determine controlled communication of human-computer interactions and many other people. Emotions also express the basic expressions of a person's face or text through language. Emotions are also expressed in one word or many words.Customers make their own decisions based on existing reviews. Tourists looking for their products or services have many problemsknowing the user attitude from the previous work reviews.Tourism review datasets for simulation analysis are prepared by collecting different reviews from different websites.The sentiment analysis framework is then reviewed, and mining is doneby implementing the Data MiningTechniques that will analyze classes, suggesting a complete vocabulary's strengths and weaknesses. Conceptualization and reputation analysisisconsidered to be the process of automatically extracting and analyzing the opinion, feelings, thoughts, and insights about a particular willachievefrom different facets such as politics, economy, events, phenomena, services, etc.; such emotions are defined as the positive or negative emotions of an individual.The upcoming system willautomatically analyze the emotion with a low analysis time level and provide better accuracy results than the previous system.

Synthesis and characterization studies of novel ternary complexes of Zn(II) and Ni(II) ion with norfloxacin drugs and amino acids

Damini Vishwakarma, Sanju Agrawal, Noorafsha, Anupama Kashyap, Anil Kumar Kashyap, Nitin A. Mirganec

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2181-2202

In the present work, we have synthesized twenty (20) Zn(II) and Ni(II) ion ternary complex with fluoroquinolone drug (Norfloxacin (NOR)) as primary ligand and-proline, L-glycine, L-alanine, L-histidine, L-arginine, L-threonine, L-valine, L-methionine, L-tryptophan, L-lysine , L-leucine, L-tyrosine, L-cysteine amino acid (AA) as the secondary ligand. Initial characterization studies have been done by elemental analysis to get information on the percent composition of C, H, N, O, S elements and metal, while UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the effect of metal chelation on the different inter-ligand transitions. Magnetic moment confirms the diamagnetic and paramagnetic behaviour of Zn (II) complexes and Ni (II) because there are all paired and two unpaired electrons are present in the outer orbital of the central zinc and nickel metal ion respectively. So the Zn and Ni metal shows +2 oxidation state in all synthesized complexes. While IR studies confirm the presence of all functional groups in synthesized complexes. Synthesized new ternary complexes contains [Zn(II)(NOR)(AA)] and [Ni(II)(NOR)(AA)] is1:1:1 molar ratio.   The zinc and nickel ion in these 20complexes have similar coordination modes, which can be described as six coordinated octahedral geometry. Stability of the all  ternary complexes was determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) in temperature ranges between 25 -900 . The carboxylic and amino acid group participate in the bonding and the interaction of the metal ion with an amino acid.

Road ahead for Indian telemedicine providers and online mobile health apps – A proposed theoretical framework

Dr Shekhar Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2203-2210

Like the demonetisation of 2016 which paved way for widespread adoption of digital payments methods in India, COVID -19 has turned into a similar black swan moment for the online mobile health apps. On one side, COVID-19 challenged the health infrastructure of India, and one the other side it opened opportunities for digital healthcare. Many healthcare start-ups rose to the challenge and brought innovations in the digital healthcare space. Taking leverage of being the second largest smartphone market in the world, these technology players brought online medical consultations within the reach of 1.5 billion people of India. The next challenge for these service providers is to spread awareness of these online medical health apps among smartphone users of India and encourage them to adopt and try these online medical consultation services. In this paper, an endeavour has been made to propose a research model towards the adoption of these OMHAs.   

Intelligent Crop Growth Management System using Internet of Things

Dr.K.Tajudin, Dr.I.Shahina Begam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2211-2222

Now-a-days a crucial development of advanced technologies leads a world in an innovative manner as well as the technical development creates new ideas to make the manual work more smarter compare to the regular perspectives. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the powerful medium, in which it incorporates many commercial and non-commercial organization boundaries into it. Many applications and smart devices adopts the purpose of Internet of Things to provide the range free communication services without any delay. In other case, agriculture and farming is the most important and food is the basic need for every living being, in which the agriculture remunerates the food to all. So, agriculture is considered to be the backbone of any country as well as it plays a vital role in country's economy. However, the cultural differences leads many people to come out from the field of agriculture and leads a work free life as well as many people in villages want to deviate and relocate their presence from there to cities. Due to this kinds of reasons the nature of agriculture is down and many people are not interested to do such things. This paper is intended to motivate the nature of agriculture by doing it in a smart way without any hurdles as well as this paper introduce a new methodology called Intelligent Crop Monitoring Scheme (ICMS), in which it integrates many unique approaches to provide ultimate support to farmers to do agriculture without any complexities even from a remote place as well. The major integrations bounding with this proposed approach of ICMS are Internet of Things (IoT), Deep Machine Learning Principles with effective prediction strategies and emergency alerting port. These all are integrated together over the proposed approach and provides the good outcome in results as well as the proposed approach of ICMS assures the accuracy levels of predictions. This system place a small smart device over the agricultural field, in which the device is interconnected with internet by using Internet of Things to accumulate the data and placed it into the global server for monitoring. The details of the smart device and the specified details are clearly described over the following summaries. For all the proposed approach eliminates the hurdle in agriculture field and provides efficiency to do such things in easy way without any complexity.


Vijaya Kiran G, D Jayanayudu, D K Kavitha, Yelithoti Sravana Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2223-2230

Here it proposes new low-density parity-check (LDPC) encoder architecture and a parallel low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoding algorithm on GPUs. In this paper the basic construction of effective LDPC parity matrix is transformed in to parallel encoding operations of rows and columns. An optimized method for controlling memories is also proposed which can be reused with different code rates which enhance the use of components assets. Then the planned LDPC encoder along with decoders is designed with Xilinx FPGA software. Confer into Modelsim's results, it can again authenticated that the proposed technique is advantageous by less assets usage, less required power and also precision is high. Then proposed encoders and decoders brings in a throughput of 400 Mbps. Among the test data transmission with Lena base binary images this paper presents a effective design and implementation for LDPC decoder, dedicated application specific integrated circuit (ASIC)  or field-programmable gate array (FPGA) constructions into later years to support huge performance given their lengthy deployment period, huge level construction along with particularly rigid functionality. Any other way, effective software system constructions on GPU provide versatile, expandable, and low cost solution in shorter deployment periods. This can acquire high throughput in computerized correspondence frameworks, it presents minimum GPU-based advancements about major LDPC decoder algorithms.


Vatchala. S; Bingi Manorama Devi; M. Sharmila Devi; Sathish. A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2231-2239

Non-functional requirements play a critical role in choosing various alternative model and ultimate implementation criteria. It is extremely significant in the earlier stages of software development that requirement engineering produces successful technology and eliminates system failure. The recent work has shown that the automated extraction and classification of quality attributes from text files have been demonstrated by artificial intelligence approaches including machine learning and text mining. In the automated extraction and classification of nonfunctional specifications, we suggest a supervised categorization approach. To test our approach to obtain interesting outcomes, a very well-known dataset is used. In terms of security and performance, we obtained a specific range of 85% to 98% and obtained a best result together for security, performance and usability.


Bhaskar Bhuyan; Bitu Borah; Rupam Gogoi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2240-2249

The recent Outbreak of the Covid-19 from the Wuhan region of China has brought the critical situation and crisis to human species around the world. The issue of ‘Human Security’ has brought about the global crisis. It is now under discussion. There are new challenges around the world in the field of disease and treatment. The development of a health sector rather than military power can first protect the citizens of a country or nation. The same has been taught to the People of this generation. Basically, as a biological disaster, the disease has hit the socio-cultural and economic infrastructure of the world. ‘Vasant roga’ was recognized as a former world outbreak. The overall environment of the Concomitant outbreak after polio, plague, Spanish flu has caused a long-term crisis in the international economy, politics and health. The SARS-CoV-2 or the COVID-19 that affect more than 195 countries around the world at the same time are also challenges the scientific development of the world's advanced capitalist countries. 2 The overall contribution of education technology and the discovery have been questioned. Out of the 195 countries around the world 84 countries have to be on the lock down. This is the first time in human civilization that so many countries are under lockdown. In this terrible situation every nation is moving towards economic slowdown. International communication, imports and exports have been stopped. There is a terrible danger to every government, private sector associated with labour and farmer class as well as the other professions. How will the future of a developing nation like India and a developing state like Assam be in this situation? How will this affect the society, literature and culture of Assam? The proposed issue is being researched for an academic discussion on the same.


T. Pavani; Ch. Komali; G. Sowmika; Y. Rajasree Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2250-2256

Micro strip patch antennas plays vital role in biomedical applications as they are low profile. These antennas are used in countless bio medical applications. These days patch antennas become popular for health monitoring. Implanted, BWCS and RFID sensors are few applications in which patch antenna is a key element. This paper discusses a review of various micro strip antennas and techniques for biomedical applications.


Padmavathi Kora; A Rajani; M C Chinnaiah; K Swaraja; K Meenakshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2257-2269

The key factor of death in India is the enormous increase of coronary artery diseases. The blood
pressure smoking diabetes serum cholesterol asthma and body mass index are the major cad risk factors in the indian population. Life pattern patterns socio-economic status and vascular disorder such as artery atherosclerosis play a crucial role in the development of cardiovascular disorders aside from these hereditary influences. As the main blood vessels that supply our heart with blood oxygen and nutrients get damaged coronary artery disease occurs. For coronary artery disease, cholesterol-containing de- posits plaque in arteries and inflammation are typically observed. The goal of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of the Naturopathy and Mediation program in coronary atherosclerosis regression and cardiac injury reduction in an open study. Naturopathy diet salt minimal high-fiber vegetarian diet mild yoga and stress relief by rajyoga meditation was given to one hundred Angio graphically effected mild to extreme coronary artery atherosclerosis patients. Training in self-responsibility healthy and self-empowerment through the inner approach to self-consciousness using Rajyoga meditation is its most prominent aspect. After a 90-day inhouse reassessment and specialized preparation patients are invited for one year of follow-up. All the patients were assessed at the end of 3 months to undergo repeat angiography. Our goal in this study is to study the overall positive adjustments in physio- logical biochemical and psychological parameters of cardiac patients closely linked to the program of Naturopathy and meditation. The  study involved 200 patients with suspicious cad and one-year follow-up with clinical results from the coronary ct Angiography examination.


Bahrieva Nargiza Ahmadovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2282-2292

In this article, the favorable conditions created for the development of public-private partnership in the field of preschool education have become a solid foundation for further increasing the number of non-governmental preschool institutions and expanding the range of services they provide. At the same time, the analysis considered the mechanisms for providing children with preschool education, filling preschool institutions with modern teaching materials and literature, qualified teachers and reforming the management system. One of the important conditions for this is the further improvement of the pre-school education system, ensuring equal access to quality pre-school education for children, the development of the private sector of pre-school education services, as well as Mechanisms for the development of scientifically based conclusions and recommendations on the implementation of measures set out in Resolution No. 3955.


Boboeva Gulmira Sodikovna; Keldiyarova Gulmira Farhadovna; Madjidova Tanzila Rahimovna; Niyazova Oybakhor Bahritdinovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2293-2297

The types of generated waste during the production process, and the process of recycling bricks in Samarkandregion are described in this article. In addition, waste calculations are defined.


Azizov Abror Mirxakimovich; Stupina Nadejda Vladimirovna; Xakimov Аkrom Dilshodbekovich; Valiev Odil Erkinovich; Nimatov Firuz Samadovich; Maxmudov Аrtur Аxmadovich; Tilyakov Xasan Аzizovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2298-2303

a modified technique for measuring the angle between planar anatomical structures and for determining the point of remission of the true acetabulum in dysplastic coxarthrosis using a protractor


Pardaev Saidkasim Narkulovich; Narkulov Maksudzhon Saidkasimovich; Meliboev Salim Tashtanovich; Khasanov Aziz Batirovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2304-2310

Infectious spondylitis accounts for 4 - 8% among suppurative diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and its frequency is estimated at 1.0 - 2.5 cases per 100,000 population. A special form of spondylodiscitis - acute post-manipulation spondylodiscitis - is observed in one of 40-50 patients who underwent discectomy from the posterior approach for a herniated disc, which, given that this operation is the most frequent in neurosurgery, allows one to assess the total volume of the problem.


Azizov Abror Mirxakimovich; Stupina Nadejda Vladimirovna; Xakimov Аkrom Dilshodbekovich; Valiev Odil Erkinovich; Nimatov Firuz Samadovich; Maxmudov Аrtur Аxmadovich; Tilyakov Xasan Аzizovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2311-2317

to assess MSCT and clinical and radiological features of dysplastic coxarthrosis.


Ortikova Nargiza Xairullaevna; Rizaev Jasur Alimjanovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2318-2326

Patients behavior wile dental curing depends on his mental condition. Depressive disorders also promote progression dental diseases. An individual plan of treatment and features of cooperation with patients must be defined depending on psycho-emotional condition of sick. That lets to cooperate patient with doctor and raise the quality of dental help end also minimize risks of development conflict situations. On purpose to define psycho-emotional deviations of sick dentists use different scales and questionnaires that have certain benefits.


Khakimova Sohiba Ziyadulloevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2327-2329

In patients with radiculopathies of various origins, along with chronic pain syndrome (CHS), psychopathological and autonomic disorders are observed. In groups of patients with radiculopathies, the state of asthenia, anxiety, and autonomic changes was studied using psychological scales [2]. Research on the Spielberg-Khanin scales of reactive and personal anxiety revealed a fairly high level of anxiety. The identification of mild and moderate depression on the Beck scale was especially significant. The results of the Kerdo index indicated damage to the autonomic nervous system in all patients, with a predominance of parasympathicotonic manifestations.


Nurboyeva Dilshoda N; Imamova Gulchekhra Z

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2330-2334

The article highlights the significant contribution of Joan Rowling, a great writer in the fantasy genre of children's literature, to English children's literature through “Harry Potter”. The proverbs use in the protagonists speeches, the certain motifs use in fairy tales, legends and epics as a basis for the work, made “Harry Potter” one of the English folklore examples.


Khusamiddinova Malika M; Alimbayeva Shakhlo A; Sadikova Makhbuba B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2335-2340

As the communication on foreign languages comprises the row of key competencies, necessary for each person today for self-realization and developments in rapidly changing world, in given article there are considered some methods of shaping the communicative competence of learners in using the communicative technology at the English lessons.


Sree Jyothsna Beesetti; Nagendra Kumar Turaga; Girish Salaka; Mohana Turaga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2341-2349

A new, universally attractive and applicable paradigm that welcomes and encourages people to take responsibility for themselves and explore their true selves in search of health, especially in sickness and adversity is spirituality and psychological beliefs. In COVID-19 pandemic situation, how people react and will be in a healthy condition is a crucial aspect in India and even in other countries. To investigate the solution, we had aimed to study the impact of two factors like spiritual well-being and psychological well-being on attack of COVID-19 in India. To study the same a sample of 650 respondents were taken through online survey where 285 questionnaires were only selected for further analysis. A well-designed questionnaire was prepared by testing validating through experts for collecting the responses. Factor analysis and multiple regression tools were used to analyse the data for achieving objective of study. The results notified that spiritual well-being and psychological well-being were having less impact on attack of COVID-19 in people, but the relation exhibits significant. Which implies even there is less impact they are having some relation in prevention of attack of COVID-19. The paper continued with the future research of the study.


Sumi Lestari; Intan Rahmawat; Muhammad Rosyihan; Muhammad Afif Alhad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2350-2357

The residents of the Kampung Warna-Warni (Colorful Tourism Village) do not yet have a cognitive map of disaster. There has been a disaster simulation but it has not been integrated, so residents are still not ready for a disaster. The residents of Kampung Wisata Warna-Warni do not understand the disaster as a whole, are still limited to definitions and have not provided innovative actions in strengthening understanding. Several approaches can be taken in order to increase resident’s awareness about disaster preparedness. One of the approaches used is the cognitive aspect approach, namely increasing people’s understanding of natural disasters. Increasing people’s understanding can be done through various activities, one of which is counseling. Extension is carried out by providing information to residents related to knowledge of disasters including the causes of disasters, disaster impacts, countermeasures that can be done, what should be done when a disaster comes, and recovery after a disaster. The ultimate goal of this serving doctoral program is to increase understanding and change people’s behavior through a cognitive approach. The expected behavior after this program is implemented is related to awareness of disaster preparedness from residents because the location where residents live is on the riverbank. It is fully realized that the intended behavior change cannot happen instantly, therefore it requires commitment and consistency in implementing the program so that the expected results can be achieved maximally.


Mr.Bibhu kalyan MIshra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2358-2365

The objective of this paper is to examine the effect of Cloud Based Human resource infromation system (HRIS) on Human Resource Management .The papers builds up a research model dependent on current litreature and afterward tests this model in (35) HDFC Banks of Cuttack & Bhubaneswar city. Resarch sample comprises of 185 people from the higher and middle management group of HDFC Banks of Cuttack & Bhubaneswar CIty. The Study revealed that HRIS had a huge impact at level (P≤ 0.05) on Human Resource Management Strategies in HDFC Banks of Cuttack & Bhubaneswar CIty This study could benefit from a large sample , from banks.The paper gives practical recommendations to the banking industry and the executives as a rule on the most proficient method to deal with the HRIS effects for Human Resource Management Strategies.This paper has attempted to give a comprehensive comprehension about the HRIS impacts on Human Resource Management Strategies in the banking industry.


Utepbergenov Amangeldi Kutlimurotovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2366-2371

The specificity principle of the exercise effect when choosing exercises to train, when it comes to achieving high sports results and high savings in the exercise performance, which depends more on the movement skills improvement (its performance techniques) should play a leading role. The greatest effect of exercise on movement skills (sports technique) is achieved by performing the exercises that are considered to be the main training.


Muslimov Narzulla Alikhanovich; Akhmedova Mukarram Tursunalievna; Muslimov Sherzod Narzullaevich; Rajapova Khurshida Khusanbaevna; Umarova Zukhra Abdurakhmanovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2372-2380

In the 21st century, education in the world is recognized as the main factor in ensuring sustainable development, the International education concept defines an urgent task - “creating opportunities for obtaining education throughout life”, which has expanded the possibilities of improving the teachers’ professional training level, in particular, future teachers for pedagogical activity, the use of techniques aimed at improving their professional and graphic competence developing system. In the global informatization, the intensive development of alternative (computer) and digital technologies dictates the need for international organizations to pay attention, in particular, to mastering, specialists, including future specialists of ICT competence. So, in UNESCO strategic projects, such as “ICT competence framework for teachers. UNESCO recommendations. Plan 2.0 for 2011 ", “Qualified teachers for all education (2012-2015)” special emphasis is placed on the presence of all conditions in an innovative educational environment for the ability manifestation to freely and effectively work with ICT on the basis of professional competence in a modern specialist guise. The need for the modern digital technologies use of the format in the academic disciplines teaching process increases the relevance and significance of such a quality development of future technology education teachers as effective work with ICT.


Surmakhon Ismoilova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2381-2386

In the article, we informed that extracurricular reading strengthens and enriches children's knowledge and skills acquired in the classroom and constantly stimulates children's interest in reading fiction, as well as one of the important aspects of extracurricular reading is that it improves students' independent work skills.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2387-2392

The article reveals the meaning and essence of the clustering policy and the priorities of their organization in the regions. Along with the grouping of definitions of the concept of clustering, foreign experience in the formation of regional clusters has been studied. In addition, the main models of cluster policy and methodological and theoretical approaches associated with their differences are explained. At the same time, the article broadly covers the stages of infrastructure to support entrepreneurship in the development of innovation-oriented clusters.


Dr. Anita Raman; Ms. N. Sakthi Selvarohini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2393-2402

An efficient financial sector mobilizes savings and allocates it to those investments which yield the highest rate of return. Savings are the difference between income and consumption of an individual. An increase in the volume of real domestic savings means that resources that would have been used for consumption are released for investment. India has high level of saving rate because of high level of saving motives of individuals. Every individual seems to understand the basic principle of investment. Investment means the purchase made by an individual of a financial or real asset that produces a return proportion to the risk assumed over some future investment period and for achieving this investor decides on how and where to deploy his/her saving. Saving motive is thus, a desire to reserve certain mixture of income for future. The main objective of investor is to invest in different speculation avenues that deliver expected returns and help to chance the risk in future. The investor has some motive for making an investment. The salaried employee category of investorhowever gives more importance to create more stand-in savings to meet the risk in future.The present study aims to determine and identify investor’s preference relating to making an investment in public and private sector mutual funds. It further analyses the investor’s satisfaction level of an investment in public and private sector mutual funds. Hence, the study establishes the responsiveness of the investors towards investing in mutual funds

Microplastic Levels in Sediments and Shellfish at Fish Auction (Beba) in North Galesong, Takalar Regency, Indonesia

Hidayat .; La Taha; Haderiah .; Inayah .; Rasman .; Mohammad Anugerah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2403-2414

Coastal waters are one of the places that are susceptible to pollution, because these waters are
the place where rivers disembogue and pollutants carried by river flows being deposited. Shellfish is a marine biota that settle permanently and associates in coastal areas thus it can accumulate substances contained in sediments or waters including microplastics. To
determine the microplastic content in sediments at the coastal areas of North Galesong around the auction (Beba). To find out microplastic level of abundance in shellfish at the coastal area of North Galesong around the auction (Beba). The results of this study can be a solution for
these areas to avoid pollution in coastal areas. The output of this research will be held in the
coastal auction area (Beba), Takalar Regency and will be published in the form of journals
and IPR. It is recommended that local government of Takalar Regency carry out a public health education program to broaden people's knowledge about the dangers of microplastics that have contaminated marine products and Badan Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan (Environmental Impact Management Agency) to be more intensive in periodically monitoring the quality of coastal areas and monitoring of waste and plastic waste pollution from Fish Auction (Beba) in North Galesong, Takalar Regency.


Dr.K. Gunasekaran; Chanda Laxmana Sudheer; V. Sornagopal; Dr.M. Gnanasekaran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2415-2422

—In VLSI circuits Heat is a major problem. However, in reversible logic, the measurement of heat dissipation is zero. In this sense, it is an important work in nanotechnology, low energy complementary metal oxide semiconductor structures [CMOS]. For reversible logic, no results are lost. However, this limits the delay in the scope of the hardware equipment. Therefore, reversible logic technology can be used to reduce energy distribution, reduce heat wave propagation and increase speed. Therefore, it is used to increase speed and reduce energy consumption. In this paper we are going to represent the following reversible logic gates, such as Fredkin gates, Peres, Feynman, Toffoli. This paper proposes a reversible logic design of a 4-bit MAC structure using Peres gates as reversible logic blocks. In addition, a variety of parameters, along with those of conventional computing, perform a relative test between classical style and quantum logic operation. The proposed approach is implemented using Xilinx-7 FPGA in VHDL.


Venmathi A R; A. Senthil Kuma; M. Gomati; G. Suresh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2423-2436

—Recent scenario, breast cancer found to be a threat and dangerous carcinoma among women in the world. In contemplation of reducing the breast, cancer-related death needs an efficient computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The discrimination of microcalcification clusters (MCCs) is an important manifestation for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper focuses on the detection of breast cancers cells size below 2mm. To achieve précised enhanced cancer cell region an efficient technique dyadic Counterlet transform (DCTs) in two dimension is proposed. The enhancement of cancer cell region obtained through preserving the boundaries and borders with curvature for a small region.


Bharatha Sreeja G; Mubeen Begum Saleem; Venkata Sravya; Divya K; Jayashree R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2437-2444

Network firewalls are becoming irrelevant, neither can we be relied upon the perimeter networks nor can they be trusted. With adoption of bring your own device and convey your own cloud, we must evolve our defences to the devices and therefore the identities. ZTA is a response to enterprise network trends that include remote users, devices and cloud-based assets which are not situated within an enterprise-owned network boundary. In this paper we will be understanding how the security state and the trustworthiness contributes to overall security pose, considerations for automated access to resources via device also the identity conditions and the way to implement these conditions to the road of business SaaS apps or on-premises web apps.


Dr. A. Karthikayen; M. Ayyadurai; S. Lekashri; Dr. M. Venkatesan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2445-2453

Due to decentralised architecture the nodes present in mobile ad-hoc networks nodes can able to move freely in the environment. Hence the nodes are characterised as self organised and self healing. Due to rapid movement of nodes link failures exists frequently between the nodes and if two nodes present in the range of communication, then the sensed data is passed directly to the sink node. To identify an efficient and concurrent bandwidth and trustable path between sending and receiving nodes; the communication link weight and node trust score factors are examined. The weight of the links is calculated by estimating longer link connectivity period and the bandwidth channel availability. Once the trust ratio for the nodes is evaluated through ratings then efficient bandwidth nodes are selected. Therefore the data is passed through the trusted node with high channel bandwidth towards the gateway.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2454-2461

Providing a safer communication in the network improves the network credibility since WSN is often deployed over hostile environments. Isolating the selfish nodes from the routing path is mandate to build a strong network. The node might become irresponsible due to their low energy level, high congestion rate, etc. Categorizing the selfish nodes and normal nodes makes the network more reliable while routing the data packets. Therefore an adaptive trust computation model is proposed here. By computing trust values with control messages and energy levels for the nodes are identified. This removes the selfish nodes from the system and the routes are constructed with the avoidance of irresponsible nodes. Here adaptive trust computation model is proposed with two level node selections. Simulation results are analyzed for determining the efficiency of the proposed scheme.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2462-2469

In our paper we endow with a comprehensive irrigation way out to cultivator fashion and expenditure important to computerized irrigation structure to shrink water’s throw away is a dispute. It is essential to evaluate dissimilar parameters to determine the resourceful measure of water for vegetation. The planned structure is self-possessed of altered types of near to the ground charge and power utilization sensors. For instance - mud humidity sensor used to be in charge of opportunity for the irrigation control device. Stylish touchtone phone is used for an out-of-the-way monitoring. The mud wetness sensor is worn for compute the earth humidity level. The wetness intensity significance is also conveying the individual portable by means of webpage. The PH sensor is used for appraise the PH significance. The water drive is second-hand for monitoring humidity stage when if its decreases the irrigate pushes into the land without human intervention. The stepper vehicle is used for automaton faction. Finally a digitalized HD camera is worn for become aware of folio diseases additional to fire disaster.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2470-2476

It was found from the collected materials in the territory of Khiva in 2020 that the species of E. vermiculata was unrevealed in the fauna of Uzbekistan. The process of anthropochory might be the main reason for the appearance of these species in the surrounding areas of Khiva, Uzbekistan. This article highlights the diversity of the conchological and anatomical features of abovementioned adventive species.


D. Jayakumar; Dr.U. Palani; D. Raghuraman; Dr.D. StalinDavid; D. Saravanan; R. Parthiban; S. Usharani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2477-2494

Orienteering means that it is necessary to identify competitors, with a particular focus on
the city on a predetermined terrain or with the help of a guide. Their ability to integrate
their actual perseverance with the mental cycles in this game, which is predicted by the
execution of time, and adapt to the environment and regulate them effectively. Acceleration
Sensors notes that these choices are the courses chosen and each course has its own
environmental features. Competitors must then disassemble these characteristics well and,
therefore, choose the course for the embedded system based on the campus.The data
collected was verified by quantitative and subjective strategies and an overall
understanding of the behaviour of competitors and the qualification of moldable and
subject-subordinate components in the dynamics of competitors. A model was developed
from the model capable parts that recorded the separation and the short separation based
on the landscape surface and subsequently analyzed its similarity to the practises of the
competitors. Moreover, different factual observations justified the results.According to the
Data Pathway Algorithm, environmental factors play an important role in competitor
dynamics and the implementation of the model is much more precise in short-segmented
courses than in important distance courses that reduce the psychological burden.


Dr.U. Palani; D. Raghuraman; Dr.D. StalinDavid; R. Parthiban; S. Usharani; D. Jayakumar; D. Saravanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2495-2510

WSN is a series of tiny nodes of sensors that have been deployed to sense the
natural phenomena in different geographical locations and send them to the Base
Station for further processing through multi-hop communication. Data Dissemination is
the high-level application activity provided by the WSN to make nodes using
reconfiguration and reprogramming to perform the intended services. Most of the
existing systems of data dissemination fail to provide confidence for data dissemination
among the nodes. Because of that, there are many vulnerabilities that can occur that can
interrupt the process of data dissemination.A novel confidence-based data
dissemination protocol has been proposed in this paper to efficiently provide energyefficient
secured data dissemination. In the NS2 simulator, the suggested protocol is
checked and values are taken after repeated measurements. The feasibility of the
proposed scheme is justified by the simulation performance.


R. Parthiban; S. Usharani; D. Saravanan; D. Jayakumar; Dr.U. Palani; Dr.D. StalinDavid; D. Raghuraman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2511-2530

Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) is a most predominant public health concern with increasing occurrence. CKD consists of an extensive variety of path physiological processes which will be experimental along with irregular function of kidneys and progressive decrease in Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR).In CKD prediction various data mining methods play major important role and discovering the association among effective features in this stare canister lend a hand to detect or slow progression of this CKD disease. The information is serene from the patients’ medical records. The major intention of this effort is introducing a Hybrid Filter Wrapper Embedded (HFWE) based Feature Selection (FS) to select optimal subset of features from CKD dataset. This HFWE-FS algorithm combines the procedure of filter, wrapper and embedded algorithm. Filter algorithm is executed based on the three major functions: Relief, One- R, Gain Ratio (GR) and Gini Index (GI). Wrapper algorithm is accomplished placed on the Improved Bat Algorithm (IBA) to choose analytical Attributes from the CKD dataset. Embedded algorithm is accomplished placed on the Support Vector Machine-t-statistics (SVM-t) to choose analytical attributes. The results of all feature selection algorithms are combined and named as HFWE- FS algorithm.


D.Raghu Raman; D. Saravanan; R. Parthiban; Dr.U. Palani; Dr.D.Stalin David; S. Usharani; D. Jayakumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2531-2557

In today’s world, digitization plays an extremely prominent role in day-to-day applications.Its future deployment, needs an Internet of Things (IoT) to embrace automation, remote monitoring and predictive analysis. IoT is a device connected with an internet and it’s a combined embedded technology including actuator and sensor device. Also, it encompasses, wired and wireless communication devices, and real-world physical objects connected to the
internet. IoTis majorly used in diversified fields like smart classroom, smart banking, smart home, smart agriculture, smart healthcare application etc. Typically, IoT requires intelligence, to achieve theautomation process in an efficient way in many applications. Artificial Intelligence (AI) paves the way to makes the IoT smarter and efficient by its approaches. Due to enormous amount of data being generated in various applications, IoT combined with Machine Learning(ML) and Deep Learning(DL) models is used to enhance the functionality in complex applications. In this survey the applicationof AI, ML and DLmodels deployed in IoT are deeply explored.


Dr. D. Stalin David; R. Parthiban; D. Jayakumar; S. Usharani; D. RaghuRaman; D. Saravanan; Dr.U. Palani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2559-2571

Diffusion-enhanced imaging is a valuable imaging tool that has demonstrated the calculation of increasingly diverse and non-oncological uses in oncology using earthy-colored movement of water atoms. Without intravenous difference operators, particularly in patients with unusual renal ability, such access and data on the effectiveness of the level of condition factors encourage people to examine the therapeutic use of increasingly intrigued patients, suggested a scope of clinical use, reliable subsequent observation from the neighborhood to discern central liver sores in patients For example non-alcoholic greasy liver, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis have also been used to test diffuse liver infections. In this report, the basic standards of DW-MRI of the liver, creativity and therapeutic use of existing and potential trends are studied.


Md Babul Akhtar, Mohammad Ahsan Mohammad Ahsan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2572-2584

Many people are at risk of developing mental health problems due to the current pandemic. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of the risk to psychological factors to gender and their location and designation in the context of the current pandemic. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological impact on the Ethiopian population.
An online survey using google form with 310 Ethiopian respondents was conducted. The adopted questionnaire covers the participant's sociodemographic information, and three different questionnaires (mental health inventory, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) used to collect data. The data were not distributed normally. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to find differences between different categories of mental health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.
The results indicate that urban males have higher mental health and self-esteem compared to females, and little difference in mental health appeared between students, academics, government employees, private employees, and business people. Females belonging to the rural area have higher life satisfaction than males. A significant difference in self-esteem and life satisfaction was found between participants belonging to different designations.
The results of all these psychological factors provide a comprehensive picture of Ethiopianpeoples during the current pandemic. In such stressful situations, the concerned government, hospitals, educational institutions, organizations and individuals need to consider psychological intervention and take necessary action. In addition to educate and prepare individuals for the various mental health issues that they may face during the pandemic period.


Dr. Syed Javad Saleem, Dr. RaghunandanSindhe, Dr. Prabu Mahin Syed Ismail,Dr. Kamala R,Dr.Gagandeep Singh Dang BDS, Dr.R Naveen Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2585-2594

Aims: For replacement of missing teethosseointegrated implants are used. Survival rate of implant based on many aspectscomprising ofimplant material used, oral hygiene, personal oral habit such as smoking and bone quality. The current retrospective study was done to evaluate the consequence of smoking on survival of dental implant. 
Materials and Methods: The study subjects were included from all the patients who undertook for dental implant in implant center from 2012 to 2018. For every patient, severaldataconcerning implant characteristics and smoking habits were noted. The readings were statistically calculated by SPSS statistical software by IBM version 20with Chi-square test at P ≤ 0.01. 
Results: There was in that 128 (64%) smoker and 72 (36%) were non-smokers. More implants were placed in mandible (124 62%) compared to maxillary area (76 38 %). From 200 implants, total 181 were successful and 20 were failed. Success of implant was considerably more in nonsmokers 71 (98.6%) than smokers 110 (86%). Implant failure rate was more in smokers with greater frequency and duration of cigarette smoking habit.
Conclusion: The current study shown that higher risk of implant failure and it wasrelatedto long term and increased frequency of smoking because of bone resorption.


DedenKomar Priatna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2614-2627

The objective of this research is to find out the influence of leadership, compensation, and work motivation both partially and simultaneously onthe nurses Performance.The methods used are descriptive surveyand explanatory survey method. The populations are the nurses from 61 pribate Clinical medicine institution of West Java Province with 245 respondents as the samples. The data analysis method used is SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). The findings show that leadership and compensation positively and significantly influence on work motivation, both partially and simultaneously. Partially, the compensation is the most dominant variable to influence the work motivation. Leadership, compensation, and work motivation, both partially and simultaneously have a positive and significant contribution on nurse performance. Partially, work motivation is the most dominant variable to influence nurse performance. Work motivation is the most dominant variable influences the which the nurse performance. The finding Also shows that work motivation is the full mediating variable on the influence of leadership and compensation toward nurse performance. This research recommends to improve the performance of the nurses of private Clinical medicine institution in Districts / Cities of West Java Province.


Yanti Cahyati, Peni Cahyati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2628-2637

Hypertension is a condition that is often found in patients with Type II DM. This condition requires proper treatment because it can cause various complications experienced by patients. Benson relaxation exercises are an alternative therapy that can be applied to DM patients who have hypertension. Apart from being able to control blood glucose levels, several studies have shown that this relaxation exercise has a significant effect in lowering blood pressure. This study aims to see the effect of Benson relaxation exercises on the blood pressure of patients with Type II diabetes.This type of research is quantitative with a pre and post test quasi-experimental design. The population in this study were all type II DM patients who went to the Internal Medicine clinic of RSUD Dr. SoekardjoTasikmalaya at the time of the research. The number of respondents in this study were 32 people. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the average diastolic blood pressure of respondents before and after exercise


Shuxrat BOYJIGITOV; Surayyo Arzikulova; Dilshod Xayrullayev; Lutfilla Nurmaxmatov; Dilfuza Tashpulatova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2638-2645

The article emphasizes that in the process of forming the scientific outlook of students currently studying in higher education institutions, there are a number of requirements for the activities of professors and teachers. As a result of the fulfillment of these requirements, the effective development of students' research activities is envisaged. In addition, the theoretical knowledge, age characteristics and levels of intellectual development acquired by students in the curriculum should be clearly taken into account, it is impossible to organize research activities of students on topics not covered by state educational standards, not included in the curriculum. that only gifted students can organize research activities, where teacher collaboration is extremely necessary, and in some cases tasks that are difficult for one or more students may be easy for others. It was concluded that the teacher should be very vigilant and organize their research activities by dividing students with similar intellectual levels into small groups


Dr Mohammed MirvazZulfikar, DrAmrut B R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2646-2650

Asymptomatic bacteriuria seems to be non-eradicable, recurring in case of diabetic patients. There are many studies that has reported the outcomes of asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with diabetes mellitus. But the study has been never conducted in this population. So this study sincerely strives to study the same in this population.


Kolhe Rohini C, Dr. Ghode Shweta P, ChaturVibhavari, Dr. Ghode Prashant D, Dr. Chaudhari Rajesh Y, Dr. Patil Vijay R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2651-2658

Preliminary phytochemical screening is the key step in finding the chemicals that lead to the isolation of lead compounds of medicinal importance. Syzygium malaccense is a large woody climbing shrub that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. Its fruits and leaves are very active from a medical point of view and are used in many traditional medicinal systems. The main objective of this study is to identify and understand the bioactive chemical components of leaf extracts by subjecting the leaf powder to soxhlet extraction in different solvent systems. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of proteins, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds etc. Total phenolic contents in the methanolic and Aqueous  extract of S.malaccenseleaves were found to be 106.21 + 10.85mg/g and  84.09 + 6.32 mg/g equivalent to gallic acid respectively and flavonoid contents in the methanolic and Aqueous  extract of S.malaccenseleaves were found to be 80.65 + 7.46 mg/g and 58.54 + 9.21 mg/g equivalent to rutin respectively.Syzygium malaccense leaves methanolic extract has been shown to have high antioxidant activity and powerful ability to scavenge free oxygen radicals, plus the plant's IC50 was nearly equivalent to the standard antioxidant that justified its use in medications. traditional and could represent a good candidate for additional biological and chemical analyzes, and can also be subjected to the isolation of therapeutically active compounds with antioxidant activity and also for additional pharmacological evaluations.


Dr Amrut B R, Dr Mohammed Mirvaz Zulfikar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2659-2663

According to WHO data in 2002, COPD was the fifth leading cause of death. The prevalence of disease is rising among males and females equally because of increasing trends of tobacco usage. Deaths will increase by more than 30% in the next 10years as predicted by the data. Many such reports have been published in different populations around the world. Very few studies sheds light in the local population and this study is intended to study the same.


Dr.Alam Nawaz, Dr. Thajuddeen K, Dr Naveen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2664-2677

Dakshina Kannada was relatively free from malaria until early 1990 with only sporadic case reports. But since 1990, with a sudden spurt in industrialisation and construction activities, malaria has made a dramatic comeback. There are various studies that show a  relationship between blood group  and malarial infection. However no studies have been done in the region of Dakshina Kannada  In view of the above we conducted a study to determine if any particular blood group confers some degree of protection against severe malarial complication with the objective to determine if any particular blood group confers some degree of protection to severe malarial complication.


Dr Srinath Rajeevan, MD, ) Dr Haseeb Aman, Dr Prakash Harischandra, ) Dr Dinesha, Dr Shishirkumar C Naik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2678-2693

Background: Diabetics are burdened with glycemia and an  decreased haemoglobin value also contributes, to increase the risk of development and also progression of micro vascular and macro vascular complications of diabetes.
To study incidence of anaemia in diabetics with normal renal function, in comparison to non- diabetics who have normal renal function.
Design: An analytical cross sectional study comparing diabetics with normal renal function and non-diabetics with normal renal function.
Settings : It was conducted in hospitals attached to KMC Mangalore between September 2016 to July 2018. Group 1 - Diabetics as per ADA criteria. Group 2 - Non diabetics (RBS < 200).
Materials and Methods:
The estimated glomerlular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using  Cockcroft-Gault Equation. Only those with eGFR>60 ml/min were included. Using the WHO criteria, the prevalence of anaemia was checked for. Duration of diabetes and prevalence of anaemia was correlated.
Sample Size: The sample size was 100. Both groups had 50 cases.
Results: In our study it was seen that 56 % of the diabetics were anaemic as compared to only 30 % of the non-diabetics. The p value was 0.0001. The odds ratio calculated showed that diabetics were 2.97 times more likely to have anaemia as compared to non-diabetics. Anaemic patients had an average of 9.68 years of diabetes. The non anaemic patients had an average of 6.32 years of diabetes. The p value was 0.038. The mean glycated haemoglobin amongst the anaemic patients was 7.2 and 6.9 amongst non anaemic patients. The p value was 0.450. The most common type of anaemia amongst diabetics was found to be normocytic normochromic anaemia. Amongst the non-diabetics microcytic hypochromic anaemia was the most common.
Conclusion: In our study it was seen that even in the absence of renal failure, the prevalence of anaemia was higher amongst diabetics as compared to non-diabetics. Longer duration and poorer control diabetes was also associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia.
Iron studies, Red cell indices were not done. Diabetic complications were not studied.Kidney size was not assessed by Ultrasound.

Conflicts of Interest:
It was a self-sponsored study.


Dr.Thajuddeen K, Dr.Alam Nawaz, Dr S.Abhimanyu Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2694-2703

Introduction-Stroke due to Intra-cerebral hemorrhage is 2nd to ischemia among the pathologies of stroke.Spontaneous ICH accounts for 10%-15% of all strokes.1 ICH, accounts to 30% of strokes,2 with an overall mortality of 40% to 50%.3Identification of the factors that determine and modify the clinical presentation and outcome of ICH is important. There were very few prospective studies on ICH in India.
Aims And Objectives-To study the Age, Sex distribution ,Clinical features ,Risk factors                                               and Etiology in patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.To recognize the site, CT appearance, calculate the volume of hematoma,To identify the factors which determine the prognosis.Method- A descriptive study of all the patients having sudden onset of neurological deficit or signs and symptoms suggestive of stroke, who underwent plain CT brain within 4 hours of presentation.Results - Mean age was 50.97 +/- 14.96. 44.4% were putaminal bleeds,22(24.4%) were thalamic bleeds.66(73.3%) of patients werehypertensives.96% of the patients had a systolicBP of  >150mm of Hg at presentation. Smoking was a major risk factor. Large volume hematomas(>40c.c) were seen in putaminal, lobar and thalamic hemorrhages.Mortality was 61.1% in the study. Larger volumes of hematoma had worse prognosis, and brainstem and cerebellar haemorrhages had 100% mortality.The results were comparable with other published studies from India and other countries.Focaldeficits were the commonest features.Conclusion:The demographic profile the present study was comparable with other published studies from India and other countries. Mortality was 61.1% in the present study.


Dr. Shishirkumar C Naik, Dr. Rati Tandon, Dr. bShivarama CH, Dr. HaseebAman, Dr Prakash Harishchandra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2704-2709

Our healthcare is overburdened with the ever increasing population size and it’s time for us in the Pre-clinical Department and Para - clinical department to work synchronously with the clinical Department to ease the pressure of the Clinicians. It is found out that the clinicians spend an ample amount of time in finding out the body mass index. This body mass index calculation is complex and involves finding out the height of the patient, weight of the patient and then also involves a calculation. This needs time. Some - times the clinicians rely on some non – medicos also to calculate and this leads to a lot of errors and somehow there is a confusion of whether such practices can be allowed. This study puts in an effort to find if the position of the nail of the thumb with respect to the body could help in making the rough calculation of body mass index easy.


M. Annamalai; Dr. X. Mary Jesintha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2710-2721

In modern society, busy life has made people forget many things in day to day life. The older adults and the people victims of chronicle diseases who need to take the medicines timely without missing have dementia, forgetting things in their daily routine. Considering this situation study has been done on this. Recent technologies of home healthcare are currently used to improve this situation by reminding the scheduled of medicine, remote monitoring, and updating patient’s new medicine data, which prescribers can do through the web. Therefore in this work to investigate the development of patient help framework dependent on Quality Function Deployment (QFD) in the Internet of Things (IoT) condition, in this study, with the help of IoT innovation, Registry Service Selection (RSS) strategy is utilized to fabricate quiet assistance model to accomplish the detection and reminder of patient’s physical condition


M. Mohamed Suhail; Dr.T. Abdul Razak

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2722-2739

Early detection of unusual heart conditions is huge to recognize heart disappointment and maintain a strategic distance from unexpected death. The human with similar heart conditions nearly has practically identical using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. By reviewing the ECG signals' models, one can anticipate heart disease.Since the standard techniques for heart disease disclosure depend after securing morphological features of the ECG signals, which are repetitious and tedious, the customized recognizable proof of cardiovascular disease is progressively perfect. Subsequently, the programmed identification of heart diseases a satisfactory strategy is required, which could arrange the ECG signals with dark features as appeared by the similitudes among them and the ECG signals with known characteristics. If this classifier can discover the similitudes, the likelihood of cardiovascular disease disclosure is broadened. This count can change into a significant procedure in research facilities. During this examination work, and another classification technique is brought into the Convolutional Gated Recurrent Neural Network classification methodology. All the more precisely, orders ECG signals that rely upon a powerful model of the ECG signal classification. With this proposed method, a convolutional gated recurrent neural network was constructed, and its simulation results show that this classification can partition the ECG with 97% accuracy.


Vaishali Dhingra; Manish Dhingra; Vikram Tyagi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2740-2746

This review paper explores the relationship between Psychological Well-being and Satisfaction with Life with special focus on the literature related to COVID-19. Very few studies although have been carried out during the period March 2020 to Dec 2020. The pandemic has adversely influenced people especially the doctors who work under immense stress. There is ample literature available on the variables psychological wellbeing and satisfaction with life, but in different contexts. The aim of this paper is to suggest the gaps thus identified by reviewing the past studies carried out in this domain and suggest a hypothetical model which can be further tested in future studies.

Omeg3 discovery, types, preparation, and application in medicinal life

Sahar B. Aljuboori; Nedaa A. Hameed A. Rahim; Anwar A. Tamer

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2747-2753

Omega-3 (Om-3)FATTY (F) acids have a double bond in the 3rd position of the methyl group and very long-Om-3 F acids (twenty or twenty-carbon atoms) are often discovered in F fish and fish oils and Om-3 unsaturated F acids (FAs) are essential and can Also act as precursor to eicosanoids, in fact Om-3s are so important for human health . The Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board currently maintains, for the first time, a minimum daily requirement. For years we believed that Only one essential insaturated F acid used to be present, Om-6 unsaturated F acid (found in soybean oils and vegetables), but Scientists have
now added Om-3 to the list of essential vitamins that humans will receive from their diet. For
proper functioning the two basic F acids, Om-3 and Om-6, have to be in balance with each other. If one or the other is too weak or too high, the effect is negative sanctions.


Dr.Sreenath R, Dr.Devraj Singh Panwar, Dr. Satej T. Banne, Dr. Rekha Parmar, Dr. Sonesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2754-2765

Improper diet and unhealthy food regimens can cause Jataragnimandya (loss of appetite) which in turn produces Ama (intoxication). This can lead to mal-absorption of food materials and increase the Dravatwa (water content) lost by the body. Loss of fluids from the body can cause muscle cramps, headache, thirst, rapid heartbeats, sunken eyes and dry skin. Grahi (absorbent) is the property of the drug which promotes the power of absorption. Various drugs are mentioned in our classics with Grahi (absorbent)property. This is an attempt to find and analyse the Grahi (absorbent)Dravya (drugs) mentioned in Bhavaprakash Nighantu written by Bhavamishrawhich is one of the authentic texts inAyurveda.


S. S. Ingle

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2766-2768

Ground nut ( Arachis hypogea L.) is one of the most important and widely cultivated oil seed crop. The seeds of ground nut have been found to carry a number of fungi. The most common cause of spoiled ground nut seeds in storage is to due the growth of fungi. Storage fungi infect the seeds as the seeds is transferred into storage and can spread rapidly throughout the bulk under favorable conditions. These fungi grow on the ground nut seeds; they become visible and can kill the seed, and produce undesirable odour, taste and some time the seeds are not suitable for human consumption due to the production of mycotoxic substance by the seed fungi accompanied by change in the chemical nature of the seed. Seed deterioration due to various mycoflora is common feature leading to loss of viability and numerous fungi develop on stored seed (Lalithakumari et al. 1970) Singh (1988) reported that fungi have been a major cause of spoilage and many of them have been found to bring about biochemical deterioration. The germination of seed is also appreciably affected by certain fungi. ( Mishra and Kanaujia (1973) Groundnut seeds infested with Aspergillus flavus showed great loss in protein resulting it into increase in free amino acids. Reduction in protein content of oil seeds was found to be highest due to Fusarium oxysporum followed by Fusarium moniliforme. (Bilgrami et. al. (1976). Present investigation was undertaking to find out the mycoflora associated with seeds of groundnut.


Ergashboy Abdurakhmanov; Zulfiya Begmuradovna Murodova; Farrukh Fakhriddinovich Kholmurzaev; Bakhtiyor Bakhodir ugli Akhmedov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2769-2779

The paper establishes the regularities of the oxidation of combustible substances in the presence of catalytic systems of different nature and on their basis the catalysts for measuring and compensation sensitive elements of a thermocatalytic ethanol vapor sensor are selected. The possibility of creating highly sensitive and selective sensors with the use of measuring and compensating thermosensitive elements of the sensor containing catalysts of different activity to the components of complex gas-air mixtures has been experimentally confirmed.The main metrological characteristics and operational parameters of the developed selective thermocatalytic ethanol sensors are estimated. The developed utensils allow the determination of ethyl alcohol vapors in wide ranges of its concentrations and have the best metrological characteristics and operational parameters.

A Prospective Observational Study To Assess The Neonatal Outcomes Of Eclamptic Mothers In A Tertiary Hospital

Dr. Tejaswi Nandan Dr. Manjul Vijay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2780-2785

Aim: to identify and assess the significance of the neonatal outcomes of eclamptic mothers.
Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital Gaya, Bihar, India for one year. The study comprised newborn babies born to 100 consecutive mothers admitted with eclampsia or with pre-eclampsia but subsequently developing eclampsia along with those born to 100 consecutive non-eclamptic mothers (considered as control) with normal BP.
Results: The majority of eclamptic mothers were primigravida (88%), <20 years of age (65%), non-tribals (80%), having body weight of mean 41.22±5.12 kg, height of mean 147.28±6.27cm, and socioeconomic status of Class IV (90%). There was no significant difference observed in respect of age, weight, height, religion, caste, parity, and socioeconomic status between eclamptic and control mothers and thus, the two groups were statistically matched.  Outcome in newborns of eclamptic mothers was significantly more adverse (p<0.001) than in non-eclamptic mothers (75 vs. 47; odds ratio [OR]=3.151, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.752–5.636). In this study, four significant neonatal outcomes of eclamptic mothers were observed as preterm (OR=3.101, 95% CI=1.572–5.822, p=0.001), LBW (OR=3.177, 95% CI=1.765–5.712, p<0.001), IUGR (OR=4.397, 95% CI=1.212–16.129, p=0.028), and birth asphyxia (OR=2.471, 95% CI=1.228–4.878, p=0.014) while other outcomes as hypoxic- ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (OR=4.521, 95% CI=0.942– 21.965, p=0.077), EOS (OR=2.541, 95% CI=0.753–8.498, p=0.236),  END  (OR=2.711,  95%  CI=0.531–14.436, p=0.411), and stillbirth (OR=2.366, 95% CI=0.721–7.965, p=0.247) were not significant. Only live born babies were considered for the statistical study of birth asphyxia, HIE, EOS, and END.
Conclusion:  We concluded that the eclampsia is an important cause of significant neonatal morbidity in terms of prematurity, LBW, IUGR, and birth asphyxia. It is a significant risk factor for late preterm births as well.

Comparison Of Two Different Non-Pharmacological Techniques Alone In The Management Of Nonspecific Chronic Neck Pain

Dr. Anil Kumar Dr. Anil Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2786-2791

Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of Isometric neck strengthening exercises with static stretching vs. static stretching alone in the management of nonspecific chronic neck pain.
Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial study conducted in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital, Gaya, Bihar, India for 18 Months. Total 120 patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain were randomly assigned through simple random sampling technique, into experimental (group 1) received Isometric training with static stretching and control group (group 2) received Static stretching alone. While aerobic training was initiated in both groups prior to main interventions application. Therapeutic session was 4 days per week for 1 month. Neck pain and Disability was assessed by using outcome measures, numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) and neck disability index (NDI) on initial and final sessions.
Results: Majority of chronic neck pain patients were above 40 years of age group. In experimental group at baseline mean NDI score 35.71±12.21 while after one month follow up after applying the Isometric strengthening exercises with static stretching exercises the total mean score was 22.94±18.16 which was significantly (p<0.001)12.77 mean point reduced in experimental group . In control group at baseline mean NDI score 31.24±11.12 while at one month follow up after applying static stretching exercises, the total mean score was 28.89±10.69which was significantly (p=0.002) 2.35 mean point reduced NDI mean score in control group. In experimental group at baseline mean NPRS score 6.23±1.51while after one month follow up after applying the Isometric strengthening exercises with static stretching exercises the total mean score was 3.11±1.59 which was significantly (p<0.001) 3.13 mean point reduced in experimental group. In control group at baseline mean NPRS score 5.49±1.71while at one month follow up after applying static stretching exercises, the total mean score was 4.38±1.92 which was significantly (p=0.001) 1.11 mean point reduced in control group. The total mean NDI score was 35.71± 12.21in experimental group and 31.24±11.12in control group respectively at baseline which was mean statistically insignificant (p=0.278).
Conclusion: We concluded that the Isometric strengthening exercises training with static stretching appears more valuable as compared with static stretching training alone. 

An Observational Study To Evaluate The Spectrum Of Co-Morbidities In Severe Acute Malnutrition With Unexpected Dyselectrolytemia In Diarrhea

Dr. Dheeraj Kumar Dr. Bankey Behari Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2792-2797

Aim: to evaluate the spectrum of co-morbidities in severe acute malnutrition with unexpected dyselectrolytemia in diarrhea.
Material and Methods: The study was an observational study which was carried in the Department of Pediatrics, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital Gaya, Bihar, India for 15 months.  Total 100 Children below 6 year age were included in this study. Various co morbid conditions in study population were identified. All the laboratory examination was done with standard method.
Results: out of 100, 94% were associated co-morbid conditions in SAM. Majority of children with SAM were having co-morbidity in the form of Anaemia (85%), Diarrhoea (63%) followed by pneumonia (30%), Rickets (28%), Tuberculosis (15%), Otitis    media    (14%),    UTI    (10%),    Celiac   (5%), Hypothyroidism (3%), & HIV (2%). Mean age (SD) of the diarrheal cases was 37(6) months (95% C.I. 23.7- 26.5) of which 37 were male (58.73%). Mean age (SD) of non-diarrheal cases was 28(6). (95% C.I. 16.6 – 19.4) of which 75.67% were male. Among 100, 63 (63%) SAM children presented with diarrhea of which 62 had dysnatremia in the form of Hyponatremia in 62 cases (62%) & Hypernatremia in 2 cases (1%) No statistically significant difference was found with hyponatremia in diarrheal or non-diarrheal cases of SAM (P value of 0.08). Serum Potassium levels of 100 SAM children were analysed. It was found that 22% SAM children were having hypokalemia. Hypokalemia was found in 13% of diarrheal cases & 9% in non- diarrheal cases. A statistically significant difference was found with hypokalemia in SAM (P value of 0.023) between Diarrheal & Non diarrheal cases.
Conclusion: we conclude that dyselectrolytemia is high in complicated SAM and mainly sodium disturbances in form of hyponatremia are common in different co-morbid conditions. Hence, we recommend that due care is to be given for management of dyselectrolytemia in complicated SAM children.

Assessment Of The Expenses And Benefits Of Procalcitonin Testing In The Diagnosis Of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis

Dr. Manjul Vijay Dr. Tejaswi Nandan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2798-2805

Aim: To compare between the expenses and benefits of procalcitonin testing in the diagnosis of early onset neonatal sepsis.
Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics, Anugrah Narayan Magadh medical college and hospital Gaya, Bihar, India for one year.100Full-term neonates (>37 weeks gestational age) admitted  to  NICU  with  the  clinical  symptoms  or  signs  of  sepsis  within 72  h  of  birth,  and  those  with  risk  factors  for  EONS. For all patients included in the study, complete blood count with differential (CBC), CRP, blood culture, procalcitonin was done on admission to NICU, and was repeated after 8 hours from the initial one, while CRP was repeated after 24 hrs. Cultures from other sites (including CSF), chest x ray and imaging were done as appropriate.
Results: 100 patients were included in the study, 70 females and 30 males. Their mean weight was 3.163 kg (range 2.1- 4.9 kg). About 89 (89 %) patients presented with more than one symptoms and signs of sepsis For CBC results, mean WBC count was 19.9± 10.1, the mean neutrophils count was 15.45± 11.57) and the mean platelet count was 168.21±70.21. The most frequent presenting sign was hypothermia (62%), hypoactivity  and  mottling  (53%),  followed  by  feeding  intolerance (42%). Blood cultures were positive in 35 patients, who compromised the group of proven sepsis. Klebsiela was present in 13 patient, E coli in 9 patients, while group B streptococcus in 8 patients. Pseudomonas infection present in 3 patients, while MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus) was detected in 2 patients. The initial CRP (CRP1) , was non-reactive in 45 patients (45%), The initial procalcitonin in the sepsis group (PCT1), was non-reactive 45 patients (45%), <2.6 in 31 patients (31%), 2.6-10 in 19 patients (19%), and more than that in 5 patients (5%). The 35 patients in the group of proven infection (35%) were admitted for 10-14 days but 5 of them needed more than  2 weeks  admission.  The second group (not-proven infection) of 45 patients (45%) were discharged within 4 days of admission, and they did well on the follow up except for 8 patients who didn’t show up.  The third  group  20  patients (20%) suspected  infection, treated with antibiotics for at least 10 days, and all of them did well on the follow up. CRP2 Sensitivity (92.5%), Specificity(53%), PPV(65.3%), NPV(86.5%) and PCT2 Sensitivity(95.8%), Specificity(87.7%), PPV(90.1%), NPV(98%).
Conclusion: The expense of testing PCT twice is less than the expenses of one-day admission in NICU in developing countries. Application of such protocol could be of use in limiting period of stay in NICU.

A Prospective Randomized Study To Evaluate The Efficacy Of Different Topical Agents In The Management Of Chronic Plaque Type Psoriasis

Dr. Neeraj Kumar Dr. Neeraj Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2806-2810

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of various topical agents in chronic plaque type psoriasis.
Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized study was done in the  Department of  skin and VD,  Vardhman Institute of Medical Sciences, Pawapuri, Nalanda, Bihar, India for one year. Total 100 patients were include and were divided in three groups comprising of 30 patients in each group. Group A patients were asked to apply ammonium lactate twice a day, Group B patients were asked to apply ammonium lactate in morning and clobetasol propionate in evening, Group C patients were asked to apply topical ammonium lactate in morning and calcipotriol in evening. PASI scoring of each patient was done at baseline, at the end of 4 weeks and at the end of 8 weeks.  Results:  No significant difference was noted between study groups (p=0.649). Further on comparison of individual groups it was found that significant difference was present between PASI at 8 weeks between group A and group B (p=0.039), group A and group C (p=0.027) but between group B and group C (p=0.967) difference was not significant. it was found that 14(46.67%) out of 30 subjects attained PASI 50 in group A, 19(63.33%) out of 30 patients in group B and 19(63.33%) out of 30 patients in group C. Physician global assessment scale shows that in Group A, 7(23.33%) patients had excellent response, 6(20%) patients had good response, and 7(23.33%) patients had fair response whereas 10(33.33%) patients had poor response. In group B, 10(33.33%) patients had excellent response, 11(36.67%) patients had good response, and 4(13.33%) patients had fair response whereas 5(16.67%) patients had poor response. In group C, 10(33.33%) patients had excellent response, 11(36.67%) patients had good response, and 2(6.67%) patients had fair response whereas 6(20%) patients had poor response.
Conclusion: We concluded that the combination therapy is effective, well tolerated with minimal side effects and better compliance was seen. Ammonium lactate can also be considered as one of the topical option as a monotherapy and also as a maintenance therapy.

Assessment Of The Predictive Factors For Time To Full Enteral Feeding After Pyloromyotomy For Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis: Observational Study

Dr. Ashoka Nand Thakur Thakur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2811-2818

Aim: the aim of this study to evaluate the predictive factors for time to full enteral feeding after pyloromyotomy for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics surgery Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India and Sushrut Child Surgery Centre, Patna, Bihar from October 2016 to January 2020. All children underwent pyloromyotomy were include in this study. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of isolated IHPS and isolated pyloromyotomy operation. The diagnosis of IHPS was based on clinical symptoms and ultrasound findings. Parameters in demographics and in the preoperative and postoperative period were evaluated against TFEF (hours) using linear regression models.
Results: Total 200children’s were included in this study. Out of 200, 160 (80%) boys, with a mean corrected age of 39±15 days, a mean weight of 3897 g, 31 (15.5%) of which were premature, and 17 (8.5%) of which had a severe underlying disease. Median duration of symptoms was 4.2 days (IQR: 8); 151 patients (75.5%) experienced weight loss; and increased bilirubin was seen in 25 patients (12.5%). Mean TFEF was 48±42 hours and mean length of postoperative hospital stay was 67±51 hours. The majority of children (89.5%) were fed according to a feeding schedule. No child required intravenous nutrition. There were 11 children (5.5%) presented with postoperative complications, of which 7 required reoperation. In the univariate analysis, age, weight, severe underlying disease increased bilirubin level, and duration of symptoms were found to affect TFEF. In the multivariate analysis, only age (B: −0.63 (−1.15 to −0.21), p=0.005). and severe underlying disease (B:26.64(3.41 to 51.52),p=0.021)remained as variables significantly affecting TFEF. Hence, for every day of age, the time to fully fed decreased with 0.7 hour, and the presence of an underlying disease increased the time to fully fed with over 1 day. TFEF did not seem to be affected by prematurity, preoperative weight loss, symptom duration, preoperative acid/base balance or electrolyte values, surgical method, or method of postoperative feeding (table 3 and 4).
Conclusion: we conclude that the time to full enteral feeding decreased with higher age and increased in children with a severe underlying disease.

An Observational Study To Evaluate The Histological Patterns Of Endometrium In Infertile Women In An Attempt To Find Out The Cause Of Infertility

Dr. Vandana, Dr. Pallavi Mehra, Dr. Kannu Priya, Dr. N.K.Bariar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2819-2823

Aims: To evaluate the histological patterns of endometrium in infertile women in an attempt to find out the cause of infertility.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on women attending the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at Patna Medical College Hospital, Patna, with complain of failure to conceive after regular and unprotected intercourse with husband. Gross examinations of the samples were done following the guideline described by standard textbook of surgical pathology. Paraffin blocks were made; Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained histological slides were prepared and examined under microscope.
Results: Menstrual problems were seen in 38% of patients. Anovulatory infertility was present in 58% cases. Simple hyperplasia without atypia was seen in 8% cases and tuberculous endometritis was present in 3% cases.
Conclusion: In the present study Anovulatory cycles accounted for significant numbers of cases.

Study To Determine The Clinic-Etiologic Profile And Outcome Of AES In Hospitalized Children

Dr. Abu Irfan Dr. Baibhav Prakash Sahay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2824-2831

Background: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is defined as the acute-onset of fever and a change in mental status (including signs and symptoms such as confusion, disorientation, delirium or coma) and/or new-onset of seizures (excluding simple febrile seizures) in a person of any age at any time of the year. The clinical definition of AES was introduced to facilitate surveillance for Japanese encephalitis (JE), mosquito-borne viral encephalitis. Most AES is considered to be due to a viral-encephalitis, virus like West Nile, Herpes simplex virus, Flaviviruse like JE and dengue are more prevalent in South East Asia. Various subsequent studies confirmed that most AES in India are due to JE, which has been considered as the only major cause of AES in India.
Aim: this study was conducted for a better understanding and to determine the clinical profile and outcome of AES in hospitalized children and also to determine the etiology in all cases of AES.
Material and Methods: This Cross-sectional, observational study was done the Department of Pediatric, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital, Gaya, Bihar, for 13 months. Children between age 1 month to 15 years with the acute onset of fever and a change in mental status such as confusion, disorientation, coma or inability to talk and/or new onset of seizures (excluding simple febrile seizure) were included in study. All cases were investigated Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) analysis, dengue serology, radiological investigation as per clinical presentation.
Results: out of 120 AES cases most of them were above 10 years of age (35.83%). Majority of them were males 77(64.17%), and 43(35.83%) were females. Most of the cases were reported during monsoon period 69(57.5%), followed by post-monsoon      39(32.5%) and pre-monsoon 12(10%). Out of 120 cases, all had fever; 89 (74.17%) had altered sensorium ; 71 (59.17%) had convulsion; 32 (26.67%) had headache; 49 (40.83%) had vomiting. On fundus examination 39 (32.5%) showed papilledema. Out of 120 cases 65(54.17%) had viral etiology, 29 (24.17%) had dengue, 7 (5.83%) had malaria, 5 (4.17%) bacterial etiology, 7 (5.83%) had tuberculosis, 6 (5%) had other causes. Those patients who had shock and need inotropes showed significant mortality (p-value: 0.014). Also those who required mechanical ventilation had significant mortality, out of 33 patients put on mechanical ventilation 19 died which was statistically significant with p -value 0.001.
Conclusion: Majority of cases were in the age-group of 1-5 years, with male predominance. The peak in occurrence of cases was during post-monsoon period (October-February). 


S. Praveen; Dr. R. Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2832-2847

Text clustering is an important method for effectively organising, summarising, and navigating text information. The purpose of the clustering is to distinguish and classify the similarity among the text instance as label. However, in the absence of labels, the text data to be clustered cannot be used to train the text representation model based on deep learning as it contains high dimensional data with complex latent distributions. To address this problem, a new unified deep learning framework for text clustering based on deep representation learning is proposed using the deep adaptive fuzzy clustering in this paper to provide soft partition of data. Initially reconstruction of original data into feature space carried out using the word embedding process of deep learning. Word embedding process is a learnt representation of the text or sentence towards clustering into vector containing words, characters and N-grams of words. Further clustering of feature vector is carried out with max pooling layer to determine the inter-cluster seperability and intra-cluster compactness. Moreover learning of the feature space is processed with gradient descent. Moreover tuning of feature vector is fine tuned on basis of Discriminant information using hyper parameter optimization with fewer epochs. Finally representation learning and soft clustering has been achieved using deep adaptive fuzzy clustering and quantum annealing based optimization has been employed .The results demonstrate that the clustering approach more stable and accurate than the traditional FCM clustering algorithm on employing k fold validation for evaluation. The Experimental results demonstrates the proposed technique outperforms of state of arts approaches in terms of set based measures like Precision, Recall and F measure and rank based measures like Mean Average Precision and Cumulative Gain.


Artayan Roy; Dr. Neha Patvardhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2848-2855

Mutual fund is the ideal place for investor to park money. Each mutual fund have different schemes to invest and manage .An investor can invest in different schemes according to his or her wish, and can become the unit holder of the schemes invested money in a particular scheme of mutual fund. It is then the mutual fund invests accordingly in stocks and other instruments. Mutual funds invests is a tradable instrument and follows “Marko-market” valuation for their assets. The investment risk is carried by investors, in this case it is the mutual fund, participate in the upside potential of the corporate equities and at the same time are also exposed to losses when markets fall.


D. Anil Kumar; Sudheer Babu Punuri; P.S.Prema Kumar; A V S Pavan Kumar; Dr Mula Malyadri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2856-2866

Nowadays getting doctor appointment is very difficult task The Heath Care Services range from basic medical diagnostics to critical emergency services offering a ticketing system for all the telephonic calls received across all the departments.Calls to the provider can be for New Appointment, Cancellation, Lab Queries, Medical Refills, Insurance Related, and General Doctor Advise etc.The Tickets have the details of Summary of the call and description of the calls written by various staff members with no standard text guidelines. We investigate to see if, based on the Text in the ‘Summary’ and ‘Description’ of the call, the ticket can be automatically classified to Appropriate Category (out of 6 Categories) and Subcategories (Out of 21 Sub Categories) with good accuracy using Machine learning approach. We use the bag of words approach to solve the problem. Further we would try different data feature representation methods using Document Term Matrix ( tf, tf-idf, binary-tf,) and different Machine learning algorithms and see which performs better, and try to reason why one works better than the other


Ms. G. Radha priya; Dr. P.V.S. Siva Prasad; Sowjanya Ramisetty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2867-2880

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming one of the demanding platforms. Environmental or physical conditions are sensed and monitored by sensor nodes and thesev data are transmitted to base station using multi-hop routing. For enhancing network lifetime and stability, various cluster-based solutions are designed in recent days. For homogeneous networks, various energy efficient solutions are developed and for data communication, distance parameter are used. When compared with location and flat based routing protocols, better performance is shown by hierarchical heterogeneous cluster based energy efficient routing protocols. This because of the presence of heterogeneity of nodes with respect to sensor node’s energy level and it enhances network’s lifetime. In recent works, mobile sensor nodes are used for enhancing WSNs performance and functionality. In this paper, authors proposed a novel concept of mobile sensor nodes and it is termed as Mobile Energy Aware Cluster Based Multi-hop routing protocol for hierarchical heterogeneous WSNs. It selects CHs according to newly proposed probability equation which selects only that sensor node as Cluster Head (CH) which has highest energy among other sensor nodes. In MEACBM, aftersensor nodes deployment and clusters formation, whole network area is divided into sectors and inside every sector a mobile sensor node is placed which act as Mobile Data Collector (MDC) and it collects data from CHs. This technique helps in significantly reducing sensor nodes energy consumption of for transferring information to Base Station(BS). Also energy consumption aware routing by finding path is done by using Hybrid form of Particle Swarm Optimization and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization called (PSOABC) algorithm is also proposed. This research work considers the following Quality of Service (QoS) parameters foroptimal selection of route paths: networkv lifetime, throughput and Energy for evaluation purposes.


Ms. K. Manjula; Dr. P.V.S. Siva Prasad; Mr. N. Srinivas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2881-2892

Reliable data transmission in wireless sensor network plays a critical part with the
presence of increased data traffic and congestion. Successful data transmission can be
ensured by providing cache resources to store the data before transmission. Reliable Transport
protocol with a cache aware congestion control mechanism (RT-CaCC) is the existing
approach used for secured communication. However, in this existing works, cache resource
allocation is done evenly to all data flows on network which lead to data transmission failure
due to insufficient resources. Cache resource allocation should be performed evenly in order
to obtain consistent and successful data transmission. Priority based Cache Allocation and
Congestion Control protocol (P-CACC) is used in this work for effective cache resource
allocation. In the proposed research work, data transmission is performed reliably by giving
more prioritization to the data flow with higher data rate. Here, initially uneven cache
partitioning scheme is introduced for giving more prioritization to the flow with higher data
rates. This is done by measuring the priority of the multiple data flows present in the network,
and the weight assignment is done with the assistance of cuckoo search algorithm where the
data flow with more priority will be assigned with more weight. The higher cache partition will
be allocated to the data flow assigned with higher weight value. The simulation of the work is
performed in NS2. It is confirmed that proposed research work tends to have improved
outcomes than the existing techniques.

The Distribution of ABO Blood Groups among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with or Without Chronic Microvascular Complications

Sarah Jaafar Mohammed, Seenaa S. Amin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2893-2900

The ABO blood group system is highly polymorphic, with more than 20 distinct sub-groups; study findings are usually related to ABO phenotype, but rarely to the ABO genotype and animal models are unsatisfactory because their antigen glycosylation structure is different from humans. Both the ABO and Rh blood group systems have been associated with a number of diseases, but this is more likely related to the presence or absence of these tissue antigens throughout the body and not directly or primarily related to their presence on RBCs. A total of fifty two 52 patients without complication of DMII, two hundred sixteen 216 patients with complication of DMII and seventy one 71 person as healthy control were included in the study. The results of the study showed a significant difference in distribution of ABO blood groups between (healthy and DM II subjects) and between (DM II with complication and DM II without complication group), the comparison in the distribution of ABO blood groups among diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy groups shows non- significant difference


Dr.K.Jeyanthi, Dr. D.Napoleon

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2901-2906

The higher numbers of cholera widespread death in minimum established republics is a dare for healthiness amenities. It is essential to prepare the situation by way of epidemiological investigation. Towards emphasize the capability of epidemiological shadowing, this article emphases on remote sensing satellite records handling by means of data mining approaches to ascertain threat zones of the widespread illness through linking the surroundings, weather and healthiness. These outpost information are pooled through arena records composed throughout the similar set of periods in direction to clarify plus abstract the reasons of the widespread progression commencing one era to an additional in relative to the surroundings. The prevailing methodological (procedures) for handling satellite imageries are matured then well-organized, thus the contest nowadays is to offer the furthermost appropriate resources permitting the finest analysis of acquired outcomes.  In lieu of that, we emphasis taking place supervised grouping procedure towards course a customary of satellite imageries as of the similar zone but on dissimilar stages.


Dr.V.S.Arulmurugan, Dr.Kavithaa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2907-2922

In the medical field, heart disease is a significant and dangerous disease to increase the mortality rate, so heart disease predictsa different method. The heartbeat sensor is used to analyze the heart pulse through the fingertip, and its output value of the sensor is compared to the set value if any changes in the value are given the alert to the user. This frequent palpitation causes heart attacks. The system can store the potential victims of a heart attack. Patient monitoring systems are becoming increasingly important. Due to the emergence of heart disease, it monitors the health requirements of patients. Therefore, the system was developed to monitor patient health conditions such as temperature and patient heart rate. A temperature and heart rate sensor has been introduced to detect distress situations. This proposed Intermittent Data Acquisition Technique (IDAT) system monitors heart rate, detects heartbeats due to missing control technology, and transmitted heartbeat data and sent via the website to remote people or doctors to deploy mobile devices.Tomeasure heartbeat through pulse sensors and microcontrollers based on the Intermittent Data Acquisition Technology (IDAT) process. The device puts a fingertip, an earlobe, or a wrist on the heart rate sensor so that everyone can monitor the real-time values taken after moving his/her heart rate.


Dr.Raju Rameshkumar, Mr.NallantiVenkateswara Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2923-2940

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is derived from diabetes is a serious eye disease and in the most common cause of blindness. DR is an eye disease that is a result of chronic disease of diabetes. A microaneurysm is a small red spot in the retina that raises from the fragile part of the blood vessel, hard exudates, and abnormal growth of blood vessels are the diabetic retinopathy. Predicting the presence of microaneurysmsas an early indication of fundus imaging and diabetic retinopathy has been a major challenge for decades. DR is suffering from a person's chronic high blood sugar levels, microvascular problems, and irreversible vision loss leads.To solve this problem, the rapid advancement of Deep Learning (DL) makes it an effective technique for providing interesting solutions to analytical problems in medicine.The proposed system DL algorithms are Retinal Hidden Linear Selection (RHLS) algorithm and Quick Convolutional Diagnosis (QCD)algorithm. Retinal Hidden Linear Selection (RHLS) algorithm used to pre-process to remove noise from the fundus image, and excessive-performance. Then, a quick convolution diagnosis (QCD) algorithm is a classification to determine whether the fundus image is subjected to a normal or influence. The results obtained are the proposed method, from a very effective and color fundus image shows a successful diabetic retinopathy diagnosis

An Early Risk Prediction against Covid -19 Based On Adaptive Surf Scale Feature Selection and Sigmoid Recurrent Neural Network for Premature Precaution before Covid Second Wave

Dr. Jagannath Jadhav, Dr. Srinivasa Rao Surampudi, Dr. Mukil Alagirisamy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2941-2956

The development of new technologies, human nature, and food activities are completely against with nature in recent days. Due to this uncertainty, the new pandemic covid-19 has outbreak globally and spoiledthe human life. In this situation, the disease also has improved as a new modified version of influenza like Covid 19 (2.0). So, the Analysis of features becomes mandatory to identify the diseases based on big data analysis. Similarly, most people suffering from diabetes could not have a correct prediction to take proper treatments. Many health care suggestions and treatment handling methods do not predict the right information at the correct time to make a diagnosis. There is no premature process for the treatment based on non-predicted results. Hence, an Adaptive Surf Scale Feature Selection (SSFS) and Sigmoid Recurrent Neural Network Classification (SRNN) is proposed for improving the early risk prediction against the covid. Initially, preprocessing is carried out to verify the records. Then, future selection is carried out using the surf scale weightage factor, which analyzes the Covid Influence Rate (CIR) and the marginal weight is identified. Each identified weight is ruled into Inter Class Sigmoid Function (ICSF) to activate the iteration recurrent neural network. Finally, the classifier trains the features into a feed-forward layer to produce the classified result. The proposed system produces high performance compared to the previous system as well as recommendations for premature diagnoses.

Analyzing Performance and Pulse Width Modulation Control and Digital Control Approach for Asymmetric DC-AC Cascaded H Bridge Multilevel Inverter

Syed Masood Hussain , wogderes semunigus

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2957-2966

There have been many pieces of research done that showcase the limitations of high power output and voltage in conventional inverters. Multilevel inverters are among the most used form of inverter today simply because of their efficiency, enhanced power ratings and harmonic profiles. The following article consists of a detailed evaluation of the power, pulse width analysis, and the digital control mechanisms and approaches for a 5 level cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter. The analysis of the CHMI or cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter has been done by Simulink and MATLAB software. Total harmonic distortion, harmonic spectrum, waveform patterns and output voltage has been chosen as the analysis parameters here. Apart from all these analysis discussion and evaluation regarding the control schemes has also been presented in the article.

A comparative study to identify the fate of the third molar along the line of fracture in mandibular angle fracture

Dr. Shazia Khatoon, Dr. Samir Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2967-2972

Aims: to identify the fate of the third molar along the line of fracture in mandibular angle fracture.
Materials and Methods: A Retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Dentistry, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital, Gaya, Bihar, India from March 2019 to August 2019. Total 100 cases were enrolled for the study, divided into two groups – group 1 in which third molar was retained and group 2 in which third molar was extracted. The cause for removal included development of pain, redness, discharge indicating periodontal problems including mobility and periapical lesions. Keeping the progress of healing of the bone in mind these teeth were extracted.
Result: The mean age group of the population of the study was 33.42 (20 to 60 years), out of which majority of the cases 85%(85) were male patients and 15%(15) were female patients. There were a total of 100 patients with mandibular angle fracture who underwent open reduction and internal fixation. 32% (n=32) the third molar was removed, while in 68% (n=68) retained. In 45% (45) cases the third molar was completely erupted and 55% (55) were impacted third molars. In the impacted molars 50.91% were mesioangular, 38.18% were vertical and 10.91% were distoangular. Out of the 100 cases included in this study 13 cases underwent implant removal. 9 in case in retained group and 4 in the removal group. In the retained group, extraction of the third molar was carried out along with removal of the implant. A p value of 0.14 was noted and a Chi square value of 1.85.
Conclusion: We conclude that the partially impacted tooths are best to be removed during the procedure for better outcomes provided the fractured segments stability is maintained. 

A case-control study to assess the outcome of administering zinc sulphate on improving the clinical symptoms of the children diagnosed with pneumonia

Dr. Krishna Keshav, Dr.Sushil Kumar Pathak, Dr.Saroj Kumar, Dr.Binod Kumar Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2973-2979

Aim: This study was investigating the effect of prescribing zinc sulphate on improving the clinical symptoms of pneumonia in children below 60 months of age.
Material and Methods: This Case-Control study was done the Department of Paediatrics, Nalanda Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India for 12 months. Among 300 patients divided into two equal groups. 150 Children between the age of 2 months to 59 months and children with Acute Lower Respiratory Tract infection were included in case group and 150 children for control group. The details of blood investigations and imaging for confirmation of clinical diagnosis were also noted during the stay of the patient in the hospital. The serum zinc estimation was done by using colorimetric test.
Results: The mean age of cases was 1.63±1.44 yrs and that of controls was 1.77±1.85 yrs. The Sex wise distribution of the cases and controls consisted of 91(60.67%) of cases being male and 59(39.33%) being female as compared to 87(58%) of controls being male and 63(42%) being female. The Mean serum zinc levels in the cases and controls, after comparison,  were found to be significantly different [p=0.0001], with mean value for the cases being 58.98 ± 10.22 ug/dl as compared to 85.12 ± 12.12 ug/dl for the controls. A total of 42 cases and controls (28%) were found to have deficiency of zinc, of which majority (89.29%) were cases. Severe Pneumonia group (Mean=39.95±5.98ug/dl) having significantly lower value than that of Pneumonia group (Mean=63.78 ±6.76 ug/dl). According to oxygen requirements, with cases managed on room air having mean of 66.11±7.22 ug/dl, cases requiring supplemental oxygen by nasal prongs having mean of 63.23±10.29 ug/dl and cases requiring mechanical ventilation having mean of 41.17±7.88 ug/dl(Table 3). The serum zinc analysis of patients according to outcome shows significantly lower zinc values (p value=0.0001) in cases who eventually died due to the ALRTI and its complications (n=17) as compared to those who got discharged after treatment (n=133).
Conclusion: we concluded that the low serum level of zinc was seen in severe pneumonia cases. Serum zinc levels were found to be lower in risk factors of LRTI like poor nutritional status, anemia, vitamin A deficiency, low birth weight and formula fed patients. Zinc supplementation is required in LRTI patients especially those with the above mentioned risk factors.

Comparison of non-operative and operative management of isolated liver injury in blunt abdominal trauma

Dr. Santosh Kumar, Dr. Shri Krishna Ranjan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2980-2987

Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness and morbidity and mortality of both non-operative management as well as operative management of liver injury patients admitted to our hospital.
Material and methods: This Prospective observational study was done in the Department of Surgery, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital, Gaya, Bihar, India, for 12 months. 50 patients aged between 18-65 years of both sex with isolated liver injury due to blunt abdominal trauma with or without associated injury were included in this study. All 50 patients were subjected to radiological investigation with focussed assessment sonography for trauma (FAST) in hemodynamically unstable patients and contrast- enhanced computed tomography (CECT) abdomen in hemodynamically stable patients. All injuries were classified according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). Results: The majority of the patients (46%) belonged to 20-30 years age group, followed by 10-20 and 30-40 years age group (18%). The majority of patients were male 90% whereas female patients were only 10% (Table 2). MVA was responsible for 80% of blunt abdominal trauma cases, while fall from height accounted for 20% of cases. Majority of the patients presented with abdominal pain (100%) and abdominal tenderness (100%). Associated extra-abdominal injuries were found in 21 cases. All case-patients with head injury were managed conservatively with neurosurgery consultation. In present series, most of the liver injuries due to blunt trauma abdomen were minor type (grade I, II and III), they are (92%) of the total blunt liver injuries, major injuries (grade IV, V and VI were seen in (8%) cases of blunt liver trauma. In present series, the majority of the blunt liver injuries were grade II (46%), 1 (28%) and III (18%) injuries followed by grade IV (6%) and V injury (2%) have the lowest incidence. 
Conclusion: Isolated liver injury is common in the blunt abdominal trauma patient. Most of the patients with the liver injury with hemodynamically stable treated conservatively. Only a few of them require surgical management if they are hemodynamically unstable.


Dr. M.P.Thiruvenkatasuresh, Mrs. K.Senthilvadivu, Dr.M.Dhipa, A.Keerthiga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2988-3000

The energy consumption is one of the important constrain in wireless sensor networks. The nodes can be failed when the sensor nodes are deployed in unpredictable environmental conditions due to the battery loss, in that situation it is difficult to change the battery. So it will be wise to use an appropriate routing algorithm for searching the better available path that consumes lesser energy and minimize the delay. The Energy Efficient Genetic Algorithm Routing reduces the size of the forwarder list by considering only the nodes that are most nearer to the destination. In the next process the list is arranged occurred on their distance from the destination, the highest priority node will act as the next relay node and that selected relay node is nearer to destination. It also routes the acknowledgement using the Genetic Algorithm routing this is done to balance the energy spend by the nodes for transmission and reception. It provides better results than many existing Genetic Algorithm routing protocols in terms of end-to-end delay and network lifetime.

Assessment of radiological prognostic factors in patients with carcinoma cervix treated with concurrent chemoradiation: A clinical study

Manraj Singh Kang; Taranjeet kaur; Gaurav Jaswal; D P Singh; Gagandeep Singh; Khusbu Goyal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3001-3006

Aims & Objective: The present study was undertaken for assessing the radiological
prognostic factors in patients with carcinoma cervix treated with concurrent
Materials & methods: A total of 40 patients were included. Only those patients were
included which had histological proven diagnosis of carcinoma of cervix. Patients were
within the age range of 19 to 60 years. Complete demographic and clinical details of all the
patients were obtained. Thorough physical examination of all the patients was carried out.
Treatment planned was 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with concurrent
chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and follow-up for 6 months.
Results: Out of 40 patients, 25 patients had NED after 6 months while in 15 patients were
of residual after 6 months. Among the patients with NED, 16 patients had parametrical
extension of less than lateral pelvic wall while disease dimension was more than 6 cm in 17
patients. Hyponephrosis was present in 2 patients. Among the patients with residual, 10
patients had parametrical extension of less than lateral pelvic wall while disease dimension
was more than 6 cm in 15 patients. Hyponephrosis was present in 5 patients.
Conclusion: Patients with higher parametrical extension upto pelvic wall, hydronephrosis
and greater dimension were associated with pelvic failure of disease at follow-up.

Assessment of profile of patients with Pancytopenia

Harmohinder Kumar Attri; Arshia Bansal; Arun Puri; Raj Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3007-3014

Background: Pancytopenia is characterized by a decreased number of at least two blood cell
lines. The clinical features depend upon both of the underlying disease process as well as
relate to the blood cell lineages affected. Hence; the present study was undertaken for
assessing the profile of patients with pancytopenia.
Materials & methods: A total of 20 patients with pancytopenia were enrolled. Complete
demographic and clinical details of all the patients were recorded. Thorough history of all the
patients was obtained. Blood samples of all the patients were obtained. Diagnosis of
pancytopenia was established. Clinical profile of all the patients was recorded. All the results
were analysed by SPSS software version. Chi square test was used for assessment of level of
significance P value of less than 0 05 were taken as significant.
Results: Mean age of the patients was 40.3 years. 60 percent of the patients were males while
the remaining were females. Generalized weakness and pallor was seen in 100 percent of the
patients while fever and bleeding was seen in 60 percent and 15 percent of the patients.
Reticulocyte count was ≤ 0.5%, 0.6 to 1% and 1.1 to 2% in 25 percent, 50 percent and 25
percent of the patients respectively. Hypercellular bone marrow, Hypocellular bone marrow
and Normocellular bone marrow was seen in 80 percent, 15 percent and 5 percent of the
patients respectively. Megaloblastic anaemia was the cause of pancytopenia in 60 percent of
the patients while aplastic anaemia and sepsis was the cause in 15 percent and 10 percent of
the patients respectively
Conclusion: Bone marrow examinations, aspiration cytology or biopsy are important tool for
diagnosis of pancytopenia. Underlying cause and severity of disease determine the outcome
of pancytopenia.

Monocrotophos toxicity induced hormonal and biochemical disruption in liver and ovary of Cyprinus carpio communis

Sarabjeet Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3015-3022

The organophosphorus pesticide, monocrotophos induced toxicity in fish’s adobe has been studied to access the biochemical and hormonal disruption caused in the liver and ovary of the fish. Monocrotophos pose serious risk to biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and level of hormones in the fishes. A direct relationship between concentrations of monocrotophos, elevated cholesterol levels and depressed estradiol concentrations have been traced in the study. The elevated levels of cholesterol in the ovary apparently reflect the reduced rate of its utilization for steroid synthesis by the ovary as significant effect of pesticide. The decreased estradiol level causes decreased production of vitellogenin as well as hampers the development of oocytes in ovary of Cyprinus carpio communis which was also evident in the experiments

Assessment of impact of Oral Contraceptives on Lipid Profile in Premenopausal Women

Harmohinder Kumar Attri; Tejinder Singh; Raj Kumar; Kuldeep Kumar; Arun Puri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3023-3027

Background: World is facing the most serious problem that is population explosion. Contraception method is used worldwide for over birth control or unwanted pregnancies. Hence; the present study was undertaken for assessing the impact of oral contraceptives on lipid profile in Premenopausal Women.
Materials & methods: A total of 30 pre-menopausal subjects were enrolled. All the subjects belonged to the age group of 30 to 40 years. Only those subjects were included in the study group which has been using oral contraceptives for the last 3 months. Another set of 30 subjects with negative history of intake of oral contraceptives were taken as controls. Complete demographic and clinico details of all the patients were obtained. Blood samples of all the patients were obtained and were sent for analysis of lipid profile. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software.
Results: Mean serum cholesterol levels among the patients of the study group and the control group was 196.5 mg% and 181.4 mg% respectively. Mean serum triglyceride levels among the patients of the study group and the control group was 95.4 mg% and 82.6 mg% respectively. Mean serum high density lipoproteins levels among the patients of the study group and the control group was 41.6 mg% and 42.8 mg% respectively. Mean serum
cholesterol levels and serum triglyceride levels among the patients the study group was significantly higher in comparison to the patients of the control group.
Conclusion: Use of oral contraceptives significantly alters the lipid profile in premenopausal women.


Dr. Landge Nilima Manikrao; Dr. Supriya Bhalchim; Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr. Siva Kumar Pendyala; Dr. Kameswari Kondreddy; Dr. Joohi Chandra; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3028-3034

Aim: Purpose of our research was to assess the efficacy of cannabinoids in oral care products in reducing bacterial content inside the mouth.
Methodology: Dental plaques of 30 healthy adults were collected using paro-toothpick sticks and spread on three Petri dishes (A, B and C) containing cannabinoids containing toothpaste, oral B and Colgate respectively. The Petri dishes were sealed and incubated at 37°C for twenty-four hours, followed by counting the amount of colonies using colony counter.
Results: By evaluating the colony count of the dental bacteria isolated from six groups, it absolutely was found that cannabinoids were simpler in reducing the bacterial colony count in dental plaques as compared to the well-established synthetic oral care products like Oral B and Colgate.


Dr. A V Thomas Raja; Dr. Siva Kumar Pendyala; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Sharnjot Kaur; Dr. Fida Qadri; Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim; Dr. Heena Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3035-3041

Aim Purpose of our research was to compare and analyze the efficacy of sedation regimens frequently used in dentistry by intravenous approach.
Methodology A total of 50 patients were provided one of four treatments: placebo; midazolam provided (mean dose, 8.6 milligrams); fentanyl (1.4 micrograms/kilogram) plus midazolam to get similar amount of sedation (mean dose, 5.7 mg); or fentanyl (1.4 (μg/kg), midazolam (mean dose, 5.8 mg) and methohexital (mean dose, 61.0 mg) used in the surgery.
Results Each drug regimen decreased anxiety during surgery when compared with placebo, with the combination of midazolam, fentanyl and methohexital resulting in drastically less anxiety in as compared to other treatment groups. Pain felt by patients during surgery decreased significantly by the combination of fentanyl, midazolam and methohexital.
Conclusion It was observed that drugs and doses evaluated resulted in therapeutic benefit for patients undergoing dental procedures, with less possibility of potentially serious adverse effects

Preference of Orthodontic Treatment versus Orthognathic Surgery in class III Malocclusion Cases: A Questionnaire Survey

Dr. Sunil Kumar Gulia; Dr. Harinder Kaur Virk; Dr. Fida Qadri; Dr. Jyoti Mallanagouda Biradar; Dr. Sharnjot Kaur; Dr. Heeralal Chokotiya; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3042-3048

Aim: The purpose of our research was to evaluate the preference of treatment strategy
amongst the orthodontists about class III malocclusion correction.
Methodology: A questionnaire survey for over a period of 1 year amongst 12 orthodontists
working for over 2 years. They were asked about their preference of treatment strategies for
carrying out correction of class III malocclusion cases. Their experience of relapses, patient
satisfaction as well as difficulty in handling such cases was also recorded. Descriptive
statistical analysis was carried out for assessing the data recorded with the help of SPSS 25.0.
Results: Orthodontists were of divided opinion regarding the treatment strategy for class III
malocclusion. However, most of them were of the view that orthodontic treatment had more
relapses as compared to orthognathic surgery combined with orthodontic therapy, which was
statistically significant as well (p=0.035).
Conclusion: Most of the survey participants were of opinion that combined treatment with
surgery first approach; will improve the facial profile of the patients drastically.


Dr. Arjun Sreenivas; Dr. Anju S Raj; Dr. Veronica Rose Puthenpurackal; Dr. Teena Haneef; Dr. Gadha R Pillai; Dr. Deepak Jose; Dr. Greeshma SG

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3049-3055

Aim: To evaluate and compare the pain perception by the pediatric patients, while experiencing computerized injection device computerized syringe and the conventional injection technique during dental clinical procedures
Methodology: Forty children aged 10‑14 years requiring local anaesthesia on two sides of the dental arch were included in the study. The patients served as their own control, and on the appointed day through computerized injection technique local anesthesia was injected and on the second day, anesthesia was achieved with the help of traditional method. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and faces pain rating scale (FRS) were used to evaluate pain perception of pediatric patients. Along with this, various other physiological parameters were also taken into consideration.
Results: Paired t‑test discovered a statistically significant variance in the pain acuity in pediatric patients using VAS and FRS scales to compare amid computerized and conventional technique. No statistically significant difference was observed when physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure) were compared at various intervals
between the computerized and the conventional technique
Conclusion: Computerized controlled injection technique provides less painful injections when compared to the conventional injection technique.


Dr. B Suba Ranjana; Dr. Siva Kumar Pendyala; Dr. Afreen Kauser; Dr Mohammed Muzammil Khan; Dr. Ekta Srivastava; Dr. Meghna Padubidri; Dr. Heena Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3056-3061

Pediatric dentists commonly face with the task of giving the local anesthetic to the children who are dreaded of the procedure. There has been a focus worldwide to make any procedure as less as possible for all be it adult or child patient. There are very few studies regarding the efficacy of the cold and vibration application during the injection techniques. Along these lines, the reason for this examination was to assess the efficacy of a local anesthetic procedure without topical application when contrasted to the conventional insertion technique for alleviating pain in children receiving local anesthesia injections and also to compare the pain perception and comfort of patient between conventional and Buzzy system.


Dr. Shallu Bansal; Dr. Narendra Reddy Chittamuru; Dr. Siva Kumar Pendyala; Dr. K. Krishna Lohitha; Prof. Dr.Appadurai. R; Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3062-3071

Introduction: Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have assessed the effectiveness of lifting the maxillary sinuses. Our study did additional research, in which it was witnessed that bone neoformation and implant osseointegration after sinus lifting with/ without grafting material was possible. In the current study we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the maxillary sinus lift up and implant placement.
Methodology: An electronic search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Embase, till 2020. We considered prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled clinical trials, and randomized clinical trials. The search and selection process yielded 18 studies, published between 2005 and 2020. A meta- analysis was conducted only for experimental studies comparing sinus floor elevation with and without grafting material; results were expressed as the standardized mean difference (SMD) or risk ratio (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI).

Assessment of accuracy of different materials used in impressions for fixed partial dentures

Dr.Ankur Chauhan; Dr.Rohit Singh; Dr. Manish Shivaji Jadhav; Dr. Siddharth Swarup; Dr. Sharv Ahuja; Dr. Sanjeev Soni

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3072-3076

Background: Accurate implant impressions play a significant role and serve as a starting
point in the process of producing good working casts. The present study was conducted to
assess accuracy of different materials used in impressions for fixed partial dentures.
Materials & Methods: It comprised of alginate, polysulphide, polyether and condensation
silicone impression material. Digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts
were taken to evaluate the impression materials’ accuracy and the discrepancies between
them were measured.
Results: The mean discrepancies between the prepared tooth edges in the master model and
in the stone casts in group I was 0.32 mm, in group II was 0.18 mm, in group III was 0.14
mm and in group IV was 0.36 mm. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts’
accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and condensation silicone were more accurate
than the other materials


A. Saranya; I. Fracina Nishandhi; F.S. Josephine

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3077-3084

Hesitant fuzzy set plays a vital role in group decision making problems when there are several possible memberships for an element to a set. This paper presents the algorithm to solve the hesitant fuzzy quadratic fractional transportation problem. The coefficients of the quadratic fractional transportation problem are considered as hesitant fuzzy elements. The proposed algorithm determines the optimal solution to the hesitant fuzzy quadratic fractional transportation problem. The numerical problem is solved to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.


Sudheer Kumar Shriramoju

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3085-3094

The significant requests of wireless interaction systems reside in the military, company, health care, retail, as well as transports. These systems utilize wired, cell, or even Adhoc units. Wireless sensor networks, actuator networks, as well as also automobile devices have acquired a fantastic rate of interest in order and industry. In the last handful of years, the Internet of Things (IoT) has obtained considerable research study rate of interest. The IoT is thought about as future of the internet. In future, IoT will certainly take part in a vital obligation along with will certainly transform our living layouts, criteria, along with company versions. The utilization of IoT in various apps is anticipated to climb swiftly in the happening years. The IoT allows billions of devices, people, as well as remedies, to associate with others and also replacement pertinent info. This paper provides the evaluation of different kinds of attacks and also feasible solutions towards iot


I.Antonitte Vinoline; W. Ritha; J.MerlineVinotha .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3095-3106

Sustainable management integration for reworking of faulty products provides long-lasting benefits. There are situations in global business when the products are purchased from a global supplier. There are chances that a fraction of defective goods can be in the lot earned. These defective goods are still important to save the world and
can be fixed.Repairing faulty products in a nearby repair shop is affordable when contrasted with sending them back to the retailer. The cost of carbon emissions is also integrated into the effect on net income for the environment. The supplier, meanwhile, also offers the buyer a multi-credit-period.We built a sustainability model in this paper and are raising the effect on the climate. This paper seeks to optimize overall benefit bysimultaneously considering multi-credit strategy, rework, scarcity, transportation costs, creating a synergic economic order quantity model.This model can help in making decisions to enhance sustainable inventory management efficiency by controlling the cycle time for a global supply chain. This also draws numerical comparison to provide organizational insights into actual procedures


P. Selvi; W. Ritha; J.Merline Vinotha; I.Antonitte Vinoline

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3107-3115

Mitigating carbon emission in inventory has become an important issue for companies. Nowadays, companies are looking for solutions to reduce the carbon emission due to carbon policies imposed by various regulatory bodies. Not only for regulations, ISO certification, business competitive and customer satisfaction also encourage organizations to adopt green practices in their supply chain. In this paper, we develop a new sustainable inventory model considering carbon emission function which includes different sources of pollution. A mathematical model is to determine the optimal order quantity and total cost of this system. A numerical example is illustrated to present the proposed model


S. Rexlin Jeyakumari; I.Shiny Bridgette; M.Mary Jansirani; A. Alphonse Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3116-3124

The goal of this undertaking is to discover the enhancement of EOQ model under uncertainty with no reasonable deficiencies for Pentagonal Fuzzy Numbers . Here the parameters like purchasing cost, storing cost and yearly interest are thought to be Pentagonal Fuzzy Numbers . The PFN can be defuzzify by utilizing the Graded Mean Integration Representation technique to get the advancement in the least difficult manner. The fuzzy optimal solution of the stock model is arrived by utilizing the expansion of Lagrangean strategy . To make this strategy progressively reasonable, numerical instances of both PFN is shown by utilizing the fuzzy values.


I.Francina Nishandhi; A. Saranya; F.S. Josephine; P. Swetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3125-3134

Supply chain means is a working togetherness of each individual’s profit. In this proposed model we discusses allow the three echelon inventory model along with the transportation cost and packaging cost. Mathematical model and the numerical example are delivered for the best knowingness.


S. Josephine Vinnarasi; A. Theresal Jeyaseeli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3135-3141

Fuzzy waiting line models venture diversified footprints galvanizing on uncertain realm of the world. This study explains a fuzzy queuing model which signifiesthe arrival distribution𝝀𝟎asPoisson and the service time𝝁𝟎is arbitrarily distributed, FCFS discipline. The synchronization of this paper is to extract the membership functions of the execution proportions like the average and variance of queue length for two fuzzy queues based on Randomness principle and the efficacy of different parameters of the system performance measuresis fathomed by numerical exploration.


J.Merline Vinotha; W. Ritha; I. Antonitte Vinoline

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3142-3153

In this paper a new algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution of the multi objective fuzzy fractional transportation problem. The proposed algorithm is very simple and easy to understand. This algorithm gives the better solution in both crisp environment and fuzzy environment. The numerical example is solved to explain the algorithm. The solution of the problem is compared with the several existing problem. The proposed algorithm gives the better solution than the existing one.

Some Common Fixed Point Theorems for Hardy Roger Type Contraction on Partial b-Metric Spaces

Dr. A. Mary Priya Dharsini; Dr.A. Leema Maria Prakasam; Dr. A. Jennie Sebasty Pritha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3154-3164

We prove some fixed point theorems using Hardy Roger type contraction in the setting of b-metric as well as partial b-metric spaces in order to find the existence and uniqueness of the common fixed point. We also provide examples to illustrate the existence of fixed point and its uniqueness


Irudaya Monica Catherine J; Dhanalakshmi K; SelvaRani P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3174-3179

Electricutions creating damages to the system is a common phenomenon in reliability theory, which creates damage to the system due to its magnitude will affect the functioning of a system. Adequate replacement of the system is not realistic since it involves cost. A stochastic model is constructed with three different cases of Electricutions and the time to replacement of a system is obtained, when the breakdown threshold for the cumulative damages and maximum magnitude of Electricutions crosses its threshold simultaneously. The numerical illustration is determined to the mean and variance of time to replacement and the conclusion is presented.


A.Theresal Jeyaseeli; S.Josephine Vinnarasi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3180-3189

In this paper discussed about an EOQ model with shortage. Consider the parameters holding cost, ordering cost, shortage cost, and demand. In real life situation the parameters are not always fixed. So we meet an uncertainty. To face these uncertainties we approach fuzzy parameters. The parameters holding cost, ordering cost, shortage cost and demand are fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy numbers are modified into an interval numbers by nearest interval approximation method. In order to minimize the interval objective function. So we changed to the multi objective function. Then the multi objective function solved by fuzzy optimization technique. To determine the optimum value which is the minimize total cost. Finally, numerical examples are discussed with the proposed model


J. Beny; S. Jone Jayashree; P. Sagaya Leeli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3197-3203

In this paper, we define a new class of generalized contractive condition for proving some common fixed point results for four mappings satisfying in complete S-metric spaces. Our results generalize and unify some results in the
recent literature and illustrate the unique common fixed point of four self-maps through some example.

Investment in Indian pharma companies during COVID 19 lockdowns in Q2 2020

Nikhil Budhwar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3204-3210

This project covers the entire scenario of how likely were the investments in pharma companies during the time period of lockdown due to the outburst of COVID-19. It covers an entire research, it’s results, conclusions and all the analysis based on the investment in pharma companies. Ultimate aim was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 scenario. The regular goal of the business, society and the public authorities, was to guarantee congruity in the inventory of basic, life-saving meds that are fundamental for limiting medical issues during the pandemic.


Mubashir Baig Mirza

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3211-3218

Background:Self-efficacy means the quality of a person to feel confident and competitive that is described as self-assurance that one can effectively carry out the activities and getting adequately trained is a requirement
Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of dental undergraduate students in managing and performing molar endodontic treatment.
Methodology: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted for two batches of dental students in College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University during their internship program. The data related to the number of molar endodontics performed by the participating students was collected from the clinical records of the patient management software. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results: A total 70 undergraduate dental students of two batches 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 who were doing their internship had participated in this study. The self-efficacy level among the undergraduate dental students was found to be moderate.
Conclusion: The self-efficacy among the undergraduate dental students of College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University in two batches of the year 2017-18 and 2018-19 was found to be moderate. The more root canal treatment done with good endodontic supervision during the undergraduate program increases the self-efficiency among the undergraduate dental students.

Evaluation of serum marker CA125 and its role in determining the outcome of threatened abortion

Dr. Sudha, Dr. Krishna Sinha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3219-3224

Aim: the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of serum CA125 levels in predicting the outcome of threatened abortion.
Material and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India for 1 year.  Total 100 patients having complained of vaginal bleeding with gestation age between 7 to 14 weeks were included in this study. Their blood samples were taken and sent for Complete blood count, liver function test, renal function test, ABO Rh, viral markers, serum CA 125 levels. All participants were subjected to sonographic examination to confirm gestational age, fetal viability, and intrauterine single gestation.
Results: On assessing the outcome at 20 weeks of pregnancy, 32 of 100 (32%) pregnancies ended up in abortion, whereas 68 (68%) participants continued their pregnancy. Mean age of the total study population was 24.87±3.58years which is the peak reproductive age group.There was not much significant difference between the patients who aborted and who continued the pregnancy on the basis of age and residence. Maximum numbers of patients were primigravida (55%). Out of the 32 aborted patient, 15 (46.87%) were primigravida and 17 (53.13%) were multigravida. The patient who continued the pregnancy also had similar distribution, 58.82% were primigravida and rest 41.18% were multigravida. There was no statistical difference in distribution of patients based on parity and gestational weeks. Among patients of threatened abortion who aborted, mean maternal serum CA 125 level was 117.06 IU/ml and patients of threatened abortion who progressed normally to the period of viability had mean maternal serum CA 125 level of 49.11 IU/ml. Statistically the difference was significant with the p value of <0.0001. The sensitivity of 84.65%, specificity of 91.87%, PPV of 82.53%, NPV of 91.11 and accuracy of 88.88. Thus making CA 125 clinically important in predicting the outcome of patients with threatened abortion at an early stage of gestation. Taking 60 IU/ml as cut off limit.
Conclusion: Measurement of serum CA-125 may be an inexpensive, easily available, sensitive and specific predictor of outcome in threatened abortion, which results the loss of pregnancy.


Radhika Rani Chintala, Narasinga Rao M R, Somu Venkateswarlu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3225-3233

Research in Human Sensor Networks (HSN) has become the primary topic, as there is significant development in Health and clinical care technologies. Lightweight encryption algorithms are utilized to guaranteeconfidentiality of the data that is communicated between sensors and servers. EELWE is a lightweight encryption algorithm that will consume less energy compared to the existing algorithms. A metric is needed toanalyze the performance of the lightweight encryption algorithms w.r.t various parameters of a cipher implementation. In this paper, a metric called MSEC (Metric for Security Vs Energy consumption) is used to measure the performance of light weight encryption algorithms. Results have proved that EELWE has exhibited better MSEC value compared to other algorithms.

A prospective observational study on pattern of early term neonatal morbidities

Dr. Baibhav Prakash Sahay, Dr. Abu Irfan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3234-3241

Aim: The aim of this study to evaluate the early neonatal morbidities in early term neonates.
Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study was done the Department of Paediatrics, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital, Gaya, Bihar, India. For 16 months. consecutive 320 intramural newborns were examined and all the early term (37 [0/7] to 38[6/7] weeks) and the full-term (39[0/7] to 41[6/7] weeks) babies were include for the study. Morbidities of the early term and full-term babies within the first seven days of life were observed. All the babies included in the study were examined at birth, after 24 hours, after 48 hours and daily up to seven days.
Results: Consecutive 320 live births were included in the study during the study period. Out of the total 320 population included in the study, 120 were early term (37.5%) and 200 were full terms (62.5%). Among the study population most of the babies were 39 weeks of gestational age and the least being 37 weeks. The mean gestational age of the population was 39.44 ± 1.42 weeks. Among the total population 95 were delivered by cesarean section (29.69%) and 225 had vaginal (70.31%) birth (table 3). Among the early term deliveries 39 were delivered by cesarean section (32.5%) and 81 by vaginal delivery (67.5%). Out of total full tem deliveries 56 were by cesarean section (28%) and 144 by vaginal delivery (72%). P-value is 0.784. NICU/SNCU admission rates were higher for babies born at an earlier gestational age (14.67% v/s 9%) than babies born later. Incidence of morbidities like jaundice requiring phototherapy (5% v/s 2%), need for resuscitation (6.67% v/s4 %), hypoglycemia on admission (5% v/s 2%), respiratory morbidities (3.33% v/s 2%), need for mechanical ventilation (1.67% v/s 0.5%),clinical sepsis (6.67% v/s 3.5%), confirmed sepsis (5% v/s 1.5%), need for intravenous antibiotics (10.83% v/s 6.5%), need for intravenous fluid (12.5% v/s 7%) were significantly higher in early terms than full terms during the first one week of life. Significantly higher number of babies delivered by cesarean section needed intervention and NICU admission (15.79% v/s 8.44%) than vaginally born babies. Moreover, among the cesarean deliveries the early term babies had significantly more morbidities or NICU/SNCU admission than their counterparts.
Conclusion:  Neonatal morbidity decreases with delivery at later gestational ages and that infants delivered at 37 and 38 weeks’ gestation, are at increased risk for morbidity compared to infants delivered at 39 weeks or later. So, to reduce early term deliveries and its influence on health care system we should carefully consider the optimal timing and route of delivery

Dietart Intake Patterns of Children (7-9 Years) From Mawana, Uttar Pradesh

Sarita Rohatgi, Meenu Aggarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3242-3246

This study was conducted to assess the dietary intake of children (7-9 years), belonging to lower middle socio-economic strata of Mawana, Uttar Pradesh. Total of one hundred subjects (56 boys and 46 girls) participated in the study. In terms of religion 46% were Muslims and 64% were Hindus (39% General category and 25% schedule castes). Dietary intake patterns revealed a cereal pulse based diet with low consumption of milk, eggs, meat, green leafy vegetables and fruits. Mean intake of all nutrients except protein was found to be lower than RDAs. Sixty two percent of the subjects were consuming adequate amount of proteins while 38% were consuming marginally adequate amount of proteins. In terms of iron and Vitamin A, 96% and 85% subjects respectively, had inadequate intakes. Forty nine subjects had inadequate intake of calcium. There were no significant differences in mean intake of nutrients between boys and girls which implies that there was no gender discrimination in terms of giving food in families of subjects. Total dietary NAR score of four nutrients (protein, calcium, iron and vitamin A) was poor in 52% of the subjects. Total dietary NAR was found to be significantly associated with total income of the family, category of child (general/ scheduled caste), and number of siblings (<2/2 or more). Children belonging to poorer families, being from schedule caste families and having two or more siblings were at a disadvantage.

Comparative Study of Muscle Strength and Flexibility in Cricket, Football and Basketball Players.

Dr. Charushila Atul Rukadikar, Dr. Mundewadi S.A, Dr. Satish Dipankar Dr. Atul R Rukadikar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3247-3255

Background: Cricket, football, and basketball are dynamic sports that require intensive training to develop strength & flexibility.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to measure and compare strength in cricket, football, basketball players, and versatility. We have measured handgrip strength, leg & back strength, and shoulder, back & ankle flexibility.
Materials and Methods: Total of 60 healthy crickets, football & basketball players (15-25 years), from the sport academy were included. They must be regularly practicing players for the last 3 years. Shoulder elevation test, modified sit & reach test (back flexibility), ankle flexibility test was done. We used an unpaired test was for comparison.
Result: There was a highly significant gap statistically in handgrip power & elbow, cricketers' back flexibility than basketball players than football players. Also, there was a highly significant difference for leg & back strength, ankle flexibility in football players than in cricket players than in basketball players.
Conclusion: The data may be helpful in future research on the selection of players and the recognition of talent in the game. So that the right sport will take place for the right athlete.

A Survey of different machine learning models for software defect testing

Arpitha Kotte; Dr.Ahmad Abdul Moiz Qyser

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3256-3268

As the size of the defects increases, it becomes difficult to predict the different types of software defects with high true positive rate. The main objective of the machine learning models for software defect-based testing application is to improve the defect prediction rate with less error rate. Evaluating the software metrics and defect prediction are the two key quality features that determine the success of a software product. Most of the conventional meta-heuristic based software defect testing models are independent of dynamic parameters estimation. Also, these conventional models are used to predict the defect in the homogeneous software testing systems with limited number of feature space. In this paper, different types of software defect prediction systems and its models are discussed along with the limitations on various metrics.

Prospective non-randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of perioperative lidocaine infusion

Dr. Rakesh Kumar, Dr. Pradip Kumar Gyani, Dr. Narendra Kumar, Dr. Chhabindra Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3269-3275

Aim: to evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Perioperative Lidocaine Infusion.
Material and methods: This was prospective non-randomized, controlled clinical trial done in the Department of Anaesthesiology Government medical College and Hospital, Bettiah, Bihar, India for 15 months. Total 100 patients wereincluded in this study. All surgeries were performed under general anesthesia and patients were divided into two groups. Group I (Controlled Fentanyl Group) and Group II (Opioid Free Anesthesia Group). Intraoperative fentanyl consumption and visual analog scale (VAS) pain score assessment at immediate recovery time as well as after 24 hours postoperatively were assessed and analgesic requirements were recorded.
Results: In the current study there were no significant differences between the 2 groups as regarding age, sex, body weight, BMI, and ASA physical status. Therefore, mentioned variables would have minimal influence on the assessed parameters when comparing the safety and efficacy of perioperative lidocaine infusion with or without fentanyl adjustment at the induction of anesthesia. Comparison between the groups showed a significant difference in amount of Propanol during induction and difference in intraoperative fentanyl requirements. Patients in group I; supplemental fentanyl was needed in 4 cases (8%) while in group II fentanyl was needed in 16 cases (32%). In group II, 72% of cases i.e. in 36 patients’ anesthesia were opioid-free. In group I propanol dose for induction of anesthesia was significantly lower than in group II. These differences were statistically significant. In group II patients; there was more hyperdynamic reactions to skin incision (rise of heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure more than 30% above baseline) and there was a need of higher MAC (1.41) of sevoflurane during the first 30 minutes of surgery. After 8 hours of continuous lidocaine infusion, there was a low VAS of pain score and minimal or no need of additional opioid or non-opioid analgesia during 24hours. After laparoscopic colorectal and cholecystectomy surgery postoperative bowel sound recovery time in both groups of patients was clinically equal. There were neither perioperative complications nor clinical signs of lidocaine toxicity detected perioperatively.
Conclusion: Safety and efficacy of perioperative lidocaine infusion have been demonstrated. Opioid free anesthesia (OFA) is possible in 70% of cases. Post-operative lidocaine infusion for 5-8 hours was sufficient for pain relieve with minimal non opioid analgesia for 24 hours.

Clinical and functional outcome of gentamicin coated intramedullary locking nail in the management of open tibia fractures

Dr. Mohammad Sabir Ali, Dr.Shree Prakash Singh, Dr.Vinod Kumar Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3276-3280

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of antibiotic-coated intramedullary locking nail in the open tibia fractures.
Materials and Methods: This clinic-observational study was carried out in the Department of Orthopaedics, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital, Gaya, Bihar, India for 18 months. Total 80 patients were treated with gentamicin coated tibia interlocking nail. Radiological Union was assessed using RUST Score.
Result: out of 80 patients 46.25% between 26-40 years of age, 28.75% of the patients between 41-55 years of age and 16.5% above 55years and 8.75% of patients below 25 years. Males were 75% against females 25%. Time taken in wound healing in majority of patients was less than 6 weeks 42 (52.5%), 6-8 weeks 26(32.5%), 8-10 weeks 7(8.75%) and those were not healed 5(6.25%) . Majority of patents (56.25%) had RUST score 9 at six months of duration, 22.5% of patients had RUST score 11 and 8.75% patients RUST score was 6 at six months.
Conclusion: Implant related infection pose an important challenge in the surgical treatment of tibia shaft fracture. Local administration of antibiotics might minimize the risk of infection.

Morphogenetic evaluation of the prostate gland in human foetuses: an observational study

Dr. Suman Kumari, Dr. Rajendra Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3281-3286

Aim: evaluate the morphogenesis of the prostate gland in human foetuses.
Materials and methods: The present study was the conducted in Department of Anatomy. Total 100 discarded placentae were collected at random from deliveries (both vaginal and caesarian) conducted Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital, Gaya, Bihar, India, for 1 year. Total 100 foetuses of different gestational ages ranging from 14 weeks (80 mm) to 40 weeks (450 mm), products of terminated pregnancies under MTP Act of India, 1971 and stillbirths were collected from the Department of anatomy. Only those foetuses which were free from any gross anatomical abnormality were selected for the present study. The age of the foetuses were assessed from the obstetrical history, crown rump length (CRL) and gross features before fixation. The foetuses were preserved in 10% formalin for 12 to 15 days. The specimen were categorised into different age groups for study.
Results: The first time of appearance of the prostate gland to the naked eye till its definitive adult shape (at term) is studied in detail. GROUP I: 14 Weeks: In the earliest specimen of this series (14weeks; CRL-7.7 cm), the developing prostate is seen as jelly like, slight fusiform bulge along the upper half of the developing urethra i.e. in the lower part of the urogenital sinus . GROUP II: 14 -18 Weeks: Prostate is more prominent and better defined than the previous age group and has gained in size, but still its length is more than its transverse measurement. GROUP III: 18 -22 Weeks: At subsequent age groups i.e. at 20 weeks it increases in size. Posterolaterally, the prostate is more prominent and the posterior surface looks flat. GROUP IV: 22-26 Weeks: At this stage, there is overall increase in size in all dimensions, thus gain in anteroposterior and transverse measurements resulting as lateral convexities. the transverse dimension is more than the vertical and anteroposterior dimensions. GROUP V: 26-30 Weeks: The prostate shows more increase in its transverse dimension. The posterior aspect seems to support the lower part of the urinary bladder in a funnel shaped way. Thus at around 30 weeks, it has a stunted pear shape appearance whose anterior portion has developed into a firm mass. GROUP VI: 30-34 weeks: With further increase in size in all dimensions, the shape of the prostate assumes as that of an adult. GROUP VII: 34-40 weeks: With further growth in this age group, there is overall increase in all dimensions. The posterior surface is flattened and the upper and lateral surface is occupied by the two lateral lobes.
Conclusion: Increase in vertical and transverse dimensions, assumption of adult shape were noted as the age changes and at term, it has all the three components of the adult tissues although it is not as mature as in adult. This signifies that the growth of the prostate continues postnatally.


Ms. Nikita Pathak; Alok Kumar Srivastav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3287-3298

Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian culture. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Ayurveda involves the use of natural elements to eliminate the root cause of a disease by restoring balance and at the same time creating a healthy life-style to prevent the recurrence of imbalance. Herbal medicines have existed world-wide with long recorded history. World Health Organization (WHO) have estimated that 80% of the world’s inhabitants still rely on traditional medicines for their health care. India is well -known to be one of the major biodiversity centre with about 45,000 plant species, including 15,000 medicinal plants. The concept of polyherbalism is to achieve greater therapeutic efficacy. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are insufficient to achieve the desirable therapeutic effects. When combining this research mainly focuses on the importance of polyherbalism and its clinical significance. For this study medicinal plant Withaniasomniferahave been taken and extracted for their study of anti -bacterial and antioxidant activity. The phytochemical compounds were screened by qualitative analysis
method and the detected phytochemicals are tannins, saponins, alkaloids, phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids. Thedifferentsolventssuchasmethanol,petroleumether,chloroformandaqueouswereusedto extract the bioactive compounds from various parts of the selected medicinal plants. The anti-bacterial activity were demonstrated against the bacterial strains like Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosaby disc-diffusion method. The anti-oxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical
scavenging method. The multiple herbs in a particular ratio, it will result a better therapeutic effect and reduced the toxicity.


Ruqqaiya Bee; Alok Kumar Srivastav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3299-3310

The aim of the study was analyze the types of haemoglobinopathies in patients of Anemia using hemoglobin electrophoresis. Haemoglobinopathies like thalassaemia and sickle cell anemia etc are increasing due to unawareness of rural population. Microcytic hypochromic anemia is common problem in central India. The haemoglobinopathies (Structural and functional disorders of haemoglobin) are major World health problem. These are single gene,autosomal,recessive monogenic disorders that include thalassaemia and sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobinopathies presents as microcytic hypochromic anemia.They are misdiagnosed and treated as iron deficiency anemiainhemoglobinopathies iron is not required by the body. This causes burden to the patient economically as well as on health. The excess iron which is not required by body has a toxic effect on the body. By
doing electrophoresis in microcytic hypochromic anemia, we can categorize anemia into different groups. Electrophoresis helps in giving correct diagnosis. Most common cause of microcytic hypochromic anemia was iron deficiency anemia and abnormal hemoglobin disorder . Differential diagnosis based on complete hemogram and peripheral smear is possible but special tests like serum iron profile and haemoglobin electrophoresis are a must for confirmation of the diagnosis.