Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Issue 10,

Issue 10


Estimate Viral RNA Of Hepatitis C Of Β-Thalassemia Patients In Nineveh Province

Ali Adel Dawood; Asmaa Mohammed Khaleel; Ahmed Mohammed Hayawi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1-8

Hepatitis C infection is the main occasional agent of chronic liver disease and might lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. β-thalassemia and hemodialysis patients are most susceptible to HCV as a result of the continuous blood transfusion. Aim of the study: This study aimed to estimate the quantitative of HCV-RNA in the serum of β- thalassemia patients in Nineveh province using RT-PCR in the GeneXpert system. Methods: We detected anti-HCV using ELISA. Determine the viral RNA using Xpert® HCV viral load technique. Result: The positive detection result of anti-HCV is 48 out of a total of 752 thalassemia patients. Only 12 out of 48 enrolled HCV Ct value with a rate of 1.59% of the total β- thalassemia patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of HCV in thalassemic patients in Nineveh province is less than those found in the other Iraqi provinces or adjacent countries. The routine using of immunobiological and biochemical tests for hepatic enzymes should be the routine pursuit in thalassemia and dialysis clinical centers.

Hybrid of PSO-GSA based Clustering Approach for Predicting Structural Class Prediction using Random Forest Method

Sarneet Kaur; Ashok Sharma; Parveen Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 17-32

Protein can be classified in different classes. A lot of research is being performed for analyzing the structure and classes of protein. There are many problems associated with protein structure. Some of them are folding problem and protein structure prediction (PSP) etc. PSP is the most considerable open problem in field of biology. In the present work different algorithms like particle swarm optimization (PSO), gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and K-Mean clustering algorithms are used to classify different structures of protein. A random forest (RF) classifier is proposed for analyzing and comparing different protein classes in terms of other conventionally available algorithms in terms of various performance parameters like accuracy, recall, precision and specificity. The proposed classifier proved better than other classifiers in terms of accuracy and can be helpful in predicting the protein structures. A hybrid PSO-GSA algorithm is also proposed which provided improved performance as compared to single algorithms and can be utilized for analysis of protein structure.

Codon Based Compression Algorithm for DNA Sequences with Two Bit Encoding

Murugesan G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 33-41

Deoxyribonucleic acid called DNA is the littlest essential unit that bears the hereditary directions of a living being. Due to increase in genomic data, increases the storage capacity of that data being stored. In order to process the massive amount of genomic data, there is a need of an effectual depository for quick transposal and achieve preferable performance while processing that data. In this paper, introduced a novel compression algorithm without using much complicated computation for compression of DNA sequences.The result in terms of compression magnitude relation in bits/base and also the compression/decompression time has been compared with the present approaches conferred within the literatures. Our algorithmic rule produces higher compression quantitative relation and utilizes terribly less time to compress and decompress the genomic sequences and additionally there's no further storage needed for compression and decompression.

Study Of Genetic Polymorphism In Oxidative Stress Related Genes And Their Association With Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Case Control Study From Rural Population Of South Western Maharashtra

Madhavi N. Patil; Anand Gudur; Rashmi Gudur; Satish Kakade; Sandeep Kadam; Suraj Pawar; Kailas D. Datkhile

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 42-52

Oxidative stress is known to be one of the major factors involved in the development and progression of cancer. Superoxide dismutase and Catalase plays an important role in the primary defence against oxidative stress. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the association between polymorphism of superoxide dismutase (SOD1, SOD2, SOD3) and Catalase (CAT1 & CAT2) and the gastro intestinal cancer risk in the rural population of the south western Maharashtra. The present case-control study included 200 confirmed gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and 400 age and gender matched healthy controls. The polymorphism in the Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase genes was studied out by PCR-RFLP method. When we studied the genotypic frequency of SOD1, SOD2, & SOD3, SOD2 (rs1141718) showed the negative association with the GI cancer risk [OR: 0.3097, CI: 0.1727-0.5553, p <0.0001]. There was no significant association found between SOD1 & SOD3 of superoxide dismutase and CAT1 & CAT2 of Catalase gene polymorphism and susceptibility of GI cancer. The present study shows no significant association of SOD1 (G allele of rs 2070424), SOD3 (A allele of rs2536512), CAT1 (T allele of rs7943316) and CAT2 (rs1001179) with the development of gastrointestinal cancer in the rural population of south western Maharashtra from India. However, SOD2 (rs1141718) shows the negative association with the development of GI cancer.

Degree-Based Topological Indices on Asthma Drugs with QSPR Analysis during Covid-19

Anil Kumar K N; Basavarajappa N S; Shanmukha M C; Shilpa K C

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 53-66

Asthma is a condition where a person’s airways became inflamed, narrow and swell and produce extra mucus which makes the person difficult to breath. There are some drugs used as a controller medicine for asthma. In this work, topological indices are used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of asthma drugs. In the pandemic situation most of the people are dying from Covid-19 who were suffering from BP, Diabetes and Respiratory related (asthma) problems. This may help the chemists to understand the characteristics of drugs used in the treatment of asthma along with Covid-19.

Optimization Of Molecular- Genetic Methods For The Determination Of Resistance Markers Using Genotyping Of Actn3 And Ace Genes

Berdieva Dilnavoz Toshkan kizi; Bakieva Gulnoza Habibullayevna; Abdusattarova Sagdiana Sobitjanovna; professor Abdullaeva Muborak Makhmusovna; professor assistent Gazieva Zebunniso Yusubjanovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 67-74

Recently parents want their children to be busy with a particular kind of sport. Adults often decide on this issue, based on their own desires. But still, we must remember that, first of all, it is necessary to focus on the child's abilities and capabilities. Physical culture and sports are different things, and they pursue different goals: they are engaged in physical culture in order to strengthen their physical condition and be healthy, and sports are also for the sake of victories, achievements, and results. In humans, more than two hundred genes are known that are associated with endurance, speed and strength. Usually, the reason for differences (polymorphism) of genes is the replacement of individual nucleotides in the DNA molecule, leading to a change in the properties of the gene.
The main advantage of molecular genetic methods is that a person’s behavioral activity is shown to be hereditary, and early diagnosis reveals a highly informative assessment of the possibility of physical development. A distinctive feature of this diagnosis is the ability to identify hereditary trends, the development of factors of occupational diseases, determining the physical performance of a person and reducing the quality of his life.

Analysis of Tensile and Compression Strength on Magnesium Hydroxyapatite Composite for Biomedical Implants

Rejikumar Rajamoni; Sivapragash M; Sivakumar G; Sivaraj M; S Rajkumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 75-83

This paper focuses on the biomedical implants of bone plates with biodegradable Magnesium composites. ZK30 Mgalloy metal matrix reinforced with five weight fractions ofHydroxyapatite (HAP), have been fabricated using powder metallurgy manufacturing process followed by hot extrusion process. Properties such as Tensile and compression tests were investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for surface fracture analysis. The results obtained shows that the maximum ultimate tensile strength was attained at ZK30 Mg alloy while the least was noted for ZK30/10wt%HAP. In addition, ZK30/2wt%HAP shows a higher ultimate compressive strength. The SEM images of tensile specimen displays ductile fracture for ZK30 Mg alloy and quasi cleavage fracture for Mg composite whereas the compressive specimen indicates ductile fracture for ZK30 Mg alloy and Mg composites. The composite exhibited excellent mechanical properties thereby it can be used for biomedical implants of Bone plates.

Neurolaw: A New Horizone Of Neuroscience And Law

Sidhartha Sekhar Dash; Prof Dr. Harish Ch. Padhi; Dr. Biswadeep Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 91-98

Neurolaw, the inter-disciplinary study of neuroscience and law, establishes a relationship of Brain with Law. The achievements of neuroscience shall co-operate better formulation of law and judicial decisions for a fairer judicial system. Emerging from the study of the human nervous system as a new legal phenomenon in the 1990s, Neurlaw promises to address various age-old legal questions and is fast expanding its frontier in diversified areas of law.

Efficacy and Perioperative Morbidity of Suprapubic Midurethral Sling Surgery for Females with Stress Urinary Incontinence

Maryam Jabbar Ghazi; Jasim Abdoalhasan Almayali; Mohammad N. Al- Mosawi; Muthana H. Abid Al- Athari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 109-116

Tension free vaginal tape (TVT) is a minimally invasive operation that gained increase popularity at the surgical field for management of patients with stress urinary incontinence. The use of SPMUS (suprapubic midurethral sling) has significantly simplified the surgical procedure and made it safer.

Serum ferritin and liver function test response to oral versus subcutaneous iron chelating agent

Aymen Abd. Albakaa; Faris M. Al- Haris; Alaa Jumaah Mnaji Nasrawi; Jassim Mohammed Al Musawi; Talib Abdul Jalil Al Madany

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 130-135

Thalassemias are group of inherited autosomal recessive blood disorder. The genetic defect, which could be either mutation or deletion, results in complete absence or reduction synthesis of one of the globin chain that make up hemoglobin. This cause reduction of haemoglobin molecules production ,resulting in decreased of oxygen carrying capacity of the circulation thus causing anemia, the characteristic presenting symptom of the thalassemia. Good chelation therapy and regular blood transfusion protocol have increased the life expectancy.
Objectives : is to compare serum ferritin level and liver function test in a group of patients with beta thalassemia major in response to subcutaneous and oral chelating agent .
Patients and Methods: Prospective analytic study design done on group of 60 patients with beta thalassemia major diagnosed by hemoglobin electrophoresis registered in thalassemia center in AL – Zahra Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Children in AL- Najaf AL- Ashraf , during a period from
1st of February 2019 to 1st of February 2020, aged 2.5 to 17.9 years with serum ferritin levels above 1000 ng/ml and liver transaminases below 5 folds the normal upper limit .
The patients divided into 2 groups, 30 patients were on Deferasirox {Exjade} therapy and 30 patients were on Deferoxamine {Desferal} therapy .
Base line S. Ferritin value as well as LFT (S. GOT , S. GPT , ALP and TSB) value, were taken as base line level and then every (8-12) weeks and were used to assess the changes that occurred in response to subcutaneous and oral chelating agent .
Results : Our study show significant decline in SF (P value <0.05) in both groups after 1 year of treatment with oral or subcutaneous chelating agent. Patients on Exjade show more rate of decrement of serum ferritin (11%) compared to patients taken Desferal who a rate of decrement (6%). Patients on Exjade and Desferal therapy show increment in liver enzymes after 1 year of treatment with statistically significant results, p-value < 0.05 .
Conclusions
We found superiority in oral iron chelating agents (Exjade) to subcutaneous iron chelating agents (Desferal). Serum ferritin level is suitable for long term monitoring as an indicator of efficacy than liver biopsy .

Assessment of The Productivity of Gajulamalkapuram Village Aquifer Using Pumping Test

Varalakshmi Vajja; R. Gopi; Seethunya Jogi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 136-143

In the present paper groundwater potential is analyzed with the help of aquifer parameters like transmissivity, storage coefficient etc. The pumping test is conducted in gajulamalkapuram village which comes under. the musi basin. The demand of ground water is increasing in the study area caused deploiting of water levels below the ground. The pumping test is conducted for exisiting bore wells in agricultural fields of gajulamalkapuram. The test are conducted for 120 minutes with constant rate of pumping in single well (i.e., the pumping and drawdown is observed in the same well) The collected data was analysed by using theis and cooper and Jacob methods. from the results of pumping data, it is observed that the aquifer showing the high draw down rate due to the presence of lineaments or the structural displacements. the aquifer exhibiting the low transmissivity with moderate yield. This is due to the lack of secondary porosity, compaction of litho units and a shallower weathered layer. The Poor groundwater potential is the result of the over-exploitation of groundwater through the drilling of deeper bore wells.

Systematic Review of Moringa oleifera's Potential as Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory in the Oral Cavity

Mutmainnah Nurul; Achmad Muhammad Harun

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 144-161

Introduction: Moringa plant is a plant that is spread throughout the region in Indonesia and has many benefits. Moringa oleifera L. plant is also known as the “miracle of tree” because almost all parts of the plant, from the leaves, bark, seeds, fruit of moringa to the roots are used by humans, especially as traditional medicine. Moringa has been proven effective as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, for example in toothpaste, mouthwash, and root canal irrigation from chitosan. So this systematic review reviews some of the literature on the potential of moringa plants as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory in the oral cavity. Methods: In this systematic review, article searches were conducted on Google Search and Pubmed. Studies published from 2011 to 2020. 104 articles were rated, including 104 articles from electronic databases, 0 from manual search. 96 records were screened, 63 records were excluded, 33 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 17 full-text articles were included. Result: There are 8 articles about antibacterial of Moringa oleifera and 10 articles about anti-inflammatory of Moringa oleifera. Conclusion: Based on 18 articles show that chitosan is very potential as a herbal plant that can be antibacterial and anti-inflammatory in the oral cavity.

Impact of the COVID-19 Epidemic on Eating Habits and Lifestyle : An East Nusa Tenggara Survey

Lalu Juntra Utama; Andi Eka Yunianto; Indhira Shagti; Juni Gressilda Louisa Sine; Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi; Meirina Sulastri Loaloka; Astuti Nur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 162-171

The Large Scale Social Restrictions, implementation has been regulated in Government Regulation (PP No. 21 of 2020) signed by the President of the Republic of Indonesia and along with the Minister of Health of Republic of Indonesia's Regulation (Permenkes No. 9 of 2020) concerning Large-Scale Social Limitation Guidelines in the Context of the Handling of COVID-19. This is undoubtedly to overcome the problem of dissemination COVID-19. This research aimed to find out the lifestyle of the people in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, during the emergency response phase of COVID-19. Methods of data collection were executed by filling out the lifestyle questionnaires that were previously prepared and uploaded in the Google Form toward the population aged over 16 years in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. This research was conducted by a cross-sectional study method. According to the results of data analysis, about 191 respondents were involved in this study. Information about COVID-19 was mostly obtained from the internet or social media was 71.20%. Daily consumption of vegetables and fruit was 39.27%. Around 47.64% of respondents experienced a change of habit, such as sometimes do sunbathe, and 30.89% of respondents increased physical activity frequency more than three times a week. The 98.43% of East Nusa Tenggara society tended to wear masks outside of their house, and 85.34% always wash their hands using soap. The prevalence of daily fresh food consumption during this virus pandemic was 77.49%, and instant food products were 2.62% every day. Factors that changed during the Covid-19 virus pandemic were smoking, physical activity, consumption, washing hands, wearing masks, sunbathing, and processed foods consumption.

Vaginal Progesterone For Maintenance Of Tocolysis In A Sample Of Iraqi Women

Dr. DalyaThamer Ahmed; FadiaThamer Ahmed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 172-184

OBJECTIVE: Assess the effectiveness of vaginal progesterone for maintenance tocolysis and preterm labor prevention in singleton gestations and preterm uterine contraction in a sample of Iraqi women. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective randomized study included 143 singleton gestation (gestational ages range from 30(0/7) to 34(6/7) weeks at enrollment, intact membrane, and without any contraindication for expectant management. Consenting women wererandomized to receive vaginal progesterone (400mg) daily.The data was collected from women who attend the outpatient clinics in different areas of Baghdad including Hay Aljameaa and AL Noaman teaching hospital from the beginning of 2017 to the end of 2018. RESULTS: Data were collected from143 women (75 assigned to vaginal progesterone, 68 designated to control) with a single gestation,Vaginal progesterone has been correlated with a substantial decrease in preterm birth <35 weeks of gestation (95% confidence interval (0.7552% to 24.8754%);( P = 0.0359); high-quality evidence). In fact, vaginal progesterone reduce the incidence of preterm birth (35- 37 weeks) substantially (95% confidence interval (4.6025% to 35.1764%); (P = 0.0117)and the percentage of Live born delivered before 34 weeks (95% confidence interval (3.4821% to 24.6707%); (P = 0.0081), there is a statistical difference in the birth weight (≤ 1500 gm) (P = 0.0388). There were 1(1.33%) fetal deaths in the vaginal progesterone group and 3 (4.41%) in the control group (confidence interval, -3.4383% to 10.9315%, P = 0.2661 low-quality evidence). CONCLUSION: Maintenance tocolysis with vaginal progesterone suppositories is associated with reduced frequency of uterine contractions and the percentage of preterm birthand improve outcome in perinatalperiodfor singleton pregnancy.

Knowledge about Covid-19: Sample From Iraqi People

Sahar Abdul-Hassan Al- Shatari; Hassan HadiBaker Al kazza

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 185-197

Good knowledge about Covid-19 transmission and nature prevents transmission of microorganisms and reduces the incidence of Covid-19 in the community. To assess knowledge of Iraqi people about covid-19&to find the source of information about covid-19. Method: Cross-sectional study was done from 1stJune-1stJuly 2020, by electronic version of questionnaire through Google-form. Any Iraqi adult can read Arabic and use the internet media (e-mails, telegram, viber, whatsapp, Facebook) or by hand to hand as hard-copy, and accepted to answer the questionnaire through friend, friend of friend, relatives, work colleagues with A Brief message.Analysed by SPSS ver. 23, frequencies and percentages calculated. The study revealed enrolling of 700 Iraqi people from difference part of Iraq and difference were participant in it, the main age of them 230(32.9%) aged 20-29 years old, females 416(59.4%), complete secondary school388(55.4%), near 60% of them working in non-medical field, and governmental employee 364(52.0%), and there-residency in Baghdad city 457(65%), followed by holly-Karbala 8%, and bible 4%, good knowledgein prevention of Covid-19 transmission, Strength the immunity against covid-19 infection and its complication, and the Overall knowledge appear as good 691(99%) the Internet is the major source of the information about the covid-19; 568(81.1%). Conclusion: most of participants had good knowledge in prevention and strength the immunity and vaccination of covid 19, and the main source of information is the internet then TV & radio.

CBCT Evaluation Of Bicortical Thickness Of The Mid Palate For Micro-Osteo Perforation In Patients Undergoing Treatment With Miniscrew Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion.

Akshay Mohan; S.Harish Babu; Arvind. S; Ashwin Mathew George

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 198-209

Objective: To evaluate the anatomical variations in bicortical thickness of the mid palatine region in order to calibrate the maximum depth of micro osteoperforation permissible at various sites along the midpalate.
Design: This was a retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study
Setting: The study was conducted in Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Methods: CBCT images of 60 subjects between the age of 14-28 years were taken up for evaluation from the records of the dental hospital. The sixty scans were from 37 males and 23 females. The CBCT images of subjects were evaluated by two investigators to assess the bicortical thickness of bone in the midpalatal region using fixed reference points and planes. Mean and standard deviation of bicortical thickness at various fixed landmarks were calculated. One-way ANOVA was done to check for variation of bicortical thickness among various sites in males and females. Intra operator reliability was checked by the paired T- test and Kappa statistics were used to evaluate inter-operator reliability between the observations by two observers (A.M, H.B).
Results: A mean value of 8.93+/-1.67mm, 6.37+/-1.56mm, 4.42+/-1.40mm, 3.11+/-1.21mm, 2.47+/-0.95mm, 2.07+/-0.93mm was obtained for reference points A, B, C, D, E and F respectively in males. It was observed that a mean value of 7.93+/-1.56mm, 5.48+/-1.39mm, 3.66+/-1.01mm, 2.81+/-1.06mm, 2.35+/-1.08mm, 2.09+/-1.18 mm was obtained for points A, B, C, D, Eand Frespectively in females. Statistically significant difference was observed between the six points (ANOVA test; p value- 0.00). The Intra operator reliability was assessed using a paired T-test and was estimated to be 0.93 and the inter-operator reliability by Kappa statistics was 0.321.
Conclusion: The bicortical thickness of the mid palate varies showing more thickness anteriorly and progressively getting thinner posteriorly. The anterior segment showed more variations in the thickness compared to the posteriors. Micro osteoperforation of palate can be done upto a depth of 8.93 mm in males and 7.93mm in females and a minimum depth of 3.11 mm in males and 3.66mm in females is possible in the anterior half of the palate. 

Investigation of Trans Fatty Acids and Saturated Fatty Acids Presence in Selected Bakery and Fast Food Products

Geeth G. Hewavitharana; Dilini N. Perera; S.B. Navaratne

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 210-223

Modern trends in food habits are moving towards fast food outlets due to the busy lifestyle of people all over the world. Due to consumption of foods with excessive amount of Trans Fatty Acids (TFA), may leads to heart and other chronicle diseases. Therefore, with a view to study presence of TFA and changes occurrence on fatty acid profile during baking and cooking, thirteen bakery and fast food products were selected for this study. These products were purchased from premier food outlets in Sri Lankan market and subjected to analyze TFA and SFA by adapting respective protocols relevant to derivatization by ester formation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for individual separation and identification following total fat isolation by microwave-assisted soxhlet extraction.
Results of the study revealed that total fat percentages of the bakery products and fast foods were ranging from 3.705 ± 0.224 to 26.732 ± 0.662 and from 7.805 ± 0.230 to 14.546 ± 0.477 respectively. Based on the fatty acid profile analysis and the availability of SFAs of all the products were ranging from 20.543 ± 0.334 to 43.109 ± 0.411and TFAs from 20.758 ± 0.239 to 39.975 ± 0.377. However, two bakery products namely fish bun and fish patty did not contain TFAs. According to this study, availability of TFA and SFA in most of processed foods were (E)-octadec-9-enoic acid (elaidic acid) and hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid) respectively.

Pantoprazole Rescue The Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction In Diabetic Rats Through DDAH/ADMA/Enos/NO Pathway

Gaurav Taneja; Satyendra K. Rajput

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 224-238

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the commonly recommended treatment for gastric abnormalities. The structural scaffold of PPIs (Pantoprazole; PPZ) provides an incalculable chance of association with diverse biological receptors which indicate a huge possibility of pleiotropic therapeutic impact which needs to be explored. Recently, several studies report the cardioprotective events of PPIs, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Four groups having six animals in each were considered for this study. STZ (50 mg/kg/i.p) was given to induced chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) and vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). PPZ (4 mg/kg/p.o/daily for 8 weeks) was evaluated against DM induced VED by measuring endothelial relaxation, aortic/serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), aortic superoxide anion generation, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) in the cell lysate of each animals group. PPZ significantly overcome the perturbed level of hyperglycemia measured by blood glucose level, increase the availability of NO measured by aortic/serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Treatment with PPZ showed the determinate lessening of tissue injuries as it averted increase expression of VED measured by ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, and diminution in oxidative stress, plasma ADMA level, and DDAH concentration in the cell lysate. The vascular protective potential of PPZ has a strong correlation with the DDAH/ADMA/eNOS/NO signaling pathway. Furthermore, the study also explored the antioxidant activity of PPZ which may also facilitate this protective pathway by increasing the bioavailability of NO in the endothelium.

The Implementation of Cosine Similarity Measures in Decision-Making Problems by Signless Laplacian Energy of an Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graph

Obbu Ramesh; S. Sharief Basha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 239-251

In this paper, we train group decision-making problems created on intuitionistic fuzzy inclination associations. We suggest a new attitude to estimate the qualified reputation weights of authorities by calculating the uncertain evidence of intuitionistic fuzzy inclination associations and the normal similarity grade of one separable intuitionistic inclination association to the others. This new attitude takes both the ‘impartial’ and ‘internal’ evidence of authorities into deliberation. Then intuitionistic fuzzy inclination relations were assimilated by us the weights of authorities into the specific and progress a relative similarity method to originate the significances of substitutes and best of the substitutes. The contrast analysis with additional methods by mathematical illustrations demonstrates the realism and helpfulness of the projected approaches.

Protein Structural Classes Prediction Based On Convolutional Neural Network Classifier with Feature Selection of Hybrid PSO-FA Optimization Approach

Sarneet Kaur; Ashok Sharma; Parveen Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 252-265

Protein can be classified in different classes like A (All α), B (All β), C (α+β), and D (α/β). A lot of work has been performed for analyzing the Sub-cellular localization of protein structure. The visualization of protein folding into compact conformation is evaluated. In the present work different algorithms like particle swarm optimization (PSO), Firefly algorithm (FFA) and K-Mean clustering algorithms are used to classify different structures of protein. A Conventional neural network (CNN) classifier is utilized for analyzing and comparing different protein classes in terms of SVM classifier available conventionally in terms of various performance parameters. Near 100 % accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and MCC values are obtained for class A & class B protein structures. However, somewhat lower values of these parameters are obtained for class C and class D protein structures. CNN classifier proved better than SVM classifier and can be helpful in predicting the protein structures. A hybrid PSO-FFA algorithm is used to extract the features for different classes of protein. Structures of four classes of protein are evaluated in terms of scoring spaces and fitnessvalues.

Prevention of complicationsand several other relevant risk factors of Type 2 Diabetes(T2D)at a hospital in Vietnam

N. V. Chinh; P. H. T. Kiet; P. B. Diep; N. T. B. Yen; Dong Wang; L. D. P. Cuong; P. D. Trung; L. M. N. Uyen; N. H. Tu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 266-279

Diabetes has a significant incidence of illness, health care effects and lead to a high mortality rate due to its complications in both developed and developing countries so far. Diabetes can be divided into three main types: Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and Gestational diabetes, the most common type is Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our work focuses on researching the relationship of complications and their cost of treatment in order to make the treatment plan and minimize its costs in at the Thanh Nhan hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Therefore, the research results show that there are many different types and rates of complications of T2D depending on key factors such as: age and duration of the disease, by determining the complication rate and analyzing multivariate logistic regression models to find the risk factors associated with an increase in the number of complications of the disease from the Social Science Package Statistics (SPSS) software and other.

Intervention Strategy to Increase Growth and Development for Stunted Children Under Two Years with Developmental Delay

Hadi Ashar; Ina Kusrini; danLeny latifah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 280-292

Background: The government has made efforts to improve children's growth and development through programs in primary health care, but the reduction in stunting and child development delay has not been as expected. Implementation of these programs needs support from all stakeholders, including health cadres and also the family as the main caregiver of a child. Objective: analyzed the effect of family assistance on the growth and development of the under two years old children. Method: this was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-post control group design. Subjects were 63 stunted under two years old children with developmental delay. The intervention group of 32 children was assisted by trained health cadres, namely the Kader PendampingKeluargaKawalBaduta[KP-KKB] for 4 months, while 31 control group children were not accompanied. Results: The implementation of the KP-KKB strategy model shows: mean different changes in subjects and control of nutritional status HAZ-score of 0.09 [Wilcoxon]; WHZ-Score of 0.2; and WAZ-Score of 0.21 [Paired t-test] in the intervention group. Changes in the mean status of motor development are 3.6; and social personal 0.88 [paired t-test] in the intervention group. The results of the paired statistical test of changes in nutritional status and the initial and final development of each group showed significant changes with a value of p <0.05. Conclusion: the KP-KKB intervention strategy model showed changes in nutritional status and improved development compared to the control group.

A Study Of Preprocessing Techniques And Features For Ovarian Cancer Using Ultrasound Images

Ms.ArathiBoyanapalli .; Dr.Shanthini. A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 293-303

Ovarian Cancer is the third leading cancer among women in India. The early detection-rate of ovarian cancer is very low [1]. Transvaginal ultrasound is the most common screening test to detect the presence of tumors but adnexal masses are very common in patients, the challenging part is to discriminate whether the masses are benign or malignant. This distinction is very essential for optimal surgical management, but reliable pre-surgical differentiation is sometimes difficult using clinical features, ultrasound examination, or tumor markers alone[2]. Recent trends in medical imaging facilitate the detection of most cancers at a very initial stage. Still, an ovarian cancer diagnosis is not accurate. The patient has to undergo painful practices such as biopsies or surgeries, even with benign nodules. Ultrasound images with deep learning techniques in ovarian cysts help in diagnosis whether the cyst is benign or malignant at a very early stage without any surgeries. This method not only cuts the medical expenses of the patient but also reduces the mental stress of the patients.

Ginger Honey as Preconception Supplement for Women: Analysis of Ginger Honey Content

Riska Yasmin; Andi Nilawati Usman; Indah Raya; Andi Dirpan; Rezki Puspitaningsih; Fendi Fendi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 304-310

The results showedof ginger honey product found in 100 ml contains89 grams carbohydrates, 1,31 grams of protein, 13,5 01 μg/g iron, 3289,2 μg/g of potassium, as much calcium 517,15μg/g, 0,3 mg of manganese, 2,9 mg of fat content, and 2,74% of vitamin A. Ginger honey also contains 3,9% sucrose, 67% glucose, HMF 48,34 mg/kg, Copper (Cu)<0,01 μg/g, lead (Pb)<0,01 μg/g, Arsenic<0,01 μg/g, Acidity 36 ml NaOH/kg, an ash content of 0,3%, and 14,6% of water content
Ginger honey supplement meets Indonesia National Standart for honey and ginger consumption and safe to be used as a supplement for preconception women

Survey of the Occupational and Patients Biological Risks in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Departments

Batil Alonazi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 311-319

Background: Technologists are exposed to a strong magnetic field (1.5-3.0 Tesla), higher than the earth magnetic field (≈0.5mT). In addition to that, the exposure to the radiofrequency (RF) may create currents producing skin burns. This study's objective was to assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety practices in specific departments in Saudi Arabia in the Riyadh region, evaluate the incidence of biological effects and health implications of the electromagnetic fields present during MR scans, and to detect the occupational hazards. Methods: A survey questionnaire was designed and used to stimulate the target population's views on aspects of MRI safety and detected risks. The survey's target population includes consultants, radiologists, technologists, patients, and others who underwent MRI procedures. Results: A total of 28 technologists were responded from the five hospitals. The study results showed that 50% of the technologist reported various levels of effects, including vertigo and lack of concentration. It is well documented that exposure to MRI requires special consideration due to high magnetic field exposure. Conclusions: This study's main findings are that radiology nurses and patients in MRI units are highly exposed to the magnetic field, especially before and after MRI examination. Any department did not report projectile hazards. Staff is exposed to various degrees of radiation risks. No incident or accident was reported in all investigated hospitals. The staff is well protected in light of the current practice.

Management of Melanin-associated pigmented lesion using diode laser, scalpel and electro-surgery: A comparative study

Dr Mouneshkumar C D; Dr Shipra Sepolia; Dr Shivangi Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 320-330

Background: Melanin is the pigment that is responsible for the hyperpigmentation of skin and gingival tissues. This can result in significant amount of esthetic dilemma and affect the smile line which forms integral part of oro-facial esthetics. Numerous cosmetic modalities have been used for correction of hyperpigmentation. However, repigmentation can be seen few months following surgery. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare three techniques of scalpel, electrosurgery and diode laser therapy for management of gingival hyperpigmentation for repigmentation and comparing pain intensity using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Materials and methods: Thirty subjects with gingival pigmentation were categorized into Group 1: Depigmentation performed using Scalpel surgery method; Group II: Depigmentation by using electro-surgical method and Group III: Depigmentation procedure using Laser therapy. Results: Treated subjects were observed at baseline, at first month and six months post-operative period for repigmentation occurrence and intensity of pain score immediately following surgery and after twenty four hours. All observations were entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 work sheet. Mean and standard deviations were calculated and inter-group comparisons were made using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tool. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All methods demonstrated lack of repigmentation after six months follow-up and almost similar VAS score significance (P<0.05 for electrosurgical and laser technique and >0.05 for scalpel technique. Conclusion: Since comparable results were demonstrated in this study, it is choice of clinician and patient selection based on which appropriate technique can be selected.

First Implantation Of Biventricular Pacemaker - Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

P.I. Zakharov; A.I. Protopopova; N.M. Gogolev; S.V. Lomonosov; S.V. Sivtsev; S. Korostelev .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 331-338

North-Eastern Federal University, NEFU, GAU RS (Y) «Republican Hospital № 1 – National Center of Medicine», Yakutsk, Russian Federation The article presents the first successful experience of electrophysiological treatment of CHF by the method of implantation of a biventricular pacemaker (ECS) of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). A clinical case, surgical technique of CRT implantation are described. A brief overview of this treatment method to date.

Criminal Liability For Abuse Of Office Under The Legislation Of The Russian Federation And The Republic Of Angola

Mateusz Adao Joao Gomes; Ulezko Sergey Ivanovich; Groshev Alexandre Vasilivish

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 339-351

The main purpose of the work is to analyze and compare article 285 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation of 1996 and article 365 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Angola of 2019 regarding the establishment of liability for abuse of power, taking into account the modernization of the criminal law system of Angola. To achieve this goal, a comparative analysis of the composition of abuse of official authority and related criminal offences in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and Angola was carried out, the features of objective and subjective elements of the crime were identified, and similarities and differences were determined. On the basis of a comparative analysis of the criminal legislation of the Russian Federation and Angola, the conclusion is justified that the system of official crimes should be improved and the composition of abuse of power in the Criminal Code of Angola should be modernized accordingly.

A Multidisciplinary Approach To The Treatment Of Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor During Pregnancy

I. Kryvorchuk; Yu. Davydova; I. Leshchyshyn; A. Lymanska; P. Byk

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 352-358

Buschke-Lowenstein tumor (verrucous cancer, verrucous carcinoma) is a disease of the anogenital area, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) as the causative agent, mainly of a low-oncogenic type 6 or 11. It is characterized by large cauliflower-type vegetation, progressive invasive growth and at the same time by a benign histological pattern [1-4]. It is a sexually-transmitted infection. This pathology is named after the authors A. Buschke and L. Lowenstein, who first described huge condyloma accuminatum of a penis in 1925. The progression of condyloma accuminatum to the size of a Bushke-Levenstein tumor (BLT) is very rare. This pathology occurs in about 0.1% of sexually active people [5]. Histologically, BLT reveals benign features of a typical condyloma accuminatum (acanthosis, papillomatosis, koilocytosis). Cases of BLT malignancy have been described, but they are extremely rare [6]. Usually BLT develops rather slowly, sometimes within several years, but there have been specified the cases of fast development of BLT with solitary condylomata during pregnancy [7, 8].

Requirements for implementing marketing plan for sports facilities at the University of Maysan

Dr. Hussein Karim Hassoun

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 359-374

The research contains the introduction and its importance, and the researcher touched on marketing and its importance, and the administrative functions of any organization, as its ability to produce goods and services is limited, and the core idea of ​​the concept is that marketing in the sports field is based on the application of methods. In the university, represented in the stadiums and halls for practicing internal and external sports activities, marketing plays an important and major role in managing sports institutions, so sports marketing is important and what it can do, and from the exploratory study that the researcher carried out with some leaders at the University of Maysan and members of the faculty at the college, and the result was That there is no plan to market the university's sports facilities, as well as the revenues received by the university, are not commensurate with the capabilities possessed by the university, so the researcher decided to study this problem and develop solutions to it. Descriptive method, and the size of the main research sample (41) individuals. The SPSS system was also used to obtain the results of the research, and the researcher concluded that a large percentage of the university’s research sample had positive opinions towards the marketing plan of the sports facilities.

The Effect of the Method of Input and Inclusion (Inclusion) In Learning and Improving the Performance of Closed Skill for Middle School Students

Dr. Hussein Nour Abbas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 375-387

The physical education lesson is one of the basic rules in achieving educational goals. Taking care of the physical education lesson is the first and important step by which the benefits found in the prescribed curriculum are reaped, and because of the importance of studying physical education in the preparatory stage, which is one of the most important basic stages in the educational system. Students pass through the stage of adulthood, at this stage students appear to develop in the physiological, physical, mental, emotional and social aspects, so they have the ability to learn and acquire skills and information and a sense of independence and maturity, as the student becomes able to understand and draw relationships and draw conclusions, and his ability to analyze and synthesize with the required skill increases Learn it. Despite the recent trends that have emerged in the teaching of physical education, we lack their application in our schools, which are almost non-existent, and from this stems the necessity to use modern methods in teaching physical education that are consistent with the students' preferences and desires and reach a level of mastery and a high level of competence. And effectiveness, and modern education emphasizes the individual differences that exist between learners, so it is necessary to pay attention to and take into account them in various ways, and the multiplicity and diversification of teaching methods are concerned with the growth of learners to the maximum of the capabilities of each of them, and building the objectives of the lesson on the real needs of learners by making the teaching positions stemming from the goals based on their needs They interact with the teacher on the one hand and with their colleagues on the other hand in a deep, continuous and influential way, as the teaching method is the means that transmit knowledge and knowledge to the learner, and whenever it is appropriate to the educational position and consistent with the learner’s age, intelligence, ability and inclinations, the educational goals achieved through it are broader, more profound and useful.

A Comparative Study in the Dimensions of the Psychological Adjustment according to the Obesity among Secondary School Students in Amara City

Hasan Salim Ali, Mohammed Malik Saleem, Hayder Abood Jabir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 388-399

Obesity is widely prevalent in both developed and developing countries as indicated by the world health organization (WHO). Obesity is a threat to human health and contributes to many chronic diseases including stress, diabetes, heart disease, and joint diseases, which in turn negatively affect individuals’ psychological health.
Also, obesity is a disease of the age, and it is a type of malnutrition, and a pathological phenomenon, especially in developing countries, as it was the result of changing the quality of meals and the availability of fattened foods (that lead to obesity), and obesity is not, as it comes to mind, a problem for adults, but it is a problem for children. Is spreading.
The adolescence stage is one of the ages in which nutrition plays an important role because of the individual's needs of nutrients to meet the rapid growth. Adolescents have incorrect eating habits that contradict their needs. This result from their being affected by their friends, and their dependence on fast foods, and the high calories these foods contain which may lead to health problems, such as obesity and its complications.
As a result of these changes, adolescents may be associated with some psychological problems, such as personal incompatibility as a result of a change in the body shape such as increasing height. In this sense, Al-Shazly mentions that a person is in a state of constant interaction with his/her environment and may fail to achieve adjustment and among the reasons for this failure is the change in body shape in terms of excess height, excess shortness, thinness, or obesity. All these changes occur in adolescence as a result of rapid growth processes (12).

STANDARDIZATION OF NEW HERBAL COMPOSITION "FLUCAM"

Komila Z. Alimkulova, Flyura F. Urmanova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 400-406

Research objective: to standardize a new herbal product "Flucam" for its introduction into a medical practice.
Materials and methods. The study included the samples of the "Flucam" herbal product, consisting of specific species of plant raw materials, approved for medical use and provided with a sufficient raw material base on the territory of Uzbekistan. The development of standardization methods was carried out on five series of "Flucam" in accordance with the instructions of the SP XI edition, as well as the recommendations of the WHO, the International Conference on the Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Medicines Registration (ICH) and the requirements of the technical regulation on the safety of medicines.
Results and discussion. As a result of the research, the principles of standardization of the new herbal product "Flucam", recommended as the effective immunomodulatory drug, were proposed and substantiated. The characteristics of identification and indicators of the species purity were determined. Besides, we developed and introduced procedural methods for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main active substances - the tannins and glycyrrhizic acid.
Conclusion. During the research, characteristics of identification and quality indicators of the product, as well as the optimal terms of its storage were experimentally determined and substantiated. Based on the study of microbiological purity and the content of hazardous contaminants - toxic heavy metals, radionuclides and pesticides, the possibility of safe use of "Flucam" was established.

MOLECULAR GENETIC MECHANISMS OF HCV INFECTION CHRONICITY

Sevara B. Azimova, Bakhtiyor U. Iriskulov, Zukhra N. Boboeva, Ozoda Z. Saidalikhodjaeva, Naila K. Talipova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 407-412

Research objective: to analyze the distribution of alleles and genotypes frequencies and to assess the predictive significance of the polymorphism of the TNF-α, CTLA-4, CYP2E1, CYP2C9 *2, CYP2C9 *3, CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 genes of cytochrome P450 in Uzbek patients with chronic hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis.
Material and methods. The study included the analysis of a core group, consisting of 107 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CVHC) and the control of 81 conditionally healthy individuals. All surveyed patients were of Uzbek nationality, with a verified diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis. DNA extraction from lymphocyte nuclei was carried out according to the Sambrook J. et al method. SNP-genotyping of gene polymorphisms was carried out by standard PCR on soft thermal cyclers "Corbett Research" (Australia) and "Applied Biosystems" (USA).
Results. The research showed that the predictive efficacy of each of the genetic polymorphisms in the core group was relatively low (AUC value was from 0.51 to 0.57). Besides, the revealed features of the prevalence of allele frequencies and the genotypes distribution of the studied cytochrome P450 isoenzymes were a significant factor in determination of the CVHC pathogenesis and the disease course. The results indicated a link between the expression of CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and disease progression.
Conclusion. According to the marker incidence, CTLA-4 -49A/G gene polymorphism has a good predictive efficiency in relation to the development and course of CVHC.

MODERN APPROACH TO THE TREATMENT OF CHOLELITHIASIS COMPLICATED BY OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE

Oktyabr R. Teshaev, M.U. Ismoilov, Sayfiddin R. Baymakov, Sh.Kh. Babakulov, Bekhzod Sh. Abdullaev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 413-418

Research objective: to analyze the treatment outcomes after using various methods of biliary tract decompression in patients with cholelithiasis complicated by obstructive jaundice.
Material and methods. 446 patients with cholelithiasis complicated by obstructive jaundice underwent treatment in the Surgical Department of the 1st City Clinical Hospital in Tashkent in the period from 2006 to 2019. 388 (87.1%) patients underwent multistage endoscopic retrograde transpapillary interventions. Duodenoscopy, retrograde cholangio-pancreatography followed by endoscopic papillosphincterotomy (EPST), in combination with choledocholithoextraction (CLE), were performed in 362 patients (93.3%). Besides, we carried out laboratory studies on blood parameters: total bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALP and gamma GGT, characterizing cholestasis and the degree of damage to the liver cells, as well as assessment of specific complications and mortality.
Results. The analysis of treatment outcomes established the following: 22 (4.9%) critically ill patients were applied cholecystostomy under ultrasound control, which allowed to obtain relief of the inflammation process and biliary tract decompression. Besides, critically ill patients with hyperbilirubinemia and biliary intoxication underwent antegrade drainage of the bile duct by PTBD. In 6.5% of cases, due to large choledocholithiasis and incomplete lithoextraction, we used open cholecystectomy in combination with choledocholithotomy with drainage of CBD. Also it should be mentioned, that the conducted study revealed a significant decrease in bilirubin values in all surveyed groups, as well as significant decrease in ALT and AST values.
Conclusion. The most optimal treatment of cholelithiasis complicated by obstructive jaundice is the two-stage approach using minimally invasive methods. The operation of choice is endoscopic retrograde intervention followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In cases of high hyperbilirubinemia (over 200 μmol/L), CBD enlarged diameters and critically ill patients, the method of choice for the treatment of CBD decompression is PTBD.

STUDY OF WEED FLORA IN DIBRUGARH DISTRICT, ASSAM, NE INDIA

Suman Gogoi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 419-426

The present study was undertaken to document the diversity of weed flora in different regions of Dibrugarh district, Assam. Data was collected through observation during the months of spring, summer and winter in the year 2020. In this investigation 62 plant species belonging to 36 families were found to exist as weeds in the fields, by the side of the roads and also in the household gardens.

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA IN THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN FOR 2007-2019

Gavkhar J. Jarylkasinova, Iskandar. R. Mavlyanov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 427-434

Research objective: to assess the structure and dynamics of the IDA incidence in the Republic of Uzbekistan in the period from 2007 to 2019.
Material and methods. The research was carried out at the Department of Hematology of the Bukhara branch of the Tashkent Medical Academy. The data of official statistical report, accounts and reports, informational and analytical materials collected from 2007 to 2019 were used during the analysis. Mainly, the analysis included the state of epidemiological situation in the Kashkadarya, Bukhara and Navoi regions, as well as separately the Republic of Karakalpakstan. The study was comprehensive, using descriptive and analytical epidemiological methods, retrospective epidemiological analysis, and medical statistics.
Results and discussion. During the analysis it was established that in the Republic of Uzbekistan for the period from 2007 to 2019, there was a changing of the severity grade of IDA for public health according to the WHO recommendations from medium (prevalence 20.0–39.9%) to moderate (5.0-19.9%). In some regions, where in 2007 the IDA incidence ratio was severe (≥40%), changing to the medium grade was achieved during 12 years.
Conclusion. The epidemiological analysis showed the significant regression of the IDA incidence ratio in the Republic of Uzbekistan in the period from 2007 to 2019. However, among adolescents the prevalence of the disease remained high, requiring the development of a new approach to the treatment and carrying out preventive measures. In addition, it was established that in some regions the incidence was much higher than in the country as whole, requiring a deeper study of pathology in the indicated region.

Psychological impact of COVID-19 on medical college students

Dr. Vanitha Gnanasoundran Sundarasamy, Ranjith thamizharasan, Riddhi hanish lalan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 435-443

Background
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, has led to the quarantine of peoples from many countries in their homes, in order to mitigate its spread. Some of these people developed mental health problems, and many solutions have been put in place to address the mental health issues of patients and health professionals affected by the disease. However, not much attention has been given to students, particularly those from medical colleges. The present study aims to conduct an online survey to investigate the mental health status of students from a medical college in India.
Methods
From March to August 2020, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 470 medical college students from the coastal area in India using standard questionnaires measuring adverse psychological outcomes. Multivariate regression was used to examine the determinants of adverse psychological outcomes.
Results
Health difficulties faced by students during the lockdown period were measured. Alteration in their sleep pattern was prevalent in this sample of medical college students, and 65.3 % indicated positive screens for significant reduction in their attendance and concentration level. Due to the long-lasting pandemic situation and onerous measures such as lockdown and stay-at-home orders, the COVID-19 pandemic brings negative impacts on higher education. The findings of our study highlight the urgent need to develop interventions and preventive strategies to address the mental health of college students.

Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Suicide Attempters

Dr .J. Reuben ,Dr. R. T. Kannapiran, Dr. G. Ambujam, Dr. Rupinder Ghill, Dr. Mukil Sakthi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 444-467

Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in general hospitals. Psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for suicide. There are few case-control studies on attempted suicide in India. The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in survivors following their first suicide attempt.100 consecutive cases of first suicide attempters (Group-I) were compared with an equal number of randomly selected controls (Group-II), matched for age and sex. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, stressful life events, psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity were analyzed. The two groups were compared using appropriate statistical measures. No significant difference in socio-demographic details was observed between the two groups except for education, which was significantly lower in the cases compared to controls. Interpersonal problems with a significant person (46%) were the most frequent reason attributed by the suicide attempters. Suicide attempters had significantly more undesirable and ambiguous life events compared to the controls. Those who made serious suicide attempt had significantly more undesirable life events in the past six months. Most common diagnostic categories were mood disorders. Group-I had higher psychiatric morbidity compared to group-II, comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (51.6% v. 19.5%). Individuals who made first suicide attempt had lower educational achievement; more undesirable and ambiguous life events; high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity of severe depression and anxiety in comparison to the controls.

A Review on Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, , Chandrakala B, Chandrakala B,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 470-474

Cleft lip and cleft palate are openings or splits in the upper lip, the roof of the mouth (palate) or both. Cleft lip and cleft palate result when facial structures that are developing in an unborn baby don't close completely.Cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common birth defects. They most commonly occur as isolated birth defects but are also associated with many inherited genetic conditions or syndromes.Having a baby born with a cleft can be upsetting, but cleft lip and cleft palate can be corrected. In most babies, a series of surgeries can restore normal function and achieve a more normal appearance with minimal scarring.

Advancements of Laser Dentistry

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B Govindarajan Sumathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 475-478

The word LASER is an acronym for the expression “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.” A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.The development of lasers has been of great interest among dental practitioners and patient to use this tool to ensure the treatment easier and effective. Lasers allow the dentist to reach the sites where the conventional mechanical instruments fails. The use of laser has increased in the last decades. It has been activated at the different power setting modes, and pulse for soft and hard tissues. Use of lasers is the upcoming technology in dentistry which has multiple effects. This review discusses recent advancements in lasers.

Apert Syndrome- A Review

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B , Gowshik.P, Abdul Azeez.A, Isaac Vimal.G, Govindarajan Sumathy*

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 479-483

Apert syndrome, also called acrocephalosyndactyly, is a genetic syndrome characterized by anomalies of the skull, face and limbs. Gene mutations are responsible for causing the early fusion of the skull, hand and feet bones.Apert syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes abnormal development of the skull. Babies with Apert syndrome are born with a distorted shape of the head and face. Many children with Apert syndrome also have other birth defects. Apert syndrome has no cure, but surgery can help correct some of the problems that result.

Artificial Intelligence in Dentistry

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 484-489

New trends in the dental industry pop up every year and 2020 is no different. Artificial intelligence (AI) in dentistry will transform the way dentists work and patients receive treatment, especially in the introduction of robot-dentists. Robots are now able to perform minimally invasive dental work like filling cavities, teeth cleaning, cap applications and tooth extractions. The tremendous amount of patient data requires intelligent software for computation. In dentistry, artificial intelligence holds lot of importance including patient diagnosis, storage of patient data, and assessment of genetic information. The robotic surgery techniques have made a big impact in surgery. The recent success in china has proved that the AI dentistry has become mainstream in the dental space by the end of 2019

Brain Stem Death

Ahmed Mohammed Al- Samak; Sajid Yousef Shehab; Hashim AlAmeedee

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 490-492

The definition of death lost its significance in favor of brain death. Brain death is a permanent cessation of all functions of the brain in which though individual organs may function but lack of integrating function of the brain, lack of respiratory drive, consciousness, and cognition confirms to the definition that death is an irreversible cessation of functioning of the organism as a whole. In spite of medical and legal acceptance globally, the concept of brain death and brain-stem death is still unclear to many. Brain death is not promptly declared due to lack of awareness and doubts about the legal procedure of certification. Many brain-dead patients are kept on life supporting systems needlessly. an attempt has been made to highlight the history and concept of brain death and brain-stem death; the anatomical and physiological basis of brain-stem death, and criteria to diagnose brain-stem death in India.

Chronic Sinusitis – A Review

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 493-497

Sinusitis is inflammation that causes pain, pressure, and swelling in the sinuses. Chronic sinusitis is sinusitis that lasts for a long time, usually longer than 12 weeks.Unlike acute sinusitis, which is often due to a sinus infection, chronic sinusitis is not usually caused by bacteria and does not always get better with standard treatment, such as antibiotics.Chronic sinusitis occurs when the spaces inside your nose and head (sinuses) are swollen and inflamed for three months or longer, despite treatment.This common condition interferes with the way mucus normally drains and makes your nose stuffy. Breathing through your nose may be difficult, and the area around your eyes might feel swollen or tender.Chronic sinusitis can be brought on by an infection, by growths in the sinuses (nasal polyps) or swelling of the lining of your sinuses. Also called chronic rhinosinusitis, the condition can affect both adults and children

A Review on Cleft Palate and Heart Defects

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 498-503

Organogenesis takes place on Days 25-28 of intrauterine life. Any insult like environmental, developmental or nutritional to the embryo during this period will lead to malformations. Associated anomalies are classified according to the organs affected.Cleft is a gap or split in the upper lip or roof of the mouth(palate) which is present from birth. There are 3types of cleft palate.The most common heart defect is Ventricular septal Defect and Atrial septal defect. Early identification of the problems and early intervention for the same is indicated in children with this type of conditions. Majority of the cleft palate are seen between 10-12 weeks of age. As per latest review,Cleft palate and its associated Heart defect has become a common issue and it is treated most efficiently by latest technology like using Hydrogel treatment, Catheter procedure, Hybrid procedure etc.

Congenital spinal deformities–A Review

Vamja Diptiben Nanjibhai; Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 504-508

Congenital spinal deformities are generally occurred by genetic factors, vitamin deficiency, chemicals and medicinal drugsimpacted in the child. Congenital spinal deformities are occurred before the child is born and continues after birth too. These deformities basically classified into three types namely Neural tube defects, failure of segmentation and failure of formation of the spinal cord. The following article will acknowledge you more about the embryology of the spine and the deformities of the spine.

A Review on Craniofacial Anomalies

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 509-514

tCraniofacial anomalies (CFA) are a diverse group of deformities in the growth of the head and facial bones. Anomaly is a medical term meaning "irregularity" or "different from normal." These abnormalities are present at birth (congenital) and there are numerous variations. Some craniofacial anomalies are associated with anomalies elsewhere in the body, which can be serious. Cranio facial malformations include a variety of anomalies, including cleft lip with or without cleft palate, craniosynostosis, hemangioma, vascular malformation, and hemifacialmicrosomia. Congenital craniofacial abnormalities frequently require ophthalmic evaluation and surgical management. The term craniofacial anomalies include all congenital deformities of cranium and face. More specifically it refers to the deformities of the head that interfere with physical and mental well-being of an individual. It mainly deals with the understanding when, where and how the genes are expressed with specific pattern of morphogenesis.

Eruption of Tooth

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 515-518

Teeth move through alveolar bone, whether through the normal process of tooth eruption or by strains generated by orthodontic appliances. Both eruption and orthodontics accomplish this feat through similar fundamental biological processes, osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis, but there are differences that make their mechanisms unique. A better appreciation of the molecular and cellular events that regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis in eruption and orthodontics is not only central to our understanding of how these processes occur, but also is needed for ultimate development of the means to control them. Possible future studies in these areas are also discussed, with particular emphasis on translation of fundamental knowledge to improve dental treatments

Morphological Variations of the Foramen Magnum in Adult Human Dry Skull in South Indian Population

Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 519-524

Foramen Magnum (FM) is present at the lower part of the occipital bone. It is a landmark for the anthropology, anatomy, forensic medicine, surgeons and other Medical fields for the skull base. The aim is to determine the structural (shape) variations in adult dry skulls.A study was carried out on 50 dry and undamaged adult human skulls. Specimens were used from the Department of Anatomy of Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital and Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital under Bharath University. The shape of foramen magnum of each skull was visually assessed. They were noted and classified as round, oval, hexagonal, tetragonal and egg shaped. Hence the most common shape of FM was found to be Tetragonal in 17(34%) skulls; followed by hexagonal shape in 9 (18%) and round shape in 9 (18%) skulls. The Egg shaped foramen magnum was found in 8 (16%) skulls and Oval shaped foramen magnum was present in 7 (14%)skulls.The recognition of size and shape of the foramen magnum is helpful to neurosurgeons in craniovertebral surgical approaches as well as in posterior cranial fossa surgeries. Data of the present study may apply to neurosurgeons, anthropologist or forensic persons. KEY WORDS:- Foramen magnum, Skull, Anatomical variations, Morphometric analysis, shape, structure, occipital bone, posterior cranial fossa, South India. INTRODUCTIO

Functional Neuroanatomy for Basal Ganglia

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 525-530

The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. In the following article we discuss about the basal ganglia, their components and working functions.

Horner’s Syndrome – A Review

Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 531-535

Horner syndrome consists of unilateral ptosis, an ipsilateral miotic but normally reactive pupil, and in some cases, ipsilateral facial anhidrosis, all resulting from damage to the ipsilateral oculosympathetic pathway. Horner syndrome is also known as Horner-Bernard syndrome or Oculosympathetic palsy.It is a result of another medical problem, such as a stroke, tumor or spinal cord injury. In some cases, no underlying cause can be found. There's no specific treatment for Horner syndrome, but treatment for the underlying cause may restore normal nerve function. The nerves of the sympathetic trunk arise from the spinal cord in the chest, and from there ascend to the neck and face. The nerves are part of the sympathetic nervous system, a division of the autonomic (or involuntary) nervous system. Once the syndrome has been recognized, medical imaging and response to particular eye drops may be required to identify the location of the problem and the underlying cause

Human Bite Marks In Forensic Dentistry

Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 536-540

Human bite mark analysis is most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Involving identification of assailant by comparing record of their dentition with the bite mark left on the victim. Like fingerprints and DNA bite marks are unique to individual such as distance, angle between the tooth, missing tooth and teeth fillings. Bite marks can be recorded in violent crimes such as sexual offences, homicides, child abuse and during sports events. A quality bite mark injury pattern examined properly using validated scientific methodologies can assist society greatly in applying laws fairly.

Impacted Wisdom Teeth

Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 541-545

The incidence of impacted wisdom teeth is high, with people aged between 20 to 30 years having at least one impacted third molar. Impacted wisdom teeth occur because of a lack of space, obstruction, or abnormal position, and can cause inflammatory dental disease manifested by pain and swelling of infected teeth and may destroy adjacent teeth and bone. Wisdom teeth likely become impacted because of a mismatch between the size of the teeth and the size of the jaw. Impacted wisdom teeth are classified by their direction of impaction, their depth compared to the biting surface of adjacent teeth and the amount of the tooth's crown that extends through gum tissue or bone.

Klippel-FielSyndrome – A Review

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 546-549

In Klippel Feil syndrome, classically there is a triad of short neck, a low posterior hairline and a limited range of neck movements especially of lateral bending. In fewer than 50% of cases have all the three elements.Klippel-Feil (KF) syndrome was first described by Maurice Klippel and Andre Feil in 1912 in patientwith congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae. Klippel-Feil syndrome occurs inone of every 42,000 births, and 60% of cases are female.KF syndrome is group of deformities that result due to failure of segmentation of cervical spine.This syndrome is associated with Sprengel deformity, high scapula, scoliosis, urinary tractanomalies, congenital heart disease & hearing lost in 30% of cases. Usually in Sprengeldeformity there is loss of abduction & forward flexion after 90 deg. In 30% of cases withSprengel deformity, the scapula is bound to cervical spine by fibrous tissue, cartilage or bone which restrict abduction of shoulder after 90 degrees

Mandible Fracture – A Review

Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 550-555

Objective: The objective of this article was to evaluate the age, gender, etiology, and common patterns of the mandible fractures. .Mandible fractures account for a significant portion of maxillofacial injuries. The evaluation, diagnosis, and management of these fractures remain challenging despite improved imaging technology and fixation techniques. In this article we have reviewed about the classifications of mandible fracture based upon their locations, types and patterns. Depending upon the location it is classified into alveolar, Condylar, Coronoid, Ramus, Angle, Body, Symphysis and Parasymphysis. Derived from the types of fracture it is classified into Greenstick, Simple, Comminuted and Compound fractures. Depending on the type and location of the fractures, various open and closed surgical reduction techniques can be utilized. Conclusion: Surveys play a vital role in better understanding of the biomechanics of the mandible fractures. Furthermore, analysis of the treatment modalities used and their respective outcomes are of paramount importance in guiding surgeons to evaluate their efficacy.

Morphology Study of Position, Shape, and Size of Mental Foramen in Dry Adult Human Mandibles

Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 556-559

The mental foramen (MF) is an important landmark to facilitate surgical, local anesthetic, and other invasiveprocedures, hence the present study was aimed to elucidate its morphological features and morphometric parameters with referenceto surrounding landmarks. Material and Method. During osteology demonstration we observed accessory mental foramen in 9 mandibleswith varying location. We have conducted on 35 mandiblesand standard deviations (SD). Results. In most cases (74.3%), the MF was ovalin shape and situated on the longitudinal axis of the2nd premolar tooth (61% on right side and 59.1% on left side). the mean distance for the right and left sides was measured fromvarious landmarks. Conclusion. Prior knowledge of mental foramen variations helps surgeons in planning surgery in that region toavoid nerve damage andalso enable effective mental nerve block anesthesia.

Morphometric Study of Coronoid Process on Dry Mandible

Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 560-565

The morphological appearance of the coronoid processes (processus condyloideus) of both sides of 48 dry adult human mandibles,Tamilnadu region origin, were studied in orderto classify the variations. Three types were evident: 1. Triangular 2. Rounded and 3. Hook shaped. Triangular coronoid processes were found in 16 sides, rounded in 12, and Hook shaped in 20 sides. the structural difference between the right and left coronoid process in height 5mm in breath 5mm in width at base 0.2mm and in width at apex 0.2mm. Coronoid process is an easily harvested bone that can be used for Faciomaxillary Surgeries.

A Review on Oculofaciocardiodental Syndrome

Chandrakala B, Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 566-568

Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is an extremely rare condition with ocular, facial, cardiac, and dental abnormalities. This is a X-linked rare congenital anomaly, with incidence of less than 1 in 1 million people and it might be lethal in males. It is characterized by heterogeneous clinical features such as dental radiculomegaly, congenital cataract, facial dymorphism and congenital heart disease. Isolation and diagnosis of this syndrome is hard for the medical specialists whereas itcan easily be diagnosed by an orthodontist or general dentist as it presents unique and specific findings in dental and skeletal structures

Periodontal Diseases – A Risk factor for Diabetics

Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Chandrakala B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 569-571

Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels and abnormalities of lipid metabolism due to absence or decreased level of insulin. It affects all the body organs and their functions either directly or indirectly. The periodontal diseases are a consequence of extension of the gingival inflammation into the underlying supporting structures of the periodontium, initiated by the presence of plaque and its products on the surfaces of the teeth and the adjoining structures. The progression of periodontal disease is influenced by variety of factors like microorganisms, host response, systemic background, and genetic makeup of the host. Amongst them, diabetes mellitus tops the list. Diabetes and periodontitis influence the clinical outcome of each other and control of both influences the clinical improvement of each.

Pierre Robin Syndrome: A Review

Govindarajan Sumathy , Bhaskaran Sathyapriya , Sanjana P , Warshini A.S, Chandrakala B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 572-575

Pierre Robin syndrome (PRS) is defined as a triad of small jaw, tongue retraction, and air passage hindrance, wherein infants often exhibit an immature mandible and respiration difficulties at birth. The small mandible drives the tongue backward, leading to PRS. In general, a cleft palate which is broad and U shaped is additionally related with this anomaly. PRS is not a syndrome alone, though instead various disorders, with single anomaly leading to another. Nevertheless, it is related to many other craniofacial abnormalities and may emerge together with a syndromic diagnosis, such as velocardiofacial and Stickler syndromes. Infants with PRS should be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team to assess the anatomic findings, delineate the source of airway obstruction, and address airway and feeding issues. Positioning will resolve the airway obstruction in 70% of cases. In the correct position, most children will also be able to feed normally. If the infant continues to show evidence of desaturation, then placement of a nasopharyngeal tube is indicated. Early feeding via a nasogastric tube may also reduce the amount of energy needed and allow for early weight gain. Prior to considering any surgical procedure, the clinician should first rule out any sources of obstruction below the base of the tongue that would necessitate a tracheostomy.

Relationship between Lip Print and Dental CariesSurvey Article

Govindarajan Sumathy , Bhaskaran Sathyapriya , Aarthi.S , Kouser Taj.A , Simrita Sri K Jagthap , Chandrakala B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 576-581

Background - Dental caries is a major public health concern affecting millions of people worldwide.Its aetiology is complex, however the question of a possible true genetic predisposition toward dental caries has piqued the minds of dental investigators for decades as lip and thumb and the tooth enamel are derivatives of embryonic ectoderm. Aim and Objective – The objective of this article is to know the relationship between lip print and dental caries and to know which type of lip print is more susceptible to dental caries. Sample lip prints collected from the subjects are segregated according to their types and presence of dental caries in order to study their relationship. Methodology-A Descriptive, cross-sectional study was among 87 adults aged 18-55 years by cheiloscopy and examination of dental caries.The lips prints were recorded on paper and analyzed using Tsuchihashi's classification. Dental caries are registered according to FDI system. Result - Among the study, the branched pattern (type II) of lip prints was seen in 72% with a higher incidence of caries in our study and this was also in accordance to the study done by Madhusudan et al. Conclusion - The current study has helped us to correlate certain patterns which might be related to specific occurrence of dental caries and their relationship. In our study, among cheiloscopic patterns, type II (branched) pattern was predominant among all the subjects.

Stickler Syndrome – A Review

Govindarajan Sumathy , Bhaskaran Sathyapriya , Yaashwant , Pavithran , Chandrakala B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 582-586

The hereditary diseases arediseases that are inherited genetically. These disease or disorders are due to defective genes. Stickler syndrome is a congenital and genetic disease. Stickler syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous arthro-ophthalmopathy caused by defects in collagen, exhibiting a wide specter of manifestations in connective tissue. There are five subdivision of this disease which affects the different parts of the body. Stickler syndrome is present at birth but, depending on the severity of your child’s symptoms, may not be diagnosed immediately.There is no direct method for diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Diagnosis and treatment of signs and symptoms of this disease can be done to prevent the pain. In this article we will see the overall signs and symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment of stickler syndrome.

Submandibular Sialadenitis - A Review

Govindarajan Sumathy , Bhaskaran Sathyapriya , Tejini.T , Sanjana.M , V. Annu Priya , Chandrakala B*

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 587-589

The disease called acute sialadenitis is an infectious or inflammatory disorder of the salivary glands. The exact frequency of submandibular sialadenitis is unclear. The acute conditions more typically involve the parotid and submandibular glands. During an acute inflammatory process, there is swelling of the affected gland, overlying pain, gland tenderness, fever, and on occasion difficulty in opening the mouth. Initial treatment includes rehydration, oral antistaphylococcal antibiotic is started while awaiting culture results. Hygiene and repeated massaging of the gland when tenderness had subsided. This present article gives various details such as its etiology, symptoms, treatment, prognosis. The other names of this disease include sialoadenitis, adenitis, salivary gland inflammation

Thyroid Nodule and its Effect on Women

Govindarajan Sumathy , Bhaskaran Sathyapriya , M.kaviya , A.swetha , Chandrakala B*

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 590-593

Women are ten times more likely to suffer from thyroid disease than men. Thyroid problems increase with age and may affect adults differently than children. The incidence of most thyroid diseases: Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, and cancer is highest among postmenopausal and elderly women. Thyroid status beneficially influencing longevity relates to low thyroid function.

A Review On Temporomandibular Joint And Its Disorders

Govindarajan Sumathy , Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Indhusri. K , Anushka. A , Chandrakala B*

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 594-597

The TMJ Receives Its Name From Two Bones That Enter Into Its Formation, Namely The Temporal Bone And The Mandible. There Are Numerous Factors That Can Contribute To Temporomandibular Disorders. Epidemiology Reports State Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD) Affect Up To 25% Of The Population, Yet Their Etiology And Progression Are Poorly Understood. Likewise, Treatment Requires Customized Plans To Address The Specific Characteristics Of Each Patient’s Disease. The Temporomandibular Joint Disorders Are More Common In Females, The Reason Is Not Clearly Known. The Successful Management Of Temporomandibular Disorders Is Dependent On Identifying And Controlling The Contributing Factors. The Study Presents Is About TMJ And Its Associated Disorders.

Frontofacionasal Dysplasia- A Review

Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, S.R.Vishwa Rajan , Chandrakala B*

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 598-603

The complex anatomy of the skull and face arises from the requirement to support multiple sensory and structural functions. During embryonic development, the diverse component elements of the neuro- and viscerocranium must be generated independently and subsequently united in a manner that sustains and promotes the growth of the brain and sensory organs, while achieving a level of structural integrity necessary for the individual to become a free-living organism. While each of these individual craniofacial components is essential, the cranial and facial midline lies at a structural nexus that unites these disparately derived elements, fusing them into a whole. Defects of the craniofacial midline can have a profound impact on both form and function, manifesting in a diverse array of phenotypes and clinical entities that can be broadly defined as Frontofacionasaldysplasias (FNDs). 

A Review on Craniosynostosis

Govindarajan Sumathy , Bhaskaran Sathyapriya , Aishwarya Meena , Chandrakala B*

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 604-609

Craniosynostosis is a developmental craniofacial anomaly, resulting in impairment of brain development and abnormally shaped skull. The main cause of craniosynostosis is premature closure of one or more cranial sutures. It usually occurs as an isolated condition, but may also be associated with other malformations as part of complex syndromes. When left untreated, craniosynostosis can cause serious complications, such as developmental delay, facial abnormality, sensory, respiratory and neurological dysfunction, anomalies affecting the eye, and psychological disturbances. Thus, early diagnosis, expert surgical techniques, postoperative care, and adequate follow-up are of vital importance in treating craniosynostosis

Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva [FOP]

Govindarajan Sumathy, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, Ananya. S.L , Chandrakala B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 610-614

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare human genetic disease that is characterised by congenital skeletal malformations and progressive ossification of soft tissues that usually begins at around early childhood. This disease is episodic In nature and causes initiation of spontaneous bone forming lesions (flare ups) that closely mimic the bone forming process seen in early embryonic stage. Over time these lesions begin to form a secondary skeleton apart from the normal one. This article gives you a better understanding of the disease and how it can be managed and treated.

Retromolar Foramen and its Clinical Significance in Dry Human Manbibles

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya , Purushothaman Lakshmanan , Govindarajan Sumathy , Ramachandran Tamilselvi , Sindhuja Devi Sandrasekhar , Muthiah Saravanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 615-618

The retromolar foramen is considered as an anatomical variation and is located in the region of retromolar area. Its content is derived from the arterioles and venules of inferior alveolar nerve. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical importance of the retromolar foramen in dry human mandibles. The study was conducted in 30 dried mandibles from the Department of Anatomy at Sree Balaji Dental College & Hospital, Chennai. In each mandible, the area behind the last molar tooth was carefully inspected for the presence of retromolar foramen. The parameters like retromolar foramen side, distance between retromolar foramen and posterior third molar, distance between anterior border of ramus and retromolar foramen and the distance between retromolar foramen and lingula of the mandibular foramen were analysed and measured with a digital calliper to the nearest millimetres. Retromolar foramen was found in 6 of 30 mandibles of which 3 on the right side and 1 on left side and 2 bilaterally. The distance between posterior third molar to the retromolar foramen was found to be an average of 8.23mm on the right side and 7.86mm on the left side. Distance between anterior border of ramus to retromolar foramen was found to be an average of 5.68mm on the right side and 5.77 on the left side. The average distance measurements between the retromolar foramen and the lingula was 15.18 mm on the right side and 15.11 mm on the left side. Care should be taken not to damage the neurovascular bundle passing through the retromolar foramen during routine anaesthetic, surgical and implantation procedures of the mandible

Odontogenic Maxillary Sinusitis

Bhaskaran Sathyapriya , Purushothaman Lakshmanan , Govindarajan Sumathy , Chandrakala B , Sindhuja Devi Sandrasekhar , Muthiah Saravanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 619-624

Maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic origin, also known as maxillary sinusitis of dental origin or odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (OMS), is a common disease in dental, otorhinolaryngologic, allergic, general, and maxillofacial contexts. Despite being a well-known disease entity, many cases are referred to otorhinolaryngologists by both doctors and dentists. Thus, early detection and initial diagnosis often fail to detect its odontogenic origin.

Morphologic aberration of mandibular molar – “C” shape canal: case report

Dr . Sahithi Reddy, Ramachandran Tamilselvi, Paramasivam Vivekanandhan; Sahithi Reddy,Ramachandran Tamilselvi , Paramasivam Vivekanandhan, Arunajatesan Subbiya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 625-630

The mandibular molars are more prone to aberrations of canals. They include bifurcation and trifurcation of canals, fusion of roots, extreme canal curvatures and c shaped canals which makes it difficult to diagnose and manage. The failure to treat them leads to re-infection and persistence of infection in the tooth. Hence, it is of utmost importance for the clinician to know the morphologic variations. The present case report is aimed to give a clinical insight of such aberrations. The two cases presents with mandibular second molar with “c” shaped root canal system, which was diagnosed with CBCT. Both the cases were treated endodontically and successfully managed.

An overview of materials used in periapical surgery

Ravindranath Megha, Alagarsamy Venkatesh, Rathakrishnan Mensudar, Dhakshinamoorthy Malarvizhi,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 631-636

The main objective of an endodontic surgery is to maintain the function of the tooth that has a periapical lesion which couldn’t be resolved by conventional endodontic (re-)treatment . It is a critical procedure requiring knowledge and skill. This review gives a gist of the materials used for periapical surgery.

Comparison and Evaluation of Caries preventive efficacy of Resin infiltrant, Casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate and nanohydroxyapatite using Vickers microhardness tester- An in vitro study

Kingston Chellapandian, Tripuravaram Vinay Kumar, Dhanasekaran Sihivahanan, Ashwin Ravichandran, Suresh Mitthra, Venkatachalam Prakash

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 637-645

Aim:To compare and evaluate the caries preventive efficacy of a resin infiltrant (ICON),Caseinphosphopeptide-Amorphous calcium phosphate (GC Tooth mousse) and Nanohydroxapatite(Aclaim) on non cavitated enamel lesions. Materials and methods: 60 maxillary incisors extracted for periodontal reasons were sectioned at the middle third region of the crown with approximate dimensions of (5x5x5mm). In order to create the artificial enamel lesions, the samples were demineralized by placing in a beaker containing the prepared demineralizing solution for 14 days. The samples were divided into four groups which is Resin infiltrant (Group I), CPP-ACP (Group II), nano-HA (Group III) and control (Group IV) (n= 15) enamel samples in each group. The caries preventive efficacy of each group was evaluated using Vickers microhardness tester and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The mean microhardness value after demineralization of enamel samples was 226VHN, 222VHN, 207 VHN and 215VHN in Groups I, II, III, IV respectively. The mean microhardness value after Remineralization of enamel samples was Group I :316VHN > Group II : 282VHN > Group III : 267VHN > Group IV : 218 VHN. The mean microhardness after acid challenge of enamel samples for 14 days was 292VHN, 254VHN, 237VHN, 167 VHN in groups I,II,III, IV respectively. Conclusion: The resin infiltrant showed higher caries inhibition potential than CPP-ACP and nanohydroxyapatite. In addition, resin infiltrant showed superior acid resistance and increased surface microhardness compared to CPP-ACP and nanohydroxyapatite.

Applications of laser in the field of Endodontics : an update

Ramu Shobhana, Arumugam Karthick, Suresh Mitthra, Balasubramaniam Anuradha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 646-651

The scope of lasers in the field of Endodontic practices and research has increased rapidly in the past few years. Laser is light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation which provides blood loss field during treatment procedures. It is a non- invasive procedure with various applications in dentistry. However, lasers are slightly costlier than traditional treatment but are an effective tool to increase efficiency, specificity, ease and comfort of the dental treatment. This present article reviews the various applications of lasers in Endodontics.

C-Shaped Root Canal Configuration - A Review

Bharadwaj B, Venkatachalam Prakash, Ramachandran Tamilselvi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 652-657

Successful endodontic therapy requires a thorough knowledge of the root canal morphology . C shaped canal, a common root canal variation in mandibular molar are often seen in root canal form having a elongated ribbon shaped arc(C shape) that continues uninterrupted till the apex. These canals are mostly seen in mandibular second molars as an extensive complex root canal system with the presence of fins or webs that connects individual mesial and distal canals. And hence, these canals present challenge to debridement and obturation. Rotary and hand instruments assisted with sonics and ultrasonics and modified obturation techniques aid in effective management of C shaped root canals. This review is done in order to update the current knowledge about C-shaped canals. This helps in understanding C-shaped root canal morphology for proper diagnosis and successful treatment.

Management of internal root resorption: A Review

Tamizharasan Sangavi, Arumugam Karthick, Dhakshinamoorthy Malarvizhi, Alagarsamy Venkatesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 658-662

Internal root resorption is a type of resorption as a result of chronic pulpal inflammation, following caries or due to trauma. The predentin and the odontoblast layer of the canal wall get damaged, leading to exposure of the underlying mineralized dentin to odontoclastsresulting in internal root resorption (IRR). This article discusses about the etiology, the clinical and radiographic diagnosis, the contribution of the three-dimensional imaging (CBCT) to the diagnosis, and the conservative and surgical management of IRR.

Esthetic correction of peg laterals – a case report

Loganathan Saatwika , Balasubramaniam Anuradha, Arunajetasan Subbiya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 663-667

We live in a society where appearance plays a major role. People of all ages are concerned about their smile and overall appearance. Microdontia is a condition in which teeth are smaller than the normal size. A common form of microdontia that affects the maxillary lateral incisor is known as peg lateral, which exhibits converging mesial and distal surfaces of crown forming a cone like shape. Treatment approach should depend on the number of missing teeth, status of occlusion and patient preference. .This clinical report describes the treatment of bilateral peg-shaped lateral incisors that were restored with resin composites.

chair side diagnostic aids in early detection of oral cancer For general dental practitioners

Dr. Sangeetha Priya.P , Dr. N. Aravindha Babu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 668-673

The incidence of oral cancer is increasing worldwide. Patients with oral cancer have low survival rate compared with other cancer in the body. This is mainly because of the delay in the diagnosis, spread of tumormetastasis, and and thereby leading to secondary tumors. For the dental profession, it is really challenging and highly important to diagnose oral precancer or oral cancer, particularly in its early stage of the disease. Early screening and advanced diagnostic tool play an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment planning of patients suffering from oral cancer. This article reviews the chair side diagnostic aids as a tool for early detection of oral cancer. The article also emphasis on the role of general dentist and their importance in the early detection of oral cancer. Therefore every general dental practitioner should be aware of recent advances in diagnosis, in order to provide a high level of care among patients suspected with cancerous or pre-cancerous lesions .

“Shedding Light On Cytokine Storm” – A Review

Dr. E.Rajesh, Dr. Sudakshina Mukherjee, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu., Dr. L.Malathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 674-681

The concept of cytokine storm is increasing popularity with the introduction of immunotherapy in various diseases most notably in cancer therapy. So the basic knowledge about this topic has to be acquired by any health care professionals. Thus in this review article we dealt about the different cytokines associated with cytokine storm, its pathophysiology especially which is caused by influenza, SARS-Cov, dengue virus infections. We discussed about different grading system in relation to the syndrome associated with cytokine storm and management related to it.

Dental Care For The Patients With Childhood Cancer And Survivors – A Short Review

Dr. N. Aravindha Babu , Dr. E.P. Sridevi Anjuga, Dr. E. Rajesh, Dr. L. Malathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 682-690

Cancer occurs due to uncontrolled division of abnormal cells. Cancer cells may penetrate adjacent tissues and spread through the blood or lymphatic systems to other parts of the body. The most common childhood cancers are leukemias and brain or central nervous system tumors, which together account for the majority of the new childhood cases of cancer. Childhood cancer treatments usually include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and/or surgery, which can cause adverse effects in oral cavity for both short and long term treatment process. The pedodontist plays an important role in the prevention, stabilisation and care of oral and dental problems that can have an impact on the health and wellbeing of the child during and after cancer treatment. This article explains the various oral care need to be taken to maintain a good health and oral hygiene in Pediatric cancer survivors.

Effects of contaminated toothbrush in oral health

Dr. E.P. Sridevi Anjuga, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu MDS, Dr. N. Anitha, Dr. L. Malathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 691-695

Microbes survive in a wide range of habitats, like toothbrush bristles regardless of where they are stored after being unsterilized. The most common technique for maintaining good oral hygiene is tooth brushing. By scraping plaque and other soft debris from the teeth, tooth brushes become contaminated with bacteria, blood, saliva and oral debris. Toothbrushes are a place for the transfer of microbes, retention and growth. There could be a source of infection with these infected toothbrushes. This article discusses the oral microbial flora and how the contaminated toothbrush affects oral hygiene.

Immunohistochemistry- a brief note on technical protocols

Dr. L.Malathy, Dr. Sangeetha Priya.P , Dr. N. Aravindha Babu MDS, Dr. N.Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 696-702

histopathology has been resulted in marked improvement. Although histologic analysis of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections remains as gold standard diagnostic method and it is at the core of the practice of head and neck surgical pathology, additionally immunohistochemistry had become a powerful tool to the pathologist. It has a significant advantage in the diagnosis of difficult tumors. The selection of antibodies for the immunohistochemical testing is made on the basis of their tumor specificity and the likelihood that they will react with the tumor under evaluation using the antibody. IHC is a well-established technique to facilitate the diagnosis of infectious and neoplastic processes in animals. Immunohistochemical studies have traditionally focused on markers of specific cell of origin and tumour type as aids in the diagnosis of specific tumours.

Cost Effective Salivary Viral DNA Isolation in Limited Resource Setting – A Pilot study

Dr. S. Karthika Nagarajan M.D.S, Dr. Usha Subbiah, Dr. Vidyarani Shyamsunder, Dr. Aravindababu Narayanasamy, Dr. Mahboob Kadher Masthan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 703-707

Background: The various diagnostic procedures that requires isolation of viral products from serum, saliva and other body fluids involves cumbersome extraction kits. These kits are very expensive and involve highly technique sensitive procedures. Aim: This pilot study involves systematic review and exploring an option of utilizing the available laboratory materials to perform viral DNA isolation and ensuring the best quality of the isolated DNA through the agar-gel electrophoresis followed by image recording. Materials and methods: Deep throat gargle followed by vigorous rinsing of oral cavity done after mild scrapping of posterior tongue and anterior faucial pillars using ice cream stick in order to ensure enough squamous cell collection. The collected Oral rinse was stored in -80 till the DNA isolation procedure.The isolated DNA was captured through Agar-gel electrophoresis and imaged through special analyzer. Conclusion: Equivalent quality of DNA as well as RNA were isolated through this comparativelycost effective method.

Metastatic Tumors Of Jaw - A Review

Dr. G. Nishanth , Dr. E.Rajesh, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu. Dr. N.Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 708-711

Metastasis is a condition that begins with detachment of tumor cells from the fundamental tumor, spreading to different tissues or likely organs, which attacks through the lymphovascular structures followed by their perseverance in the disseminaion. Metastatic tumors to the oro-facial district are exceptional and may occur in the oral soft tissues or jawbones. The clinical presentation of metastatic tumors can be variable, which may incite erroneous finding or may make logical bind. Subsequently, they should be considered in the differential analysis of provocative and receptive lesions that are fundamental to the oral region.

Nutritional Recommendation For Cancer Survivors

Dr. A.M. Sherene Christina Roshini, Dr. L.Malathy, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu., Dr. N. Anitha, Dr. E.Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 712-716

After cancer diagnosis, diet and nutritional factors are important in controlling both quality and quantity of life. The oncologists should take care of the nutritional requirements for newly diagnosed patients and patients already undergoing active treatment. Physicians should also refer patients with more exhaustive nutritional requirements to dietitians and to advance the necessity of weight management and healthy diet which is low in saturated fat and simple sugars and high in fruits and vegetables and unrefined whole grains.

Oral Carcinogenesis- A Review

Dr. Dr. L.Malathy, Dr. Sudakshina Mukherjee, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu., Dr. E.Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 717-726

Oral cancer being the sixth most common malignancy over all in the world. Most common risk factors as we learnt are synergistic effect of smoking and alcohol though separately smokeless and smoking tobacco poses threat towards developing malignancy. Prevention and early detection of malignancy can cause reduction in mortality and improve patients’ life expectancy. Efforts are being made to come out with new the technologies and biomarkers just to detect the genetic and molecular alterations that normal mucosa undergo during carcinogenesis. Here in this review we will discuss about factors affecting oral carcinogenesis, field cancerization, biomarkers regarding oral carcinogenesis and treatment plan.

Cancer Therapy: Oral Complications And Its Management

Dr. E. Rajesh, Dr. A.M. Sherene Christina Roshini, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu, Dr. L. Malathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 727-732

Over past three decades, cancer survival rate indicates the presence of problem in life quality of cancer patients. Oral health is valuable in an individual’s overall life quality. But adverse effects of cancer therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy affects the oral health status severely. Prevention and treatment of these complications should be considered by the clinician. This review article gives a detailed description about oral complications first which is then followed by management of those oral complications.

Taste Sensation And Its Alteration In Cancer

Dr. A.M. Sherene Christina Roshini, Dr. E.Rajesh, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu., Dr. L.Malathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 733-738

Taste sensation plays a major role in detection and ingestion of food to face the nutritional requirements in health and disease. Alteration in taste perception causes malnutrition which is one of the usual causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. This review reveals the mechanism of taste perception and their alteration in cancer, it also reveals the role of radio- and chemotherapy in the modulation of taste sensation. Preventive measures, dietary supplements and pharmacotherapy to improve the patient’s status in advanced cancer stage are also explained in this review

Ameloblastic-Fibrodentinoma

Dr. Sangeetha Priya.P ,Dr. N.Anitha, Dr. L. Malathi, Dr. K. M. K. Masthan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 739-745

Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma is a benign odontogenic tumor belonging to the category of "odontogenic epithelium with odontogenic ectomesenchyme" along with recognition of induction in the form of dentin in atypical or dysplastic forms. The biological behaviour of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma is not very different from ameloblastic fibroma; hence, it is treated similarly by conservative procedures. It is important to understand the histopathogenesis of these rare tumors. Though rare, they are an independent entity awaiting recognition. Here, we report a case of amelobalstic fibrodentinoma.

An Overview On The Role Of Dentists During Mass Disasters

Dr.G. Nishanth, Dr. L.Malathi, Dr. N.Aravindha Babu, Dr. N.Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 746-748

Mass disasters leads to damage, ecological disruption, and loss of human life on a massive scale. The purposes behind these reaches from regular makes, for example, volcanic ejections and tremors optional human causes like wars. Such monstrous interruption of life requests help from individuals having a place with different divisions of medical services, giving pre distinguished, organized, and precise guide to the casualties of the fiasco. This audit article features the function of a dental specialist in such enormous fiascos. The dental specialist gives emergency treatment to the casualties as well as helps in the distinguishing proof of human remains.

Toluidine blue: A review of its clinical utility

Dr. Sudakshina Mukherjee, Dr. E,Rajesh, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu., Dr. Dr. L.Malathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 749-756

The first and foremost duty of an Oral Pathologist or any general dentist is to detect a premalignant lesion sufficiently early to prevent their progress to invasive carcinoma. Though final diagnosis always should be given on the basis of laboratory-based investigations which sometimes are associated with variable false-negative rates, but Toluidine blue vital staining can serve as an important chair side investigation in detecting prompt premalignant lesion. Its feasibility rate is high since it is simple, inexpensive and sensitive in nature. Chemically Toluidine blue is a basic thiazine metachromatic dye having high affinity for acidic tissue components like DNA and RNA thus serves in detecting tissues rich in former mentioned proteins. It's metachromatic property leads its wide applications both as vital staining in living tissues and as a special stain. So it is being used often in vivo to identify dysplasia and carcinoma of the oral cavity. Its aim is to highlight components, such as mast cells granules, mucins, and cartilage. Thus this article will shed some light on principle, basic technique, its necessity and the various applications of toluidine blue.

“Drug Induced Erythema Multiforme” – A Review

Dr. Sudakshina Mukherjee, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu., Dr. L.Malathy, Dr. N.Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 757-763

Erythema Multiforme (EM) is an uncommon, acute inflammatory reactive mucocutaneous disorder. It's a hypersensitivity reaction to different antigenic stimuli, most common being infection followed by drugs. It occurs predominantly in younger age group. Recurrence in EM can be seen especially secondary to HSV infection. Erythema multiforme is manifested clinically as classical cutaneous target like lesions and mucosal bullae or erosions. Within the total affected patients 70% of them suffer from mucosal involvement though mucosal involvement separately is comparatively rare. Manifestations of EM can be varying and may pose a diagnostic dilemma because infections (particularly herpes simplex and mycoplasma pneumoniae) and drugs seem to predispose towards development of EM.

Embryology and development of salivary gland

Dr. Sangeetha Priya.P, Dr. N. Anitha, Dr. E. Rajesh, Dr. K. M. K. Masthan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 764-770

Saliva is the mixed glandular secretion which constantly bathes the teeth and the oral mucosa. It is constituted by the secretions of the three paired major salivary glands; the parotid, submandibular and sublingual . Salivary glands are complex in nature. They could be either tubulo acinar, merocrine or exocrine glands secreting mainly saliva. Salivary gland is one of the main soft tissue structures in the maxillofacial area. This review article illustrates the processes that lead to the development,embryology of the salivary glands and how this relates to the adult anatomy.

Applications Of Immunohistochemistry-A Review

Dr. Sudakshina Mukherjee, Dr. N.Anitha, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu., Dr. E.Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 772-777

Immunohistochemistry can be an important method in diagnosis, investigation, and determining the behavior and pathogenesis of oral tumors. Immunohistochemistry protocols were formed using antibodies tagged with chromogens to identify particular markers. In these protocols, antigen-antibody reactions occur using nonfluorescent chromogens and then are analyzed in an optical microscope. Subspecialties of pathology like in that of oncologic pathology, neuropathology, and hematopathology, gradual increase in need of IHC can be observed as time goes by. As specific diagnostic markers can be present extensively in cells of a particular neoplasm and not in other tumors thus these markers can be used to find out the cellular lineage and histogenic origin of different neoplasms. This paper focuses mainly on the Applications of

Morphological Dental Age Estimation Technique - A Review

Dr. G. Nishanth, Dr. N. Anitha, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu, Dr. L. Malathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 778-781

Age is one of the basic variables, which assume a significant function in each part of life. Individual recognizable proof is a significant part of forensic medicine and dentistry. Age, sexual orientation, race, etc is utilized for distinguishing proof of an individual. Sequential age, as recorded by enrollment of birth date, is alluded all through a person's life. Age is a significant factor in clinical practice; examination and courtroom. Significant dental pieces of information once disregarded are progressively used to unravel the wrongdoing. Age is assessed based on ordered age and bone age, dental age, mental age, and others. Dental age is viewed as imperative as tooth advancement shows less changeability than other formative highlights and furthermore low fluctuation corresponding to sequential age. Thus, dental age is viewed as essential in building up the age of a person. Diverse morphological phases of mineralization relate with the distinctive formative stages. This paper audits different parts old enough assessment like morphological, biochemical, and radiographical strategies and its extension and constraint.

Oral Hemangioma - A short review

Dr. Ryhanath Gulshan.F, N. Anitha, L. Malathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 782-784

Vascular elements or benign lesion of the blood vessels are called as hemangioma. Most of them are present at birth which are developmental in nature. Vascular lesions may be of hemangioma orlymphangioma. In some instances lesions are probably a mixture of hemangioma and lymphangioma, leading to the term angiomatosis. The color varies from bluish to purple or fiery red.

Importance Of Oral Pathology In Clinical Dentistry

Dr. A.M. Sherene Christina Roshini, Dr. E. Rajesh, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu, Dr. N. Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 785-789

Dentists usually comes across hard and soft lesions of the oral cavity. Most commonly these conditions do not have a diagnostic crisis for a dental surgeon. Still the dentistsare sometimes annoyed with a lesion because of not only the challenging diagnosis but also about the choice of treatment. This review article gives a systematic and logical approach for diagnosis of oral lesions which we come across in dental practise.

Role Of Oral Pathology In Forensic InvestigationsA Review

Dr. G. Nishanth, Dr. N. Anitha, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu, Dr. L. Malathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 790-794

Forensic odontology is considered to be the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the sub group of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This field is used for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies along with associated syndromes, different patterns like in enamel rods, determining sex using exfoliative cytology, even from occlusal morphology, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline can also be utilized for estimating age with methods like Gustafson’s method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, incremental lines and thickness of cementum,even by translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist till now is not used in forensic investigations, this paper thus aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.

Yellow lesions of the oral cavity - A short review

Dr. Ryhanath Gulshan. F, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu, Dr. K. M. K. Masthan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 795-799

The colour of a lesion is because of its nature and its histological substratum. Oral cavity lesions have been classified according to their colour in: white, red, white and red, bluish and/or purple, brown, grey and/or black lesions to ease its diagnosis. The interpretation of the lesions by its colour is the first step to diagnosis. Clinical diagnostic skills and good judgment forms the key to successful management of yellow lesions of the oral cavity.

Oral Cues In Covid 19: Primary Or Secondary Challenge

Dr. R.Jayasrikrupaa, Mds, Dr. E. Rajesh, Mds, Dr. Kmk Masthan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 800-804

The oral manifestations of COVID 19 can attribute to the early sign for diagnosis. It could be a primary hint to the complication of condition of THROMBOCYTOPENIA with the number of petechiae and ulcers in the oral cavity. In certain conditions the oral ulcers and opportunistic infections develop seconday to the presenting illness of covid 19. There are circumstances of spontaneous remission of the lesions also. The oral changes provide a great insight in to developing illness and prove a guide to the severity of the disease and its progression. Immune dysregulation paves way for a number of opportunistic infections and may pose a hint in the progression in the COVID 19. Loss of smell, taste, xerostomia, ulcers, blisters all must be taken in to consideration in the diagnosis of covid 19 and further lesions should be managed symptomatically. Oral hygiene plays a pivotal role in the healthy oral flora and maintaining the balance of entry of pathogens

Alveolar Osteitis-A Review

Dr. R. Hariharan, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu, Dr. K. M. K. Masthan, Dr. R. Jayasri Krupaa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 805-810

Alveolar osteitis or dry socket is one of the most common complication associated with the extraction of teeth. It is a common complication encountered by general dentist and specialists in day to day practice. A lot of research and literature has been attributed towards it. It is important to have a knowledge about this common post extraction complication. This review article discusses the etiology, risk factors, preventive measures and management of alveolar osteitis.

Oral Manifestations Of Tuberculosis-A Review

Dr. R. Hariharan, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu, Dr. K. M. K. Masthan, Dr. R. Jayasri Krupaa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 811-814

Tuberculosis is a chronic infectiousdisease which affects many parts of the body including the oral cavity. The disease caused by mycobacterium can spread through the blood and may affect all parts of the body including the oral cavity affecting the maxilla and mandible.it affects the tongue and expressed as various lesions. Though their occurrence and manifestation in the oral cavity is rare a proper knowledge about these features and lesions is important for the diagnosis.

Oral Manifestations Of Syphilis-A Review

Dr. R. Hariharan, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu, Dr. K. M. K. Masthan, Dr. N. Anitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 815-819

Syphilis is an infectiousdisease introducing stages related with explicit oral lesions. Hence, health care professionals ought to be acquainted with the distinctive syphilis oral signs at each stage and be set up to refer any presumed patient for additional assessment. Though oral signs of syphilis are well on the way to be seen during secondary stage of disease, all phases of the infection can offer ascent to oral lesions. Major oral lesions for example, gumma-related bony destruction and a potential inclination to oral squamous cell carcinoma are related with tertiary disease. Since the occurrence of infective syphilis in heterosexuals has been expanding, there has now been a continuous ascent in the quantity of children brought into the world with congenital syphilis. Thus, the congenital syphilis offers ascend to dental abnormalities as well as bone, skin, and neurological anomalies of the face. This review article portrays the most significant clinical variables of each stage, stressing the oral manifestations.

Oral neurofibroma - A short review

Dr. Ryhanath Gulshan.F, Dr.E.Rajesh, Dr.L.Malathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 820-822

Neurofibroma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumour. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is caused due to an autosomal dominantly inherited disease due to an alteration in the long arm of chromosome 17. Patients are diagnosed with skin lesions (café au lait spots and neurofibromas) as well as bone malformations and central nervous system tumours. The treatment of neurofibromas involves surgical resection.

Role of Human gut microbiota in Inflammatory bowel disorders, Diabetes mellitus and Obesity- A Review

Nandini. M.S, Bupesh Giridharan, Kiran Madhusudhan, T.Puhazhendhi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 823-828

With recent advances in gene sequencing and gnotobiotic model, interest in the field of gut microbiota has taken a leap. It is found that a dysbiotic state of gut microbiome is playing a pivotal role in pathological conditions and metabolic disorders such as Inflammatory bowel disorder, Diabetes mellitus and Obesity. Faecal microbiota transplant is found useful for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. Human gut microbiome is a vital organ by itself and not many studies have able to show complex functional properties. This review aims to provide an insight on how gut microbiome dysbiosis has been linked to conditions like inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity and various recent methods for characterization of gut microbiota.

Antimicrobial use and resistance awareness – A cross sectional study among general public in and around Chennai.

Nandini. M.S, Bupesh Giridharan, Chitralekha Saikumar, Haasini Mohan, Dhevha Harini Sa , T. Puhazhendhi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 829-834

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is now an emerging global threat and there is an upsurge of multidrug resistant bacteria. As general population plays a major role in use and abuse of antibiotics, their knowledge and practice regarding antimicrobials needs proper assessment. Method: This was a cross sectional study among 250 participants among age group 18 – 60 years. Results: Results showed that 34% felt that antibiotics can cure viral infections and 32% would discontinue antibiotic course in midway. 34% of responders would purchase antibiotics over the counter without prescriptions and 26% would use the leftover antibiotics. Conclusions: There is a wide gap in knowledge in antibiotic usage and attitude among responders regarding antibiotic usage. This can be filled by educating the public about usage and hazards of antimicrobial drug resistance by incorporating it in school curriculum and conducting awareness programme through various media.

Progression In Diagnosis Of Oral Cancer

Dr. A.M. Sherene Christina Roshini, Dr. N.Anitha, Dr. N. Aravindha Babu, R. E. Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 835-840

scalpel biopsy can be used since it is invasive and has potential morbidity. Critical diagnostic tools are devised for early detection of oral dysplasia and malignancy since they are practical, non-invasive and can be easily done in an out-patient set-up. Diagnostic tests are brush biopsy, toluidine blue staining, salivary proteomics, DNA analysis, biomarkers and spectroscopy. This review explains the diagnostic aids and their value in detecting oral squamous cell carcinoma and its premalignant lesions.

LEGALITY OF SURROGACY IN INDONESIA BASED ON TRANSCENDENTAL VALUES

Rizka Rizka, Rozanah Ab.Rahman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 841-846

Surrogacy practice, where a woman gives birth to another woman’s child, is one of the most controversial procedures in the field of assisted reproduction. There are various intentions of surrogacy, and it has been practiced around the world for a long time. This paper aims to discover the legality of surrogacy under the law existed and enforced in Indonesia that govern the activities of surrogacy. There are several countries acknowledging the agreement between surrogate mothers and the genetic parents. Accordingly, a law based on transcendental values is needed in Indonesia in an effort to regulate the surrogacy practice which would possibly give rise to issues of nasab (genealogy), guardian and inheritance.

LOSS OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF PTEN AS A PREDICTIVE BIOMARKER IN BREAST CARCINOMA

Iftikhar Altemimi , Binan Adil Alaaragy , Yassir Alaa Shubbar , Rihab Hameed, Alaa Salah Jumaah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 847-859

- Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy with a high mortality in females worldwide. Tumor suppressor genes had significant role to maintain genome integrity and the cell cycle. In particular PTEN is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, It has a negative regulator of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway which has a major role in carcinogenesis and dysregulation of it occurs repeatedly in breast cancer. Aim: this article aimed to appraise the associations between PTEN expression in patient had breast cancer with clinic pathological parameters including: age, histological types, and status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2/nue receptor, to check the impact of its expression on clinical outcome. Materials and methods: in this case-control study, formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue from sixty patients with breast carcinoma and twenty patients without cancer (as control groups). Labeled Streptavidin -Biotin (LSAB+ ) method used to detect PTEN protein expression, HER2/neu, ER and PR receptors by immunohistochemical assay, and then we correlate PTEN expression with each biomarkers and clinic pathological characteristics. Results: 29/60 (45.3%) of cases decreased PTEN expression while its expression retained in 31/60 (51%) of cases. Loss of expression significantly associated: with lymph node metastasis ( p-value=0.0008 ), high grade (p< 0.05 ) , high stage (p-value=0.0001 ) and with triple negative breast cancer (p-value=0.03) . However, loss of PTEN protein expression did not correlate with age, histological types, estrogen, progesterone and HER-2 receptors status. Conclusion: PTEN loss can predict aggressive behavior and worse outcome in patients had breast cancer.

MAPPING THE RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY OF PREHOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE JOURNAL FROM 2019 - 2005

Zameer Hussain Baladi, Abdullah Alabdali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 860-866

This retrospective study helps to understand the nomenclature of publications published in the Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC) journal, which covered the field of emergency medical services indexed in the Scopus-Elsevier database. The year-wise publication, document type, authorship-pattern, cited articles, and geographical location, on file format with comma-separated value (CSV) and plaintext on note-paid, downloaded on the date June 24, 2020, for tabularization in MS Office Excel Sheet 2010 for analysis. A total of 1327 published documents retrieved from the Scopus-Elsevier database and 1287; 85.8% written by 6976; 5.4% authors during the years 2019 – 2005, selected for examination. Majority of articles 1217; 94.5% articles written by multi-authors in collaborative manners, only 70, 5.4% articles written by single or solo authors. As per the document, a total of 1135, 88.1% documents got citations out of 1287 documents out of 17609; 15.5% citations. An article titled “Guidelines for prehospital management of traumatic brain injury” written by Badjatia, N. et al in 2008 got 203 citations as highest. Seventy documents published in 2008 and all documents cited by researchers. The United States pay contribution with 1071; 83.2% as highest most, trailed by Canada 75; 5.8%, and Australia 44; 3.4 documents. It seems to regular publications, strict policies, large viewing and citations, the spectrum of care in sub-specialties of emergencies, keen observations of healthcare personals and sharing experiences with each are the motivational points in writing and publishing the research data in Prehospital emergency care journal.

PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF CANCERS IN AREAS OF IRAQ EXPOSED TO DEPLETED URANIUM

Esraa Aldujaily, Ali Duabil , Kussay M. Abbas Zwain, Hayder K. Fatlawi , Ali Al-Behadili , Emad Al Saabery , Yasseen A. Alwaaely , Omar Layth Qassid , Liwaa Al Kelabi, Najah R. Hadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 867-877

Introduction: Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Health systems whether in developed or in developing countries like Iraq are burdened with different programs to control cancer. Our study is intended to provide information about cancer in the region of Middle Euphrates Area (MEA) of Iraq, which is one of the major areas in Iraq that exposed to the depleted Uranium (DU) at different time periods. Therefore, we are aiming to explore more information about the behavior of cancers in this region of Iraq (pattern and distribution). Aim: our study aims to describe the landscape of cancer with wide focus on the clinic pathological behavior of different types of cancers in MEA of Iraq to determine whether any differences have cropped up over time in Iraqi patients’ presentations. Patients and methods: This study is a retrospective descriptive study design. Data were collected from a single tertiary cancer care oncology centre for three consecutive years from 2016 up to 2018. This Database covers nearly the entire Middle Euphrates area of Iraq. All statistical tests performed at a 95% level of Significance with a two-sided p-value of 0.05 indicating statistical Significance. Results and conclusion: According to this study, the three most common cancers among the entire population were breast, lung, and brain cancers. Females constituted 57.0% of the entire study. Most cancers including breast cancer presented with aggressive clinic pathological behavior. Middle age groups of both sexes are more at risk of developing different cancers. Such findings are important and pave the way for future scientific cancer control programs in Iraq especially for breast cancer. The cancer appears to be flourishing in Iraq, which could be due to multiple factors. Finding a new strategy to predict the treatment response, recurrence or aggressiveness of cancers in Iraq is crucial. 

PRODUCT QUALITY TEST OF PASOTE TEA BAGS LEAVES PASOTE (Dysphania ambrosioides): COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF WATER EXTRACT WITH ACETONE EXTRACT

Dingse Pandiangan, Paulina Veronika Yolanda Lamlean, Nelson Nainggolan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 878-886

Pasote (Dysphania ambrosioides L.) is a natural medicinal plant that is well known in Indonesia, especially the people of North Sulawesi. This plant is known to contain flavonoids, terpenes, sesquiterpenes, pigmol, xylosides, coumarin and essential oils. Pasote plants are also known to have biological activities such as antimicrobial, cytoxicity, antioxidants, larvacides, antidiabetic, antiparasitic, antiviral and molluscidal. In this study, the extraction of pasote leaves with the maceration method using water and acetone solvents was carried out in order to determine the best type of solvent that can produce pasote leaf extract with the highest antioxidant activity. Determination of antioxidant activity was carried out using DPPH on a UV Vis Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 517 nm. The results showed that pasote leaf extract with acetone solvent had a percent inhibition (% IC) of 38.77% and pasote leaf extract with water as a solvent had an inhibition percentage of 46.96%. This shows that the best solvent that can extract antioxidant compounds in pasote leaves is water. The IC50 acetone extract pasote leaves value 9.7 µg/mL. The water extract of pasote leaves had the most effective antioxidant activity or inhibitory power with an IC50 value of 1.32 µg / mL. So the water extract of pasote leaves is more active than the acetone extract of pasote leaves. For further activities, including production in industry, it is better to use water extract only.

ROLE OF ARBs AND ACEIs IN THE TREATMENT OF SARS-COV2

Saif M Hassan , Ashwaq Najemaldeen Abbas , Manar H. Mohammed , Ghizal Fatima, Ram B. Singh, Jaipaul Singh, Najah R Hadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 887-893

- The coronavirus 2 (SARS‐ CoV‐ 2) induces severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)via the coronavirus receptor angiotensin‐ converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the host cell to facilitate entry into the lungs Over activation of the renin‐ angiotensin system (RAS) and the down regulation of ACE2 expression are involved in SARS‐ CoV induced lung injury. RAS is the main system that has a regulatory roleinmaintaining electrolyte balance, blood pressure, vascular tone and cardiovascular remodeling in the body. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and Inhibitors (ACEIs) are vital medications that are widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The question which now arises is: It is possible to continue using either ARBs or ACEIsor both medications in patients with SARS-CoV2? Both ARBs and ACEIs can facilitate COVID-19 entry into the host cell due to increase expression of ACE2. On the other hand, ARBs have a greater potential to reduce downstream pathogenicity of the SARS-CoV2 via different cell signaling pathways including free radical generation, up regulation of NF-κB pathway, toll-like receptors (TLRs) and pro-apoptotic protein by blocking the renin– angiotensin system more severely compared to the effect of ACEIs. The current hypothesis is that ARBs can perform better therapeutically compared to ACEIs in respiratory disorders such as ARDS which is induced by viral infection especially since more than 40 % of angiotensin II can be synthesized by other enzymes such as chymase, cathepsin. ARBs treatment can increase the levels of both angiotensin II (Ang II) and the ACE2 enzyme making Ang II a target substrate for hydrolysis by ACE2 into Ang 1-7 which in turn exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activities. These effects are achieved by the binding of Ang 1-7 to both angiotensin-type 2 receptor (AT2) and receptor mas’ axis (Mas) and also by its ability to block Ang II/AT1 receptor-induced TLR4/MyD88 signaling thereby highlighting the potential therapeutic use of ARB sin preventing injury induced by COVID-19 virus. It is concluded that patients who are already on ARBs medications must continue to use them daily since ARBs have protective effects against COVID-19 virus. Moreover, ARB sexert their beneficial effects via their antiinflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and anti-fibrotic properties. On the other hand, those patients who are on ACEIs medications must change to other safe drugs since ACEIs can facilitate an increase in COVID-19 virus entry into the body as well as reducing levels and protecting effect of Ang 1-7.

THE ROLE OF E-HRM PRACTICES IN INCREASING ETHICAL CONDUCT AMONG HR PRACTITIONERS WITHIN FOOD MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN JORDAN

Dr. Fawaz Ali Thawabieh, Dr. Ahmad Ismael Almaani, Tahani Deeb Alrabadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 894-910

- In the midst of technological developments, interest in human resources has begun to increase in contemporary organizations, and it has become an urgent necessity to impose itself on organizations in activating the role of human resources management as the authority responsible for workforce affairs and caring and organizing employees' issues. Knowledge management ideas have evolved in the past few years as the primary source of training and competitive advantages of organizations in the era of the knowledge economy which led to the appearance of electronic management of human resources (e-RHM). Current study aimed at examining the influence of E-HRM practices on sustaining the ethical conduct among HR practitioners within food manufacturing sector in Jordan. A convenient sample of (57) HR manager and practitioners was exposed to a questionnaire in order to gather the needed data. Depending on SPSS, results of study accepted the main hypothesis and confirmed that E-HRM practices have a positive influence on the ethical conduct of HR managers and practitioners. It also appeared through the study that e-performance and e-learning was the most influential variables of eHRM as they increase the feelings of equality and justice among employees; increase their loyalty to their organization and leading to more ethical stream in their approach of thinking. Study recommended emphasizing that training and development was created to enhance the culture of the organization and emphasize its social and ethical aspects, thereby making the organization a homogeneous cultural fabric in which it promotes ethical and behavioral practices in a coherent manner with E-HRM practices.

USING PUPIL’S HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO MANAGE PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS’ HEALTH

Aan Komariah, Anna Susana, Dedy Achmad Kurniady, Danny Meirawan, Aceng Muhtaram Mirfani, Nani Hartini, Gilang Gumilang Dawous

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 911-922

- The focus of this research is the use of SIMKesdik in supporting the health management of pupils in primary school. The research aim is to gain an overview of the effectiveness in the use of SIMKesdik from the aspects of benefits, ease, use of human resources, cost, and time spent processing pupils' health data. The research uses a qualitative method with a naturalistic approach to data collection and the researcher as the main instrument. The research subject is the use of SIMKesdik in Primary Schools in the city of Sukabumi. Sources of research were headteachers, UKS support teacher, health center personnel, Sub-District Health Service (UKS) Support Team, Sukabumi Municipal Health Service (UKS) Support Team, and SIMKesdik developers. The data collection technique was through observation throughout the processes of preparation, development, and implementation testing of the pupils' health management information system, complete with interviews and document study. The research was located in SDN Sukasirna and SDN Suryakencana CBM primary schools in Sukabumi. Research results show that the existence of SIMKesdik helps health service (UKS) managers in schools to collect, document and manage to check the health results of pupils, helps the UKS Support Team and health center (Puskesmas) to follow up on pupils' health test results and determine policy related to support and develop the UKS health service in the area of work, facilitates UKS staff in the administration of pupils health data and is efficient in the use of cost and time, measured from the flow process of SIMKesdik.

Cancer Genome Classification Using Machine Learning Algorithm

Tahmeena Fatima , S Jyothi , D M Mamatha , K Srujan Raju

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 923-935

In present scenario, cancer is the universal problem in the world because it effects the people in the world. The growth of uncontrolled and abnormal cells in the body is known as cancer. These cells with abnormal named as cells of cancer, cells of malignant or cells of tumour. To recognize the genomicorigin of tumour cell explosion and the development of the cancer genome the normal cell and tumour cell are compared to find which type of cancer it is. The growingaccessibility and development rate of “Big Data” derivative from ofnumerous omics exposed a novelframe to expand diagnoses of clinical or cancertherapeutics, however there areseveralexperiments in effective analysis and explanation of such complexandbig data. The significance of categorizing cancer patients hooked on loworhigh risk setsconsumesdirectedseveral research groups, from the bioinformaticsandthe biomedical area, to learn the solicitation of machine learning (ML) techniques. Thus, these methods have remainedconsumed as an intention to classicadvancement and treatment of conditions of cancerous. In adding, the capability of ML implements to discovervital features from compound datasets exposes their prominence.

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF FORAMEN MAGNUM REGION IN ADULT INDIAN POPULATION

Dr Sanjaykumar Revankar, Dr Shishirkumar C Naik, Dr Prabhjot Kaur Chabbra, Dr Rati Tandon, Mr Devesh Kumar Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 936-952

The dimensions of FM have clinical importance because the vital structures that pass through it may suffer compression as in cases of FM achondroplasia and FM brain herniation. In neurosurgical practice, the transcondylar approach is commonly used to access the lesions which are ventral to the brainstem and cervicomedullary junction. It was reported that understanding the bony anatomy of the condylar region is important for this approach. This study puts in an effort to understand the morphometry of the foramen magnum.

Production Of A Bioactive Exopolysaccharide In Nanocrystalline Form Pseudovibrio Sp

Mervat G. Hassan , Sahar S. Mohamed , M. O. Abdel-Monem , Marwah Hanaf , Mohamed E. El Awady

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 953-970

A strain of Pseudovibrio sp. strain 4MS 2020 with high exopolysaccharide production was isolated from sawa lake in Iraq and identified based on morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic examination of 16S rDNA sequences. Pseudovibrio sp. strain 4MS 2020 was optimized for production of maximum yeild of EPS which gave 10.8 g/l after 3 days of incubation with pH 7, 40°C, RPM 150, 750 µl inoculum sizes, yeast extract as nitrogen source. While, 20 g/l sucrose as a carbon source. EPSS2 was a major fraction of EPS contained sulfate (53.9%) and has no uronic acid. The monosaccharide composition of these fraction composed of glucose, rhaminose and arabinose with molar ratio 6.0 : 3.0 : 1.0, respectively. Then EPSS2 was Prepared as Nanocrystalline Exopolysaccharide (NCEPSS2).Therefore, EPSS2 and NCEPSS2 were subjected to antioxident and anticancer activities, scince it showed that EPSS2 give maximum activity against DPPH radical found 88.8 % at 1500 µg/ml after 120 min, while against H2O2 radical found that the activity was 64.8 at 1500 µg/ml after 60 min. while, NCEPSS2 give antioxidant activity was 99.3 % at 1500 µg/ml after 120 min. and the maximum antioxidant activity was 81.6 % at 1500 µg/ml after 60 min. for H2O2 radical. By using MTT assay, EPSS2 and NCEPSS2 was effect on the proliferation of HCT-116, A-549, HepG-2 and MCF-7 cells. the calculated IC50 for EPSS2 at cell lines HCT-116 was 230 µg/ml and HepG-2 showed a IC50 values 203 µg/ml. While, the calculated IC50 for cell line MCF-7 and A-549 showed no cytotoxic level for these cell lines. While, NCEPSS2 calculated IC50 for cell line HCT-116 was 119 µg/ml. While, the cell line HepG-2 showed a IC50 values 107 µg/ml. IC50 values of cell line A-549 showed 97.7 µg/ml and the calculated IC50 for MCF-7 was 200 µg/ml

The Effect Of The Time Period Among Washes, The Wash Water Quality And The Percentage Of Addition On The Bulk Density Values And Weighted Mean Diameter Of Salt-Affected Soil

Muhsen Nasih Hoshan, Dakhil Radhi Nedawi , Muhammad Malik Yassin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 971-984

Irrigated soils suffer in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, from the problem of the accumulation of salts for not using sufficient washing water in quantity and quality to remove the added salts from the soil body, wrong irrigation practices and poor quality and quantity of irrigation water, there is no effective drainage system that contributes to increasing soil salinity. This field experiment was conducted to study the effect of the time period between washings, wash water quality, addition percentage on the values of bulk density and weighted drop rate of soil affected by salinity. As 3 breaks were specified between washes (5 and 10 15 days), two types of washing water (4 and 8 dS m-1 ), and two percentages for addition (25 and 50%). Soil field operations were conducted in order to apply all study treatments. The bulk density and weighted mean diameter were estimated for depths 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm after the end of soil washing. The results showed that the time period exceeded 10 days, the quality of water was 4 dS m1 and the percentage of addition was 50% on reducing soil bulk density values, compared to other levels, the bulk density values increased with increasing soil depth and they were 1.43, 1.52, 1.57 and 1.63 mg m-3 , for depths 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm respectively. As for the weighted average diameter values, the largest values appeared at the 15-day time period, the water quality of 8 dS m-1 and the rate of addition of 50%, compared to other levels. As the values decreased, the soil depth increased by 0.31, 0.22, 0.20 and 0.14 mm, for depths 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm, respectively.

A Conceptual Research Study on Identification of Biases with towards Assets Allocation and Portfolio Management of Investors

Harishchandra Singh Rathod , Rahul Chauhan , Miftachul Huda , Andino Maseleno

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 985-994

: The economic development of a nation is reflected by the progress of the various economic units, broadly classified into corporate sector, government and household sector. There are areas or people with surplus funds and there are those with a deficit. A financial system or financial sector functions as an intermediary and facilitates the flow of funds from the areas of surplus to the areas of deficit. A Financial System is a composition of various institutions, markets, regulations and laws, practices, money manager, analysts, transactions and claims and liabilities. In this Paper researcher identified the various factors & Biases, which are affected for choice of Assets allocation and perceptions of investors related to investment decision by analysing various literature & books of related study.

Relationship between Stress, Immune System, and Pandemics of Coronaviruses’ COVID19: Updates Narrative Review

AMAL I. KHALIL, RAWAN E.NASR, RAHAF E.ENAR

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 995-1008

Background: How stress impacts the immune system of the human being is one of the questions that has been answered through many conducted researches. The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. Among recent examples presented nationally and internationally how immune system function properly to preventing the Coronavirus (COVID19) which appear at the end of 2019 and the beginning of 2020. Aim: The purpose of this review was to collect and corroborate updated information and trials related to the various effect of COVID19 on the immune system and how stress, loneliness, and lack of sleep can all weaken your immune system, making people more vulnerable to diseases such as COVID-19. Methods: To compile this review various journals, books, electronic databases, and other resources were used using keywords of immune system, Covid19, stress, and pandemics. The intent behind this review is to provide readers with an in-depth and updated knowledge about this pandemic virus to help resources available for utilization by families and communities. It is also directed towards identifying critical issues about decreasing the vulnerability to infection by improving our immune system, decreasing sources of stressors, and getting enough sleep. Conclusion: Covid-19 has been a wakeup call to us all. It made us realize how important having a strong immunity is. Therefore, people should give themselves a good fighting chance and make changes to their diet and lifestyle today. However, achieving this is not impossible since all agencies and scientists from everywhere are spending time, effort, and money to improve the understanding of the chronological features of CoV‐ induced inflammatory response concerning the creation of effective vaccine and therapeutic interventions

The Effect of Intellectual Humility in Achieving Academic Achievement among Secondary School Teachers in Jeddah Schools in Saudi Arabia

Dr. Ali Abdulrahman Alshehri, Dr. Hadi Mohammed Alkhathami

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1009-1017

The study aimed to identify the effect of intellectual humility on achieving academic achievement among secondary school teachers in Jeddah schools in Saudi Arabia. This is through studying and analyzing the dimensions of intellectual humility represented in (recognition of others' right to excel and achievement, openness to new information, ability to predict and evaluate, emotion regulation and other aspects of personality, enhancing confidence).The study also aimed to identify the level of academic achievement of secondary school teachers, and the researchers followed the descriptive analytical approach (survey) in their study. The study sample consisted of (290) teachers and a questionnaire was applied to them. The study concluded with a set of results among them that there is a direct correlation between intellectual humility and academic achievement. This was clarified through the Pearson correlation, and the study also found that the mean of the level of academic achievement reached (3.97) with a standard deviation (1.721), and it is clear from the mean value that it is located at a high degree, and this indicates that the level of academic achievement of secondary school teachers is high.

Ventriculus Terminalis Cyst – Case Report And Literature Review

Zygmunt Siedlecki , Karol Nowak, Sebastian Grzyb , Bartłomiej Gromadzki , Magdalena Grzonkowska , Mateusz Szostak , Michał Wiciński , Maciej Śniegocki

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1027-1031

We present a case report of a 48-year-old woman with a randomly diagnosed ventriculus terminalis cyst. The cyst was asymptomatic with radicular pain resulting from compression of the nerve roots. Due to the fact that such an anatomical variant is rare, we decided to describe this finding and to review the available literature. We revealed that although such cysts are asymptomatic, in the case of neurological symptoms they usually require surgical treatment.

Non-arterial epidural hematoma vertex – case report, diagnostic problems and treatment strategy

Sebastian Grzyb , Zygmunt Siedlecki, Karol Nowak, Maciej Śniegocki , Mateusz Szostak , Michał Wiciński

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1032-1036

Vertex epidural hematoma is a rare type of intracranial hematoma. Its source of bleeding is usually the superior sagittal sinus, not the meningeal artery, as with most epidural hematomas. It is often poorly visualized by axial computed tomography and is a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of a 49-year-old patient treated surgically for hematoma vertex. We reviewed the literature on this topic from 1971 to 2019, summarizing the treatment strategy, surgical techniques and prognosis.

FANTASY GENRE AND ITS SCIENTIFIC INTERPRETATION IN GEORGE R.R. MARTIN’S SAGA “A SONG OF ICE AND FIRE”

Nasriddinov Dilshod A’zamkulovich, Khalliyeva Gulnoz Iskandarovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1037-1045

This study is aimed to provide a scientific analysis of the fantasy genre that has entered literature as a new literary term. Every nation introduces a new term or a new literary genre into its literature, realizes its essence, and then tries to reconcile it with its culture. Fantasy as a literary genre today is incomparable with its place in world literature. In the study, fantasy is analyzed as the main fictional genre in the literature and its meaning with some scientific approaches. It also explores the characteristics of the fiction and fantasy genres that are still ongoing. Then it determines the relationship between them based on scientific considerations. Furthermore, it studies George R.R. Martin and his fantasy world created by him in saga “A Song of Ice and Fire”, and also its system of fantasy images and storylines. There are not only fan readers of George R.R. Martin in the USA, but also in the world. As brilliant examples of the fantasy genre in American literature, we analyze and present scientific analytical views to the novels in the famous saga "A Song of Ice and Fire".

Factors Related to Intentions Among Community Health Cadres to Participate in Flood Disaster Risk Reduction in Semarang, Indonesia

Hastoro Dwinantoaji; Sakiko Kanbara; Mari Kinoshita; Satoru Yamada; Hasti Widyasamratri; Mila Karmilah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1046-1063

Background: Health cadres hold enormous potential for flood disaster risk reduction (DRR) such as in reducing public health risks and building community resilience. However, they must risk their own lives to save others in disaster situations. Involving them, focusing on primary health care in the context of flood DRR, should be considered in this scheme.
Aim: This research aims to explore the factors related to intentions among health cadres to participate in flood DRR in Semarang, Indonesia.
Methods: A qualitative study was conducted from February to May 2019 in Semarang. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 participants (health cadres, supervisors of health cadres, the head of Puskesmas, and municipal health officers). Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data.
Results: Four themes of factors related to intentions among health cadres to participate in flood DRR emerged from the interview data, namely: tugas (a set of expectations to be carried out from encumbering the position of health cadres), existing supports, perceived insufficiency of supports, and existing obstacles. It was revealed that their intentions to participate in flood DRR was related to tugas, existing support, and perceived insufficiency of support.
Conclusions: Tugas, existing support, and perceived insufficiency of support are factors related to intentions among health cadres to participate in flood DRR in Semarang. The findings of this study may contribute as a strategy for the governments and stakeholders to optimize sustainable community healthcare for flood DRR performed by health cadres in Indonesia.

Coleman Sign: A Hallmark For Mandibular Fracture? A Rare Case Exception

Dr Premalatha Shetty(MDS); Dr Aditya Nandan; Dr Mahabalesh Shetty; Dr Suraj Shetty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1064-1070

Mandibular fracture involving the parasymphysis region is one of the most common fractures of mandible. Majority of parasymphysis fractures are due to direct blow or injury to the chin region. Specific signs and symptoms for parasymphysis fracture are pain, swelling, tenderness in the chin region, deranged occlusion, soft tissue injury to chin and the lower lip and sublingual hematoma. Frank Coleman considered a sublingual hematoma as “almost pathognomonic of fracture of the mandible”. We present a case that fails to replicate this hallmark sign associated with a mandibular fracture, as the patient had all the signs and symptoms of parasymphysis fracture except sublingual hematoma which is very rare and unusual to observe. The final diagnosis was made on the basis of radiographic examination using CBCT scan. On surgical exposure the mandibular parasymphysis fracture in the region of right lateral incisor and canine was confirmed. Such clinical scenario is very rare and unusual to observe. This case emphasizes on the fact that though Coleman sign has a very high specificity for mandibular fracture but it may not have high sensitivity. The examining doctor who completely relies on this sign and thus miss the fracture would be committing a gruesome mistake. In addition, this can lead to a risk of undermining a grievous hurt as that of a simple one which can result in medicolegal implication.

p53: The Guardian of Genome Against OSCC Progression

Astari Puteri; Asti Meizarini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1071-1079

Protein 53 (p53) plays a vital role in the human body, mainly as tumor suppressor protein, by inhibiting tumor cell formation and DNA damage through gene target regulation. Known as "guardian of genome", p53 protects genome integrity and prevents cells' proliferation with damaged DNA. In oral squamous cell carcinoma, there is approximately 85% mutation of p53, which leads to impairment of its normal function and often correlated with OSCC progression. Those findings signify the role of p53 in guarding against OSCC, which are through cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis.

Impact Of Chronic Heart Failure On Comorbidities In Hot Climates On The Quality Of Life And Clinical Condition Of Patients

Tosheva Kh.; Xalilova F.; Gadaev A; Erkinova N.; Djuraeva N.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1080-1089

It is well known that one of the leading causes of death among the population is cardiovascular disease, and they are often complicated by CHF.
In European countries, the prevalence of CHF is 2.1%, with 90% of women over the age of 70 and 75% of men. In the United States, these numbers range from 1–1.5% and occur in 10% of the population over the age of 60.
According to a number of leading researchers around the world, the inclusion of concomitant diseases in CHF not only worsens its overall outcome, increases the number and duration of hospital treatments , but in some cases is also the leading cause of death. Some authors compare the dynamics of deaths observed in CHF with deaths due to oncological diseases.

Correlation Of Pregnant Woman' Self-Efficacy With Behaviour In Utilizing Vct Services

Jayanti Dian Eka Sari; Diansanto Prayoga; Syifaul Lailiyah; Ayik Mirayanti Mandagi; Xindy Imey Pratiwi; Selviani Setyaning Dwiyanti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1090-1098

Background: One of the efforts to prevent HIV transmission is through Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) services. VCT program is a counseling process that takes place before, during, and after a person has a blood test to find out whether he has been infected with HIV or not. A person's behavior in utilizing health services such as VCT can be influenced by self-efficacy. This study aims to analyzed thecorrelation of pregnant woman' self-efficacy with behaviour in utilizing VCT services in Banyuwangi.
Methods:This type of research is observational analytic. The research was carried out in three sub-districts (Banyuwangi, Singojuruh, and Genteng) in May-November 2018. The study population was all pregnant women who were targeted by the Public Health Services in these three sub-districts in 2018. The studies sample was determined by several inclusion criteria. Sampling was used proportional random sampling.
Result: Characteristics of pregnant women according to age and education in behaving using the most VCT services are 26-34 years (52.8%) and high school (45.6%). The majority of respondents' self-efficacy in utilizing VCT was classified as bad. The percentage of respondent with bad self-efficacy was 54.9% and respondent with good self-efficacy was 48.4%.
Conclusion:The pregnant woman' self-efficacy was correlated with behaviour in utilizing VCT services (0,016). The conclusion of this study is that self-efficacy in pregnant women can influence behavior in utilizing VCT services

The Relationship of Individual Characteristics and Implementation of Discharge Planning with Compliance Level of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Nursalam Nursalam; Ninuk Dian Kurniawati; Inda Rian Patma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1099-1110

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between individual characteristics and discharge planning implementation with the compliance level of chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis.A cross sectional designduring July - September 2020 with 105 respondents using simple random sampling. The independent variables were individual characteristics and implementation of discharge planning and the dependent variable was adherence.Data were collected using a questionnaire that was tested for validity and reliability, then data were analyzed using Chi Square test with a significance value P <0.05. Respondents with the highest adherence were women (88.9%; P = 0.015), age range 46 - 55 years (87.8%; P = 0.033), married status (81.1%; 0.031), working (89.5%; P = 0.028), Secondary education level (84.2%; P = 0.043), good knowledge (85.1%; P = 0.026), long hemodialysis> 5 years (93.3%; P = 0.016) and had a history of diabetes mellitus (90.9%; P = 0.035).The discharge planning element also has significant relation (all P <0.05), including sufficient medication (90.0%), a good environment (88.9%), good treatment (100.0%), good health teaching (87.0%), good outpatient referral (100.0%) and good diet (86.7). The level of compliance of hemodialysis patients is very important to improve the quality of life of patients, patient compliance is influenced by the demographic characteristics of the individual and discharge planning in the hospital.

Family Empowerment Model on Early Detection Ability Of High risk Pregnancy

Ika Mardiyanti; Nursalam Nursalam; Shrimarti Rukmini Devy; Ernawati .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1111-1131

There are still many pregnant women and their families who are unable to do early detection of high risk pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to develop a family empowerment model for the early detection ability of high-risk pregnancies.An explanatory survey research with a cross sectional study approach. The study population was the family of pregnant women in the Surabaya area who were taken using the rule of thumb with a sample size of 120 respondents using systematic random sampling. The latent variables in this study are personal factors, cognitive behavior, resource factors, interpersonal, basic values (Fillial Values), commitment, and family ability in early detection of high risk pregnancies, as measured by using a questionnaire. Latent variables that affect family empowerment consist of data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) -Partial Least Squares (PLS).The results showed that the family empowerment model for the early detection ability of high-risk pregnancy was a fit model. This refers to the results of the goodness of fit test. Personal factors towards interpersonal (T statistics = 10,301; P = 0,000), interpersonal towards Fillial Value (T statistics = 13,501; P = 0,000), Fillial Value for commitment (T statistics = 9,495; P = 0,000), family commitment to early detection ability of high risk pregnancy (T statistics = 3,840; P = 0,000).The results of this study provide information about family empowerment models in high-risk pregnancies so that they can be used as a reference in preparing midwifery care plans in cases of maternal emergencies for high-risk pregnant women.

Study Of Expression And Association Of Hsp90, Her2, P 53and Ki-67 In Gastric And Colorectal Neoplasms In The Indian Context

Dr Sunethri Padma; Dr Rahul Dev Singh Rathore; Dr Shravan Kumar Odapally; Dr Shravan Kumar Parika; Dr Uday Kumar Putcha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1132-1148

Introduction: Gastrointestinal malignancies are on raise and there is a need for predictive and prognostic markers to study the tumor behavior. In the present study we have evaluated four most important markers in these tumors in Indian population so that drugs targeting these proteins can be included in the therapeutic regimes. We also compared the expressions with the grade and stage of the tumors. Materials and methods: The present study is an observational cross-section study. We have included neoplasms of Stomach, Colon and Rectum, 30 benign and 30 malignant neoplasms from each organ. Results: HSP 90 expression was associated with the grade and stage of all tumors except grade of colonic tumors.HER2 was associated with grade and stage of all tumors except stage of stomach and rectum. Ki67 expression was associated with grade and stage of all tumors except stage of rectal carcinoma. P53 is associated with grade and stage of all the tumors. Conclusion: Marked geographical variations have been identified in the phenotypic characters of the tumors. An understanding of the pattern of expression of prognostic and predictive markers shall be helpful in better analysis of the tumor behavior.

Anti-Vague Deductive Systems Of Subtraction Algebras

K. Prasad; V. B. V. N. Prasad; Y. Harnath; S. Venu Madhava Sarma; CH. V. Sivaram Prasad; B. Mahaboob

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1149-1156

We introduced the notion of anti-vague deductive systems in subtraction algebra in this paper and study some findings on anti-vague deductive subtraction algebra systems and we for all intents and purposes come out with sort of possible theorems and evidence in a sort of major way. The relation between the anti-vague deductive system and the really crisp deductive system for all intents and purposes is also discussed, demonstrating how the relation between the anti-vague deductive system and the particularly crisp deductive system actually is also discussed

The Influence of Moral Distress, Vigor, Dedication, and Absorption on Nurse Performance in Deli Serdang Regional General Hospital

Sari Desi Esta Ulina Sitepu; Jenny Marlindawani Purba; Roxana Devi Tumanggor

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1157-1166

Background: The nurses’ performance in providing nursing services is one of the important aspects that become a measure of the success of quality service. Quality nursing services related to moral distress and work engagement.
Object: To determine the influence of moral distress and work engagement on the nurses’ performance at the Deli Serdang Regional General Hospital.
Methods: The study was an analytic survey with a cross-sectional study design. 126 nurses were the sample. The study wasusing cluster techniques and random sampling. Data analyzed using a multiple logistic regression test.
Results: the study indicated that there was an effect on moral distress with a p-value of 0.0001 and work engagement [vigor (p=0.002), dedication (p=0.002), and absorption (p=0.0001)]means that moral distress and work engagement affected nurses’ performance, meanwhile the result of multivariate analysis showed that the most dominant variable affecting nurses’ performance was moral distress with Exp. (B) 10.256.
Conclusion: It is recommended to improve and maintain the quality of nursing services following the standards of nursing care, increase the spirit of high morale at work to increase the quality of performance, increase work dedication to achieve better performance, and increase the concentration of nurses and are serious in carrying out nursing care.

Family Empowerment Development Based on Health Promotion Model on Early Detection of Children's Growth And Development

Rekawati Susilanungrum; Sri Utami; Nursalam Nursalam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1167-1178

Introduction: Community empowerment has an important role for the health promotion strategies that allows the process of providing information to individuals, families or groups continuously to build awareness and shows changes in behavior. This study aims to analyze the development of family empowerment based on a health promotion model in early detection of child development.
Method: This type of research was an exploratory research, with a cross sectional design. The sample in this study were some families who have children aged 0-72 months in the Surabaya City Health Center working area. The number of the sample in this study was calculated based on the rule of the thumb sample size formula.The sampling technique was carried out by multistage random sampling. After finding the model, strategic issues will be found. Furthermore, FGDs and expert discussions were conducted to find empirical models.
Results: The results of statistical testing show that all variables show a calculated T value above 1.96 with a positive value, which indicates that these variables have an effect and increase. The results of R-Square of commitment (79.3%),cognition behavior (5.6%), Basic value (56.7%), appraisal (70.5%) and ability (46.2%), it shows that the latent variables can be explained by each of the observational variables. Conclusion: The family empowerment model can to improve the ability to detect early growth and development disorders, the highest research shows strong results on the influence of basic values on assessment and the effect of commitment on one's ability

A COVID-19 Hospital Navigation System Using Web Technology

P S V S Sridhar; Gayathri Mallipudi; Lokam Kiranmayee; Hina Kauser; Sowmya Allam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1179-1186

Web applications are being used all around the world to create and establish different forms of platforms to both aid businesses as well as users. This paper is focused upon establishing and developing a web application which will help users fight COVID-19. Unlike other platforms which obtain information regarding COVID-19. This application will enable users to register themselves and look for COVID-19 facilities within their surroundings. Once the facilities have been located the user will be able to further book a bed within the hospital while viewing all of the details related to their requirements. This booking request will be further sent to the administrator of the web application who will manage the entire request and ensure that the users are provided the proper details regarding this to ensure that there are no issues in the future regarding their booking. They will also be told a list of preventive measures they must take along with what they may bring for their accommodation. Through this paper a multi-level web application implemented with different phases will be explained

Working position and low back pain complaint of Dental Therapist in Pati, Indonesia

Ayun Q; Fatmasari D; Suparmi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1206-1212

Working position is the posture formed naturally of bodywhich interact with facility workers and work habits in a clinical job. The effectiveness of a treatment is influenced by work posture. Ergonomic work posture produces good output, and vice versa. In addition, an ergonomic work position needs to be considered to prevent complaints from work-related diseases. Low back pain is a condition with discomfort or acute pain in the fifth and sacral lumbar region (L5-S1). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between demographic characteristic and work position with complaints of low back pain in dental therapists in Pati, Central Java Indonesia. Design research is an obeservasional studywithcross sectional approach. Population is all dental therapist, and sample is 37 of those who selected purposively. Respondent characteristic, complaint of low back pain was collected by questionnaire and determined of work position was by Rapid Entire Body Assesment(REBA). Relation of variables was analyzed by Chi Square test. Research study found no relationship of age, gender, and body mass index with complain of low back pain (p= 0.122 ;0.816; 0.761 and 0.208 respectively), in addition variable length of workingand working position were significantly has relation (p = 0.01and 0.02). Dental therapist need to concern with their working position to prevent of their complaint of LBP.

Acute liver injuryin COVID-19 infection: Report from Field hospital and COVID-19 situation update in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Sarita Ratana- Amornpin, MD; Ratha‐ kornVilaichone. MD, Ph.D.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1213-1227

Introduction: Emergence of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affectedalmost every country. This study aimed to provide the patterns of acute liver injuryof COVID-19 infection from field hospital in Thailand and ASEAN and update situation of COVID-19 infection in ASEAN.
Method: All patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted toThammasatuniversity field hospital between January 2020 and May 2020 were included.ASEAN COVID-19 studies have beensearched by PubMed and Scopus and extensively reviewed.
Results:There were 381 ASEAN COVID-19 studies searched by PubMed and Scopus. However, 3 studies reported the liver function tests and met our inclusion criteria. Total of 86 patients (52 patients form Thailand, 18 patients from Indonesia and 16 patients from Singapore) were included and described liver parameters of COVID-19 infection in ASEAN. From our field hospital, total of 412 COVID-19 tests performed and 41 patients were confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.The abnormal liver function test was detected in 52.6%.The patterns of acute liver injury in COVID-19 patients were transaminitis (36.8%) and hypoalbuminemia (31.6%)whichsignificantly associated with severe COVID-19 infection (OR 14.50, 95%CI 1.14-185.18, p=0.040; OR 31.49, 95%CI 1.41-705.47, p=0.030; respectively). 
Conclusions:Acute liver injury could be found in COVID-19 infectionespecially in ASEAN. COVID-19 patients with transaminitis and hypoalbuminemia should raise clinical suspicion for severe disease andbe closely monitoredfor rapid disease progression.

Individual and Organization Affects Perceptions of Reporting Patient Safety Incidents in Medan City Hospital

Irwan Agustian; Arlina Nurbaity Lubis; Farida Linda Sari Siregar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1228-1234

Patient safety incidents must be minimized to avoid unwanted dangers during hospitalization. Reporting of patient safety incidents in the Hospital is still low. Low reporting of patient safety incidents are related to individual and organization factors. This study aimed to identify the individual and organization factors on reporting patient safety incidents in the inpatient Hospital. The study was a survey method with a cross-sectional approach. The population in this study were all nurses inpatients in Medan city Hospital as many as 168 people and a sample of 88 people. Data were collected with primary, secondary, and tertiary data and analyzed with a statistical test of Multiple Logistic Regression with a confidence level of 95%. The results showed that individual factors (knowledge with p-value=0.021 and experience with p-value=0.021) affected the reporting of patient safety incidents and organizational factors (organizational environment with p-value=0.038 and power with p-value=0.014). Most influence reporting Patient safety incidence in the hospital was a knowledge variable (OR=155.6).

Metatarsal head resection for diabetic foot non-infected neuropathic ulcers versus non-surgical treatment

Michael Samuel Ayad MD; Amr Hamdy MD; Mostafa M. Abdelghany MD; Mina Maher Raouf MD; Moamen Mostafa Nagy MD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1235-1242

Introduction:  Conservative treatment of diabetic foot neuropathic ulcer includes offloading with orthopaedic shoes and  plaster casts is usually effective in achieving primary closure of foot ulcers but  take along time and recurrence rates are high. The surgery alleviates the pressure under the bony prominence, thus enabling prompt ulcer healing in short time with a lower chance of recurrence. The purpose of this protocol is to compare offloading surgery to non-surgical treatment for patients with diabetic foot neuropathic ulcers.
Methods: This study included fourty patients presented with neuropathic diabetic foot ulcer. Two groups group A twenty cases were managed  surgically by tenotomy and metatarsal head osteotomy, group B  twenty cases  were managed conservatively includes offloading with orthopaedic shoes and  plaster casts.
Results:  In our study twenty  cases group a were managed surgically take three weeks to five weeks to heal with no recurrence, group b twenty cases were managed conservatively take twelve weeks  to twenty four weeks to  heal with recurrence in eight  patients.
Conclusion:The best current strategy for management of diabetic foot neuropathic ulcer is surgical offloading.

A Detailed Analysis On Evolution And Influencing Factors On Plastic Money

Nagalakshmi. M; Dr.V. Andal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1243-1251

Banking is evolving long way from the days of the medieval money lenders counting coins on the bench to the present scenario, where it’s hard to trace the trail of money from the beginning.Plastic money is to make payment system cashless. Plastic money includes credit cards, debit cards etc. The Plastic Money in the form of cards have been actively introduced by banks in India in 1990's. But it was not popular among Indian consumers at the time of its introduction.This is a study done to gather the evolution of plastic money – the origination and the functioning of the cards till date. The study also includes various types of cards introduced in various time periods and also identifies the factor that influence the usage of plastic money among consumers using Chi-Square Test.

Immuno histochemical Detection Of The Expressed Protein Of P16 Gene In Colonic Adenocarcinomatous Tissues Infected With Epstein-Barr Virus

Basim M. Ibrahim; Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali; Jasim M. Karhoot; Khalil Ismail A. Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1252-1262

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been classified among group 1 listof infectious agentsthat is carcinogenic to humans. Some primary colonic cancers are often overexpressing the p16 protein while in contrast; others showed the high incidence of p16 repression by methylation. Objective: The present study was conducted to explore and compare the demo-pathological relation of EBV infection along with p16 expression in normal colonic mucosa, benign colon tumors, and colonic denocarcinoma. Patients and Methods: Seventy (70) colonic mucosal biopsies were enrolled and examined for EBERs and P16 gene expression which were done by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and immunohistochemical technique (IHC), respectively. These samples were belonged to (30) patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer mass, (25) from benign colon tumors (15) control tissues, which were proved by colonoscopy and histopathological examinations as apparently normal colorectal tissues. Results: Malignant colonic tumors showed positive results of EBERs -CISH detection in 56.7% (17 out of 30 tissues) while in benign colonic tumors were 24 % (6 out of 25 tissues), followed by the apparently healthy colonic control tissues were 20% (3 out of 15 tissues). The present positive p16-IHC results in malignant colonic tumors were 60% (18 out of 30 tissues) while in the benign colonic tumor and apparently healthy colon control tissues were 68% (17 out of 25 tissues) and 20% (3 out of 15 tissues), respectively. Conclusion: it was concluded from this study that the high rates ofEBV- EBERs expression could point to a their possible roles incolonic carcinogenesis, meanwhile, the p16- proteinexpression in colonic adenocarcinoma as compared to benign colon tumors and normal colonic mucosae could played roles in struggling against both EBV infection as well as colonic carcinogenesis.

Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) Polyclonal Anti Body Production in Madura Bulls for Estrus Synchronization and Superovulation Program in Ruminants

Herry A. Hermadi; Sunaryo H. Warsito; Erma Safitri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1263-1269

This study aimed to produce polyclonal anti-body (Abpo) equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) in Madura bulls. The Abpo-eCG was an alternative hormone for the superovulation technique and estrus synchronization of ruminant. The isolation of sera eCG derived from local Indonesian pregnant mare sera at 1-3 months age had beed collected from jugular veins, and then purification with charcoal was done by chromatography Sephadex G100. After that, the produce of Abpo eCG have done in two Madura bulls carried out injected with 3,000 IU eCG from local Indonesian pregnant mare sera 3 times at 10 day intervals. Furthermore, Abpo eCG was isolated from serum taken from the jugular vein of bull, then extraction was done by adding absolute charcoal and ethanol and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes at 4oC. Next step, the identification of Abpo-eCG that producted from Madura bull by SDS-PAGE 12% method, Western Blot and Elisa indirect to find out the highest level at the 7th week of 408.50 mlU /mL. Then purified by CM Sephadex G-100 coloumn chromatography technique. The final product was made as a Frozen Dry dosage form.

Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Disorders among Nursing College Students in Mosul University / Iraq

Shatha Abdul-Rahman H. Al-Ghurairi; Eman Salem Khaffaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1270-1276

High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) can adversely influence the academic and clinical performance of nursing students, psychological well-being, and physical health. Large numbers of studies have recognized the factors that related by depression, anxiety, and stress. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress and their levels among undergraduate nursing students in the Mosul University /Mosul/ Iraq. A confidential questionnaire was done in this cross-sectional survey study which is carried out using a depression anxiety stress scale DASS reported by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995a) carried out from 22th of January- 20th of March 2020. Among 800 nursing students analyzed, the age distribution shows that (83%) and (67%) respectively in the third class in morning and evening courses are between age group 22-25 years, 84% and 87% are female in the third class with significant p values. About the prevalence of moderate stress (26%) of third and 25% of second class respectively of morning and evening courses and mild anxiety 26% and 28% respectively of morning and evening courses. Finally, moderate depression was seen among 24% of the fourth class of morning and 35% of second class evening courses. The DAS and their levels among learner nursing students in the Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq had a high prevalence in comparison with others. Prospect research can localize on the need to set up social and mental health screening and hold up services, such as psychotherapy centers in nursing colleges.

Plan, Do, Check, Action: Phenomenology Study on The Implementation of Quality Control of Services by Nurses

Tri Ismu Pujiyanto; Achmad Syaifudin; Umi Laelatul Farihah; Shindi Hapsari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1277-1282

Nursing services that have quality can provide a positioning report for customers. Focus on nursing service activities by following per under service standards to apply and maintain good quality by applying speed and accuracy. One system that could be to support is the PDCA. Starting from planning to prevent to solve problems in a hospital institution by following per under service standards. This study aims to explore the experience of nurses in implementing PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) based on minimum standards of nursing services at IGD Ungaran Regional General Hospital. The Qualitative research method is used in this research with a descriptive phenomenological design. The study participants were IGD nurses who were active in providing nursing services and this study used a purposive sampling method, this study was obtained by 7 people. Data collected from interview in-depth techniques and analyzed with Colaizzi techniques. This study found two themes, namely: Quality Control Of Service, Total Quality Management. Conclusion: The implementation of PDCA as a guarantee of service quality has been implemented in this hospital, so it is necessary to be maintained by trying to solve various obstacles and obstacles that exist so that the implementation of the PDCA cycle in ensuring the quality of services can run optimally.

Effect of Flute Music on Human Milk Production and Depression Among Lactating Mothers

Sowndarya R; Sanchana .; Reshma .; Benjamin M Sagayraj; Nidhi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1283-1292

Background -Listening to music prior to feeding mothers’ own milk tothe newborncalms down anxiety and beats stress, making the mother happy and relieved. This increase in the supply of mother’s own milk may be attributed to stress relief in postpartum period.
Research aim-The primary objective was to assess the post partum depression based on validated Edinburgh post partum depression scale. The secondary objective was to study the effect of listening to music on human milk production during the first postnatal week.
Methods- A case- control study involving 60 lactating mothers was performed in a tertiary hospital. Among these participants, 30 mothers were given relaxing music prior to mothers’ own milkfeeding to the newborn. The amount of human milk produced was compared to controls. Post partum stress was also evaluated with postpartum depression scales in both groups.
Results –The control group showed an average milk of 31.30/22.60 ml (mean/SD). Case group showed an average milk of 60.50/25.30 ml (mean/SD), which was significantly 
higher than control group (p<0.0001). Standard validated Edinburgh post partum depression questionnaire found that there was a significant effect of music on prevention of post partum depression.
Conclusion-Listening to relaxing, calm music before breastfeeding reduces the odds of post partum depression and increases the quantity of human milk production in term lactating mothers.

Effect of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition on Immunity Modulation in Human

Abdulla A Ahmad; Marwan M Merkhan; Ghayth M Abdulrazzaq

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1307-1316

Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a ubiquitous complex cytosolic molybdoflavoprotein which controls the rate limiting step of purine catabolism by converting xanthine to uric acid. It is known that optimum concentrations of uric acid (UA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are necessary for normal functioning of the body. Aim: This study is conducted to clarify the impact of xanthinoxidase (XO) inhibition on immunity function in human. Materials & Methods: Patients with renal stone were enrolled in this study. Patients took xanthine oxidase inhibitor (allopurinol) 100 mg/day for 6 months to reduce UA level, and the immune function is estimated by measuring some immunological parameters (IgG, IgA, complement C3 and C4). Blood samples were collected from patients before and after therapy. Autoanalyzer was used to measure the level of uric acid, IgG, IgA, complement C3 and C4. Results: Serum uric acid was significantly lowered after the treatment with allopurinol. Both IgG and IgA were elevated significantly due to allopurinol intake. However, complement C3 and C4 have not been changed after the same period of treatment. Conclusion: Long term inhibition of xanthine oxidase may affect the immunity by modulating immunological parameters in patients with renal stone.

Prediction of tumor parameters based on regression models for rats for combined treatment with hyperthermia and chemotherapy

Evgeny Kostyuchenko; Elena Kataeva; Denis Pakhmurin; Polina Shelupanova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1317-1332

The paper considers the possibility of predicting tumor parameters (weight, volume) depending on the method of treatment and doses of drugs used. A comparison is made of the applicability of several regression models, taking into account the limited amount of data. Brown's adaptive model, paired regression, multiple regression are compared. Previously, all constructed regression models were tested for adequacy by assessing the significance of the coefficient of determination according to Fisher's criterion, and only the models that were recognized as adequate were used for further predictions. The advantage of Brown's model on the considered limited data set is shown experimentally and recommendations are given on the choice of the method parameters.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: Genetic Predisposition and Effect of Resistance Training, Endurance Training, Physical Activity and Orthosis in Attenuating its Severity

Dr. Arsalan Moinuddin, M.D., M.P.H

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1333-1342

Background: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common neuromuscular disorder presented clinically as peripheral distal sensory and motor neuropathy with longstanding gait difficulty and frequent tripping. Objective: This review assessed a myriad of exercises including resistance training, endurance training, physical activity, and orthosis potentially beneficial for CMT patients. Material & Methods: Literature was searched mainly through electronic journals with the help of search engines (ISI Web of Knowledge, OvidSP and PubMed database). Full text scrutinization of most articles was undertaken while for some articles only necessary abstracts were reviewed. Results: The results showed that all training modalities: resistance training, endurance training, and physical activity in conjunction with orthosis is needed to ameliorate CMT severity and progression. Conclusion: The current literature strengthens the existing paradigm of advantageous effects of exercise in CMT patients with future studies concentrating on microarray gene analysis and fractional protein synthesis are required to further elucidate the pathophysiological and signalling mechanisms of CMT in context of exercise training

Real-time Measurement of Integrated Multichannel EEG-ECVT in Pre-Frontal Lobe

Muhammad Fathul Ihsan; Rizki Edmi Edison; Sra Harke Pratama; Almushfi Saputra; Rohmadi .; Warsito Purwo Taruno

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1343-1350

Brain Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) has been developed as an emerging non-invasive brain imaging method. As a new method, Brain ECVT needs to be compared with a standardized method such as Electroencephalography (EEG). In this study, a real-time measurement of integrated multichannel EEG-ECVT was done in pre-frontal lobe. The measurement was done during close open eye and arithmetic stimuli. The measured signal was filtered using bandpass filter. Power Spectral Density (PSD) analysis was used to compare the measured signal between Fp1 and Fp2 locations. PSD analysis shows the conformity of the signal between the multichannel and between EEG and ECVT measurement

The Influence of Self-efficacy on Nurse Performance in Mitra Sejati Hospital

Elvipson Sinaga; Arlina Nurbaity Lubis; Farida Linda Sari Siregar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1351-1359

Nurse performance is very important for a hospital. Nurse performance at Medan Mitra Sejati General Hospital is still low. The low performance of nurses in Mitra Sejati Hospital is related to the self-efficacy experienced by nurses. This study aimed to analyze the influence of self-efficacy on nurse performance. The study was analytic survey research with a cross-sectional design. The population was all nurses who served in Mitra Sejati Hospital Medan with a total of 168 people and a sample of 138 people. Data collected by primary and secondary data and analyzed by statistical tests of Multiple Logistic Regression with a confidence level of 95%. The results showed that the magnitude/level (p = 0.011), strength (p = 0.001) and generality/generalization (p = 0.017) affected the nurses performance in Mitra Sejati Hospital and which most influenced the nurse performance Mitra Sejati hospital was a strength dimension (OR=14,457). It is recommended for nursing services the need to provide an understanding to each nurse about the importance of self-efficacy experienced so that nursing services can be carried out to the maximum, superiors should provide an assessment of the performance of implementing nurses continuously and continuously, for the nursing nurses to be able to practice nursing by managing and coordinating nursing care by integrating the needs of clients, families, staff and policymakers and the participation of nurses in hospital committees can also be an effective solution in an approach to improve self-efficacy, one of which measures the self-efficacy experienced and nurses can reveal situations that can lead to self-efficacy.

Experiences Of Cancer Patients With Palliative Care At The Reference Hospital In Medan City

Shandra .; Setiawan .; Rosina Tarigan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1360-1367

The increasing number of adult patients with advanced cancer emphasizes the importance of providing palliative care with standard oncology care. In Indonesia, the development of palliative care services is still slow and the availability of services is still limited. The complaints that often arise related to physical, psychological, social relations, self-concept, and spiritual aspects cannot be completely intervened with curative and this requires handling with an appropriate approach. The aim of study was to describe the experiences of cancer patients regarding their palliative care at hospital. The study used descriptive phenomenology following the approach of Giorgi. There were 15 participants who qualified using purposive sampling based on the inclusion criteria. The data were gathered using depth interviews. Analysis and interpretation used verbatim descriptions. The research data revealed six themes, namely: namely getting the fulfillment of minimal care needs, getting independent care education at home, having positive and negative attitudes in accepting sick conditions, getting motivation and family support in supporting recovery, feeling comfortable interacting with the palliative care team, and feel pessimistic about the palliative care services provided. The study revealed that the implementation of palliative care has not been optimal. Comprehensive care by an interdisciplinary palliative team is not yet holistic (bio-psycho-socio-spiritual) but still focuses on curative, thus it can be concluded that the fulfillment of palliative care needs is still minimal.

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model for prediction of Human Energy Consumption of women Thresher machine operators

A.D. Kadam; G.K. Awari; C.N. Sakhale; A.M. shende

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1368-1374

The objective of the present research paper is to develop Artificial Neural Network Simulation and analysis for prediction of Human Energy Consumption (HE) of women Thresher machine operators as dependent π term and considering Anthropometric, Physiological , Environmental , Crop and machine variables as independent π Terms. The output of this network can be evaluated by comparing it with field data, mathematical data and the predicted ANN simulation. ANN Simulation model developed for can very well be used in Artificial Neural Network Simulation and analysis for prediction of Human Energy Consumption (HE) of women Thresher machine operators.

Survival analysis to assess the length of stay of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients under Integrated Medicine - Zinc, Vitamin C & Kabasura Kudineer (ZVcKK)

D. Jamuna; P. Sathiyarajeswaran; M. S. Shree Devi; K. Kanakavalli; N. P. Vinod; A. Nirmala; T. Ravikumar; P. Pathiban; K. Babu; C. Dhanam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1375-1387

COVID19 pandemic out of all odds has created an opportunity to offer treatment in an integrative manner. This study measures the Length of stay (LS) of patients in an integrative way as done earlier in China and Vietnam. Length of stay,
Clinical presentations, and Comorbidities were analyzed among COVID19 patients in ESI Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Method: Retrospective cross-sectional data on 251 Positive COVID19 patients of both sexes irrespective of age admitted from 27 March 2020 and 26 April 2020 cases were included in the study. The final discharge date is taken as 5th May 2020. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was adopted.
Results: Male, female ratio were 141(56.2%): 83(33.1%), 12 (4.8%) Male Child and 15 (6.0%) were Female child. 5.2% of the patients were in the age group greater than 60, 75.3% were in the age group 20-60, and the remaining 19.5% were 0-20 age group. 84.9% of patients were Asymptomatic, while fever and cough were the main symptoms recorded in the remaining cases. CT scan was done for 7 patients. No mortality and no serious adverse events were reported. Comorbidity is 15% and does not influence hospital length of stay. The overall median length of stay is 12 days for those who were under ZVcKK (Median ST CI- 11.59-12.41).
Conclusion: This study recorded a median of 12 days in the Length of stay and 13.5 days in the Length of stay average. Comparing earlier studies, patients taking ZVcKK have savings of 7 days. i.e., the relief speed is higher while using ZVcKK.

Coronavirus (COVID-19): preventive measures and potential interventions

Marwan M Merkhan; Ghayth M Abdulrazzaq; Hiyam A Al-Taii

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1388-1399

Novel viral eruption originating in Wuhan city (Hubei, China) has spread internationally reaching all continents in an unexpectedly very short time, posing a great burden on global transportation, health, and economy. This mini-review article aimed at focusing on the available preventive measures and therapeutic interventions taking into account that there is a limited scientific resource of information and lack of specific established vaccination yet We searched Iraq Virtual Science Library (IVSL), PubMed, Cochrane Library MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), for the 3 target words ‘COVID-19, coronavirus, 2019-CoV’ and we included only articles in English in the study. The outcome of this study is important nationally and globally providing information about general measures and possible interventions relevant to public and health professionals. This review concludes that the nutritional status of the patient together with proper diagnosis should be the priority of the management plan provided that the loci is within the outbreak area and available flu vaccines should be used by unaffected health-care providers and children.

Analysis Of Overdispersed Count Data By Poisson Model

Ismah .; Anang Kurnia; Kusman Sadik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1400-1409

Lack assumption that commonly happens in Poisson model is over-dispersion. Over-dispersion is a condition in which the variance value is larger than mean of response variable. The aim of this research is to analyze Poisson models, i.e. Poisson Regression (POI), Zero-Inflated Poisson Regression (ZIP), Generalized Poisson Regression (GP) and Zero-Inflated Generalized Poisson Regression (ZIGP) of over-dispersion data. The data used in this research is Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (SKDI) Data in 2017. Total number of 17.212 families with response variable of child mortality in these families become the objects of the study. The estimator of parameter model is Maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The results analysis of those four models aforementioned above show that over-dispersion case causes the usage of POI model becomes less appropriate, while GP model can be used for over-dispersion case, however if the case of over-dispersion is caused by zero excess in the data, GP will be better than ZIP and ZIGP. It can be seen in the minimum of AIC value reached by each model through the data of SDKI with zero excess (having >50% of zero numbers), in which POI =13922, GP = 13578, ZIP = 13589 and ZIGP = 13588. Thus, it can be concluded that in over-dispersion data with zero excess (with big numbers of zero), ZIGP is less appropriate to be applied, because range of data is short (0-6).

Self-Medication Among Nurses In A Tertiary Health Facility In Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Hope O. Nwoga; Miriam O. Ajuba; Gabriel C. Ume

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1410-1425

Background: Self-medication (SM) is a global practice that is prevalent in all age groups and in all races. Although it has been successfully integrated into many healthcare systems throughout the world, it still presents with the problems of wrong diagnosis, inappropriate choice of treatment, drug abuse, delayed health seeking behaviour, double medication and harmful interactions, inappropriate storage and administration of expired medicines, medication wastage and in extreme cases death.
Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted at ESUTH Parklane, Enugu Nigeria. A structured pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the consenting nurses. Data was analysed using SPSS version 25 and variables were presented in frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation with the aid of tables. Bivariate analysis was done using chi-square test. The level of significance was set at p value ≤ 0.05.
Results: Most of the nurses were within the 30-39 years age group 95(44.4%). Majority were females 199(93.0%) and married 169(79.0%). Almost all of them were Christians 213(99.5%) and Igbo ethnic group 212(99.0%).
All the nurses have heard about SM but only 181(86.4%) have good knowledge of it. Majority of them have practiced SM in the past one year 185(86.4%). Among those that practiced SM, majority practiced rarely 157(73.4%). The commonest symptom for which SM was practiced was headache 194(90.7%) followed by fever 170(79.4%) and pain 163(76.2%). The commonly used drugs for SM were analgesics/anti-pyretic 194(90.7%) and anti-malarias 187(87.4%). Sources of drugs were majorly from pharmacy shops 195(91.1%). Their major reasons for SM were emergency illness 171(79.9%), mild illness 162(75.9%) and prior knowledge about the illness and its treatment 150(70.1%).Conclusion: There was good knowledge of SM among the studied nurses but their practice was poor as majority practiced SM in the past one year.

Direct Acting Antiviral and Glycemic Control In Patients with Hepatitis C

Asmaa K Ahmed; Shereen G Samy; Asmaa A Mohammed; Alshymaa A. Hassnine; M. Elsayed; Maysa A. Arandaz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1426-1435

Background sustained virological response (SVR) can be achieved in high percentage of HCV patients with the availability of direct acting antiviral agents DAAs. However, the effect of DAAs on insulin resistance and glycemic control has to be clearly documented in patients with HCV infection and type 2diabtes mellitus.
We hypothesize that treatment of HCV with novel direct-acting antiviral medications may have effect on glycemic control and decreased requirement for DM-modulating medications at the time of SVR.
Patients and methods: the present study involved 50 patients with Chronic HCV attended to outpatient hepatology clinic of One Day Surgery Hospital for treatment with DAAs. Measurement of HbA1c, FPG, fasting insulin hormone, c-peptide and calculation of HOMA-IR before and 3 months after DDAs therapy is done.
Statistical analysis was done for these data. Results : After achievement of SVR; HbA1c decreased from 9.57±1.39 to 7.22 ± 0.7 in diabetic patients, HOMA-IR decreased significantly also there was a significant improvement of lipid profile after completion of therapy.
Conclusion: This study showed that eradication of HCV by DAAs cause a parallel decrease in IR and improve glycemic control in patients with established T2DM.

Automatic Classification of the Severity of COVID-19 Patients Based on CT Scans and X-rays Using Deep Learning

Sara Bhatti; Dr. Asif Aziz; Dr. Naila Nadeem; Irfan Usmani; Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aamir; Dr. Irum Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1436-1455

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), which originated from China, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) as it has surpassed over eighty three million cases worldwide, with nearly two million deaths. The unexpected exponential increase in positive cases and the limited number of ventilators, personal safety equipment and COVID-19 test kits, especially in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC), had put undue pressure on medical staff, first responders as well as the overall health care systems. The Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test is the decisive test for the diagnosis of COVID-19, but a significant percentage of positive tests return a false negative result. For patients in LMICs, the availability and affordability of routine Computerized Tomography (CT) scanning and chest X-rays is better compared to an RT-PCR test, especially in rural areas. Chest X-rays and CT scans can aid in the prognosis and management of COVID-19 positive patients, but are not recommended for diagnostic purposes. Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), three network based pre-trained models (AlexNet, GoogleNet and Resnet50) were used for the automatic classification of positive COVID-19 chest X-Rays and CT scans based on their severity into three classes- normal, mild/moderate, severe. This classification can aid health care workers in performing expeditious analysis of large numbers of thoracic CT scans and chest X-rays of COVID-19 positive patients, and aid in their prognosis and management. The images were obtained from public repositories, and were verified and classified by trained and highly experienced radiologist from Agha Khan University Hospital prior to simulations. The images were augmented and trained, and ResNet50 was concluded to achieve the highest accuracy. This research can be used for other lung infections, and can aid the authorities in the preparations of future pandemics.

Evaluation of Career Goals among Iraqi Pharmacy Students

Fadia Thamir Ahmed; Abeer K. Jumaa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1456-1465

Objective: To evaluate pharmacy students' inspiration to study pharmacy, their perspective regarding future jobs and the factors affecting their decisions.
Methods: Fifth and fourth year pharmacy students were administered the study survey consisting of 4 parts. Descriptive statistics for categorical variables, Man-Whitney test for continuous variables and Chi-square test to check the difference between the two groups were made.
Results: Total of 380 students included in the study. About two thirds of each group expressed their consideration for the university level, their interest in healthcare and pharmacy when they select to join the pharmacy college. Approximately 90 % of both groups stated that they have a desire for working in hospital or community pharmacies after graduation. They also tagged salary, work schedule, benefits and environment as the factors with the greater impact on their decisions. Overall, a non significant difference between the groups was found.
Conclusion: The appropriate university selection and students' interest in pharmacy and healthcare were the major reasons for choosing pharmacy as a career. Community pharmacy and hospital pharmacy were the most common future jobs to be considered after graduation. Salary was the factor with the greater impact from the students' perspectives.

Clustering Analysis from Universities in Indonesia based on Sentiment Analysis

Hendra Achmadi; Isana Meranga; Dewi Wuisan; Irwan Suarly; I Gusti Anom Yudistira; Rudy Pramono

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1466-1481

There are two kind of source to determine the quality for a good university in Indonesia. First from university cluster which is publish from Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education issued a clustering list of Indonesian universities, the second source of data from social media, such as Twitter. In this research we use Text Mining and Data Mining Methodology to build a sentiment analysis from 50100 Tweet to assess 501 university using Python and special library in Python for Natural Language Processing a sentiment analysis , which is join the university clustering from Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education, so it will produce the positive, neutral and negative sentiment for each 501 universities in 2020. The next process by using R STUDIO, the process classification is continued by using K-Means, the process can be devided into two step , step 1 it will process 501 dataset university and it will build 5 cluster and secondly the similarities between Netizen cluster and cluster from Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education is 37 %, and step 2 after cleansing the 0 value, the result is 169 universites the similarities between Netizen cluster and cluster from Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education is 37 % before and after data cleansing was the same. The novelty knowledge or research finding can be derived from Netizen, firstly, the cluster can be derived based on Positive Sentiment,. Secondly, the cluster from Netizen and Cluster from Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Culture of higher education in Indonesia is only match around 37 % with cluster form Directorate General of Higher Education. And after data cleansing from 169 university was only match around 33 %..

Optimization Of Training Tools For Sambo Wrestlers At The Stage Of Sport Improvement

Gaziev Shukurjon Shukhrat ugli; Gazieva Zebunniso Yusubjanovna; Berdieva Dilnavoz Toshkan kizi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1482-1498

Today, modern achievements in martial arts are so great that without systematic training from a young age, one cannot count on a high performance of an athlete. World practice shows that at the present stage of development of sambo, a type of combat sports that has arisen and is gaining popularity at the present time, requires certain scientific research.
Every year sambo wrestling is gaining a large number of people involved in this sport. This can be clearly seen in the competition of the championships of the republic, Asia and the world, which requires a special scientific approach to improve the quality of training of highly qualified athletes. In recent decades, sambo has become one of the most popular sport in the world. However, there are not enough studies aimed at optimizing training means at the stage of sports improvement with the introduction of competitive load into the training process, taking into account the approximate number of fights and their duration.
An important legal basis for the reforms carried out in this direction is the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "About Physical Culture and Sports" and other regulatory legal acts aimed at attracting citizens, especially youth, women and children, to physical culture and sport. Young men and women defending the honor of the national flag, professionals of individual and game disciplines, demonstrating exceptional training and phenomenal skill at representative forums, eloquently confirm that they represent a country with rich sports traditions.

Phbs Implementation And Personal Factors Of Medical Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic Period

Agustina Arundina Triharja Tejoyuwono; Rangga Putra Nugraha; Faisal Kholid Fahdi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1499-1510

The recommendation to prevent the coronavirus disease in Indonesia is to implement a clean and healthy lifestyle (PHBS). The good implementation of PHBS during the pandemic period is also the responsibility of medical students as part of the community and prospective health workers in the future. The purpose of this study is to describe the behavior in implementing PHBS and the conditions of student personal factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive research was conducted by distributing online questionnaires in July 2020, involving 361 students from six study programs at the Faculty of Medicine Tanjungpura University. The good behavior of implementing PHBS has been carried out by medical students, such as washing their hands in 6 steps, under running water, using soap, providing hand sanitizers, not shaking hands, maintaining distance and carrying out coughing / sneezing etiquette properly. Social media, audio-visual media, and journals are sources of information used by students to obtain information about COVID-19. The impact of the pandemic on the health conditions of families and themselves, education and the family economy is a worrying factor for medical students. Medical education institutions need to provide support for the implementation of PHBS and prevent physical and mental health problems of medical students.

Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) among Postgraduate Students of Government Dental College, Kozhikode, Kerala District

T. Uma; Dr.E.S. Kavitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1511-1520

An attempt has been made to examine the use of information and communication technology (ICT) among the postgraduate dental students of Government Dental College in Kozhikode, Kerala. This study has been adopted with the stratified random sampling and convenience sampling technique. For data analysis, descriptive survey and questionnaire method applied. a total number of 90 well structured questionnaires were distributed who were involved in this research and out of which 72 were dully filled questionnaires returned back at the response rate of was 80%. Based on the findings, the results showed that Frequency of visit to library and gender of post graduate dental students have a significant difference with satisfaction level of postgraduate dental students regarding the usage of ICT as their significance values are lesser than the threshold value of 0.05.

Nursing Experience to Determine How to do Suction Action on Clients with Mechanical Ventilator in the Intensive Care Unit

Solikin Solikin; Era WS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1521-1529

Suction is a procedure of action in health services that affect the safety of the clients because suction aims to assist clients to fulfill the oxygen needs by helping to liberate the airway. This study aimed was to gain an overview of the nurse's experience of determining how to perform suction actions on clients with mechanical ventilators in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A qualitative research method with phenomenology design. The data were collected by in-depth interviews on 26 participants who worked as nurses in the ICU. There were seven themes identified in this study: (1) the understanding of suction; (2) the experience of suction; (3) the suction complication; (4) the pathophysiology of ventilator installation; (5) the importance of adequate resource support; (6) the nurse constraint in the suction implementation; and (7) the protection against nosocomial infections. The hospital can improve the support of nurses on their self-development and caring skill in accordance with the standards, in order to continue to gain skills and can update the latest health sciences to support the procedures performed in the ICU.

Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 Quarantine in South India: A online cross-sectional survey

Narrain shree S; Jagannathan K; Vinod N P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1530-1545

Background:
COVID-19 has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. originated from China and has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people throughout the whole world. The present study sought to determine knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) of South Indian population toward COVID-19 Quarantine.
Methods: An online cross sectional, semi-structured questionnaire was undertaken through google forms among South Indian population (SIPs). SIPs aged 18 years and above constituted the study population. Data was analyzed using SPSS Software
Results: Totally 280 responses were received. The responders had a moderate level of knowledge about the COVID-19 infection and adequate knowledge about its preventive aspects. The attitude towards COVID-19 showed peoples' willingness to follow government guidelines on quarantine and social distancing. 32% of Participants have felt stressed during quarantine and 32.4% of participant had sleep disturbance. Alarmingly 32% are not anxious and feel free to roam around in public places without protective measures like mask and gloves. In this study, panic about acquiring COVID-19 infection during purchase and travel were reported in 29.5% and 11% participants respectively. The perceived Physical healthcare need was seen in more than 69% of participants.
Conclusions: COVID-19 Quarantine knowledge is gained mainly through media channels, Newspaper, which have strengths and weaknesses. Although the government has taken major steps to educate the public and limit the spread of the disease, there is a need to intensify the alertness of people during this COVID-19 Quarantine.

Neurolaw: A Jurisprudential Analysis

Sidhartha Sekhar Dash; Dr. Harish Chandra Padhi; Dr. Biswadeep Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1546-1560

The emerging discipline of Neurolaw is strange and diversely combined. Neurolaw tries to cross-fertilise the theories and values of neuroscience and law, towards an objective which is common to both the disciplines, as well as charting new terms to expand frontiers of both the disciplines. Neuroscience and Law are nearing close to serve the new objectives than what these disciplines traditionally set so far. However, the term and concept of "Neurolaw" give a challenging meaning and hence the foundation of Neurolaw in jurisprudence has to be analysed through the prism of jurisprudence. The scope of this work is to analyse the foundational ideas and concepts Neurolaw from the standpoint of jurisprudence. The analysis of the foundational ideas and concepts of Neurolaw, from different schools of jurisprudence, can contribute to the clarity of objectives of Neurolaw as a discipline of study. The analysis from the vintage of different schools of jurisprudence, which is so far absent in various Neurolaw-literatures, leads to a promising conclusion that, the more Neurolaw engages with jurisprudence, the more it can contribute to different schools of jurisprudence and thereby can find own limitations and expansions to stand as a unique discipline to contribute to the knowledge tradition.

Human Resources Practice and Employee Engagement: The Mediation of Organizational Support and Employee Satisfaction

Ary Ferdian; Elvira Azis; Arif Partono Prasetio; Muhammad Iqbal Darmawan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1576-1590

Employee’s engagement become interesting topic in the field of organizational behavior. And it is imperative for organization to develop higher engagement. Current study examined the mechanisms that explain the relationship between effective human resource practice and employee engagement. It focuses especially in exploring the mediating role of organizational support and employee satisfaction in those relationships. Data collected using online questionnaire from 231 telecommunication employees in Jakarta and were analyzed using macro process to determine the causal relationship. Result reveals that perceived support and employee satisfaction fully mediate the relationship between effective human resource practice and employee engagement. Partial and sequential mediation effect of both mediators works as the antecedent of dependent variable. The study provides information and practical explanation for managers in telecommunication industry about why and how employee engagement can be enhanced. Future studies still needed to test wider participants from other branches in Indonesia to find out whether our findings can also be found in different circumstances using other method like structural equation model

Online Shopping Behaviour in Muslims Indonesian Millenials

Fathul Aminudin Aziz; Mansur Chadi Mursid; Yadi Fakhruzein Terang Jaya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1591-1599

The purpose of this study is to analyze the moderating effect of online shopping motivation in the relationship between perceived risk and brand trust toward online shopping decision. Responden in this work are muslims millenials in Karesidenan Pekalongan Indonesia. This study used SPSS to analyze different test and AMOS program to finding moderation variable. Islamic values motivation is stronger moderated than hedonistic values and utilitarian values. Future research can explored more determinan of the transendental values integration as Islamic values motivation in the online shopping behaviour.

Qurban Innovation Due to The Covid-19: Experiences from Indonesia

Abdul Syatar; Arif Rahman; M. Ilham; Chaerul Mundzir; Muhammad Arif; Hasanuddin Hasim; Muhammad Majdy Amiruddin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1600-1614

This article aims to elaborate the innovations on the Qurban procession during the Covid-19 pandemic by following health protocols. The approach employed is normative-empirical by looking at the texts of revelation, the views of scholars, fatwa products, government policies and relevant journals, online news and the realities that occur in society. The result of the study found that the innovation of of Qurban procession consists of 3 parts. First, the payment system is done by collaborating with online payment services. Second, the process of slaughtering specificied to certain locations that meet health protocols. third, distribution of qurban products is in collaboration with online transportation providers. These innovations are a response to the Government's policy through the relevant ministries to issue a circular to continue to carry out the slaughter of sacrificial animals in a safe location and able to break the chain of the spread of Covid-19. MUI and Muhammadiyah also issued fatwa products in which there was no significant difference. Government policies and existing fatwa products continue to comply with one of the religious teachings every year by implementing the slaughter of sacrificial animals with strict provisions in accordance with health protocols.

Effect of Cold Hot Water Soaking in the Feet on the Value of Ankle Brachial Index in Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Pratiwi Christa Simarmata; Dewi Elizadiani Suza; Rosina Tarigan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1615-1621

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by an increase in blood sugar levels that cause vascular complications and circulatory disorders. Hot and cold water soaking in the feet can increase blood flow and blood vessel pumping. Objective: to assess the effect of hot and cold water soaking in the foot blood circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: A quasi-experimental was conducted with pre-test and post-test approach with control. Respondents were 35 people per group by consecutive sampling. Data were analysed using Wilcoxon signed ranks test and the Mann Whitney Test. Result: there was a significant effect between the average value of Ankle Brachial Index before 0.823 (SD 0.025) and after treatment 0.95 (SD 0.95), p-value = 0.00. The mean difference was obtained p = 0.00, if the p value <0.05, there was a significant difference in the difference in the mean value. Conclusion: it was found that the leg blood circulation was getting better after the hot cold water soaking. It is recommended for nurses to make hot and cold water immersion into one of the independent nursing interventions in providing nursing care to diabetes mellitus patients.

Study of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases diagnosed by rapid immunochromatotography method

Jeppu udayalaxmi; Ganesh Arjun

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1622-1630

Background: Most laboratories do not have facilities for identification of mycobacteria to species level. BD MGIT TBc immunochromatographic strip differentiates mycobacteria grown in liquid media as MTC or NTM. In the present study we clinically correlate NTM identified by above method. Methods: Culture was done by BD BACTEC TMMGIT 960. All positive cultures were subjected to a BD MGIT TBc immunochromatographic strip method for differentiating MTC and NTM. Results: Of the 29 cases of suspected NTM there was a single case of UTI, a case of right frontal lobe abscess, a case of synovitis, a case of post hernioplasty infected mesh and 25 patients were having respiratory symptoms. All patients responded well to antibiotic therapy which included ATT, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, azithromycin, clarithromycin singly or in combination. Conclusions: Diagnosis of NTM done with BD MGIT TBc immunochromatographic card test was found to useful in the absence of a definitive species identification.

Is high-fidelity simulation based education effective in enhancing learning and performance among undergraduate medical students?

Bikramjit Pal; Ava Gwak Mui Tay; Aung Win Thein; M. V. Kumar; Sook Vui Chong; Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe; Sudipta Pal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1631-1646

Background: Simulation is an all-inclusive term about incorporating an educational approach that links a learner to a situated environment for the purpose of learning. The efficacy of simulation in undergraduate medical education is now well established as it reduces the number of safety concerns in managing the patients. It helps learners to try out and acquire new knowledge and confidence for effective management of patients. The study was done to analyse the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) based education in enhancement of knowledge and performance for management of acute trauma in terms of self-assessment scores.
Methods: It was a pre-test and post-test mediated quasi-experimental time series study which involved 347 undergraduate medical students. During simulation sessions, students were divided into groups and their acquisition of knowledge and performance were evaluated individually with self-assessed pre-test and post-test scores. Mean, Standard Deviation and Standard Error of Mean were used for quantitative analysis and Repeated Measure of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for comparison. Friedman test was used for assessment of individual components in simulation. The scores were compared to note the difference in knowledge and performance. P value < 0.001 was considered to be statistically significant.
Results: The study showed that learning and performance had progressively improved with each session of simulation in the management of acute trauma.Conclusion: Students’ self-assessment showed that HFS based education had made a difference with enhancement of knowledge and performance over time in the management of acute trauma.

A Tertiary Medical College Hospital based Observational study to evaluate the correlation between antithyroid peroxidase antibody levels in patients with invasive breast cancer

Senthilkumar A. C.; Sridharan. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1647-1651

Background: Very few studies have assessed prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in women with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in women with breast cancer.
Methods: Tertiary hospital based cross - sectional study carried out at Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, during the period of August 2018 to July 2020. Seventy-five women in surgical oncology ward/OPD were included in the study. Subjects included in the study were between age 35 to 80 years, provided they fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. History was noted, serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies test was done. Results were noted and analyzed.
Results: Out of 75 subjects, 21.3% of women with breast cancer were having elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies.
Conclusions: Prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies is high among women with breast cancer. These results have implications both for screening of patients for thyroid disorders and also for development of new prognostic markers. Therefore, routine screening is preferable among women with breast cancer.

Nurse Perception Towards “Nursbox” Application Use In Bandung District And City

Asep Solahudin, S. Kep; Neti Juniarti, S.Kp., M.Kes., MNurs., Ph.D.; Ida Maryati, S.Kp., M.Kep., Sp.Mat., Ph.D.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1652-1663

The use of technology is believed to be a solution in overcoming the existing issues, including health issues. In health sector, an electronic documentation system referred to as the Electronic Health Record (EHR) has been introduced and started to be used widely in various countries, including Indonesia. In Indonesia, an innovation of EHR was introduced in 2018 under the name of nursBOX application. This study aimed to describe the perception of nurses towards the use of this application. This was a descriptive quantitative study using electronic survey data collection technique. A google form containing a questionnaire adapted from Galimany-Masclan et al. was sent via email to 322 respondents who were nursBOX users in Bandung District and City, who were obtained through the accidental sampling technique. This questionnaire consisted of 23 statements with a Likert scale. Data collected were then analyzed using the media value with 1 as the minimum value and 5 as the maximum value for each item. Interpretation was then made to classify the answers as positive or negative. Of the 322 respondents, 52 filled out the questionnaire with 53.8% of them expressed a positive perception towards the use of nurseBOX. This positive perception was found in continuity of care (53.8%), usability (50.0%), and record of information (53.8%) domains. Hence, the general perception of nurses towards the use of nursBOX application is positive. However, a review on this innovation should be done because the difference between the positive and negative perceptions is only 7.6%, which is quite insignificant. acting as the point-of-entry for any given scientific paper or patent application.

Survey On Aspect Based Sentiment Analysis Using Machine Learning Techniques

Syam Mohan E; R. Sunitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1664-1684

Web 2.0 facilitates the expression of views through diverse Internet applications which serve as a rich source of information. The textual expressions have latent information that when processed and analysed reveal the sentiment of the user/people. This is known as sentiment analysis, which is the process of computationally extracting the opinions and viewpoints from textual data and it is also known as opinion mining, review mining or attitude mining, etc. Aspect-level sentiment analysis is one among the three main types of sentiment analysis, where granule level processing takes place in which the different aspects of entities are harnessed to identify the sentiment orientations. The emergence of machine learning and deep learning techniques has made a striking mark towards aspect-oriented sentiment analysis. This paper presents a survey and review of different works from the recent literature on aspect-based sentiment analysis done using machine learning techniques.

Binding Affinity Of Omega 3 Fatty Acid As An Agonist PPAR- And GPR120 Receptor For Obesity Using Molecular Docking And ADME Prediction

Ginna Megawati; Dewi M.D Herawati; Ida Musfiroh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1686-1695

Obesity is a complex disease involving excessive amounts of body fat due to problems with lipid metabolism and catalysis by PPARγ and GPR120. It is currently known that full-agonist drugs PPRγ have cardiovascular side effects and are closely related to lipid metabolism by GPR120. The selected of omega-3 derivative compounds is based on an important role in morphological, biochemical, molecular brain development and has been shown to control body weight by reducing body fat accumulation. The aim of this study was to obtain information regarding the binding affinity of 9 selected compounds from omega-3 to PPARγ and GPR120 either as full agonist or partial agonist by showing that these compounds using absorption and distribution prediction (ADME) sufficiently reasonable. Docking analysis was performed using Auto Dock 4.2, and ADME prediction using PreADMET software. The results showed that DPA and DHA have most higher binding affinity of molecular docking at the active site of the partial agonis and full agonist for PPARγ with free energy -9.26 kcal/mol and -8.92, respectively. DPA showed capabilities as partial agonist is characterized by a hydrogen bond in the form of Ser342 such as telmisartan, while DHA has a similar hydrogen bond in the form of Ile281 such as rosiglitazone. Whereas the results for GPR120 showed that DHA, EPA, and ETA compounds had good potential activity as agonists by binding to the same amino acid residues Arg327 and Tyr146, and the compounds have the lowest bond energies were -9.4, -8.72 and -8.15 kcal/ mol, respectively compared to the neurotensin ligand is -6.31 kcal/mol. All compounds meet absorption and distribution parameters, so that the selected compounds have the potential to prevent obesity through PPARγ and GPR120

Herbal Potential In Indonesia For Adjuvant Therapy To Corona Virus-19 Disease

Dewi Wulantresna; Ade Zuhrotun; Anis Yohana Chaerunisa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1696-1707

From December 2019 until December 11, 2020, SARS-Cov-2 has cause 1,576,516 deaths to start in Wuhan, China, to 220 countries worldwide. In most people who have good immunity, the disease’s symptoms disease is mild. However, in people with comorbidities and older people, it can develop into pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and many organ disorders. This review aims to reveal the herbal plants that potentials are dealing with and complementary therapy because no specific drug exists for the Covid -19. Based on kinds of literature showed that some herbs that have antiviral activity are the potential to be anti-SARS-Cov-2 diseases (Covid-19), especially curcumin that exists in 6,34% of traditional medicine formulas in Indonesia. Herbal products Stimuno® (Phyllantus niruri herb extract), New Divens®(Phyllantus niruri herb extract, Nigella sativa cement extract), Vipalbumin Plus® (Ophiocephalus striatus extract), and Lianhua Qingwen®(a combination of 13 herbs) that clinically proven to Helps improve the immune system. The National Agency of Drug and Food Control (NA-DFC) recently assisting 13 herbal drug research studies for covid-19 agents as an acceleration process to obtain distribution permits. This is way herbal medicine can be a complementary preventive and adjuvant therapy for COVID-19. However, this hypothesis requires experimental validation on the infection model of SARS-Cov-2 and COVID-19 patients. Many research further still need to find a specific cure for the disease by herbs, vaccines, or antivirals. Even though the number of Covid patients continues to increase in Indonesia and worldwide, but we always have any hope.

E-Learning In Undergraduates: New Insights In Medical Education

Haritha G; Benjamin M Sagayaraj; Nidhi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1708-1718

Aims & objectives: Covid-19 pandemic lead to the close of many real university campuses and initiation of online classes in MBBS curricula. The primary objective of the study is to analyze the conceptual flow and efficacy of online lectures in clinical disciplines and also to assess the medical undergraduate student satisfaction after 6 months of Online Clinical Phase III e-Campus. The secondary objective is to detect the student perspective and difficulties faced by final year medical students while attending online teaching in MBBS.Materials and methodsPhase III MBBS Students underwent Online Curricular activities like PPT lectures, QUIZ, buzz sessions, Case Based Discussions and Short Answer type assignments, on line Video presentation for Six months from April 2020-September 2020. Post test and Feedback was collected after six months as Google forms.
Results:Students felt that there was a longer screen time and there was an inability to focus due to the eyestrain. There were concerns in times of poor Internet accessibility too.
Conclusion:In Medical schools Online –learning is the necessity of the hour during this COVID pandemic especially with teaching hospitals having a high load of COVID -19 cases. Although it is user easy and freely accessible, E–learning cannot completely be used in lieu of in-campus learning. There are numerous effects on student life like eyestrain, easy tiredness due to more screen time and inability to concentrate

Data Hiding Using Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Computing With Morse Code Cryptosystem

B. Adithya; G. Santhi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1719-1725

In this paper, DNA computing with Morse code encoding is proposed to bulwark the delicate information within the challenging environment. The plaintext is changed over to DNA sequences utilizing encoding table. Presently, the encoded information is transcript and translated by the RNA arrangements. Translated RNA is stego by the standard genetic code utilizing organic compounds, and the stego DNA is ciphered by Morse code pattern. The designed bio analysis and results show that the hiding capacity is high, and the execution time is less when compared to the current techniques like AES, RSA, DNA based Playfair cipher and Vigenere cipher.

Human Resources Analysis Of Healthy Indonesia Programs With Family Approach (Pis-Pk)

Diansanto Prayoga; Syifa’ul Lailiyah; Jayanti Dian Eka Sari; Siti Nuraini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1726-1739

Human Resources for Health is one of the key elements that are very important in improving health services to the community, especially in the public health center. This study raises the problem of the still low index of healthy families in Banyuwangi Regency 0.09 (unhealthy) by analyzing human resources for optimizing a healthy Indonesia program with a family approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze the availability of human resources at the public health center in implementing PIS-PK. The availability of human resources is important in implementing a program because they are the main driving force of program success. This research was conducted with a descriptive-qualitative approach through action research. The research was conducted at 10 public health centers in Banyuwangi Regency. This study uses primary and secondary data obtained from informants through in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussions, and guided observations with instruments in the form of interview guides and FGD guides. The results showed that the implementation of PIS-PK was carried out by the health center officers. Roles and tasks are regulated through the SK head of the public health center with one person holding more than one responsibility other than the responsibility for services at the public health center. HR analysis shows that all public health centers experience overwork, especially after the start of the PIS-PK program, this affects the service at the public health center. The implementation of PIS-PK in Banyuwangi is still not running according to the target, this is due to the lack of competent human resources owned by the public health center in implementing PIS-PK. This causes excessive workload on public health center staff in implementing PIS-PK.

Sustainable Development Goals 2030: The Impact Of Sophisticated Technology Towards Green Accounting To Improve The Quality Of The Company

Kevin Deniswara; Archie Nathanael Mulyawan; Jonathan Theodore Kesuma; Veronica .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1740-1755

This study aims to examine the performance of companies in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0 in achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals through the sophisticated technology. The researchers focused on three main risen technologies that play an important role in improving the operational activities of the company using ERP, Big Data Analytics and Blockchain Technology. Beside it, these three technologies could have a really important role for companies in the communication of information related to green accounting for improving societies life better, helping companies to ensure a harmonious standard of living for the community and the environment. Finally, by carrying out Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for areas that have not been reached by technology, companies could encourage public awareness to be opened to changes due to the presence of sophisticated technology so that people could live with technology, to realize Society 5.0 era.

Acupressure And Progressive Muscle Exercise Therapy Reduced Dysmenorrhea Of Late Adolescent In Tasikmalaya, Indonesia

Sofia Februanti; Tetet Kartilah; Peni Cahyati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1756-1760

Dysmenorrhea or menstrual pain is a complaint that is often experienced by late adolescents. Many ways can be done to reduce dysmenorrhea, such as using pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. This study aims to determine the effect of acupressure and progressive muscle exercise therapy on dysmenorrhea in late adolescents in Tasikmalaya. The research design was a quasi-experiment, pre, and post-test without a control group. The sampling technique was simple random sampling, with as many as 28 respondents. Univariate and bivariate data analysis. The results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 19.68. Menarche 13.07. The average Sundanese tribe is 85.7%. Get family support in overcoming dysmenor by 78.6%. The results of the bivariate analysis showed significant differences in pain intensity before and after acupressure + Progressive muscle exercise (p-value 0.0001). There was a significant difference in the quality of pain before and after acupressure + progressive muscle exercise (p-value 0.0001). The results of this study are expected to be used as a reference for further research in dealing with dysmenorrhea.

The Correlation Between Self-Esteem And The Locus Of Control With The Self-Care AbilityOf Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Patients

Zulfahri Lubis; Arlinda Sari Wahyuni; Wardiyah Daulay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1761-1766

The sudden life change causes diabetes mellitus (DM) patients to show some negative psychological reactions, therefore, the self-care, locus of control, and self-esteem become important for diabetic patients as a control towards their disease. The study aimed to analyze the correlation between self-esteem and locus of control with the self-care ability of DM type 2 patients. The study was the correlation with 122 samples of DM type 2 patients. Data analysis applied is the Pearson correlation coefficient, t-independent test, and multiple linear regressions. The result shows that there was a correlation between self-esteem and self-care ability with the correlation coefficient of 0.777 (p-value 0.000, α: 0.05). There was a correlation between locus of control and self-care ability with a correlation coefficient of 0.665 (p-value 0.001, α: 0.05). Data were analyzed by multiple linear regressions. There was a correlation between self-esteem with respondents' self-care ability after controlled by education variable, marital status, and profession (B = 0.266, SE=0.32). There was a correlation between locus of control with self-care ability (B=0.147, B=0.37). It was concluded that the most dominant variable which affects self-care ability was self-esteem.

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ORAL FOLK CREATIVITY AS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF THE STUDY OF ARTISTIC THINKING AND SKILLS OF THE POET

Djumamuratova Malika Tlewbergen ovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1767-1773

Using the example of the creativity of the poet of our time Tlewbergen Jumamuratov, the article studies the peculiarity of the creative personality - the bearer, keeper of folklore heritage, master of special traditional poetic manners, as well as the problem of artistic skill from the point of view of tradition and innovation.

BACHELOR DEGREE PROGRAMS IN BUILDING MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY

Rustam Eshniyazov, Borys Bezzubko, Atabek Alimov, Amanbay Arziev, Alauatdin Turdibaev , Nurnazar Pirnazarov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1780-1789

. Modern construction production requires constant improvement of the processes of training specialists in the field of construction production technologies. The object of research presented in this article are educational programs for a bachelor degree in construction materials technology in Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The purpose of this article is to compare the educational programs of Uzbek and Ukrainian higher educational institutions for training bachelor students in the field of construction materials technology

INFLUENCE OF HARMFUL ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KARAKALPAKSTAN

Izimbet Turdimambetov, Eva Pauditsova, Amet Madreymov,NilufarKomilova, Medetbay Oteuliev, Nursultan Kayupov,Kamila Utarbaeva, Gulzar Eshimbetova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1790-1796

An analysis of the leading sanitary-ecological factors of the environment affecting the incidence rates among the population of the Republic of Karakalpakstan in 2009-2018 found. The results of identifying socio-economic factors on the health of the population, obtained annually and analyzed in dynamics for at least five years, are an integral part of the socio-hygienic monitoring of the information and analytical basis of a comprehensive health risk management system and ensuring sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population.It is also necessary to create prerequisites for further special scientific research to establish causal relationships "socio-economic factors - health status of the population" and assess the risk of the influence of these factors. One of the main factors influencing the health of the population is the provision of the population with drinking water. We have studied the dynamics of the chemical pollution of water in open reservoirs by districts and zones of the Republic of Karakalpakstan.

THE SOUTH ARAL SEА. MINIATURE VESSELS FROM THE MEDIEVAL CITIES OF

Saypov Sadulla, Tolibaev Murat, Alimbetov Ansatbay, Utepbergenov Farkhat, Tureeva Gulsara, Kdyrniyazov Omar-Sharif, Abdirova Gulzada

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1797-1805

The article deals with the issue of miniature vessels excavated during archaeological work in the medieval settlements of the Southern Aral Sea region. The problems of their functional purpose and use in everyday life are raised. It also describes the composition of clay ceramic miniature vessels and provides a comparison by analogy with other materials from neighboring regions.

Endogenous Antioxidant Activity Combination Of Moringa Leaf And Clove Flower Extracts Toward Diabetic Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

Muhammad Fakhrul Hardani; Ririen Hardani; Sitti Rahmawati; Baharuddin Hamzah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1806-1813

In pathological conditions such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM), increased oxidative stress can cause a decrease in endogenous activity in the body so the body is unable to detoxify free radicals that cause cell damage. Some of natural antioxidant sources are moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera Lamk.) and clove flowers (Syzygium aromaticum Merry & Perril). The purpose of this study was to determine the enzyme activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) in a mixture composing of ethanol extract of moringa leaf and clove flower towards animals with DM conditions. This research is an experimental laboratory study using a post test only group design. The subjects of this study were 40 white male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) strain which were DM conditioned by streptozotocin induction. Rats were randomly grouped into 8 groups, and each group consisted of 5 rats. The combined dosage of the ethanol extract of moringa leaves and clove flowers used is a combination I : 150: 40 mg / kg body weight rat, combination II 100: 80 mg / kg body weight rat and III 50: 120 mg / kg body weight rat. The results showed that the combination of ethanol extract of moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera L. and clove flower (Syzygium aromaticum Merry & Perril) increased the antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD and GPx in animals with DM conditions.

The Effect Of Extracts From The Mushroom Of The Ganoderma Lucidum On The State Of Oxidative Stress

Abilov Pulat Melisovich; Iriskulov Bakhtiyor Uktamovich; Boboeva Zuhra Nurillaevna; Saydalikhodjaeva Sayora Zamanovna; Yusupova Mokhira Tulyaganovna; Mirzaev Dilshod Akhmedovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1814-1823

This article presents data on such a well-known fungus as Ganoderma Lucidum and its effect on the state of oxidative stress. As is known, under oxidative stress, altered Toll receptors cannot independently recognize microbial agents due to the altered chemical formula of L-galactosamine and thus mediators are not activated. It is also known that Ganoderma Lucidum due to β-polyglucans, which by chemical formula are close to this glycoprotein, can interact with leukocyte receptors and increase the adhesion molecules and leukocyte migration. Modern histological, ultrastructural and biochemical research methods are used. The results are presented and the corresponding conclusions are drawn.

Laboratory Markers Versus Ct Severity Score In Predicting Mortality In Covid 19

B.S.Gopala Krishna; P.Pranay Krishna; V.Ravi Sankar; Kondle Raghu; A.Siva Kumar; M. Srikanth; V. Satyanarayana; P. Siri Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1824-1831

Aim: Predicting the mortality of COVID-19 with a spectrum of complications is a difficult task for prognostication and management. When individual level data of COVID-19 patients were not yet available, there is a need for risk predictors to support the treatment decisions. The study aims to identify the high accurate marker to measure the prognosis and outcome of COVID19.
Methods:
COVID-19 course is divided into four stages, according to chest computed tomography (C.T.) progress. The demographics, disease exposure history, clinical condition, laboratory tests, computed tomographic chest scan, and outcome data were collected and measured their correlation to assess the risk predictor.
Results:
The 10.4% mortality (n=52) was observed in total population. D-dimer (μg/dL) levels observed as 0.75 ± 0.65 in expired patients. NLR ratio observed as 17.1 in expired patients. Ferritin levels were observed as 49.8 ± 32.5 in expired patients. A D-dimer positive predictive value of 72.5% and a negative predictive value of 88% for a predictor of mortality. Ferritin positive predictive value of 35.5% and a negative predictive value of 76.5% for the predictor of mortality. Hence, the AUC of serum ferritin 0.598 represents the poor ability to discriminate the prediction for the cause of death than D-dimer levels. D‐dimer > 2 μg/dL on admission was associated with in‐hospital death. These main findings indicate that D‐dimer on admission >2.0 μg/dl was the independent predictor of hospital death in patients with Covid‐19. A D-dimer has the highest positive predictive value than serum ferritin levels.
Conclusion: The AUC for D- dimer at admission was 0.880, with an optimal cutoff of 2.2 μg/dL in predicting the cause of mortality. D‐dimer on admission > 2.0 μg/mL (fourfold increase) is the best predict in‐hospital mortality and a helpful marker to improve the management of Covid‐19.

Policy Update Of The Criminal Sanction Formulation For Corporations In Corruption Case

Muhamad Mahrus Setia Wijaksa; Fatma Ulfatun Najicha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1832-1839

The regulation of corporations as subjects of criminal acts in the Indonesian legal system has basically been formulated explicitly in laws that are specific to those outside the Criminal Code (WvS), one of which is the Corruption Eradication Act. This research is a doctrinal research with a statute approach and supported by a comparative approach. The conclusion of this study shows that the policy of formulating criminal sanctions for corporations in corruption cases at this time is in the form of a fine as a principal crime, while additional crimes are in the form of: (1) Confiscation of goods resulting from corruption (2) Payment of replacement money (3) Closing of all or part of the company (4) Revocation of all / part of certain rights or certain advantages. As for reforming the formulation of criminal sanctions policy for the future, it can be carried out by making additional penalties for corporations in corruption cases a principal crime, so that the main criminal sanctions for corporations are more varied.

ANALYSIS OF OCCLUSAL FORCE USING PRESALE FUJIFILM IN COMPLETE DENTURE PATIENTS: AN IN VIVO STUDY

Dr. Anchal Saxena, Dr. Gulab Chand Baid, Dr. Saumya Sharma, Dr. Sanjeev Singh, Dr. Vivek Lath, Dr. Shweta Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1840-1851

Background: Denture adhesive improves retention, decreases tissue discomfort, prevents strangulation of the mucosal blood supply, and reduces the frequency of adjustments even in a well fitting denture. The occlusal bite force is an important factor affecting the life of the prosthesis and the patient comfort function and esthetics.
Aim: The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the force generated in complete denture patients using the prescale Fujifilm before and after application of 3 different forms of denture adhesives.
Material and Methodology: In this study, the difference in occlusal force was evaluated which are created by different types of denture adhesives. A total of 30 subjects were included and three different denture adhesive viz., powdered adhesives, paste form and adhesive strips were used .The forces were evaluated using a prescale film which can precisely measure pressure and pressure distribution. Red patches appear on the film when pressure is applied and the colour density changes according to the various pressure levels.The variation of occlusal force that were seen on the prescale film that helped in determining if application of denture adhesive increases bite force and hence chewing efficiency. Also in determining which type of denture adhesive was more efficient in increasing bite force and more patient friendly.
Conclusion: It was concluded that application of denture adhesives increased bite force due to increase in the stability of the complete denture. It was concluded that denture adhesive strips generated more force than the denture adhesive paste and that the paste generated more force than the denture adhesive powder. FORCE generated (STRIPS > PASTE > POWDER) Keywords: Denture adhesive, prescale fuji film, bite force, adhesive powder, paste and strips.
 

ON FINANCIAL WELLBEING OF IT EMPLOYEES IMPACT OF WORK FROM HOME

Sonakshi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1860-1868

: The pandemic outbreak has created unusual work scenarios. Being driven by wellbeing policies and practices, it will lead to a much more productive workforce. IT companies across the globe are finding the way out to return into normal work culture, after being pushed to adapt work-from-home work culture for quite some time. This article explores the effect on the financial position of the workers employed in Pune from home. For this a random sampling was taking for collection of data in liker scale in 24 different IT companies. The company constitutes under the medium scale industry under the services sectors. This analysis has been demonstrated through majorly impacted variable of financial wellbeing (FWL) as well as the counterpart of stress (STR). This article estimated of the factors which impacted on the employer as they do practices of work to home. This paper has to explore that the financial wellbeing (FWL) has significant impact of three factors are Behavior (BHOR), Financial Management (FMGNT) and Financial Literacy (FLCY). Whereas the one factors Financial Problems (FPRLM) has no significant impact of financial wellbeing (FWL) along with Stress (STR).

THE RELATIONSHIP OF SHEEP PNEUMONIA WITH BACTERIAL INFECTION

Zahra Ismail Abdel-Hussein, Thaar Mohammed Najim, Afrah Adil Hassan, Lubna Dhari Mohammed,Mustafa Salah Hasan, Mohammed Hamid Karim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1869-1873

Introduction:
 Pneumonia is one of the important diseases that affect sheep, in particular Newborns (pregnancies) causing illness, death and losses of meat and milk, and delayed growth, Fatal economic, However, pneumonia can also be caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria, certain medications, and autoimmune diseases. The identification of the exact cause is often ineffective [1, 2, 3].  And these inflammatory of the lung condition that mainly affects the alveoli. Bacterial pneumonia is a very specific and potentially life-threatening subset of pneumonia. Various microorganism enter the lung by suctioning of infected people live there only at certain times and under certain conditions [4,5,6], as they invade the area between the bacterial vesicles in the lungs where neutrophil and macrophage effort to deactivate the microbe [10]. Cytokine that arise since neutrophil can cause normal motivation immune classification and this lead to infection and exhaustion that are mutual among the bacteriological reasons of pneumonia [7,8,9].
    Neutrophils cause consolidation, bacteria and fluids since nearby blood vessel that chunk the alveoli [11,12,13]. Klebsiella spp. is a major cause of pneumonia in Asia and it may remain accountable for patients with somatic disorders. The use of a very strong antibiotic is also linked to the diseases. The type Klebsiella belong to the Klebsiella tribe, a member of the Enterobacteria family. Klebsiella is a non-motile Gram-negative bacterium, rod-formed with a prominent poly saccharide capsule. This capsule, accountable aimed at the great presence of the organism on the Gram stain at the same time, experiences resistance in contradiction of numerous crowd defenses mechanism [14].

PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN- VITRO ANTI-MICROBIAL STUDIES OF WILD CINCHONA (NEOLAMARCKIACADAMBA) FRUIT EXTRACTS

Deepti Kolli, JinkaMadhusudhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1874-1887

Kadamb (Neolamarkiacadamba Roxb.) tree has wide spectrum of bioactivities such as analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory hypolipidemic and antidiabetic. However, very little is known about anti-microbial properties of its fruits. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate Phytochemical constitution, antibacterial and antifungal properties of N. cadambafruits. Methanol and ethylacetate Extracts of the fruits are prepared and were used to investigate Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties.Out of the selected solvent extracts, the methanolic extract(1000μg/ml) showed maximum zone of inhibition (19.3 mm) against Bacillus subtilis and minimum (14.9 mm) against Enterobacter aerogenes. Ethylacetate extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus(16.7mm) and minimum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa(11mm). The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phytosterols, tannin, phenol, saponins and flavonoids in the methanolic extract. The antimicrobial effects of Neolamarckiacadamba fruit extracts indicate that this wild cinchona contains substantialnumber of bioactive agents are responsible for antimicrobial efficacy. The study also concludes that methanolic extract of N. cadambafruit can be used as a potential antimicrobial source for various infections.

Socioeconomic Disparity in Doris Lessing's The Grass is Singing

Reena Nagpal, Ishfaq Ahmad Tramboo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1888-1892

The present study investigates the theme of socioeconomic disparity in Doris Lessing's The Grass is Singing. Economic inequality and racial discrimination are social problems that talk about the poor people's plight at the margin, away from the power structure's centre. It is a concern of contemporary relevance and, therefore, calls for a more in-depth investigation. The theme of socioeconomic disparity manifests the seamier side of civilization, but coping with these problems bring dignity. The Grass is Singing shows the horrific effects of socioeconomic disparity on both the white colonial rulers and southern Africa's black populations. The novel is a chronicle of apartheid and late capitalism in the life of Southern Rhodesian society. This novel is a tragic novel portraying a failed marriage, racial and economic discrimination in Southern Rhodesia. Lessing, as a writer, prefers to write about reality instead of creating some imaginary world. She has always been against the ill or inhuman treatment of whites to their black servants. She has tried to show the possession of economically weaker sections of society. The white people ill-treat the black labor class, and their male counterparts ill-treat the females. The present study focuses on the plight of economically more impoverished sections of Southern Rhodesia society.

COMPASSION AS ALL-ENCOMPASSING PASSION: AN ANALYSIS OF BERNARD MALAMUD’S CHARACTERS

P.Malarvizhi, Dr.R.C.SheilaRoyappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1893-1901

This article probes into the perception of compassion and passion and also how compassion emanates out of passion. Passion and compassion can be identified as two different emotions that a person experiences. Passion refers to a very intense feeling where as compassion refers to the concern that is felt for another. The word passion originally comes from the Latin word passio,meaning to suffer or endure. Most commonly, passion referred to the Passion of Christ.Since Jesus underwent the furthest extent of suffering, passion mostly referred to Christ’s suffering. The word also referred to enduring hardship and suffering in general. The definition of passion is obsolete in the twenty-first century, and the common term used nowadays in its place would be tribulation .However, there is one word still in use which somewhat preserves passion in the sense of suffering: compassion. Compassion is regarded as having sensitivity, which is an emotional aspect to suffering. Compassion is a combination of passion and the Latinate prefix-com meaning “with”; literally, the word means “suffering with”  “co-suffering “and occurs “when a person is moved by the suffering or distress of another, “takes on someone else’s pain, and bears it with him..
Malamud’s characters are epitome of compassion encompassed with passion. His characters are embedded with a property of “depth, vigor, or passion.” They are stuffed with the qualities of compassion such as patience and wisdom; kindness and perseverance; warmth and resolve. They made their home as centers of compassion. Malamud’s protagonists struggle with the forces of their cultural environments and ultimately victimized by them. They suffered to secure the human status at par with others which makes them realize the importance of compassion as it is lost somewhere in the material pursuits of modern man symbolizes humanity. Moral transcendence is very close to Malamud’s idea of humanism as it employs spiritual growth in him and leads him to understand the values of compassion, responsibility, and forbearance.

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF UTI PREVALENCE IN RESIDENTIAL GIRLS USING INDIAN VS WESTERN TOILETS

Dr.G. Jaysee John, Dr. MP Sharma,Dr. Abhilash Tripathi,Dr.Ajay Kumar Jatoliya,Dr. Pushpa Kumawat , Dr. Astha Sikarwar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1913-1919

BACKGROUND- Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the commonest bacterial infectious disease among community practice with a high rate of morbidity and financial cost. Urinary tract infection is also the most common site of hospital infection, accounting for more than 40% of nosocomial infections (estimated to be 600,000 patients per year) reported by acute care given hospitals.1 Many study reported early half of all women will have a UTI once in their lives.2 And one third of women will have had at least one UTI by age 24 years.3 Simple, uncomplicated UTIs are quite common in women ages 20 to 504.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of UTI among hostel girls(of Jayoti Vidyapeeth University,Jaipur(Raj.)who were using Indian toilets vs Western toilets.
METHOD: A cross sectional study carried out where total residential 80 students were participated  after meeting theinclusion and exclusion criteria whereas one group of 40 students were using usually western toilet and another group of 40 students Indian toilets. They were allocated UTIS questionnaire to identify incidence of UTI  for past two months.
STUDY SETTING:Girls Hostel ,Jayoti Vidyapeeth University,Jaipur, Rajasthan.
STUDY DURATION: Two months from January to February 2020.
RESULTS & DISCUSSION: The occurrence of UTI more prevalent in girls who were in the habit of using western toilets, that was, 78.2% (21/35) and less common in those girls who were using Indian toilet  that was, 21.7%.  A higher incidence of girls that is, 65.2% were using toilet only 1–3 times in a day in whom the prevalence ofUTI was also found to be the highest. The recurrence of episode is found more as episode >1 in last three months in 60.9% students using western toilet,whereas this was only 20% students,using Indian toilet.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed high incidence of UTI present among western toilet users comparative to Indian toilet users and more recurrence of UTI episode  also found in western toilet users . This result was based on small sample size so for application of a larger population this results need to be validated large scale and  multicentric trial.

ASSESSING HEALTHY LIVING AND MEASURING EMPOWERMENT LEVEL OF WOMEN USING INDEX

A.Nasima, Dr. P.Shalini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1929-1942

Background of the study: The termWomen empowerment is a method of increasing women’s right to manage over tactical life spans, which influence them to access chances that make them understand their abilities. Empowering Women is essential for the economic development of a nation as per the year 2020 world records, female pilots are more in India compared to other nationals. We are somewhere high at a similar phase still our nation women are struggling to attain Gender Equality. This is because of our patriarchal society.

GAIT BASED PREDICTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF ABNORMAL WALK PATTERN AND RENDERING EFFECTIVE TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEMS

Dr. S. Sophia, K. Sowmiya, P.Vinesha, Dr.P.Thamaraiselvi, Dr.S.R.Boselin Prabhu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1943-1957

Gait prediction plays a vital role in determining normal and abnormal walk patterns.  Walking pattern is not given much importance by many persons but it is our basic transportation process. A person who faces the inability to walk can bring severe transformation to his/her life. They must always depend upon other people for their day to day activities and also have serious health issues. In some cases, a person with an abnormal gait pattern can walk normally without experiencing any of the symptoms and it can be identified only when the person meets with an injury or pain and it can lead to health issues such as cardiovascular problems, mental illness problem and musculoskeletal problems.Thus, gait prediction must be carried out to identify the abnormal walk pattern, providing proper treatment and lead a healthy life. The sportsperson should also carry out gait prediction methods to help them run effectively. This prediction helps in the diagnosis of the cause for ache, estimation, and classificationof observed abnormalities leading to further treatment.  A method to determine and classify the normal and abnormal gait state based on the Convolution neural network classifier algorithm is proposed. Further usingCNN and SVM the gait abnormalities can be classified as Freezing of gait, Brady Kinesia, Tremor, Ataxic gait, myopathic gait, and muscle atrophy. A comparison for accuracy was performed betweenalgorithms from results obtained from two algorithms. Since the prediction is highly accurate, accurate diagnosis andright treatment by therapists is ensured.

AN EFFICIENT CLUSTER SYSTEM FOR BIO-INFORMATICS DATA USING AMALGAM OF CLUSTERING METHODS

Katikireddy Srinivas1, Dr. K V D Kiran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1958-1971

At this pandemic Covid-19 situation, Machine learning is inspired to develop an automated drug evaluation system for the patients suffering with routine illness conditions from the existing valid drug bank using a blend of clustering methods. To get effective win over the corona virus we have to use technological advances to prevent the pandemic disease by avoiding physical contacts as well as use Artificial Intelligence like Chest Scan image processing to predict covid-19 virus in lungs by using proper algorithm to differentiate Corona lobes with other disease lobes. In this scenario I would like to use computer science knowledge based on the physio chemical properties and enzyme inhibition properties of drug dataset provided by standard drug bank repository i.e., www.drugs.com,www.drugbank.ca [2] and www.malacards.org[4].Here I applied existing clustering techniques as a blend of k-means, k-medoids, hierarchical methods and Fuzzy k-means[9] to determine an appropriate set of drugs from the given drugbank for different illness conditions of thyroid patients[10]. In this research work data preparation for drug evaluation is playing a crucial role, we used Correspondence Analysis (CA) method to make our Cluster system is efficient and effective. We have shown the analysis as a blend of cluster methods successful for this cluster system using graphical presentation and derived best hybrid cluster system as final outcome.

DESIGN OF VARIOUS SHAPED MEMS BASED CANTILEVERS EXECUTED IN COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS

T. Saran Kumar, Dr. G Kumar, I.Rama Satya Nageswara Rao, Y.Satya Vinod

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1972-1979

In this paper we have designed, simulated and analyzed various shaped MEMS based cantilevers like rectangular, T-shaped, Π-shaped and cone shaped cantilevers. The simulation of these MEMS based cantilevers are executed in COMSOL Multiphysics Tool. From the analysis, the T-shaped cantilevers with width W=300µm, length L=50µm and thickness t=20µm with paddle width W=20µm and length L=300µm produces maximum displacement of 7.2515×106µm.

PRIVACY PROTECTION OVER CLOUD USING AES ENCRYPTION

Aditya Argal, Dr. S. Murugaanandam, Vishwajeet Pandey, Shivam Tiwari, Dev Karan Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1980-1990

Encryption is the activity of manipulating data in such a way that it would be unreadable to anyone but those with special knowledge "(commonly referred to as key)," that allows them to change the data back to its original, recognizable form. Encryption is important, because it causes one to protect data that no one else wishes to access. Companies use it to safeguard business records, policymakers use it to retain classified details and many individuals use it to defend personal information against problems such as data theft. Espionage utilizes cryptography to safely protect the content of files which might include addresses, chat accounts, tax records, credit card details, or some other confidential information. Data Encryption Protocol (DES) is called a low-level encryption protocol, particularly though one's device is compromised. The United States government introduced the norm in 1977. Owing to technical advancements and reductions in hardware prices, DES is effectively redundant for the security of” sensitive data. Triple DES runs three variants of its encryption. Here's how it works: it encrypts, decrypts, and encrypts data-"triple" as a consequence. This improves the initial DES model, which was deemed to be too poor for sensitive data encryption.RSA takes its name from the three computer scientists' familial initials. Uses a effective and common encryption algorithm. Because of its key duration RSA is common and is therefore commonly used for safe data transmission.”The U.S. government standard as of 2002 is the Advanced Encryption Standard” (AES). AES is utilized globally. AES treats the whole data block as a single vector, which operates under the theory of replacement which permutation. The Plaintext can be 128,192 or 256 bits and has a greater key size relative to DES.AES, which implies that it has a big hidden key.
 
 
 
 
 
 

OPPOSITIONAL LION OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM AND DEEP NEURAL NETWORK BASED MULTI DOCUMENT SUMMARIZATION FROMLARGE-SCALE DOCUMENTS

K. Chandra Kumar, Dr. Sudhakar Nagalla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1991-2009

Multi-document summarization (MDS) is an automatic process where the essential information is extracted from the multiple input documents.However, it has many limitations such as inaccurate extraction to essential sentences, low coverage, poor coherence among the sentences, and redundancy.So, in this paper, oppositional lion optimization algorithm (OLOA) and deep neural network (DNN) based multi-document summarization is presented. For optimal sentence selection from the pre-processed documents, OLOA algorithm is proposed. Based on the extracted features, sentence score is calculated using DNN. Finally, based on the rank of the sentences, the multi-documents are summarized. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed summarization outperforms the state of the arts in terms of precision, recall and F-measure.

STUDY THE IMPACT OF BRAND ACTIVISM AND POLITICAL ACTIVISM ON MARKETING TRENDS

Nainika Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2010-2021

Brands and advertising companies have successfully utilized the cultural momentum of social and political aspects to entangle with new consumers and advertise their products. So many researches have been conducted about the intersection of marketing and social and political movements but overlooked by advertising agencies. This research gives an insight of brand activism which can eventually help advertisers comprehend about the social and political movements and brands. It is helpful to determine the pathway of grand industrial success and an amalgamation with social and political movements. After diving deep into the prospect of social movements’ framing in advertising messages, this research explores the nuances of this aspect of those frames with a conceptual model. In-depth interviews with advertising professionals create a best practices guideline for activist ads. Advertisers nowadays can be benefited by implicating right strategies to social movements by modifying and revamping critical conversations about brand activism beyond large-scale strategy. On the other hand, political activism is also playing a powerful tool for any brand’s long-term success. Big brands are considering the political movements seriously and making a constructive effort to refabricate their brand activism strategy. So, in the age of globalization, political activism is a core essence of any brand’s long-term success story. This paper investigates the progressive representations of brand activism in the context of social and political movements in advertising and marketing trends.

A NOVEL APPROACH TO DOCTOR’S DECISION MAKING SYSTEM USING Q LEARNING

Nainika Kumar; K.C.Sreedhara , M.Swathib,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2022-2029

The e-Health care system enables us to store patient’s personal health record online. Now a days, doctor’s decisions on health of patients is gaining importance in treating serious diseases. The overall health of human body can be subjected to many clinical parameters like random blood sugar level, white blood cell count etc. In addition to clinical parameters, the state of set of symptoms of all diseases contributes to overall well-being of a human being. Due to this the health of a human body can be decided by a set of parameters which include clinical parameters that decide the health of various organs in our body and symptoms associated with various diseases. Each of the clinical parameter can be associated with a reward based on its value being fallen in a particular bin. Also symptoms can be associated with a reward based on its intensity. The doctor will take many actions against a patient such as giving appropriate medication in course of tablets, operating surgeries, giving salination etc. So this system consists of set of clinical parameters and symptoms together as states in a model of machine learning. The set of actions taken by the doctor constitute actions of an agent where doctor is treated as an agent in this model. So a set of clinical parameters and symptoms were taken and a specified number of actions is taken to assess the performance of model in basic reinforcement learning learning and epsilon-greedy approach of machine learning. Results show that Q learning outperforms reinforcement learning and epsilon-greedy approach and these results enable the doctor for better decision making

A CONCEPTUAL RESEARCH STUDY ON IMPACT OF TRADITIONAL V/S BRAIN BASED LEARNING APPROACH ON KNOWLEDGE, CLINICAL PERFORMANCE, MOTIVATION AND SELF-ESTEEM

MRS. KIRTI MANGESH JAMDAR; DR. MRS. PRABHA DASILA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2030-2041

Brain Based learning is an emerging field in the teaching learning process. It has been studied by many people at large. It has various aspects which are covered taking into mind the learner’s brain into consideration rather than just thinking them as the students sitting physically in the class. This aspect of teaching learning tackles with creating the positive attitude towards learning among the students. As a teacher we understand the mentality of the students in bringing this change of creating affinity towards learning process. We as teachers play a major role in attracting the students towards this process.

MENTAL HEALTH, SELF-ESTEEM, LIFE SATISFACTION AMONG ETHIOPIAN POPULATION DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A SURVEY BASED STUDY

Md Babul Akhtar, Mohammad Ahsan, Mohammad Ahsan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2572-2584

BACKGROUND
Many people are at risk of developing mental health problems due to the current pandemic. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of the risk to psychological factors to gender and their location and designation in the context of the current pandemic. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological impact on the Ethiopian population.
METHODS
An online survey using google form with 310 Ethiopian respondents was conducted. The adopted questionnaire covers the participant's sociodemographic information, and three different questionnaires (mental health inventory, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) used to collect data. The data were not distributed normally. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to find differences between different categories of mental health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.
RESULTS
The results indicate that urban males have higher mental health and self-esteem compared to females, and little difference in mental health appeared between students, academics, government employees, private employees, and business people. Females belonging to the rural area have higher life satisfaction than males. A significant difference in self-esteem and life satisfaction was found between participants belonging to different designations.
CONCLUSION
The results of all these psychological factors provide a comprehensive picture of Ethiopianpeoples during the current pandemic. In such stressful situations, the concerned government, hospitals, educational institutions, organizations and individuals need to consider psychological intervention and take necessary action. In addition to educate and prepare individuals for the various mental health issues that they may face during the pandemic period.
 

IMPACT OF WORK FROM HOME ON FINANCIAL WELLBEING OF IT EMPLOYEES

Sonakshi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2042-2050

The pandemic outbreak has created unusual work scenarios. Being driven by wellbeing policies and practices, it will lead to a much more productive workforce. IT companies across the globe are finding the way out to return into normal work culture, after being pushed to adapt work-from-home work culture for quite some time. This article explores the effect on the financial position of the workers employed in Pune from home. For this a random sampling was taking for collection of data in liker scale in 24 different IT companies. The company constitutes under the medium scale industry under the services sectors. This analysis has been demonstrated through majorly impacted variable of financial wellbeing (FWL) as well as the counterpart of stress (STR). This article estimated of the factors which impacted on the employer as they do practices of work to home. This paper has to explore that the financial wellbeing (FWL) has significant impact of three factors are Behavior (BHOR), Financial Management (FMGNT) and Financial Literacy (FLCY). Whereas the one factors Financial Problems (FPRLM) has no significant impact of financial wellbeing (FWL) along with Stress (STR).

Effect of Sugar Sweetened Beverages on dental caries among adults: A Systematic Review

Mounika Merugu, Sileshini Kodali, Roshan Cherian Patel Kishan SanjayKumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2051-2065

Dental caries is one of the most common disease in the modern times and has reached epidemic proportions. Looking into the high prevalence rate of dental caries and increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) present study aimed to evaluate and compare the evidences regarding the effect of the amount and frequency of SSB consumption on dental caries among adult population around the world.
Methods
A systematic literature review was performed using 4 databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, One Search, Medline EBSCOhost). A total of 13 articles, reports, and journals were collected and analyzed
Results
A total of 13 studies were included in the study. Of which 8 studies assessed the amount and frequency of SSB consumption on dental caries, and 5 studies focused only the amount of SSB consumption on dental caries. The literature indicates that higher and the more frequent the consumption of SSBs, the higher is the probability of dental caries.
Conclusion
All the studies constantly demonstrated that there is need to control, limit, and manage their intake of SSBs, as they could degenerate not only an adult’s dental health but one’s overall wellness. To establish guidelines more studies are needed to fully assess and compare both amount and frequency of SSB consumption and determine which could strongly affect the development of dental caries.

EIWMS: Enhanced Intelligent Warehouse Monitoring Systems 4.0

U.Rakesh, Dr.V.Ramya, Dr. V. Senthil Murugan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2066-2076

The development of a new digitized industrial methodology named asIndustry 4.0 has a positive influence on the performance of the supply chain.Traditional Warehouse Management System(WMS) became inefficient and inappropriate to meet the increasing market requirements nowadays. Hence there arises a need for effective management of warehouses. The emergence of multipurpose sensors on the Internet of Things (IoT), over the last decades, has been investigated to build innovative devices with versatile applications in different fields of technology, especially in the food industry.The field of fruits and vegetables environmental monitoring is very challenging due to its promising capability.We propose the cost-effective micro-system named as Enhanced Intelligent WMS (EIWMS),  to improve the remote monitoring capabilities of decentralized management of warehouses in a dynamic environment.Our system is composed of temperature,humidity RFID, and gas sensors, that provide the essential information needed for assessing the quality factor of the eatable things. This information is transmitted to a Blynk cloud wirelessly by providing an interface with which the user could track the changes in the product quality periodically. EIWMS  provides a user-friendly application to visualize and analyze sensor data for an efficient and low-cost monitoring system. Tested results prove that the functional performanceof the system is entirely balanced and can meet the design needs in real-time data collection and remote access. A unique method is proposed by EIWMS for collecting the data from environment that eliminates the need of wires or manual labor.

A Study of Post-Colonial Identity in Select Works of V.S. Naipaul

Dr. Prem Bahadur Khadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2077-2082

In the realm of postcolonial discourses the name of V. S. Naipaul is a dazzling star like other great postcolonial critics. This critical paper is an attempt at examining systematically the study of post-colonial entity in V. S. Naipaul’s famous novels A House for Mr. Biswas, A Bend in the River and An Enigma of Arrival. It also endeavors critically to explore how the three novels are fraught with the issues of identity crisis as the major characters of these works crave for finding a niche for them in the world to asseverate their existences and entities. The minds of these characters oscillate between two incompatible cultures and ethnicities prevailing in that time. Researchers and critics endeavor to examine the variegated threads of identity to reknit the story more substantial and to make radical its worldwide demands. The term identity and the related connotative significance are presented in the discussion as well as the several literary implications of identity having a little alteration in its meaning. Many postcolonial diaspora writers and their relevant literary creations have been projected here to carry through advanced ideas, discourses on the theme of post-colonial identity, its trauma and aftermath. V. S. Naipaul’s achieved vacuum of women writers by contesting their ideas and their inclination in stirring up the passions of audience consolidated his recognition in the literary world, has been evaluated and examined. It has been analyzed how in these novels, the major characters attempt in claiming their position in the environment that is replete with obstacles and difficulties in actual life and as a result, the ambience of the three works pose a kind of cultural conflict to render the life’s voyage further convoluted and difficult to survive in hostile world .

BLOCKCHAIN BASED IDENTITY AUTHENTICATION USING IPFS AND HYPERLEDGER FOR VERIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS

Priya N, Dr. Ponnavaikko M, Rex Aantonny

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2083-2088

Document verification and authentication plays a vital role in everyday life. These documents can be any type like educational certificates, business transactions, images containing seals, billing receipts, tenders, etc. Scams on documents could have happened in any stage of transactions. Currently, the blockchain became a trustable secure mechanism for maintaining and giving up the data in a distributed, immutable, and trustable way without any intermediaries. Blockchain keeps all business across two parties in a confirmable and unchangeable. Because of that transparent and trustable nature many fields like medicine, finance, education, insurance, procurement, and supply chain handling their transactions by blockchain mechanisms. In this research, an identity management system has been framed for any type of document verification and validation using blockchain technologies like hyperledger and IPFS algorithms. Existing identity-based security methods having some drawbacks like leakage, forgery of confidential documents. Facial recognition and extracting the specific features could provide the uniqueness and protecting the documents used. By applying blockchain methods in identity-based authentication improves security with the increase in the speed of transactions at lower cost with high performance.Analyzing hyperledger and IPFS results yields a secure framework for identity-based document verification systems. Implementation results have shown the specific advantages of both blockchain methods.

UNIQUENESS OF SOLUTION FOR BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS FOR FRACTIONAL INTEGRO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

M.Latha Maheswari, K.Pandiyan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2089-2096

  This paper mainly deals with the exclusivity of nonlinear boundary value problems. The problems are scrutinized for fractional integro-differential equations. The major focal point of this study is to analyse the Lipschitz constant, which is related to the first eigen values and it also  aims to analyse the  – positive operator

ARTHROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF PREVALENCE OF CHONDRAL DEFECT IN POST TRAUMATIC ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT DEFICIENT KNEES

Dr. Aniish, Dr. A.PRABHAKARAN, Prof. R. KRISHNAGOPAL

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2097-2109

Anterior cruciate ligament injury is the most frequently injured ligament. Some studies have shown that meniscal and chondral injuries are well recognised in delayed ACL reconstruction. This study is done to know the prevalence of cartilage defect with respect to time of injury and time of surgery.

IMPACTS OF POSITIVE PARENTING INTERVENTION ON STRESS MANAGEMENT OF MOTHERS HAVING CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN BIRHAN LEHETSANAT REHABILITATION CENTER, ADDIS ABABA

Tadele Zebrea, Belay Tefera, Bhatara Mohit

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2110-2131

Research evidence indicates that parents of children with intellectual disabilities are exposed to a host of stressful life events while caring for their children with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this study was then to determine the effectiveness of the Positive Parenting Program (Triple-P) in enabling mothers to manage stress related to parenting a child with intellectual disability (ID). Additionally, the study also aimed at assessing the impact of Triple-P in improving the relationship between a mother and a child with an intellectual disability. Quasi-experimental Design (with Pretest-Posttest Control Group approach) was used to test the effectiveness of the intervention. Parental Stress Scale (PSS) and Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS) were administered to 28 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities before and after the intervention to gather data on the level of stress, conflict, closeness, dependency, and positive relationship. An equal number (n=14) of mothers were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in 8 sessions of Tipple-P, but the control group did not. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, matched sample t-test, and Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that mothers in the treatment group showed a significant decrease in stress levels compared to the comparison group. Furthermore, mothers in the experimental group demonstrated statistically significant improvement in their relationship with the intellectually disabled children compared to the control group. However, closeness and dependency were the only two main contributors to the variance in the relationship and their contribution was statistically significant. In conclusion, Triple-P was found to be effective in improving the mother-child relationship and managing the stress of mothers of children with intellectual disabilities.

DEALING WITH SARS COV-2 PANDEMIC: PERUSING REMDESIVIR AND HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE AS THERAPEUTIC ALTERNATIVE

Lipi Nogai, Ranjana Bohra, Karishma Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2132-2148

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) emerged from the Wuhan city of China andcame up with a global emergency as a pandemic.It made millions of human lives infected, and thousands of deaths around the globe havealarmedvarious health organizations regarding theurgent need to find out its effectual treatment. Although, at present, there is no treatment or vaccine for this novel coronavirus, there are several drugs under trial to find the most promising one.  Remdesivir, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug and hydroxychloroquine, an antimalarial and immunomodulatory drug, have been a matter of interest due to the various researches where they have proved their efficacy against the SARS CoV-2. Here we review the current invitro and invivo evidence of remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine as an effective treatment for SARS CoV-2. Some studies have also been done based on previous experiences of SARS CoV and MERS CoV which share structural similarities with the recent SARS CoV-2 and are also of the same β-coronavirus category. Our finding says, both the drugs have reported to play inhibitory role against SARS coronavirus with very low EC50 values, indicating better potency and less toxicity for future aspects. Although, both the drugs have suggested having beneficial outcomes whether tested on cell lines or few patients tested positive with the virus, however completion and results of clinical trials will prove their potency and efficacy beyond any doubts.

AN APPRAISAL OF THE SCREENING AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES IN SOUTH INDIAN WOMEN: A SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE IN AN URBAN SETTING

R H Lakshmi ( Ravanasamudram Hariharan Lakshmi), J V Balasubramaniyan (Jayanty Venkata Balasubramaniyan)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2149-2164

The debate over the criteria to screen and diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus
(GDM) has been incessant over the last five decades.This study is particularly directed towards evaluating the one-step approach of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) versus the two-step process with a screening test of oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) followed by the OGTT as screening and diagnostic criteria in South Indian women. The study also aimed to determine the normal glucose tolerance range in the study population. Materials and Methods: In a study sample of 1200 women, one and two-step diagnostic criteria were applied to 600 women each. After exclusion of those who satisfied the criteria for the diagnosis of GDM, the remaining were evaluated for determination of the normal study population followed by comparative and statistical analysis. We analysed the prevalence of GDM based on more than one abnormal value versus more than  two abnormal values. Results: Out of the 600 women subjected to one-step test, 56 (9.33%) were diagnosed with GDM with a sensitivity and specificity of 80.36% and 95.77%, respectively. For the two-step test, 10 (1.67%) were found to have GDM with sensitivity of 90%; and specificity of 66.27% & 53.9 %. Conclusion: Though the one-step screening process is extremely effective, this study has revealed various advantages of the two-step protocol. The prior screening test in the two-step method reduces the burden of testing by oral glucose tolerance test, thereby diminishing laboratory load to a great extent.

Ethical And Medicolegal Considerations For Termination Of Pregnancy In Cases Of Placenta Accreta With Massive Bleeding At 18-19 Weeks Of Gestation: A Case Report

Taufik Suryadi; Nurul Fikriani; Kulsum Kulsum

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2172-2177

Placenta accreta is one of the complications of pregnancy in the form of adhesion of part or total of the placenta to the myometrium which can pose a risk of placenta praevia and massive bleeding. We report a case of a patient aged 41 years during her fifth pregnancy with gestational age 18-19 weeks who experienced placenta praevia totalis with suspected placenta accreta having complaints of recurrent active bleeding from the birth canal. The ethical dilemma that occurs concerns how the action should be taken and when the action is taken? The ethical consideration used in this case is the minus malum principle, namely by considering which one carries the least risk among the two, namely termination of pregnancy or continuing the pregnancy with the risk of threatening the mother's life due to bleeding. Medicolegal considerations used double effect and patient safety principles in obstetrics care. In this case it was decided to do pregnancy termination by total hysterectomy on the basis of maternal safety considerations.

The Impact of LSSR Policy on the Anxiety Level of Undergraduate Students during COVID-19

Xindy Imey Pratiwi; Jayanti Dian Eka Sari; Bela Yuli Selfia; Ianatul Ulya Dewi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2178-2186

Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) is an infectious disease caused by the new corona virus and causes most sufferers to experience respiratory disease. The current situation of Covid-19 until December 15, 2020 is known to be 623,309 people in Indonesia who have been confirmed as infected Covid-19. As a result of the continuous increase in the number of confirmed Covid-19 cases, the government implemented a LSSR policy to prevent the spread of Covid-19. However, this policy is felt to have a negative impact on the education sector, especially for undergraduate students. This research was an observational analytic study using a cross-sectional method located in cities and districts in East Java Province and was conducted from August to November 2020. The population in this study were all final semester students domiciled in East Java in 2020 with the number a sample of 385 people. This study was conducted to determine the effect of LSSR policy on the level of anxiety of final semester students in East Java. This study found that there was a significant influence between the implementation of the LSSR policy and the level of student anxiety in the final semester in East Java that was positive. This means that if there is an increase in the effect of the implementation of the LSSR policy on respondents, the level of anxiety will also increase.

Features Of Sleep Apnea Syndrome In Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Radjabova G; Ubaydullaeva N; Nazarova J; Urinov M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2187-2191

Clinical-instrumental examination and polysomnographic examination were performed in 56 patients with chronic cerebral ischemia on the background of venous cerebral dysfunction with concomitant pathology - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 21 (37.5%) of the examined patients had clinical manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea / hypopnea syndrome: mild - in 3, moderate - in 11, severe - in 7. A significant correlation was shown between body mass index, the number of episodes of apnea and the level of saturation of blood hemoglobin with oxygen, symptoms of venous cerebral dysfunction. Correlation with the index of forced expiratory volume for 1 second was not revealed. It should be assumed that in the pathogenesis of obstructive apnea / hypopnea syndrome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the degree of obesity and venous cerebral dysfunction are more important than the severity of lower airway obstruction.

Transformation Of Learning For Early Childhood Education Through Parent Assistance In The Pandemic Covid-19

Juliana .; Rudy Pramono; Rizaldi Parani; Arifin Djakasaputra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2192-2206

The 2019 corona virus disease (Covid-19) outbreak that hit countries in the world, presents its own challenges for educational institutions, especially early childhood education. To fight Covid-19, the Government prohibits gathering, social distancing and physical distancing, wearing masks and always washing hands and maintaining cleanliness. The Covid-19 pandemic has disrupted conventional learning processes. So we need a solution to answer these problems. Online learning is an alternative that can solve this problem. This study aims to determine strategies that can be applied in the learning transformation process through parental assistance in online learning for early childhood education children during the Covid 19 pandemic. The research method used is a descriptive qualitative approach. Data collected through observation, interviews and documentation. Interviews were conducted with 7 informants including the principal, parents of students and teachers. In this study, the sample determine using purposive sampling technique. The results showed that the model of parental assistance in online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic at Kingdom School, namely (1) parents ensure children and pay attention to material from the teacher, (2) accompany children when making homework, (3) people parents take part in any material provided by the teacher, (4) parents are also involved in online learning from the teacher. Meanwhile, the obstacles faced by parents in accompanying young children in online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic are not maintaining children's enthusiasm, not giving enough time, bad mood children and children bored and distracted by other things such as toys. The solution is First, by means of communication with the teacher. Second, creating a positive atmosphere. Third, enforcing discipline and Fourth, making learning videos for children.

Role and association of Hsp90, Her2, p53 and Ki-67 in Gastric and Colorectal Neopalasms in Indian context

Dr Sunethri Padma; Dr Rahul Dev Singh Rathore; Dr Shravan Kumar Odapally; Dr Shravan Kumar Parika; Dr Uday Kumar Putcha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2207-2222

Introduction: Gastrointestinal malignancies are on raise and there is a need for predictive and prognostic markers to study the tumor behavior. In the present study we have evaluated four most important markers in these tumors in Indian population so that drugs targeting these proteins can be included in the therapeutic regimes. We also compared the expressions with the grade and stage of the tumors. Materials and methods: The present study is an observational cross-section study. We have included neoplasms of Stomach, Colon and Rectum, 30 benign and 30 malignant neoplasms from each organ. Results: HSP90 expression was associated with the grade and stage of all tumors except grade of colonic tumors. HER2 was associated with grade and stage of all tumors except stage of stomach & rectum and grade of carcinoma colon. Ki-67 expression was associated with grade and stage of all tumors except stage of rectal carcinoma. p53 is associated with grade and stage of all the tumors. Conclusion: Marked geographical variations have been identified in the phenotypic characters of the tumors. An understanding of the pattern of expression of prognostic and predictive markers shall be helpful in better analysis of the tumor behavior.

Evaluation Of SARS-CoV-2 Entry Factors In Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Via Bioinformatics Analysis

Abdulmohsen M Alruwetei

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2223-2233

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is recognized as a life-threatening disease accounting for a considerable large morbidity and mortality in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) patients. The interplay between the virus and CLL disease at molecular level and whether the biology of CLL disease can contribute to the severity of infection are uncertain. Herein, I investigated the gene expression of 15 SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus-related receptors and factors in CLL disease based on meta-analysis of microarray datasets. The analysis revealed significant increase in the expression of 4 entry-promoting factors (BSG, CLEC4G, CLEC4M and DPP4), whereas the well-known entry receptor (i.e. ACE-2) and protease (i.e. TMPRSS2) for SARS-CoV-2 were not expressed at significant high level in CLL disease. In regard to the entry-restricting factors, CLL disease demonstrated a significant decrease in IFITM2 and LY6E genes. These results reiterated the findings from other studies which indicated a higher gene expression of the virus-entry receptors as well as lower gene expression of the virus-entry restrictors in COVID-19 comorbidity diseases compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest possible roles of the host genetic factors related to SARS-CoV-2 entry on the comorbidity between CLL and COVID-19 disease

Evaluation of Vertical Mandibular Asymmetry in TMD patients: An Orthopantomographic Study

Sarika K; Parvathy Ghosh; Sapna Varma N.K; Ajith V.V; Lekshmi Anand

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2253-2262

The evaluation of asymmetry is important for aesthetic and functional evaluation of the maxillofacial region. Aetiology of mandibular asymmetry is multifactorial. Even though there are different techniques available for assessing asymmetry, OPG is relatively inexpensive and one of the most commonly used radiographs. Thus aim of this study was to evaluate the vertical mandibular asymmetry in TMD patients using orthopantomography. The study included OPG’s of 136 patients each in TMD positive and TMD negative group. Condylar asymmetry, ramal asymmetry and total mandibular asymmetry (Condyle + ramus) in vertical plane were assessed. The data was statistically analysed using Mann Whitney U Test. Condylar asymmetry, ramal asymmetry and total mandibular asymmetry (condyle + ramus) was highly prevalent in females of both TMD positive and TMD negative group and it was statistically significant. Condylar asymmetry was highly prevalent in TMD positive group but the results was not statistically significant. No statistically significant difference were found in vertical mandibular asymmetry between TMD positive and TMD negative group. However vertical condylar asymmetry, ramal asymmetry and total mandibular asymmetry was significantly higher females than in males.

Correlation between Prenatal, Perinatal, and Postnatal Factors with Congenital Hearing Loss

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2263-2274

Congenital hearing loss can be caused by prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors and is difficult to detect. All infants should be screened for hearing loss and intervention should be given as soon as possible to prevent speech and behavior disorders. The study was aimed to examine the correlation between prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors with congenital hearing loss in infants. This was an observational analytic research using secondary data from the medical record of infants aged 0-12 months who were screened with otoacoustic emission (OAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) in Audiology Clinic of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital in 2014-2018. Total of 439 infants met the inclusion criteria. Most of them were ≤ 1 months old (46.2%) and male (53.3%). The largest proportion of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors in this study respectively were Toxoplasma, other agents, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex (TORCH) infection (23.2%), low birth weight (67.7%), and febrile convulsion (5.5%). Congenital hearing loss was found in 151 of 439 patients (34.4%). Chi-square test showed a difference between the results of OAE and AABR (p = 0.000). Coefficient contingency test showed a correlation between asphyxia and congenital hearing loss (p = 0.002). Asphyxia as perinatal factor was correlated with congenital hearing loss, whereas prenatal and postnatal factors were not correlated. Using OAE complemented with AABR is recommended in screening for congenital hearing loss.

A Detailed Survey On Feature Extraction Techniques In Image Processing For Medical Image Analysis

K. Kranthi Kumar; Kavitha Chaduvula; Babu Rao Markapudi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2275-2284

Feature Extraction assumes a significant function in the region of picture handling. Before getting Features, different picture pre-processing strategies like binarization, thresholding, resizing, standardization and so forth are applied on the inspected picture. From that point onward, Feature extraction methods are applied to get Features that will be helpful in arranging and acknowledgment of pictures. Feature extraction strategies are useful in different picture handling applications for example character acknowledgment. As Features characterize the conduct of a picture, they show its place regarding capacity taken, proficiency in arrangement and clearly in time utilization moreover. Here in this paper, we will talk about different kinds of Features, include extraction procedures and clarifying in what situation, which Features extraction method, will be better. Thus, in this paper, we will mention Features and Feature extraction strategies if there should be an occurrence of character identification application.

DMIST Scale for Predicting Healing Time within 12 Weeks in Patients with Diabetic Ulcer

Suriadi, RN, Ph.D, AWCS; Wida Kuswida Bhakti, RN, Ph.D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2285-2293

Background: An assessment scale, namely, the DMIST (deep, moisture, infection/inflammation, size, tissue type of wound bed, type of wound edge and tunnelling/undermining), was designed to identify the healing time of chronic ulcers. An evaluation was then conducted to test the predictive validity of DMIST. This study aimed to evaluate whether the total scores from the DMIST scale could predict healing time of diabetic ulcer.
Method: A prospective study cohort was obtained from the Kitamura Wound Clinic in Pontianak, Indonesia. A total of 33 patients with diabetic ulcer were recruited to participate in the study. Collected data included DMIST score, demographic information, Wagner wound classification, neuropathic status, ankle brachial index, HbA1c level and wound images. Using the DMIST scale, trained data collectors scored patients every 7 days until ulcers were healed or patients were discharged.
Results: A cutoff score of 9 was valid as a predictor of non-healing after 12 weeks. The DMIST scale was found to have high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (96%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.856 to 1.000).
Conclusion: The DMIST scale was found to be a valid assessment scale to identify wound healing time in a period of 12 weeks in patients with diabetic ulcer.

Relationship Between Platelet, Hematocrit and Leukocyte with Dengue Severity in Bengkulu City, Indonesia

Dessy Triana; Annelin Kurniati; Gayatri Ghea Wirastari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2305-2311

Establishing the correct diagnosis of the clinical stage and the severity of dengue patients is very important to determine the prognosis. Examination of platelets, hematocrit and leukocytes for each clinical stage of dengue can help group and manage patients based on their clinical degree. This study aimed to determine the relationship between platelet, hematocrit and leukocyte examination results with the clinical degree of dengue based on WHO. This study used a cross-sectional study design with a sampling technique using consecutive sampling from July-November 2020 in 5 hospitals at Bengkulu City with total sample of 35 patients. The results found a strong relationship between hematocrit levels and the degree of severity of dengue (p = 0.001; r = 0.637). However, there was no significant relationship between the number of platelets (p = 0.826; r = -0.039) and leukocytes (p = 0.554; r = -0.103) with the severity of dengue. Laboratory tests are crucial to establish the clinical degree of dengue and disease’s prognosis.

The Compatibility Of Hba1c And Glycated Albumin Levels As Markers For Blood Glucose Follow-Up In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Edward Kurnia Setiawan Limijadi; Ivan Kurniawan Effendy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2312-2318

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases, characterized by hyperglycaemia that occurs due to abnormalities in insulin secretion. Uncontrolled diabetes will lead to the development of further complications. HbA1c level measurement is the current gold standard for monitoring glucose levels in DM patients. Glycated albumin (GA) is a fructosamine formed through a non-enzymatic glycation process. There are still few studies on the correlation between HbA1c and GA levels in T2DM patients. Therefore, we decided to investigate the correlation between HbA1c and GA levels in T2DM patients.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between HbA1c and GA levels in T2DM patients.
METHODS: This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design conducted on 69 T2DM patients at Diponegoro National Hospital from June to August 2020. We collected data consisting of age, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, HbA1c and GA levels. We measured HbA1c levels using I-chroma Boditech tool with the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) method, and GA levels using the Architect C8000 tool with an enzymatic method. Finally, we performed statistical analysis using Spearman's correlation test.
RESULTS: The median ± SE values of HbA1c and GA levels were (7.1 ± 0.19%) and (21.2 ± 0.85%), respectively. The Spearman's correlation test results between HbA1c and GA levels were p <0.001; r = 0.775.
DISCUSSION: Maintenance of blood glucose levels in the body is essential for T2DM patients. HbA1c and GA levels can be used for clinical evaluation of T2DM patients.
CONCLUSION: There was a strong significant correlation between HbA1c and GA levels in T2DM patients. HbA1c and GA levels can be used for clinical evaluation of DM patients according to the patient's condition.

Communication Strategy of The Department of Youth, Sports, Culture and Tourism in Revitalization the Water Park Cave Sunyaragi Cirebon City, Indonesia

Farida Nurfalah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2319-2326

Communication strategy is one of the efforts of sunyaragi area management that needs them to reach the desired destination to convey information about the existence of tourist attractions to the community, so that prospective tourists know and are interested in visiting tourist sites. The identification of problems in this study is as follows: 1). How are communication strategies conducted the department of youth, culture, sports and tourism in the water park cave sunyaragi cirebon?, 2). How are the communication strategies conducted constraints department of youth, sports, culture and tourism in the water park cave sunyaragi cirebon?. This study method uses qualitative descriptive studies. the selection of informants using purposive sampling is to the manager of tourist attractions using data triangulation techniques. The results explained that the communication strategies carried out by water park Manager sunyaragi ranging from audience recognition, composing messages, determining methods, and selection of media used even more than visitor posts on their social media add to the promotion of tourism and also in media specially made disporbudpar. The obstacles faced by the Disporbudpar, that there is still a lack of public awareness of tourist attractions and the maintenance of tourist attractions if exposed to mushrooms due to cold weather

Clinical and hemodynamic efficacy of prehospital thrombolysis in acute coronary syndrome with ST elevation

Kenjaev S.R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2327-2331

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in countries around the world, with ST segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) leading the way. Despite advances such as the widespread introduction of many effective drugs, angioplasty and surgical treatments into clinical practice, CVD kills 17.3 million people annually, accounting for 30% of all deaths worldwide. This figure is projected to increase to 23.6 million by 2030. In the world, including in Uzbekistan, over the past two decades there has been an increase in morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular pathology.

The Management Persfective Of Savings, Deposits, And Receivables In Syariah Bank Ntb. Indonesia

Muaidy Yasin; M Amin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2341-2346

This study aims to determine the effect of mudharabah deposits and mudharabah deposits on murabahah receivables at BPRS Patuh Beramal, Dinar Asri and Tulen Amanah which can produce statistical tests for each of these variables. This means that the number of these two types of funds for Islamic banks needs to be increased considering the nature of these funds has a grace period for disbursement by customers and banks can more freely manage them into productive assets.

Validity and Reliability of Instruments Assessing Household Satisfaction With 3R-Based Waste Management (Tempat Pengolahan Sampah) and Waste Bank Services in Depok, Indon

Zakianis .; Sabarinah .; I Made Djaja; Haruki Agustina

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2347-2360

Solid wastes in Indonesia are managed by two types of units regulated by two different ministries. Households are the end clients for both units; thus it is important to assess their satisfaction with the quality of the waste management services. To assess each unit, we developed survey instruments that incorporate the 3R concept and tested each instrument’s construct validity and reliability. The survey was conducted in Depok City, Indonesia, interviewing household members responsible for domestic waste management. The sample size for each unit was 30 households. Construct validity was tested using confirmatory factor analysis; reliability was measured using the Cronbach-α coefficient. Results show that both instruments have fairly valid constructions (communality >50%) while performing with good reliability. The final number of items in each instrument is similar for the TPS3R and waste bank instruments.

Fever in Children: How Knowledge, Attitude and Belief among Healthcare Community can Affect Assessment.

Riyadi Adrizain; Cory Primaturia; Raisa Mentari Moeis; Djatnika Setiabudi; Alex Chairulfatah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2361-2369

Background: The study was aimed to assess the knowledge of healthcare provider and the correlation of the healthcare providers’ educational degree toward fever management in children.
Method: This study was conducted among healthcare-community using a questionnaire as the primary data. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed by using percentage and the correlation of their degree toward fever was analyzed by the chi-square test with statistically significant p values of < 0.05.
Result: Questions 1-17 about basic science were answered correctly by more than 80%, except those regarding non-shivering thermogenesis in neonates showing that the residents and medical students group got better results than the specialists and medical doctors (61%; 68.8%; vs 84.7%; 83.3, respectively Chi-square, p = 0.039 (p < 0.05)). While questions 18-25 about fever management in children, around half of the subjects answered correctly following the recommendations.
Conclusion: The subjects’ educational degree influenced their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the fever management in children

Environmental Factors and Vector Density Analysis of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Rowosari Health Center, Semarang

Sri Yuliawati; Aip Saripudin; Martini Martini; Lintang Dian Saraswati; Retno Hestiningsih

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2370-2377

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted by the Aedes sp Mosquito. The Incident Rate (IR) in the Rowosari Health Center area in 2018 is still high, which is 98/100,000 residents. This study purpose to analyze the correlation between the rate of larvae and several environmental factors with the incidence of dengue in the work area of Rowosari Health Center, Semarang City. The research is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach, carried out by the analytic survey method. The sample in this study was houses located in 5 urban villages in the Rowosari health center area chosen by purposive sampling method. The results of this study indicate that the Rowosari Health Center work area has a House Index value (17.5%), Container Index (5.7%), Breteau Index (19.5%) with density figure 2-5. The results of the Pearson correlation test showed no significant correlation between House Index (p = 0.126), Container Index (p = 0.494), Breteau Index (p = 0.094), population density (p = 0.919), temperature (p = 0.384), humidity (p = 0.229) with the incidence of DHF in the Rowosari health center work area. It is recommended that the community routinely clean containers as an effort to improve ABJ and conduct PSN regularly and thoroughly

Antibacterial Finishing and Dyeing Affinity Enhancement of cellulose-based fabrics via pre-treatment by chitosan nanoparticles treatment

Fatma A. Mohamed; Maysa M. Reda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2378-2392

Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared as green antibacterial finishing material and enhance antimicrobial activity of cellulose-based fabrics such as cotton and viscose. Two new bifunctional dye Bis (monochlorotriazine) (MCT) and hetero bifunctional (SES/MCT) reactive dyes have been prepared in previous work. Dimedone moiety (5,5-Dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione) and applied in cellulose-based fabrics with various chitosan nanoparticles concentrations imparting them antimicrobial activity. In this work the effect of chitosan nanoparticles on dye ability of cellulose-based fabrics were studied from evaluation of the colour strength expressed in K/S values of the dyed fabrics at different concentration of chitosan nanoparticles and the two synthesized used dyes. Results showed that chitosan nanoparticles treated cellulose-based fabrics have higher affinity towards dyeing than untreated cellulose-based fabrics. Also, the antimicrobial properties of the treated fabrics were higher than that of untreated fabrics and give higher exhaustion without using any salts and alkalinity. So, chitosan nanoparticles exhibit cellulose based fabrics high antimicrobial and having dyeing affinity than untreated one. Also, treated dyed fabrics showed very good to excellent fastness properties.

Characteristics of Asymptomatic Malaria in Eastern Indonesia: A Cross-sectional Study

Rachmatria Luthfiani Khaerunnissya; Nisa Fauziah; Hesti Lina Wiraswati; Jontari Hutagalung

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2405-2414

Background: Asymptomatic malaria predominates in the malaria-endemic region. Asymptomatic malaria is defined as an individual with confirmed-malaria test yet has no fever at the time of sample collection. Despite the absence of fever, other malaria-related symptoms can be present in an asymptomatic individual. The absence of fever leads to a low proportion of asymptomatic malaria case findings. Unfound and untreated asymptomatic malaria may lead to a decrease of hemoglobin level that progresses to anemia. It is necessary to find out those symptoms since it may aid asymptomatic malaria finding. This study was conducted to identify malaria-related symptoms other than fever and its potential contributing factors, as well as hemoglobin level in asymptomatic malaria subjects in eastern Indonesia.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using secondary random sampling data from the previous study in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to analyze the data.
Results: 178 asymptomatic malaria data were included in the study. The most frequent symptoms were headache (18.8%), chills, and myalgia (12.4%). P. vivax was the most prevalent etiologic agent (52.5%). The risk of developing any symptom increased in P. vivax infection (OR =1.16, 95% CI=0.38-3.50), in the presence of anemia (OR=1.30, 95% CI=0.58-2.73), and in the presence of breeding sites (OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.40-2.66). Conclusion: malaria-related symptoms other than fever were found in asymptomatic malaria thus it may help the case finding and management as well as aid the malaria elimination program be easier to reach.

The Diagnostic Challenges in Patient with Multiple System Atrophy: A Case Report

Felisitas Farica Sutantoyo; Paulus Sugianto; Muhammad Hamdan; Priya Nugraha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2415-2420

Introduction
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, severe adult onset, sporadic, progressive neurodegenerative movement disorders that are still poorly understood. It is characterized by cerebellar ataxia, autonomic disorders, and parkinsonism syndrome in various combinations. The incidence rate is 0.6 cases per 100,000 people per year. Prevalence is 4-5 cases per 100,000 people. Despite of the presence of well-established clinical criteria for multiple system atrophy, ante-mortem diagnosis is difficult.
Case
We present a case of 44-year-old, male who with unsteady, wide based gait and rigidity which had developed gradually for 2 years. One year after the appearance of the first symptoms, he developed dysarthria, difficulty in swallowing, dizziness when changing position, and bladder incontinence. From neurologic examination we found orthostatic hypotension, dysmetria and dysdiadochokinesia on the both side. He met all the major criteria for possible rapid progression of MSA. In addition, brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed prominent solids left and right cerebellum hemispheres and slight atrophy pons.
Conclusion
Our case can be classified as MSA according to the diagnostic criteria because the definitive diagnosis of MSA is only based on post-mortem pathological analysis. From this case we can learn that diagnosing MRA is quite challenging especially in early years of disease. The importance of good MRI interpretation and early finding of brain MRI abnormality can improve the accuracy of MSA diagnosis

The use of Mosquito Nets and The Habit of Going Out at Night as Risk Factors for Filariasis in Kodi Balaghar sub-district, Southwest Sumba district, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia; Case Control Study

Irfan .; Anderias Parawatu Ora; Soleman Landi; Zubair .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2421-2430

There is not much information about the risk factors for filariasis transmission in Southwest Sumba Regency, East Nusa Tenggara. To obtain this information, we conducted an epidemiological study of the incidence of filariasis infection in Kahale Village and Radda Malando Village, Balaghar District. The factors investigated were gender, age, occupation, occupancy density, knowledge, use of mosquito nets, nighttime habits, use of mosquito repellent, habit of hanging clothes in the room, physical condition of the house, proximity to mosquito breeding habitats and close to people with filariasis. This type of research is analytic observational where the sample was taken using case control as many as 64 people. The research instrument used a questionnaire and check list. Data analysis used the SPSS program statistical test with Backward Logistic Regression Test. The results of the bivariate test showed that the variables that had a relationship with the incidence of filariasis were the use of mosquito nets, the habit of going out at night, the habit of hanging clothes in the room with a p value <0.05. The prediction model for the incidence of filariasis with the ability to predict is 88.8% with the following equation: Y = -10,609 + 5,148 use of bed nets + 3,318 night out habits. The study showed that two variables were risk factors for filariasis, namely the habit of using a mosquito net (OR 172.18) and the habit of going out at night (OR 27.596). We conclude that the behavior of using bed nets and the habit of going out at night plays an important role in increasing filariasis infection so that it is important to change aspects of community behavior to reduce the incidence of filariasis infection. 

Effect of Simvastatin to Bladder Detrusor Senescence Acitivity in Protamin Sulfate-Induced Intersititial Cystitis Rat Model

Abdi Dzul Ikram Hasanuddin; Rahmawati Minhajat; Mirna Muis; Muhammad Husni Cangara; Abdurrahman Hasymi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2431-2440

Statin can increase the risk of interstitial cystitis. Recently, the exact mechanism is yet known. We hypothesize that cellular senescence, particularly in the detrusor muscle cells contributes to the mechanism. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of simvastatin on bladder detrusor senescence activity in the protamine sulfate-induced interstitial cystitis rat model. Thirty-seven female Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks old were included and divided into three groups. They were treated with simvastatin 10 mg/kg BW (n=12), simvastatin 50 mg/kg BW (n=13), and the solvent carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) 0.5% (n=12) by oral gavage for 30 days. Each group was then equally subdivided into three groups: control, IC day-0, and IC day-3. The IC rat group was induced by protamine sulfate, while the control group was treated with buffered saline intravesical treatment. In less than three hours after intravesical treatment, all animals in the control and IC day-0 group were sacrificed to collect their bladder tissue. Otherwise, animals in the IC day-3 group were sacrificed three days after intravesical treatment. All collected tissue was measured for senescence marke β-Galactosidase 1 (GLB1) expression by immunohistochemistry procedure. In the control group, the GLB1 expression in rat treated with simvastatin 50 mg/kg BW was 20.12 ± 5.77 % and highest than the rat treated with other treatment, although the difference not significant (p=0.812). In the IC day-0 and IC day-3 group, the GLB1 expression in rat treated with simvastatin 10 mg/kg BW and CMC 0.5% were higher than in the control group, otherwise, the GLB1 expression in rat treated with simvastatin 50 mg/kg BW was lower than in the control group, although not significant (p>0.05). We conclude that a higher dose of simvastatin can increase the bladder detrusor senescence expression along with their apoptotic activity in the presence of urinary leakage.

GLOBAL PROCESSING SYSTEM BASED SKIN CANCER CLASSIFICATION SING DERMOSCOPIC IMAGES

S. Mohan kumar; T. Kumanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2441-2447
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.10.265

The Global Processing System (GPS) of Non-Subsampled Shearlet Transform (NSST) features for dermoscopic image classification with Support Vector Machine (SVM) is presented. If a skin cancer is diagnosed early in its development, i.e., when the tumour is thin, it has a good prognosis which significantly worsens as the thickness increases. The NSST is decomposed by 4 levels with 8 directions. Finally, the SVM classifier is used for classification. The proposed system produces the classification accuracy of 96 % and its sensitivity is 93.33 % and specificity 100 %.
 

DEVELOPING A NOVEL BIO SENSOR FOR ETHANOL VAPOUR DETECTION

Pavan Kalyan Reddy C.P; Roji Marjorie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2448-2451
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.10.261

To prepare a novel Bio sensor for ethanol vapour detection with higher sensitivity. In this Zn(Mn)/ZnO inverted core shell structure is doped in starch. Add a noble metal foe the better response. After this making thin films and determine the thickness of a thin films. Dielectric constant is determined by using the LCR meter. The characterization is done by using XRD, SEM, and the sensing properties of ethanol sensor are based on the resistance-based sensing

ANALYSIS OF EITHER AUTISM OR DOWN SYNDROME BABY MOTHERS MENTAL HEALTH

V. Bhavani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2452-2473
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.10.262

The key purpose of this research was to review and analyze the psychological health of women whose children had either Autism or Down syndrome. Observed in the present research, the mental state of the moms, who are primary care providers to their 'special' infants, is of considerable concern when evaluating the literature gathered. The data was obtained using Jagadish & Srivastava's constructed and structured Mental Health Inventory (MHI) with the aid of a purposeful sampling method. The tool's credibility has been already defined by the creator. The pilot study was carried out on 30 participants (l5 moms of autistic children & l5 moms of children with Down syndrome).The hypothesis are formulated for collecting and analyzing the data. The data collection was done in ‘special’ schools. They were located in Alwarpet, Raja anamalaipuram, Basentnagar and Neelangarai. The test was administered to the mothers of children with either autism or down syndrome. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The formulated hypothesis was tested and conclusions were drawn from the findings. The results of the study found that the mum's total mental health of 'special' kids is low. There is about the same level of psychological health for the children and families with either autism condition or down syndrome.

Assessment and Physiotherapeutic Interventions in Cancer-Related Fatigue among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Narrative Review

Neha Dubey; Dr Sunil kumar; Dr Kailash Kumar Mittal; Dr Vaibhav Kanti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2474-2490

Globally, breast cancer is considered one of the most common types of cancer among women. The National Institute of Health in collaboration with the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship defines cancer survivors as an individual from the time of cancer diagnosis, through the balance of his or her life. Cancer-related Fatigue (CRF) is described as the distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment associated with physical, mental, and emotional manifestations including generalized weakness, diminished concentration or attention, decreased motivation or interest to engage in normal activities and emotional lability. There are several validated tools for measuring cancer-related fatigue. The search for the relevant journal was carried out referring through many databases: PubMed, PubMed Central, Cochrane, and PEDro and mainly focuses on the RCTs, clinical trials, and systemic reviews. There are varieties of physical therapy interventions that play a beneficial role in reducing Cancer-related Fatigue followed by improvement in the physical activities, functional status thereby enhancing the lifestyle & quality of life among breast cancer survivors. These interventional programs will only be effective if the patient strictly adheres and follow the pre-designed exercise protocols referring through many guidelines for an effective outcome. The purpose of this research is to identify various effective assessment and physiotherapeutic interventions according to evidence-based studies on cancer-related fatigue among breast cancer survivors.

TRANSIENT EFFECT OF AIRCRAFT PROPELLER BLADE BY USING COMPOSITES

KAKUMANI DHARMATEJA AJAY KUMAR REVURI

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2491-2497

A propeller is a fan form which transmits power by turning rotational movement into an impeller. The pressure differential between the airfoil formed blade's surfaces in front and rear is created and the fluid is propelled behind the blade, for example air. The present analysis is directed to the examination of the function of the composite propeller and its terms, simulation and the simulation of the flow of the composite propeller of the aircraft. For study of ANSYS applications integrated aircraft propeller. The deformity, tension and pressure of the composite propeller blade must be calculated by static and dynamic analysis. Tiredness analysis to calculate the component's existence. The propeller blades that differ in no of blades are optimised for 2,3&5 blades and even E-glass material epoxy, aluminium alloy and carbon epoxy have been optimised. CATIA parametric machine simulation 3D. 3D.

A STUDY OF ROLE EFFICACY PROFILES OF DOCTORS SERVING IN PRIVATE SECTOR HEALTH SERVICE ORGANIZATION OF UTTAR PRADESH (INDIA): AN ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION

Dr. Tulika Saxena, Dr. Ashutosh Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2498-2508

The objective of the present study is predominantly diagnostic which focuses on the fact that role efficient doctors are the building blocks of the society. If one problem needs to be identified as the most critical one in Indian Health organization today, it can certainly be that of work commitment, trust and motivation. The paper makes an attempt to explore the role efficacy profiles of doctors serving in a private sector organization of Uttar Pradesh (India). The primary data was collected by means of structured questionnaire in the HRD workshop and on personal basis canvassed among the sample drawn for the purpose, which comprised of 166 respondents (doctors)in private sector, Indian organization of repute. Data has been statistically treated and complemented by descriptive analysis. Conclusion drawn from the study gives a picture of dominant, dormant and backup dimensions of role- efficacy of the respondents and existing state of organizational culture and practices prevailing in the organizational built-up .Finally, the paper concludes by looking at some possible measures to foster benchmarking success and commitment by enhancing and giving fillip to all the ten dimensions of role –efficacy.

Challenges of COVID-19 Vaccine Delivery Management in India

Dr Sandeep Bhardwaj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2509-2515

Corona Virus or SARS-CoV-2 or Covid-19 virus has disrupted the world like nothing else humanity has seen. It has brought about an unprecedented health crises that we only heard about in books. Every country was found wanting in preparation to fight the attack. With no treatment in sight, the only solution scientists started working on was to make a vaccine to prevent infection. Vaccine development history shows at best 10 years in the making. In a rare worldwide cooperation of best minds of the world, this feat was achieved in 10 months. Humanity will never forget the year 2020 which brought a crises and the human spirit to find solution to it.
The main objective of this study is to look at the scenario post vaccine discovery and approval. The disease being so contagious, has to be curbed by vaccinating the entire population. This is not an easy task as it involves mind boggling efforts on part of government authorities who are directly concerned with public health. For a vast and highly populated country, it is even more complicated. The study examines the major challenges in vaccinating the billion plus Indian population. Availability of skilled manpower, a weak healthcare infrastructure, delivery logistics, cost of the vaccine, and spread of misinformation are some of the most important challenges that have emerged out of this study.

TIBIAL LENGTHENING IN PATIENTS WITH ACHONDROPLASIA BY ILIZAROV METHOD

Hazem Abdel Hameed Abdel Hameed, Hassan Magdy El Barbary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2516-2521

Surgical lengthening of the limbs is invasive, dangerous, and long-term. It is associated with high risks. Moreover, it requires a special psychological approach on the part of the patients and their families.
However, it can be a reasonable option for patients with achondroplasia, not only for improving height but also improving self-esteem and quality of life.

SPITZY SHELF ACETABULOPLASTY FOR PERTHES DISEASE

Hassan Magdy Elbarbary, Hisham Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed Youness Ali, Karim Ibrahim Okasha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2522-2530

Background: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of Spitzy shelf acetabuloplasty in Legg–Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) excluding cases with hinge abduction.
Methods: This prospective case series study was conducted in the period from January 2018 to May 2020 at Cairo University Children’s Hospital (Abou El Reesh). A total of 20 cases were done. 16 were males and four were females. The mean age at onset of disease was 8.5 years (range: 8 years to 10 years). Pre-operatively, four patients were on the initial stage and 16 patients were on the fragmentation stage (six cases classified as lateral pillar group B and ten cases classified as group B/C). Patients were followed up for a mean of 18.3 months (range: 12 to 26 months). Clinical assessment was done using modified Sundt criteria. Radiological parameters were followed up. Stulberg classification was done for cases that reached the healed stage on follow up.
Results: Clinically, 17 cases were good and three cases were fair according to modified Sundt criteria. Radiologically, all the parameters improved significantly. Nine cases reached the healed stage on follow up. Three cases were classified as Stulberg II, five cases as Stulberg III and one case as Stulberg IV.
Conclusion: We recommend Spitzy shelf acetabuloplasty for the management of early stages of LCPD in patients with onset of the disease over eight years. This protocol of management yields a favorable clinical and radiological results with 88.9% of cases achieving Stulberg III or less outcome.

VALIDATION OF STS SCORE FOR EGYPTIAN CABG PATIENTS

John Malaty Fouad Abdelmesseh*, Prof. Dr. Magued Abdelmesseh Zikri, Prof. Dr. Waleed Gamal Eldin Abosenna, Prof. Dr. Ahmed Salah Eldin Fouad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2531-2542

Background: As the standard treatment of complex CAD, CABG was established. Medical recommendations have adopted prognostic models and are now broadly used to evaluate risk and guide treatment. We applied STS scoring system to patients undergoing CABG to evaluate their predictive performance of early mortality and morbidities.
Methods: In the period between septemper 2018 and June 2020, we evaluated 100 patients who underwent CABG at the Kasr AL Ainy hospitals. STS values were calculated for the patients who were fall in the isolated CABG model of the STS risk models using the STS calculator v2.9 available online
To represent the discriminative power of the scoring system, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has been used and the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics were used to evaluate calibration.
Results: STS model showed good discrimination power and good calibration in Hosmer and Lemeshow Test in predicting mortality, morbidity, renal failure, neurological complications, DSW infection and long length of stay. Also it showed bad calibration in predicting prolonged ventilation. However, it could not be assessed for reoperation and short length of stay because there were no events.
Conclusion: In the population studied subjected to CABG procedures, the STS scoring system has been well calibrated to be utilized, capable of detecting mortality and most of the results examined.

TREATMENT OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA WITH PORTAL VEIN TUMORAL THROMBOSIS BY 90Y RADIOEMBOLIZATION: SAFETY AND OUTCOME RESULTS.

Mohamed H. K. Abdelmaksoud, MD, Ahmed H. K. Abdelmaksoud, MD, Hala Dallaa, MS Medhat Madbouly, MD, Mohamed F.H Abdallah, MD, Osama M. Abuelsalheen, MS, Ahmed Salama Elsaka, MS, Ahmed Gamal Eldin Darwish, MD, Ayman Abdelaziz, MD, Mohamed A. Elkady, MD, Ahmed A. Mikkawy, MD, Moataz H. Hassanien, MD, Ahmed A. Mahmoud, MD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2543-2556

Purpose: Portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVT) is a late stage complication of infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), common in patients. Limited treatment options are available for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with PVT. We present our initial experience treating such patients with 90Y radioembolization.
Materials and Methods: From August 2011 to February 2013, 31 patients with hepatitis C and HCC with PVT treated by 90Y radioembolization were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor involves the main portal vein in 5 (16.1%) patients, lobar PV in 16 (51.7%) patients, and segmental PV in 10 (32.3%) patients. 36 treatment sessions were performed on 31 patients. 8 patients (25.8%) received whole liver treatment, and the remainder received segmental or lobar treatment. Median dose delivered was 1.92 GBq (range, 0.21–4.96 GBq). 14 patients (45%) started sorafenib treatment one week after radioembolization. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were recorded. Tumor response was evaluated using RECIST and mRECIST criteria. Survival statistics were calculated.
Results: The main clinical toxicity was fatigue (54.8%). One patient experienced grade 3 bilirubin toxicity, and none experienced gastroduodenal ulcers. Overall and PVT response rates by RECIST were 56.5% and 60.9% and by mRECIST 73.9% each, respectively.
Overall mean and median survival were 16.2 months and 7 months. Mean survival stratified by the location of PVT was 21.5, 10.7 and 19.6 months for segmental, lobar and main PVT patients (p=0.256). Patients who died did so from progressive intrahepatic disease. Using univariate analysis, ECOG performance status (p=0.016, HR=3.262), lobar involvement (p=0.036, HR=2.689), serum bilirubin (p<0.0001, HR=6.971) and presence of extrahepatic metastasis (p=0.046, HR=2.896) correlated with survival
Conclusion: 90Y radioembolization treatment for patients with HCC complicated by PVT is safe and results in a very high rate of radiologic response and very encouraging survival statistics.

Effect of Vitamin D on Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Wesam A. Ibrahim, Yara M.Eid, Doaa Z.Zaky, Noseila M. Elsheikh, Marwa A. El-Mohamdy, Dina A. Abdelhakam, Omnia M. El Nabawy, Christina A. Anwar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2557-2564

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) impacts the quality of life; its incidence has been increasing over last two decades to become the commonest gastrointestinal disease is. Pharmacological agents going to target the underlying illness mechanisms have been developed with an increasing awareness of IBS pathophysiology. Possible mechanisms implicated in IBS pathogenesis can be modulated by vitamin D, Owing to its possible role as immune modulator, and anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory agent.
The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of food rich in vitamin D and supplementation on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms in undergraduate medical students with vitamin D deficiency, as part of Nutritional Assessment of Medical Students of Ain Shams University (NAMS/ASU).
 Subjects and Methods: This is a prospective cohort study done as a part of The Nutritional Assessment of Medical Students of Ain Shams University (NAMS/ASU), the project was designed to evaluate the nutritional status of 1225 medical student of the undergraduate medical students.
This sector of the project included 40 vitamin D deficient (<20IU), IBS (according to ROME IV criteria) undergraduate medical students
Those students were selected after:
- History taking stressing on demographic data, IBS symptoms according to ROME IV criteria and chronic illness (DM, HTN, IBD,…..)
-Vitamin D level by ELISA (Ain Shams University Central Labs) with deficiency diagnosed at (<20 IU), (50 nmol/liter)
Those students were further subjected to:
-Diet instruction for irritable bowel syndrome and lifestyle advice (eg. Regular eating pattern, Limiting the intake of triggering agents, ensuring a good hydration and regular physical activity, take the time to eat, sit down to eat, chew the food carefully)
 -An advice to increase intake of vitamin D rich food and Vitamin D Oral Drops Cholecalciferol 42000 IU / week.
 Enrolled students were reassessed after 12 weeks through:
Re-evaluation of IBS symptoms using ROME IV criteria by the same investigator
Vitamin D level by ELISA using the same kits at the same laboratory (Ain Shams University Central Labs).
Informed written consent was obtained. Approval by the ethical committee was obtained.
Data collection was done, tabulated and analyzed (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA).  Probability (P-value) – The P-value of >0.05 was deemed insignificant.
Results: Forty undergraduate medical students were involved in this sector of (NAMS/ASU) with mean age= 22.33±1.37, mean BMI=23.75±3.02, 65% of included students were females. The included students had mean vitamin D= 11.68±8.17 and 44.30±16.18 before and after 12 weeks of VIT D supplementation respectively, 97.5% of the participants achieved vitamin D normalization by the end of the study, After three months of vitamin D supplementation, 47.5% (19 students) of the study population did not fulfill ROME IV criteria any more (no IBS symptoms), while 52.5% (21 students) of them continued to have ROME IV criteria, yet with partial relief of symptoms with a significantly higher vitamin D levels in the students with complete resolution of symptoms at the end of the study duration (P value=0.013)
Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation plays a therapeutic role in the control of IBS in vitamin D deficient IBS patients.

A Comparative Study of Ceftriaxone and Ceftriaxone + Sulbactam In the Prevention of Post-Operative Infections in A Surgical Unit.

Mr. Alishan Zia, Himani Nautiyal, Dr Prabhat kumar Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2565-2579

Background: Microbial infections are commonest in surgical scenarios all over the world. These are easily treatable using antibiotic therapy. They have been classified variously mainly based upon their mechanisms of action, route of administration and methods of synthesis. However, they are routinely related to side-effects and adverse drug reactions.
Objectives: This was a comparative study between Ceftriaxone and Ceftriaxone with Sulbactam combination for controlling post-operative infections arising in surgical units. Objectives were- a) to compare complications arising due to both the drug therapies; b) Reduction in morbidity and mortality and c) Reduce the overall treatment cost which may arise due to complications occurring. 
Methods: Total of 100 subjects were categorized into two groups comprising of 50 participants each- a) Group I (Ceftriaxone alone) and b) Group II (Ceftriaxone with Sulbactam, combination). Patients were examined in following durations: i) Immediately after surgery; ii) 3rd day, iii) 7th day, iii) 15th day and iv) One month post-operative period for complications.
Result: Group II drug combination demonstrated lesser incidence of post-operative complications when compared with group I most specifically, pus formation, septicemia, wound gapping, Skin necrosis, incisional hernias, shock, chills, hematuria, urinary infection and burning sensation during micturition. No cases of multiple organ failure or death were reported. 
Conclusion: Though there were less or no incidence of complications in Group II compared to group I, no statistical significant difference could be determined. Thus, it can be concluded that a large sample size would reflect clearly on clear distinction between the drugs/drug combinations studied.

Impact of Cause Marketing on Brand Affinity

Saumya Singh, Dr. M. Gurusamy, Dr. K. Sankar Ganesh, S. P. Shobha Devi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2580-2584

In the modern world, marketing plays a vital role in the quality of a product, the price of various products, and the services provided in the market. Many of the companies are using cause marketing to make differentiation of the products. The main aim of the cause is to make a difference in society by attracting customers through purchasing. Cause marketing will allow the companies to connect with the customers and have engagement in societal responsibility. Cause marketing will make customers and employees satisfied when there is a good quality of brands and profits when there is a cause. The cause is something extraordinary that brings benefit to society.  The cause marketing campaign should be conducted honestly for a positive environment and increase the customers’ loyalty towards the cause on brand. While conducting a cause, the marketing campaign should make the customers aware of the campaign through advertising, various social media, and have a full presence in the campaign than providing money for the campaign. The cause marketing campaigns will attract many customers and thus increase customer loyalty towards the brand, and they become loyal customers for that brand.

Impact Of E- Banking Services with Customer Attitude And Satisfaction With Special Reference To Chennai District

N. Saravanan, Dr. R. Leelavathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2585-2596

Today’s world is one with increasing online access to services. One part of this which is growing rapidly is online banking. Customer satisfaction is imperative for the incessant survival of any organization around the world. Purpose – This study aims to provide an analysis of the customer attitude and customer satisfaction toward three banking services technologies namely, automated teller machines (ATMs), mobile banking and internet (online) banking. The study started by conducting an correlation and Regression analysis, on the valid responses received from a convenience sample of bank customers. This research work intends to investigate the impact of E-banking variables on Customer Attitude and customer satisfaction in Chennai District. Data has been gathered through questionnaire from 200 E-banking users as respondents, from different region in Chennai district. Results of the study have revealed that there is momentous relationship between service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction in E-banking in Chennai District. Through this study we can conclude that service quality in E-banking leads to satisfied customers needs and wants and thus banks can gain competitive advantage by offering better-quality services to their customers in today’s emulous world. The result implicated that the internet banking service quality dimensions have a significant impact on the customer satisfaction of internet banking customers. Each of the dimension namely efficiency, system availability, fulfillment, privacy, contact, responsiveness and contact individually contribute 70% to the overall customer satisfaction in internet banking.  The paper provides empirical evidence to show that the internet banking service quality dimensions area an important factor to satisfy the customers since each of them is positively related to customer satisfaction.
 

Impact of Social Media in The Student’s Academic Performance: An Analysis of The State Universities of Assam

Merry Borgohain, Angkita Borpatra Gohain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2597-2606

Social Media, the driver of every minute information has established a tremendous pace among the youths. Social media has become a daily necessity is this area. No doubt it has given a great platform for any individual to exchange ideas and grab information from worldwide. Smart phones and internet connection are all requirements and everything is just on a click of button. It has been observed that younger generation is very much prone to social media. So, this paper is an attempt to study the impact on academic performance from the use of social media of the university students. The paper aims to identify the benefits students derive from social media. It also focuses to examine the privacy issues or problems on student’s academic life. A sample of 300 students is taken into consideration. Google forms are used in collecting data. All the respondents in the study have their own smart gadgets with internet facilities. It is also found that with the use of social media the academic life of the students affected positively as well as negatively too.

A Hospital Based Study of Short Stature among children in India from the Eastern UP Population

Abhay Kumar Yadav, Manpreet Kaur, Ashish , Nitish Kumar Singh, Royana Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2607-2619

Introduction: Accurate anthropometric measurements and critical analysis of growth data allow the clinician to promptly recognize children with short stature. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of etiological factors causing short stature among children referred to the department of pediatric and endocrinology, Institute of medical Science, Banaras Hindu University.
Design: Retrospective population-based study.
Methods: To assess the prevalence of hospitalization, a questionnaire-based study was conducted on subjects suffering from Short Stature to record the details of their lifestyle, habits and familial history. All subjects were of Indian ethnicity from Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the two states of northern Indian population.  Patients were characterized in terms of their socio-demographic and clinically diagnosed characteristics, Evaluation included: detailed medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, bone age and chromosomal analysis.
Results:  Endocrinological causes accounted for 20% of short stature of them, 10.9% had growth hormone deficiency (GHD)], 58.6% had normal variants of growth [of them, 42% had familial short stature (FSS), 14.18% had constitutional growth delay (CGD) and 4.4% a combination of both]. Interestingly, celiac disease (CD) constituted 6.6% of children with short stature in our cohort.
Conclusions: Although potentially treatable causes such as GHD, hypothyroidism and CD accounted for a considerable percentage of short stature in our study, the majority of short stature in children had normal variations of growth. Growth hormone treatment in children, however, should be promptly initiated with specific clinical indications. CD is a not uncommon cause of short stature.
 

IMPROVED AUTOMATED FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM USING IMPROVISED GABOR FILTERS ALGORITHM

N.SOWMIYA, S. PERUMAL

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2620-2629

Automated fingerprint identificationprocess takes many steps and may leads to accessibility problem. Image processing techniques can be implemented in automatic fingerprint identification system for better recognition. The image processing improver’s accuracy of the identification process without damaging the real quality of the fingerprint images. The basic enhancement, resizing and contest improvement are followed as the basic steps of the image processing techniques before using the gray scale conversion process. The dry finger print and wet fingerprint images should be automatically determined with the defined parameter settings. The image processing technique of classification and automatic parameter selection are used for better fingerprint enhancement procedure, which is one of the novel method followed in this research work.
The process carried out in enhancement procedure produces best result in evaluation and identification process of the fingerprint using fingerprint sensors without damaging the quality of the images. The image enhancement process also improves the quality of the database and easy acceptability of evaluation process. Uchida method used in previous fingerprint identification process only uses the particular segment of fingerprint rather using full finger print. The finger print patterns are the most significant factors in identification process.
The gray scale conversion process of the image processing techniques is one of the important technique used in the pattern recognition process. The image enhancement techniques usually follows frequency domain and spatial domain which has some practical difficulties in matching process. The discussed problem can be solved withproposed FFT-Based Signal Analysis and Measurement techniques inglobal features but do not compensate for the effect of image-to-image brightness variations. The proposed Gabor Filters Algorithm using FFT based signal analyzing process makes best drop down in Equal error rate (EER) 1.82% to 1.22%.  

Vital Pulp Therapy: Updated Protocol

Dr.Niladri Maiti, Prof. Dr.Babacar Touré , Prof. Dr. Rachida Amezian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2630-2639

The aim of pulp protection is to maintain the integrity and health of the teeth and their supporting tissues. It is a treatment objective to maintain the vitality of the pulp of a tooth affected by caries, traumatic injury, or other causes. The sequence of protocol followed by the operator depends on lot of factors. Those factors can alter the treatment outcome.

GREEN SYNTHESIS OF NANOSTRUCTURED ALUMINUM: ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AND DYE DEGRADATION.

Shubhada S. Nayak, Gurumeet C Wadhawa , Vitthal S. Shivankar, Inamadar R F , Maryappa C. Sonawale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2640-2654

In the world the industrialization is increased very fastly. Most of time various dyes are used in industries like textile, plastic, food, colour etc. Most of these industries put their waste in water like river, lakes. This is responsible for the water pollution. Due to large discharge of such dyes there is increase in water pollution, significantly these can be removed by the traditional method. There is need to develop the simple method for the dye degradation before discharging into environment. To eliminate environmental pollution, we have synthesized the green nanoparticles using waste rind of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). We develop simple method for synthesis of green aluminum oxide nanoparticles. The formation of various nanoparticles is confirmed by the various spectral analyses. These nanoparticles used for degradation of Methyl red and Congo red in sunlight. The green aluminum oxide nanoparticles show the excellent rate of the degradation. These green aluminum oxide nanoparticles also show the excellent antimicrobial activity by zone of inhibition method.

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND DPPH ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ROOT AND BARK OF SYZYGIUM STOCKSII (DUTHIE) PLANT.

Shubhada S. Nayak, Gurumeet C Wadhawa , Vitthal S. Shivankar, Inamadar R F , Maryappa C. Sonawale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2655-2668

The study is related to phytochemical analysis andexamination of antioxidant property of root with barkof Syzygiumstocksii(Duthie). Itoccurs in Ratnagiri region of the Maharashtra,India. Qualitative analysis of the phytochemicals was carried using known protocol and the in this we have calculated the phenolic and flavonoids present in plant by the protocol which are reportedin the reference. While the antioxidant activity was carried using the known (DPPH)assay. Thephytochemical constituent’s and activitydiscoveredin root and bark or stem   fraction  of the plant shows the presence of the usual and natural compounds like carbohydrates, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids and other components are also present in methanolic extract. The methanolic extract of the plant is richer than the water extract. The flavoid and phenolic compound with it show the ma maximum concentration as (2.129 milligram, 4.22milligram   and lower in the water extract(548 milligram 624 milligram). There is positive correlation between phenol content and the DPPH activity. The root and bark of plant shows good antioxidant activity. The plant extract act as the good antioxidant agent for various supplement.

PHARMACOVIGILANCE : KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE (KAP) OF DENTAL HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS RELATED TO ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS

Dr. Iram Kahkashan, Dr. Sana Farooq, Dr. Nazia Lone

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2669-2680

:  Proper knowledge and training in the dental curriculum is a key factor for proper implementation of Pharmacovigilance Programme of India ( PvPi) . This questionnaire based study was conducted on undergraduates of Government Dental College ,Srinagar to evaluate about Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of dental graduates on adverse drug reaction . 78%  thought  pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to dental health care professional in their academic curriculum of their undergraduation.
54% of the participants said they weren’t ever trained to report Adverse Drug Reaction . 86% had a knowledge how to report Adverse Drug Reacction(ADR) using Redcard or Vigiline.

Load compensation of Unbalance Non-Linear Loads using DSTATCOM

Dr. K. Srinivas, Rachakonda Saikiran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2686-2697

: Power distribution network consists of mostly non-linear loads and power electronic related devices, that cause power quality issues like power interruptions, voltage sag, voltage swell, harmonic distortions. In this paper, modified instantaneous reactive power theory is used as a control technique for distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) for reactive power compensation and voltage balancing in the distribution network. In this algorithm for the formation of reference compensator currents sequence voltages are extracted. Hysteresis controlled PWM technique is employed for the generation of switching pulses for the neutral clamped capacitor split voltage source inverter. MATLAB-Simulink Software environment is used to implement the DSTATCOM in the distribution system.

Screening of Convergence Disorders and Accommodation Disorders among School Children in Gorakhpur

Jamshed Ali; Samrat Sarkar; Dr. Ziaul Hassan Bakhshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2706-2723

Accommodative insufficiency (AI) and convergence insufficiency (CI) play a major role in a reading insufficiency.CI is a binocular vision problem but it is not a strabismus. It is generally associated with symptoms such as eyestrain, blurry vision, double vision, headache and reading related problems. AI is a condition that affects the ability to maintain near vision focus for a prolonged time. The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of NBV (normal binocular vision), convergence insufficiency and accommodative insufficiency in children 4th to 9th school years in Gorakhpur U.P (India).A comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment, integrating accommodative and convergence parameters, were used to analyse the visual condition. Of the 415 students who completed the eye examination and binocular vision testing. All students in the group of schools of the rural were invited to attend. 415 children were assessed from a total of 450 students (response rate of 92%). fifteen were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. The assessment was completed by 400 children, 175 females and 225 males. We found significant differences in expected values from the current clinical criteria for near point of convergence (NPC) with penlight, distance and near horizontal phorias, accommodative amplitudes, monocular and binocular accommodative facility (normal distribution p < 0.001). The study will also provide insight into the differences in binocular vision parameters between
ethnicities, and the minimum battery of tests needed to detect binocular vision anomalies in a community setting

Knowledge Sharing: A Contrast in Family Firms and Non Family Firms

Dr. Pon Ramalingam, Collin Joseph Xavier, Dr. J. Antonette Asumptha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2723-2731

Here we are talking about sharing knowledge both indirectly and openly. Here we are using theory of planned behavior and structural equation modeling to analyses. Non family firms and family firms are compared in contrast in the setting of knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing in family firms is found more than in family firms than non family due to the willingness of family Chief Executive Officers or Hospital Administrator, as it is their own blood. Hence Approach scores well in family firms second subjective norms followed by PBC.

Key elements of Employee Engagement

Dr. Pon Ramalingam, Dr. J. Antonette Asumptha, Collin Joseph Xavier

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2732-2735

Employee engagement is a massive construct that deals with almost all parts of human resource management aspects.The term employee engagement is a new one catering and edging in all facets of human resource. Leadership, Enablement, Alignment and Development (LEAD) questions are emphasized in this paper.This study is analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS).The results are obtained from a survey with 37 items and an open-ended question for two-way communication.
 

Challenges of the Physically Challenged and how they are positioned in the society

Dr. Pon Ramalingam, Collin Joseph Xavier, Dr. J. Antonette Asumptha, Arjun Muralidharan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2736-2750

Disabled people’s suffering has been more than decades after decades. Disabled people better to name as physically challenged are people who areaffected  both psychologically and  or physically.They have to be given care and not isolated. It isassociated to any disabled part of the human body, it now encompasses a complex mix of personal and environmental factors. In order to comprehend disability and disablement, a horde of conceptual models have been articulated.The models can then be used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate disability and functioning, identify needs so that apt resources can be obtained, monitor costs, and direct social policy.

Succession Planning: A contrast in family firms and non family firms

Dr. Pon Ramalingam, Dr. J. Antonette Asumptha, Collin Joseph Xavier

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2751-2760

Succession Planning is the key element of sharing information. Here we are talking about sharing knowledge both implicitly and explicitly. Here we are using theory of planned behavior and structural equation modeling to analyse. Non family firms and family firms are compared in contrast in the context of knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing in family firms is found more than in family firms than non family due to the willingness of family Chief Executive Officers or Managing Directors, as it is their own blood. Hence Attitude scores well in family firms second subjective norms followed by PBC.
 

The Role of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Non-SCC of the Cervix: A Systematic Review

Mahboobeh Azadehrah, Fahimeh Nokhostin, Malihe Azadehrah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2761-2776

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women and the most significant cause of CC is HPV infection. One of the treatment methods for cervical cancer is pre-surgery neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), which is performed to reduce the size of the tumor, facilitate the surgical process, and improve the survival of patients with this cancer. The present study is a systematic review conducted by searching the databases of Elsevier, PubMed Springer, and Wiley, and with the keywords of Cervix cancer, Adenocarcinoma, Adenosquamous carcinoma, and Neoadjuvant chemotherapy; studies conducted between 1998-2020 were reviewed. Out of a total of 1018 articles, 15 articles were selected for further review, considering the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The results showed that the use of NACT improved the patient's physical condition, reduced tumor size, reduced metastasis, facilitated surgery, and improved survival; also, it was associated with successful delivery without side effects in infants. However, further studies are needed to further understand the effect of this treatment in non-scc cancers.
 

Effect of Aging of Composite Tube on Color Change of Composite Resin

Sedighe Sadat Hashemikamangar, Soheil Farmani, Marzieh Rohaninasab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2777-2786

Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of aging of composite tube on color change of composite resins.
Materials and Methods: This in vitro, experimental study evaluated Enamel and Dentin composite types of 3M-Z350XT, Bisco-Aelite-aesthetic and GC-Essentia. Composite discs (n=6) measuring 1 x 8 mm were fabricated using newly opened composite tubes. The color of composite discs was measured by Easy Shade spectrophotometer according to the CIELab color space. Next, the composite tubes underwent accelerated aging according to the Arrhenius model and were incubated at 37°C in dry environment for 12 weeks. Composite discs with the same dimensions were fabricated again and their color was measured as before. Data were analyzed using SPSS.
Results: The change in a* and b* parameters was significant in all groups except for the Z350XT-Enamel (P=0.15). In the a* axis, the color of Aelite-Enamel shifted to green and the color of Aelite-Dentin, Essentia-Enamel, Essentia-Dentin and Z350XT-Dentin shifted to red. In the b* axis, the color of Z350XT-Dentin, Essentia-Enamel, Essentia-Dentin and Aelite-Dentin shifted to blue while the color of Aelite-Enamel shifted to yellow. In the L* axis, the changes in Aelite-Dentin, Aelite-Enamel and Essentia-Enamel were not significant but the changes in other composites were significant. The L* parameter increased in these three groups and they became lighter.
Conclusions: Aging of composite tube affects the color change of composite resins; thus, care must be taken when using aged composite tubes.

To Regulate the level of association of GGT with Lipid Profile and HbA1c in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Madan Lal, Abhishek Sharma, Vivek Gupta Nikhil Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2787-2791

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is classified on the basis of the pathogenic process that leads to  hyperglycemia, as opposed to earlier criteria such as age of onset or type of therapy. Type 2 DM is preceded by a period of abnormal glucose homeostasis classified as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Gamma Glutamyl Transferase is involved in the transfer of amino acids across the cellular membrane and leukotriene metabolism. Given the clinical importance of an interaction between obesity and serum GGT concentrations in predicting type 2 diabetes, we evaluated possible interactions between BMI and serum GGT activity in predicting poor glycemic control and other common comorbidities of type 2 diabetes. Methods and Materials: This Study was conducted in Medicine ward of NIMS Hospital, Jaipur was considered. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from Institutional Ethics Committee before starting the study. Total number of 76 patients were considered which includes 54 males and 22 females. Only those who agreed to participate were taken. Conclusion: This Study shows the Significant Correlation between GGT with Lipid profile and HbA1c in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients. These results are imperative as they back up that there is modest impact of GGT on lipid profile. Further studies with large sample size are needed to

Study Of Systemic Inflammatory Parameters In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

Dr. Susmita Saha , Dr. Jyotsana . R. Bharshankar Dr. Akshay Berad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2792-2801

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a name coined for the diseases previously known as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is defined as common preventable and treatable disease characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lung to noxious particles or gases. This study was planned to observe the evidence of systemic inflammation in different stages of COPD. The present study was a cross sectional study carried out in 100 stable male COPD patients. Following inflammatory parameters were included in study , C- Reactive Protein (CRP) , Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate (ESR),  Differential leucocyte count (DLC): neutrophil count (%) , Total leucocyte count (TLC). 100 Subjects were divided in four groups from mild to very severe (GOLD stage I-IV) according to spirometry values based on FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.7. Then changes in systemic inflammatory parameters in different stages of COPD were observed applying ANOVA test. P value 0.05). CRP level was elevated in most of the patients of severe (III) and very severe (IV) patients suggesting presence of systemic inflammation. As COPD is a multifactorial heterogeneous disease so, for determining the severity of COPD, other parameters such as inflammatory markers which will predict the morbidity as well mortality of the patients should be included.

Validity And Reliability Test For Research Instruments Regarding Health Professional Student Satisfaction Towards Online Learning During The Covid-19 Pandemic

Kulsum Kulsum; Taufik Suryadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2802-2817

In the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic, the strategies carried out to break the chain of transmission, one of which is by limiting social activities. A physical distancing policy has also been created which causes the face-to-face teaching and learning process to be transformed into an online learning system. Research is needed on the factors that can affect the satisfaction of health professional students related to online learning which requires valid instruments to answer research problems. The aim of study is determining the content validity of the questionnaire as a research instrument on the factors that influence health professional student satisfaction with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The content validity of the instrument was carried out on 52 statement items by 7 experts. The validated instrument is an online questionnaire which refers to and adopts and modifies the questionnaire used by Pei-Chen Sun. The results of the validation of the 52 statement items obtained S-CVI/Ave by 7 experts of 0,953, S-CVI/Ave based on I-CVI of 0,945, S-CVI/UA of 0,731. Initial CVI of 0.890, but 4 items were eliminated, there were 48 statement items used as a research instrument with a final CVI of 0.935. The reliability test results obtained a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value is 0.912. Calculating CVR, CVI and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ensures that the questionnaire used as a research instrument is valid and reliable to assess the factors that influence health professional student satisfaction with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Utilization of Blockchain Technology in Online Learning

Fifilia .; Veronica .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2834-2839

The rise of online learning nowadays, encourages learning patterns have to move from face to face to the network. This trend has become one of the easy alternatives for many of the general public to be able to learn or conduct training based on online and in the end, they can get a certificate after participate into that online training. BINUS as one of the tertiary institutions that has implemented online learning and has a learning website to support it. But along with the convenience available, easy access to learning, online learning activities need to be recorded as well, for example: behavior of learners, activities including attendance, and quizzes need to be recorded to avoid fraud. Fraud in manipulating attendance, or in activities carried out on the learning page. One of the most popular technologies being discussed today is Blockchain, and its can be utilized to support a better learning system. Readiness in applying this technology will be measured using the Technology Readiness Index (TRI) method.

Traditional Beliefs, A dark and Bloody Cage for Young Girls; An Ethnography Study

Suriah .; Ety Dusra; Fairus Prihatin Idris; Ahmad Yani; Hadi Khoshab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2840-2853

The Pinamou traditional procession is a ritual performed on female adolescents over the transition to adulthood. They were exiled to Posune (small hut) to undergo the Pinamou ritual during menstruation. During this procession, there are various activities related to personal hygiene that can adversely affect the health of young girls. The present study elaborated and traced the beliefs adopted by the Nuaulu female adolescents displayed in their local customs using ethnographic designs. Sources of information were traced through the snowballing technique. The findings reveal that the belief adhered to by girls related to personal hygiene is a ban on bathing during seclusion in Posune. Their bodies are only covered with charcoal. Replace traditional pads made of cloth that are used repeatedly only 2-3 times a day. Defecation is done in the middle of the forest and should not be seen by the opposite sex. Violation of the provisions of the Pinamou traditional procession is believed to trigger disasters for individuals, families, and village communities.This finding has implications for the need for a cultural communication strategy to wisely shift traditional activities that negatively impact the health of young girls through customary stakeholders, community leaders, and the local government.

Ki-67 and It’s Correlation Between The Clinical And Histological Parameters In Breast Cancer Patients - An Institutional Study

Dr Siddharth Mahender; Dr Bharathi Raja.K; Dr Akshaya Gunasekar; Prof. Dr.K.S Ravishankar.K.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2854-2864

Breast cancer is a major health issue and yet there lacks studies which show the correlation between Ki-67 as a prognostic marker and the variables of breast cancer.
Aim: to correlate Ki-67 index with clinical and histological parameters of breast cancer. Methods and materials: it is a cross-sectional study done on 86 cases of cancer breast who presented to the institute SBMCH, Chennai in one and a half years duration. Age, tumor size, site , menopausal status, lymph node involvement ,histological type and grade, Ki-67 index were determined and correlated in these patients.Results: the mean age was 52 years, and most of them (62.8%) were post-menopausal. The tumors were more common on the left breast compared to right. Size of 2-5cm were more prevalent and more cases had nodal involvement in our study. Out of the histological types Invasive ductal was most common followed by Papillary carcinoma and Invasive lobular carcinoma. In our study Ki-67 did not show any significant correlation with the age(p=0.427), gender(p=0.447),side of the tumor(p=0.619), menopausal status(p=0.121), pathological size of the tumor(p=0.169),nodal involvement(p=0.568) or histological type of the tumor(p=0.373). However a really significant correlation was observed between grade of the tumor(p<0.001). Concluding that in our study there was a significant correlation between ki-67 and tumor grade which is an established prognostic marker, and hence it plays a vital role in deciding the prognosis of breast cancer.

The effects of aloe vera on periodontal health

Franco Rocco; Basilicata Michele; Terenzi Andrea; Vergou Nadia; Bollero Patrizio

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2865-2870

Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to the destruction of the bone support of the tooth. Its clinical manifestation varies from a simple gingivitis to a periodontitis. The main cause of this pathology is plaque buildup. Various chemical compounds have been introduced with antibacterial and anti-plaque properties. The main one is chlorhexidine gluconate. With the increased use of natural derivative compounds, interest in aloe vera (AV) has increased. AV has various effects on the human being, among which it promotes wound healing, has an anti-inflammatory effect, has an antibacterial and antiviral effect. Therefore the purpose of this review is to evaluate the antibacterial power of an aloe vera based mouthwash formulation. Several articles were considered through a systematic review of the different search engines. Three articles were examined which compared the effectiveness of an aloe vera-based mouthwash with a chlorhexidine-based mouthwash. Experiments on humans have been considered. The 3 papers showed a completely similar efficacy of chlorhexidine compared to aloe vera. In fact, studies have shown that this natural product has the same anti-plaque beneficial effects as chlorhexidine. It does not have the side effects of chlorhexidine. further clinical trials will be needed to assess whether long-term side effects of aloe vera are actually present. The studies analyzed have a short follow-up, so some long-term effects could not be assessed.

Comparison of Microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction Examination Results in the Detection of Malaria Parasites

Nailatul Hana; Lia Faridah; Hesti Lina Wiraswati; Jontari Hutagalung

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2871-2881

Background: Microscopy remains the mainstay method for malaria diagnosis worldwide, although species misidentifications have been detected in practices due to various limitations, such as hypnozoites detection and lower parasitemia in asymptomatic malaria. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a molecular diagnostic method with high accuracy in detecting species of organisms. This study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of microscopy compared to nested PCR in detecting malaria parasites.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with previous data on malaria assessment in East Nusa Tenggara. More than 500 asymptomatic respondents were included by the systematic random sampling method from 5 sub-districts area in the region based on API. Microscopic assessment by thick and thin blood smears was made following protocols from the Ministry of Health, while DNA isolation was done using 200 μl fresh blood sample and nested PCR amplification protocol with specific primers of the malaria parasites species Plasmodium sp.
Results: A total of 555 specimens were collected, and 1.6% (9/555) of those were microscopy-positive and 32.6% (181/555) were detected positive by nested PCR. Of microscopy-positive samples, 33.3% (3/9) were P. falciparum and 66.7% (6/9) were P. vivax, whereas among PCR-positive samples, 31.5% (57/181) were P. falciparum, 52.5% (95/181) were P. vivax, and 16.0% (29/181) were mixed infection of both species. From this study, microscopy was found to had a slight measure of agreement (κ = 0.055) compared to nested PCR.
Conclusion: In lower parasitemia and asymptomatic malaria, the microscopic assessment may not be sensitive. Thus, this increases the need of using PCR assessment to confirm the identification of malaria parasites.

Self-Management for Patients in the Treatment Program of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

Pius Selasa; Israfil .; Margaretha Teli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2882-2889

Pulmonary Tuberculosis (Pulmonary TB) is a type of chronic infectious disease that threatens public health. Self-management is a form of patient self-control in the treatment and cure of TB disease.
The aim of the study was to see the self-management of patients in the pulmonary TB treatment program from the aspects of patient interaction with health care facilities and patient compliance in taking TB drugs in Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.
Non-experimental research design with cross sectional design. The number of samples was 246 TB patients. Sampling with cluster sampling technique. Data were collected directly on patients and study documentation of patient care in public health centers. Data were analyzed descriptively and correlated using the Spearman rho test (α <0.05)
The results showed the interaction of patients with health care facilities; good 38.2%, good enough 56.6%, not good 5.3%. Patient adherence to ingesting TB drugs; obedient 88.6%, non-compliant 11.4%. Correlation test of patient characteristics on interactions with health care facilities; age 0.07, gender 0.24, education 0.01, TB treatment stage 0.76, distance from home to public health center 0.00. Correlation of patient characteristics with adherence in ingesting TB drugs: age 0.76, gender 0.62, education level 0.55, TB treatment stage 0.00, distance from home to public health center 0.02.
Conclusion Self-management of patients in the TB treatment program from the aspect of patient interaction with health care facilities is quite good, patient adherence to ingesting TB drugs is adherent. Factors related to self-management of patients are the level of education, the stage of TB treatment, and the distance from the house to the health care facility.

GINGER ROOT EXTRACT ROLE IN TREATED THE WARFARIN SIDE EFFECTS ON THE BLOOD VESSELS WALL

Noora A. Hassan, Bassim Abdullah Jassim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2890-2900

     Warfarin drug have prominent effects on the blood vessels. One of the important effect was calcifications of blood vessel wall, so the present study focused on the investigation on the role of watery ginger root extract in processing the histological changes in the blood vessels after treated with warfarin for 30 days. The results after treated time with warfarin showed weak tunica intima in the wall of blood vessels, interaction or trading between tunica intima and tunica media without internal elastic lamina in the small artery, irregular shape of fibers and appeared as small piece in tunica adventitia, while the results in the group after treated with warfarin and ginger showed the tunica intima was normally, prominent thin internal elastic lamina under the tunica media which separated between tunica intima and tunica media and normal tunica adventitia that composed of loose connective tissue without any histological changes. Consequently the ginger can be used as improvement material for treatment side effects of warfarin.

Induction of Callus in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don and Screening for secondary metabolites in callus cells

S. S. Ingle, M. M. V. Baig

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2911-2914

Protocol for micropropagation of a known medicinal plant Vinca (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don) from axenic explants had been standardized. Internodes and shoot tips were cultured on MS medium containing a varied concentration of IAA, 2-4 D, NAA, BAP and Kinetin in combination were used. The best combination of growth regulators for callus induction was at 1 mg L-1 kinetin with 0.9 mg L-1 of IAA, closely followed by 1.0 mg L-1 of kinetin with 1.0 mg L-1 of IAA for internodes as well as shoot tip. While for internodal culture 0.5 mg L-1 of 2,4-D and 1.5 mg L-1 BAP was optimum. A method of alkaloid extraction and assay of secondary metabolite in callus culture was accomplished. The HPLC assays method quantified major compounds of the secondary metabolism of callus cultures of C. roseus.
 

Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy and Alcohol Expectancy: Changing Undergraduate Students’ Alcohol Drinking Behavior

Chakkrit Ponrachom; Karuntharat Boonchuaythanasit; Bradley J. Cardinal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2915-2921

Under-age drinking and the overconsumption of alcohol among undergraduate students results in unnecessary physical, emotional, and intellectual problems, as well as economic losses for individuals. This issue remains an enduring educational and public health challenge. To better understand what is known and what is not known on this subject, the purpose of this article is to review past literature as it pertains to individual causal factors. The review points to the importance of considering individual resiliency in the form of drinking refusal self-efficacy and alcohol expectancy. Innovative solutions aimed at addressing these constructs among undergraduate students, such as adaptive skill-building strategies that are social context specific, advance progress in solving this problem behavior.

EFFECT OF CARBOHYDRATE COUNTING ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Ms Vaishali Jagtap, Dr (Mrs) Nisha Naik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2922-2929

Objectives -The management of Type 1 diabetes is always challenging, the knowledge of carbohydrate counting is helpful in achieving and maintaining the glycemic control in these patients. The objective of this study was to examine the literature evaluating the effect of education programme regarding carbohydrate counting on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Methods -Medline, Cochrane and pubmed databases were systematically searched to identify studies published from 2009 to 2020.
Result- The literature search yielded 82 articles (Cochrane 48 and Pubmed 34) were reviewed. After removing duplicates and screening the titles and abstracts 17 articles were selected for full text and 7 studies were selected which met the inclusion 7 randomized control studies are included which are done patients with type 1 diabetes.
Conclusion-Carbohydrate counting is an important strategy in management of patients with type 1 diabetes .this study highlights on importance of training to the patients and caregivers regarding carbohydrate counting and its effect on glycemic control which helps in the management of patients with type 1 diabetes.

Detection of Turner Syndrome by Quantitative real time PCR of VAMP7 Genes

Abhay Kumar Yadav, Manpreet Kaur, Ashish , Nitish Kumar Singh Royana Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2930-2935

Turner Syndrome (TS) is an unfavorable genetic condition with a prevalence of 1:2500 in newborn girls. Prompt and effective diagnosis is very important to appropriately monitor the comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to propose a feasible and practical molecular diagnostic tool for newborn screening by quantifying the gene dosage of the VAMP7, XIST, UBA1, and SRY genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in individuals with a diagnosis of complete X monosomy, as well as those with TS variants, and then compare the results to controls without chromosomal abnormalities. According to our results, the most useful markers for these chromosomal variants were the genes found in the pseudoatomic regions 1 and 2 (PAR1 and PAR2), because differences in gene dosage (relative quantification) between groups were more evident in VAMP7 gene expression. Therefore, we conclude that these markers are useful for early detection in aneuploidies involving sex chromosomes.

Magnitude, determinants and effect of illegal out-migration from South Wollo Zone with special reference selected woredas

Mr. Tilahun Lakew, Dr. Manju Shree Raman, Dr. Bhupendra Kumar, Mr. Yabibal A Abate,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2936-2955

The purpose of this study is to explore the magnitude, determinants, and effects of low skilled illegal out-migration:  with reference to Ambasel, Tehulederie and Worebabo woredas. Data were collected using secondary and primary sources. In order to illicit respondent’s opinion questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions were employed.  The target group respondents were returnee emigrants, emigrants’ families and community leaders which comprises of administrative members, religious groups, Eqquib leaders and elders. The sampling technique employed to identify respondents was simple random sampling and convenience non-probability sampling. Data was analyzed using descriptive and statistical analysis. The result of the study shows increasing of low skilled illegal migration due to the effect of push and pull factors. Potential emigrants pushed by their problems as they see migration as options for improving life and also lured by successful migrants’ achievements that enhance them making decision. Thus, people rush to cross borders but faced severe problems by inhuman and brutal act of smugglers including requesting money in the transit country Yemen. Emigrants who fulfilled smugglers request continue their journey to their destination countries. Some could detain at the border, and some succeed in migrating but fail to remit. The effect of illegal migration found to be positive but more of its outcome have negative consequences. The positive effects are benefits of remittances and the negative consequence of migration represents a large outflow of human capital from the study region, Physical and emotional violence, death and acute illness, economic crisis. Based on the finding’s recommendations are made. There should be awareness creation on consequence of illegal migration to the society. Areas of revenue generation and opportunities should be identified and training, access to finance, consultancy service and   strategies to enhance them for work need to be facilitated. Government need to make efforts to protect migrants’ rights in the host countries.

A Hybrid Algorithm with Modified SVM and KNN for Classification of Mammogram Images using Medical Image Processing with Data Mining Techniques

V. Punithavathi Dr. D. Devakumari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2956-2964

Digital mammography is most reliable and effective technique for early and accurate identification of Breast cancer. Image processing plays a significant role in diagnosis and classification of breast cancer in medical field. In this paper, a system is created to classify the mammogram images into three classes, namely Benign, Malignant and Normal. Mammogram images are pre-processed and the features are extracted from the segmented region. These features are used to train modified SVM and KNN classifier. The proposed Hybrid algorithm with modified SVM and KNN classifier helps to classify the mammogram images. This latest technique improves the SVM algorithm with introducing multi class for classification of breast cancer. It exploits the KNN algorithm according to the distribution of test images in a feature space. This study also evaluates the accuracy with the SVM and KNN classifier. The modified SVM and KNN hybrid algorithm produces higher prognosis accuracy than the KNN method and SVM technique. This method is tested for 10 test images with 20 trained. This methodology achieves an overall mean accuracy of 99.3406% in classification of mammogram images.
Keywords: Classification, KNN, MIAS, Proposed KNN with SVM.
 

Robust Retina Biometric Enhanced Paillier Cryptosystem for Privacy Preserving of Medical Data Stored in Cloud Environment

MR.SREEHARI KUNDELLA, DR. R.GOBINATH

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2965-2978

In recent years the usage of cloud storage is increased tremendously and it influences effective maintenance of big data with low cost. As the cloud provides open services there is a highest chance of security breaches. There are several security schemes are in existence to protect confidential information stored in cloud. But still there is a lack in preventing information integrity and intruders can break the security by tampering keys involved in encryption and decryption while using standard cryptographic algorithms. This paper mainly focuses on the data integrity and confidentiality of the ECG big data stored in Cloud. The proposed model Biometric enhanced Paillier Crypto System (BPCS) comprised of three different stages. Initially, the retina of the data owner is acquired, preprocessed using the fuzzy dynamic histogram equalization and its significant features are extracted using SIFT variance. These extracted features of retina are used by paillier cryptography to generate the public key and private key, instead of using random numbers. The encrypted file is then converted to digital signature using ElGamalAlgorithm. The ECG encrypted file along with digital signature is uploaded in the cloud. If the cloud users need to access the file, then they have to use the public key of the data owner and using user’s private key. They can verify the integrity of the file content by checking the hashing value. The simulation results evidenced the robustness of the BPCS by accomplishing security on cloud storage data more effectively and strongly while comparing with the standard security schemes.

Optimal Alpha Blending Based Digital Image Watermarking By Using Cwt And Svd

M.Hariharalakshmi, Dr.M.Sivajothi Dr.M.Mohamed Sathik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2979-2987

While sharing and processing digital data, many problems arise due to huge evolution in technology. The first and front most important issue is security. In order to conquer this problem a technique known as Digital water marking is applied to digital data while undergoing sharing and processing. In the recent years many researchers have proposed several methods. The selection of optimal scaling factor is a main problem in the watermarking. The proposed technique is a Optimal Alpha based Curvelet and SVD (OACSVD), called the Cuckoo Search (CS) which is used to find the optimal scaling factor for grey image watermarking in CWT-SVD transform domain. The OACSVD method handles secret sharing to accomplish more security of watermark. The proposed technique used many attacks to explore the robustness and various results are obtained. OACSVD method shown PSNR and NCC values as 44.13% and 99.29% respectively.
 

Glaucoma Detection Using Little Wood Paley Decomposition On Local Derivative Structure Of Fundus Images

A.Padma, Dr.M.Sivajothi, Dr.M.Mohamed Sathik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2988-2998

Glaucoma is the stern ailment that affects the eye and causes blindness without screening significant symptoms at early stage. Glaucoma is instigated due to unseemly draining of aqueous humour within the eye.  The eye diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy are diagnosed using the retinal features such as Optic Disc (OD) and Optic Cup (OC). In this paper, the optic disc region is segregated from the input retinal image using Local Region Recursive Segmentation (LRRS). The discriminative features are extracted from segmented optic disc using the proposed LP_LDS method. In this LP_LDS method, the micro level details of optic disc are extracted by considering the pairwise directions of vector of the referenced pixel and its neighbourhood using Local Vector Pattern (LVP). The resultant image after extraction is decomposed with 2D Little Wood Paley (LP) Empirical Wavelet Transform to obtain the detailed sub images. The sub images are disintegrated and their features are normalized using z-score normalization. Finally obtained features are classified using different classifiers. Among the four classifiers (Support vector machine classifier, K-Nearest Neighbour classifier, Random Forest Classifier, Decision tree classifier), Random Forest Classifier  exhibits better performance than other classifiers. This LP_LDS method has been examined using MIAG RIMONE (Release2) database that contains 255 normal images and 200 glaucoma images. This LP_LDS method achieves a sensitivity of 89.29% in classifying glaucoma images and an overall accuracy of 89.71% using Random Forest Classifier.

Classification of Headache types using Modified ANN with Customized Genetic Algorithm

P Chandra Dr. V Arulmozhi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2999-3006

Headache is a common disease that occurs in almost all kinds of people due to tension, changing lifestyle, and symptoms of other serious issues in the human body. The correct diagnosis of this lacks due to complex test procedures, irregular monitoring, visiting the physicians as an outpatient, and inexperience of physicians. To assist the specialists in detecting the accurate types of headaches, the proposed system is developed to classify the types of headaches using Modified Neural Network.
The Introduction of the Brilliant Binary Chromosome Algorithm (BBCA) will generate brilliant chromosomes with the filter-based method that will give the most relevant features. The optimization of resource handling and reduced computational time is achieved by using the Fitness Based Crossover Algorithm (FBCA).  The public Migbase dataset is taken for the study. Migbase contains collective information on headache attacks from 849 patient data from three different hospitals in Turkey. This Customized approach of the Genetic Algorithm is proposed to extract the elite features with a significant effect. The well designed modified Artificial Neural network model is implemented as the classifying model. The entire implementation of the proposed work is performed in Python 3.7 environment from which it is confirmed that the suggested novel combined methodology (CGA & MANN) will give optimal results compared with other current research methodologies concerning the proposed method.
The proposed customized feature selection method improved the performance of the migraine classifier, producing a robust system that achieved over 98% accuracy. The results suggest that the proposed methods can be used to support specialists in the classification of migraines in patients undergoing treatment.

A performance analysis study of MANETs routing protocols in FANETs networks environments

Dr.K.Mariyappan, Dr.N.Sivakumar, Dr.Sakthi Ganesh, Dr. Vijayakumar V,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3007-3020

In this technology driven world, wireless networks take part a key role in helping a society to enhance their life style .Unmanned air vehicles connected in an ad hoc manner been used in various application from civil projects to military applications. Establishing reliable, secure connection among UAV nodes in FANET is bit challenging task due to high node mobility, environmental condition under which it is operated and minimum energy capability of nodes etc. Routing protocols used in such a network should have unique features that overcome the limitation to make reliable and secured connectivity between nodes. There are many viable routing techniques had been discussed by past researchers .In our study we have gone through in detail  different routing approach used currently in  Ad-hoc network , analyzed  their merits and demerits  and made  performance comparison  study among AODV,DSR and DSDV on FANETs using ns-3 simulator. Performance metrics used for comparison are network delay, traffic received, data dropped and throughput. This metrics are evaluated by varying node density and node speed. Our study results reveal that different protocols suits for different FANETs network situations.

Gender Subalternity In Amitav Ghosh’s Sea Of Poppies

Dr. P. D. Silvia Silvia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3021-3023

This paper, titled Gender Subalternity in Amitav Ghosh’s Sea of Poppies, explores the depiction of how Deeti, is made gender subaltern both in her own house  and outside. Deeti is the main female character in Sea of Poppies, the first Volume of Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis Trilogy. Amitav Ghosh, a social anthropologist by academic training is born in Calcutta in a Bengali family. He has written extensively in both fiction and non-fiction sphere of literature and bagged many awards to his credit. He has been awarded 54th Jnanpith award, the highest literary award in India, for his outstanding contribution to the enrichment of Indian Literature in English. The materials for Amitav Ghosh’s writings are drawn from the plight of human beings. In Sea of Poppies he has turned his eyes to the nineteenth century opium trade. Deeti in the novel is married to Hukam Singh, an Opium addict, who was wounded in battle. She has a daughter named Kabutri, who was actually fathered by her brother in law Chandn Singh. When Hukam dies, she is forced to marry Chandan Singh. She decides to commit sati on Hukam’s funeral pyre, rather than marrying Chandan Singh. She is rescued by Kalua, an untouchable whom she once saved. Together with Kalua she leaves her village for Calcutta and boards the Ibis to go to Mauritius as an indentured labourer.  ‘The Subaltern Theory’ proposed by Gayathri Chakravorthy Spivak is used to analyse how Deeti is made a gender subaltern. The study applies some central discussions of Spivak and Edward W. Said. They are mentioned as the important ones in order to illuminate various aspects of this issue. This study finds out that Gender Subalternity prevails in the life of Deeti due to patriarchal society in which Deeti lives. This study also concentrates on the role of patriarchy and its attempts to put the women in an undesirable situation.  As a gender subaltern Deeti endures all the subjugation in her in-law’s house. This study further shows how Amitav Ghosh, the writer portrays the cruelty imposed on the Indian women throughout the periods of time by the patriarchal system.

Psychological distress in children with Disorders of Sex Development.

Manpreet Kaur, Abhay Kumar Yadav, Ashish, Nitish Kumar Singh Royana Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3024-3031

Children with 46XY disorders of sex development with genital ambiguity face a lot of behavioral changes and are associated with many risk factors. The 20 participants (aged 5-16) were taken, consisting of 12 boys and 8 girls. Control data were obtained from a representative sibling of each patient who was matched for age and gender. A questionnaire was held which was parent administered to check the behavior of child. The analysis came out to be that the children with genital ambiguity have poorer scores in respect to social or other realms when compared with control group. These findings are helpful as they give a chance to understand the individuals with any genital ambiguity and it should become an integral part to counsel them psychologically.

Correlation of ABO Blood group and Rh factor with Neural tube defects: spina bifida with Myelomeningocele in children of North India

Nitish Kumar Singh, Ashish, Abhay Kumar Yadav, Manpreet Kaur, Royana Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3032-3036

Background:
To study the hypothesized association between the presence of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens and the incidence of spina bifida with myelomeningocele in children
Material methods:
This study included an analysis of the data obtained from patients exhibiting spina bifida with myelomeningocele in-patients at Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, between 2019 and 2020. Caste, Food source, Habitat, Age, sex, delivery method, physical and neurological examination findings, and ABO blood type of every patient were documented. Blood group data is distributed among the study patients associated with healthy individuals in the same region.
Results: A more significant proportion of patients with blood group B and AB exhibited MMC Patients showed a higher casual of developing myelomeningocele. Rh-positive blood group was associated with a high incidence of myelomeningocele (91.2%), whereas only a small proportion of patients with MMC had Rh-negative blood group (8.8). Rh-positive blood group was also found to be more frequent in patients with myelomeningocele with hydrocephalus and anencephaly.
Conclusion: This study's conclusions show that ABO and Rh blood groups affect the increase of myelomeningocele beneath the influence of environmental or genetic factors.

Portrayal Of Women In Advertisements With Reference To Body Image: Content Analysis Of Magazine Advertisements

Dr. V Sasirekha , Dr. Viswanathan, Dr. Prabha Shreeraj Nair Dr. Manju Shree Raman,

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3037-3047

Content Analysis Is A Type Of Secondary Data Analysis Research Tool And Is Focused On The Actual Content And Internal Features Of Media.  To Study The Most Interesting And Challenging Research Problems, About The Causes And Effects Of Communication, Content Analysis Is Used. Content Analysis Was To Analyze The Portrayal Of Women In Magazine Advertisements With Reference To Their Body Image Factors In A General Interest Magazine Exposed By Women In Chennai. This Research Follows A Conceptual Analysis Method And The Number Of Occurrences Of Coding Variables Is Recorded In A Coding Sheet In Accordance With A Coding Framework / Scheme. The Magazine Was Carefully Selected For Advertisements Analysis To Provide Coverage Of A Variety Of Female Audiences Of All Ages. Having Coded The Advertisements, The Results Reveal That Majority Of The Models In Advertisements Are Young, Attractive, Partially And Barely Clothed, Nude Models, And Are Thin And Skinny And Appear Very Fit. The Study Reveals That, The Advertisements Do Contribute To The Respondents Desire To Look Like The Models Often Depicted In Them.

Evaluation Of Clinico-Biochemical Profile And Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern Of Children Diagnosed With Typhoid Fever

Dr. Dheeraj Kumar Dr. Bankey Behari Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3048-3054

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluation of Clinical & Laboratory Profile of Typhoid Fever in Children in Bihar Region.
Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Pediatric, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital, Gaya, Bihar, India for 18 months. Total 120 Children aged below 18 years with history of fever of more than 7-10 days duration were included in this study. In each case, age, sex, presenting complaint, laboratory investigations and antibiotic sensitivity pattern are collected and analysed.
Results: Out of 120 cases, 80 cases (66.67%) were males and 40 cases (33.33%) were females. Most of the cases were aged between 6 and 12 years. 59 cases were aged between 6 and 12 years (49.17%). In all the above age groups male predominance was seen. The most common symptom was fever (100%), followed by anorexia (65.83%), vomiting (47.5%), pain abdomen (20%), diarrhea (11.67%), headache (9.17%), and cough (6.67%). The most common sign we observed was toxic look in 69.17% of the cases followed by coated tongue in 49.17%, hepatomegaly 45.83%, splenomegaly 20.83%, hepatosplenomegaly in 13.33% of cases and pallor in 5.83% of cases. Table 6 depicts the laboratory parameters. Anemia found in 26 (21.67%) cases, leucopenia and leucocytosis was observed in 41(34.17%) cases and 19(15.83%) cases respectively. Neutropenia found in 50(41.67%) cases and neutrophilia was found in 35(29.17%) cases. Eosinopenia was seen in 56(46.67%) cases, eosinophilia in 8(6.67%) cases and thrombocytopenia in 19(15.83%) cases. SGOT levels was elevated (>200IU/ml) in 14(11.67%) cases and SGPT (>200IU/ml) in 17(14.17%) cases. The elevated levels of liver enzymes lasted only few days.
Conclusion: Public health interventions like supply of safe drinking water, appropriate sanitation, awareness of the disease and its transmission, and good personal hygiene practices may be employed.

The Correlation Between The Clinico- Pathological Factors And Gastric Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

Dr. Vandana, Dr.Kannu Priya, Dr. Pallavi Mehra, Dr.N.K.Bariar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3055-3061

Aim: to find correlation between clinical and pathological factors of gastric cancer.
Material and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Patna Medical College and Hospital Patna, Bihar, India from December 2017 to july 2018. Total 600 patients were included in this study.
Results: Of these 600 patients, 370 (61.67%) underwent distal gastrectomy, 24 (4%) proximal gastrectomy via abdomen and 145 (24.17%) via thorax, and 61 (10.16%) underwent total gastrectomy. Distal and total gastrectomy had more numbers of clearances of lymph nodes than the other operational approaches. The postoperative complications occurred in 51 patients 51/600, 8.5%.The overall mortality was 0.66% (4/600).The diameter of the neoplasm was positively correlated with the depth of infiltration and lymphatic metastasis rate while hemoglobin was the opposite. 92 (15.33%) of 600 were early gastric carcinoma (EGC) with metastasis of lymph nodes in 12 patients (12/92, 13.04%).
Conclusion: This retrospective study has shown that clinicopathological characters in gastric cancer varied with sex, location, and diameter of the tumor.

A Prospective Observational Study To Assess The Complications Of Caesarean Section During Second Stage Of Labor In A Tertiary Care Hospital

Dr. Tejaswi Nandan, Dr. Manjul Vijay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3062-3067

Aim: to evaluate the maternal and neonatal outcome of caesarean section in second stage of labour.
Material and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Anugrah Narayan Magadh Medical College and Hospital Gaya, Bihar, India for one year. Total 200 patients were included into the study. All caesarean sections performed at full cervical dilatation over this time period. 
Results: Among the 200 patient’s majority of them were in the age group of 20-30 years (73.5%) . about 77.5% of the patients were primigravidae and only the remaining 22.5% were multigravida. 82.5% of patients from BPL socioeconomic class  and 17.5% only from APL socioeconomic class. The commonest indications for doing caesarean section in the second stage of labour were cephalo pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and obstructed labour.  Incidence of PPH was 27 out of 200 cases (13.5%). Post-operative wound infection was seen in 12(6%) and Post-operative fever was seen in 32(16%) out of 200 cases. There were no cases of maternal deaths reported. The mean operative time was 51.7 min .The mean length of hospital stays was 6.8 days .Mean weight of the babies of the second stage caesarean section was 3.4kg. 11(5.5%) babies were admitted  to the Neonatal Intensive  Care  Unit  and  26  (13%) to neonatal nursery for management of respiratory distress, sepsis, jaundice, and observation.25(12.5%) babies had Neonatal jaundice and  There were 2 neonatal deaths reported.
Conclusion: Caesarean sections during the second stage are increasing in prevalence and are associated with significant long-term psychological and physical maternal morbidity

A retrospective assessment of alterations in serum potassium levels during postoperative exploratory laparotomy

Dr.Ashoka Nand Thakur Thakur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3068-3072

Background: Any type of surgical trauma whether elective or emergency causes various effects on the human body including a great impact on the physiology of fluid and electrolytes within the body. Mortality and morbidity is very common due to the fluid imbalance after major surgical trauma.
Aim: the aim of this study was to assessment of alterations in serum potassium levels during postoperative exploratory laparotomy.
Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics surgery Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India and Sushrut Child Surgery Centre, Patna, Bihar from January 2016 to January 2020.. A total of 50 patients who underwent explorative laparotomy were include in this study. Collection of 2 cc of blood volume was done at preoperative time, one the day of surgery and on postoperative days of surgery. All the samples were sent to laboratory where autoanalyzer was used for assessment of serum potassium levels.
Results: Mean age of the patients was 16.7 years. 70 percent of the patients were males while the remaining were females. Mean potassium levels at Baseline (before starting of surgery), One day after surgery, Three days after surgery and Seven days after surgery were found to be 4.85 mEq/L, 5.24 mEq/L, 4.41 mEq/L and 4.32 mEq/L respectively. A significant reduction in the potassium levels during the initial postoperative phase was seen followed by a significant rise; thereby returning to normal value 1 week postoperatively.
Conclusion: we concluded that the significant rise in the potassium levels occur after exploratory laparotomy, followed by restoration to normal values by the end of first postoperative week.

Extraction & Pharmacological Evaluations Of Various Parts ‘Cenchrus Ciliaris’ And ‘Cenchrus Setigerus’

Tanvi Gaur, Dr. Dharmendra Ahuja

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3073-3092

Cenchrus ciliaris L. also called as “Dhaman grass”, which is a general starvation food employed during drought and deficiency of food in Rajasthan. Among the collected germplasm accessions, one among the Cenchrus setigerus accessions exhibited prostrate activities which would be of enormous use in the greening of degraded lands where with few plants whole area can be covered and used for grazing. Actual aim of this study was intended to find out the pharmacological activities of the extract of various parts (e.g. roots, stems, leaves, seeds) of Cenchrus Ciliaris and Cenchrus Setigerus and the following evaluations were carried out like-analgesic activity, anti inflammatory and diuretic activity on animal model. The actual goal of this research work was to carry out the pharmacological screening of ethyl acetate (EA) and glacial acetic acid (GAA) extracts of various parts (e.g. roots, stems, leaves, seeds) of Cenchrus Ciliaris and Cenchrus Setigerus. All the extracts of both the plants were found to be safe up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. Finally, 200 mg /kg b.w. and 400 mg /kg b.w. were selected for this study and acute toxicity study revealed the nontoxic nature for each selected plant extracts. From all the test compounds, GAA extracts of both the plants with a dose size of 400 mg/kg body weight were found to be potent in analgesic activity which is comparable to standard, but EA extracts having lower activity, compared to others. Drugs that reduce the total number of writhing upto in 30 minutes can be considered as an effective analgesic.Moreover, group IX (Treated with mixtures of GAA extracts of Cenchrus Ciliaris dissolved in DMSO) is exhibited fairly better activity compared to other extracts. In the same way GAA extracts with higher doses showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. The group of II, IX & X was treated by Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg b.w.) and GAA extracts of Cenchrus Ciliaris and Cenchrus Setigerus (400 mg/kg body weight) showed maximum inhibition of edema after 5hrs, which was 83.72, 81.37 & 67.45% respectively.The furosemide (10 mg/ kg) and GAA extracts of both the selected plants at higher doses (400 mg/kg) showed potent natriuretic and saliuretic activity as compared to normal control.

‘Neutrophil Adhesion Test’ as tool for Immunomodulatory Activity Of Different Extracts of Lepidium Sativum Linn. Seeds

Chetna Baregama Dr. Anju Goyal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3093-3098

Currently world wide there is an increase in diseases especially infectious diseases that requires efficient body defense mechanisms to control them through the process of immunomodulation. Herbal medicines as the major remedy in traditional system of medicine have been used in medical practices since ancient times. Lepidium sativum Linn. (Brassicaceae) is annual herb regionally referred to as halon in India, however, usually referred to as garden cress. Immunomodulatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and methanolic extracts of Lepidium sativum Linn. seeds were  studied on albino wistar rats using neutrophil adhesion test. Incubation of blood with nylon fibres produced a decrease in the neutrophil counts due to adhesion of neutrophils to the fibres. Among all extracts methanolic extract showed significant increase in the neutrophil adhesion when compared to disease control and standard. Methanolic extract  at 250 and 500 mg/kg produced significant increases in adhesion of neutrophils. Among the different doses of methanolic extract, high one (500mg/kg) was more effective in cellular immunity model than low one (250mg/kg). The results of the present study substantiate the belief that Lepidium sativum Linn. is an immune system booster.

Comparison Of Health Seeking Behaviour For Ear Morbidities Among Children And Their Caregivers Among Rural And Urban Population Of Delhi

Dr. Kalika Gupta, Dr. R. K Gaur, Dr. Navin Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3099-3107

Background: A person interacts with his or her surrounding environment through sensory experiences. The sense of hearing, in particular, fundamentally facilitates communication and nourishes social interaction. As per World health Organization report 2007, 6% of the population of India suffers with significant otological morbidities. It is estimated that over 166 million people in the developing world face a severe lack of intervention services for hearing loss.ENT problems in the community are often found to be managed without consulting a medical practitioner. A variety of factors such as the sex of the child, the socio-economic status, the severity of illness  often determine the care seeking pattern within our country.
Method: Study was conducted at the urbanized village Barwala and a resettlement colony, named, Gokulpuri. 368 homes in the rural area and 367 homes in the urban area were visited and the parents were questioned about health seeking behavior regarding common ear morbidities. Selection of the houses was based on simple random sampling. Results: It was found that 82.9% of caregivers practiced ear cleaning for their kids (78.8% in rural and 86.9% in urban). Various malpractices like visiting quacks for earache, putting oil inside ear canal, etc were highly prevalent in the study area.
Conclusion:  Ear cleaning practices that are prevalent among underdeveloped areas of India are highly unhygienic. Actions need to be taken to improve the knowledge, attitude and practices of the people, regarding ear care.

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli Isolates from Urine Samples of Patients in Al-Bashir Hospital

Nawal Salem FARIS, Mohammad Majid HADIEH, Omar Majid HADIEH

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3108-3113

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are serious health affecting problems worldwide. UTIs cause more than 8.1 million visits to health care providers each year. About 60% of women and 12% of men will have at least one UTI during their lifetime. The extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESPL) has limited the use of multiple types of Antibiotics. This research will be carried out in Al-Bashir Hospital. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of ESBL in Escherichia coli isolates in the hospital by VITEK. 319 isolate were positive from EBSL from a total of 564. This suggest that a 56% of the patients who has been hospitalized in the time of the study may develop severe urinary tract infections caused by strains of Escherichia coli who have developed resistance to multiple types of antibiotics.

Cognitive Optimisation or Decline ? : Impact Analysis of Playing Video Games on the Cognitive Functions of Adolescents.

Meghna Choudhury, Dr. Kiran Buge, Dr. Sunita Nighute

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 4596-4604

The word cognition is derived from Latin word “Cognoscene” , meaning ‘to know’ or ‘ to come to know’ The  Cognition is defined as ‘the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience and senses. It implies abilities and methods related to attention, working memory, information processing, problem solving and decision making skills. Playing video games has become extremely popular for recreation among youth in recent years. As of now India is one of the top five mobile gaming markets in the world in terms of number of uses. Video games are indeed complex activities, which requires  devising plans, solving problems and think on one’s feet. It is being increasingly believed that video-games can boost the brain and a
variety of cognitive abilities- increase attention span and concentration,improve spatial visualization and memory.
Aim: To study the impact of playing video games on the cognitive functions of adolescents.
Study type: Cross sectional Observational Study.
Materials and Methods: Standardized tests to be employed for gathering quantitative data from adolescents fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria in order to assess their cognitive functions. Data Analysis: Statistical techniques, percentages and proportions to be applied for data analysis.
Study setting: Residential quarters of Maharashtra.

Evaluating Fall Prevention for Patient at Nam Dinh Hospital in Vietnam

Pham Thi Bich Ngoc, Ngo Huy Hoang, Dinh Thi Thu Hang Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3114-3119

Purpose: Assessing the reality of nursing knowledge and practice about falls prevention for patients at Nam Dinh General Hospital.
Method: Descriptive study cross-section with the participation of 170 nurses directly taking care of people in clinical departments of Nam Dinh General Hospital from December 2019 to June 2020.
Results: The percentage of nurses with general knowledge is 56.5%. Of these, 51.8% of nurses said that there was no risk of falling for the patient in the hospital, 91.2% of the nurses said that the hospital should not develop a fall risk assessment form and only 3, 5% of nurses said that the patient's risk of falling due to physiological problems could be prevented by providing a safe environment; for example: clear road to the bathroom, no clutter room, good shoes. The proportion of nurses who self-assessed practice for general fall prevention for patients was 48.8%.
Conclusion: The level of nursing knowledge and practice of falls prevention is not high in the nursing home. There is a relationship between knowledge and practice of falling prevention in the patient. The research results show the need to strengthen nursing knowledge about fall prevention in patients.

Comparison of Fracture Toughness between Four Different Types of Heat Activated Denture Base Resins before and after Exposure to Electron Beam Irradiation: An Invitro Study

Dr. Priyanka. Jain Sikka, Dr. Ritha. Kumari, Dr. Rohan. Sikka, Mr. V C Petwal Dr. Priyanka Jain Sikka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3120-3127

Electron beam irradiation can be used to improve the physical and mechanical properties of polymers. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of electron beam irradiation with an energy dose up from 5 to 50 kGy on the Fracture toughness property of polymer denture base resins. The four different denture base resins used in study are DPI, Trevalon, Trevalon HI and Meliodent heat activated acrylic resins. The influence of electron beam post-curing on Fracture toughness of the polymer denture base resins was investigated. The irradiated denture base resins were compared with untreated control groups. It has been demonstrated that the Fracture resistance of mostly PMMA-based denture resins could be improved using electron beam irradiation only up to 25 kGy, although as the radiation dose increases above 25kGy toughness get reduced. It appears that during irradiation, C–C bonds are split off and the polymeric structure starts to break down after certain dose of radiation. The findings of the present study demonstrate that all the investigated denture base resins show improvement in mechanical properties that is fracture toughness.

Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Changes for Four Different Types of Heat Activated Denture Base Resins Before and After Exposure to Electron Beam Irradiation: An Invitro Study

Dr. Priyanka. Jain Sikka, Dr. Ritha. Kumari, Dr. Rohan. Sikka, Mr. V C Petwal, Dr Nikhil Srivastava Dr. Priyanka Jain Sikka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3128-3135

Background-Removable dentures have been used extensively for the rehabilitation of completely and partially edentulous patients. The success of these prostheses greatly depends on the retention, support and stability. The major objective in the fabrication of complete denture and distal extension partial denture is to attain a denture base that conforms to the supporting tissues with a high degree of accuracy. The PMMA is commonly used as a removable prosthesis material and success of this prosthesis depends on retention, support and stability. The objective in fabrication of complete denture is to obtain denture bases with least dimensional changes which is common reason for relining of them. Electron beam radiation had been used recently but at higher dosage it shows reduction in properties. The aim of this study is to comparative evaluate the Linear dimensional changes of four different types of denture base resins before and after irradiation with electron beam with a low energy dose of maximum up to 50 KGy.
Methods- Linear dimensional changes of denture base resins before and after exposure to electron beam irradiation post-curing were studied. Four different denture base resins were used with commercial names as, DPI, Trevalon, Trevalon HI, and Meliodent heat activated acrylic resins and they were compared with each other. The irradiated denture base resins are compared with non-radiated standard groups.
Results-Our study presented that PMMA-based denture showed better dimensions up to 20kGy after irradiation with electron beam. As crosslinking occurs at low dosage during irradiation and further C–C bonds are split off and the polymeric structure starts to break down at High dosage of radiation.
Conclusions-Linear dimensional properties DPI heat cure acrylic resin, Trevalon, Trevalon HI, and Meliodent heat cure acrylic resins can be altered by the lower dosage of electron beam irradiation. By comparing the Linear dimensional change of all heat activated denture base resins, with linear dimensional change of all heat cure denture base resins before irradiation, it was observed that – irradiated heat cure denture base resins show change in results. But Linear Dimensional changes can be reduced only up to lower dosage up to 20kGy further it start getting reduced.

Automatic Detection and Quantification of Malnutrition Identification using Iterative Structured Circle Detection Algorithm

N.Vikraman Dr.J.Mohana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3136-3144

Counting and Segmentation of blood cells are an important step. It helps to extract the features to diagnose the diseases especially malaria, leukemia, anemia and malnutrition. The manual counting of white blood cells and red blood cells in microscopic images is difficult, inaccurate and time consuming process. So this process is very helpful for hematologist experts. It is very useful to perform faster and more accurate result. Here, Iterative structured circle detection algorithm is used for proposed method.  This algorithm method used for the segmentation and counting of Wight Blood Cells and Red Blood Cells. The Thresholding method of Image processing is used for separation. Preprocessing step is applied to each and every cell type. The proposed method based on Modified Circle detection, this is used to automatically counting the blood cell images. To solve the detecting irregular circles, selecting the optimal circle, determine the number of iterations and initialization problem, the basic RCD algorithm is used. To determine segmentation accuracy, the validation method is used. It includes, Recall, Precision and F-measumement tests. The proposed method average accuracy is 98.4% for WBCs and 95.3% for RBCs. Based on this result, malnutrition is measured.

CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF BLOOD GLUCOSE BY USING THE IPRO2 SYSTEM IN A PERSONALISED APPROACH IN TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION AND COEXISTING DIABETES MELLITUS

Markosyan T.G, Bolevich S.S, Nikitin S.S, Kotenko K.V, Korchazhkina N. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3145-3155

The results of examination and treatment of 17 patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) with coexistingdiabetes mellitus (DM). In order to achievein-depth detail of fluctuations in blood glucose levels, a multi-day monitoring technique has been introduced, followed by further therapy adjustment. During examining with means of functional diagnostic methods, all patients were diagnosed with serious disorders of regional, organ hemodynamics and innervation, in the absence of significant hormonal changes.
During daily monitoring of glucose fluctuations, there were noted uncontrolled, frequently repeated jumps of the given indicator, especially during sexual intercourse, with long trace of fluctuations. Uncontrolled and formidablypredictable episodes of hyperglycemia are regarded as the immediate cause of progressive regional pelvic microangiopathy and neuropathy, which are worsening the prognosis of the diseases course.

Attitude Of Parents Towards Paediatric Dental Staff Attire

Dr. Priyank Sudani; Dr. Nafeesa J Samnani; Dr. Devdatt J Sharma; Dr. Anup K Panda; Dr. Jina Jani; Dr. Manisha Kripalani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3156-3164

Background: Professional appearance contributes to first impression. Attire choices should plan to balance professional appearance, comfort, and practicality with the potential role of apparel. Attire and appearance could be subject to cultural sensitivity. Moreover, they also could be perceived differently according to gender and pediatric practice. Attires have to be less intimidating and child friendly in pediatric dentistry. Parents harbor conscious and unconscious biases when it comes to the clinical demeanor of dental staff in a hospital. Dental staff needs to focus on their attire which would help in building quick rapport and trust in children and parents. This study portrays the perceptions of parents towards the dental staff in pediatric department in a hospital.
Aims and objective: To assess parental attitudes towards dental assistant attire, to find out effect of positive changes that would make children and their parents more comfortable.
Methodology: Data was collected using a validated questionnaire from 101 parents attending the Department of Pediatric Dentistry.
Results: This study revealed that parents place a great deal of emphasis on dental staff attire. Parents mainly favored formal attire as they believed in “targeted attire to improve likelihood of rapport” (TAILOR). Parent’s ranked multicolored apron with buttons closed with the name tags on the left side. They preferred the male assistants to be clean shaven and females to have tied hair and groomed nails with minimal accessories. 89% of the parents felt that assistants could play the role of oral educators.
Conclusion: The results obtained from this study can help dental staff decide what is appropriate to wear in pediatric dental clinic so as to minimize anxiety and improve delivery of health care. Professionalism is multi-factorial and is vital in engendering a way of comfort and confidence during treatment. The nonverbal communication attributed to an attire/appearance can play a major role in the child-dentist relationship. Making small changes in one’s appearance can have a big impact on decreasing the anxiety levels of the child.

Relationship of Dental Anxiety with Different Coping Styles in Children

Dr. Hitakshi Kathiria; Dr B Suba Ranjana; Dr Ivashpreet Kaur; Dr. Anup K Panda; Dr. Mira Virda; Dr. Priyank Sudani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3165-3172

Background: Children face a moderate to a high degree of stress attached to all kinds of dental treatment resulting in compromised dental treatment. The way children cope with stress has been the focus of psychological and behavioral management research.
Aim: To find a relationship between anxious children to different coping styles that could help the pediatric dentist for planning treatment for the child to aid in effective coping.
Design: The anxiety level of 100 children aged between 8 to 12 years was assessed using a modified child dental anxiety scale (faces). They were then asked to fill up a monitoring-blunting dental tool in which certain dental situations along with their appropriate options were given. Children were asked to answer yes or no to those options. Scores were calculated individually for monitoring and blunting. The highest score was taken as the coping style of that particular child.
Results: A Chi-square test was performed to examine the relationship between the anxiety level and coping strategy and it was found to be non-significant. However, it was seen that children with moderate to high anxiety preferred monitoring coping style than blunting.
Conclusion: Monitoring-Blunting coping style is effective in reducing a child’s dental anxiety.

Relationship Between Pocket Money Trend And Dental Caries

Dr. Manisha Gopaldas Kripalani; Dr. Ivashpreet Kaur; Dr. Anupkumar Panda; Dr. Varsha Budakoti; Dr. Sayani Roy; Dr. Hitakshi Kathiria

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3173-3178

Background : The current pocket money trends in school children is steeply increasing. Pocket money accessed by the children has a direct influence on eating habit leading to bitter consequences on their oral hygiene. This trend turns out to be a risk factor for dental caries.
Objective : The aim of the study was to find the relationship between pocket money trend and dental caries in school going children.
Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based cross sectional study was carried among 200 school children of age 8 to 13 from two selected urban area schools of Ahmedabad. Informed consent was obtained from the respective school Principals and also verbal consent was taken from each participating child. Questionnaire used to collect relevant data required for the study was pretested and validated. The questionnaire form was given to each child to fill it and simultaneously oral examination using mouth mirror and explorer was carried by trained dentist according to WHO standard criteria. Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS version 26 software. The chi-square test was used to study the relationship between variables and compare means. Correlation analysis was used to determine the degree of association at 5% level of significance.
Results :A strong positive correlation (r=0.9925)was seen between pocket money and caries. The results showed that 89% of children received pocket money among which 63% children had dental caries.
Conclusion : This study concluded that children receiving allowances could be a potential risk indicator of caries.

Phantom Limb Pain

Fakhrurrazy .; Husnul Khatimah; Fauziah .; Huldani .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3179-3186

Amputation is often causing chronic postoperative pain with an incidence of 85%. Phantom limb pain or PLP is one of the post-amputation phenomena characterized by pain in the limb that has been removed, including the amputation. Neuropathic pain occurs due to hyperexcitability of damaged nerves and other functional nerves around them, causing changes in neuroma sensitivity, decreased potassium channel expression, and increased voltage-gate of sodium channel (VGSC) activity. VGSC buildup triggers cell membrane hyperexcitability, becomes an ectopic initiator of pain, and causes central and peripheral sensitization. Neuromas in the stump respond more to stimuli because they are sensitive to cytokines and amines, causes the massive process of nociceptive impulses and resulting in pain. Neural plasticity allows the nervous system to compensate for the damage after amputation, the brain undergoes a somatotopic map adjustment due to missing limbs. Plasticity is the brain's response to pain that causes the increase of pain signal transmission in the spinal cord. This is known as central sensitization and causes hyperalgesia and allodynia. The plasticity of nerve damage leads to ectopic discharge, it leads to spontaneous pain in the area innervated by the damaged nerve or the nerves surrounding the damaged nerve. Plasticity is the brain's response to pain that causes the transmission of pain signals in the spinal cord to increase. This mechanism is known as central sensitization, which causes hyperalgesia and allodynia. The plasticity of nerve damage leads to ectopic discharge, which can lead to spontaneous pain in the area innervated by the damaged nerve or the nerves surrounding the damaged nerve.

PHARMACEUTICO ANALYTICAL STUDY OF VARUNADI KWATHA, CHANDRAPRABHA VATI AND GOKSHURADI GUGGULU PREPARATION

Astha Verma, Ratnapravha Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3187-3197

Varunadi kwatha(Kashaya), Chandraprabha vati and Gokshuradi guggulu preparation is a Herbo-mineral formulation mentioned in Sharangadhara Samhita and Bhaishajyaratnawali for the Chikitsa of Muthravahastroto vikaras. Authentication was done before the pharmacological analytical study of this drug. The finished product was subjected for necessary analytical parameters. Present work was carried out to standardize the finished product of Varunadi kwath(Kashaya), Chandraprabha vati and gokshuradi guggulu preparation in terms of its identity, quality and purity. Pharmacognostical and Physico-chemical observations revealed all the specific characters of active constituents in the preparation. The data obtained could be useful in deciding the standards for this potential ayurvedic drug and can contribute in the uses and preparation of quality ayurvedic drugs. The same drugs were used for OPD practiced to rule out the efficacy. The resultant effects noted was positive and the symptoms were managed efficiently and also the patient feedback regarding the treatment protocol was good. This gives further motivation to prepare the medications by our own to achieve desired therapeutic efficacy with hundred percent genuine qualities.

RATIONALE USE OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES AFTER FAILED INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BLOCK AMONG GENERAL DENTAL PRACTITIONERS IN RURAL SOUTH INDIA – A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

Dr. Divya Puvvada, Dr.K.S.V.Ramesh, Dr.Kishore Moturi, Dr.M.V.Ramesh, Dr. Y.Anusha, Dr.U.Shivaji Raju,MDS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3198-3220

Background: A successful oral nerve block” is the key for a painless dental practice. The present study is aimed to report the use of alternatives after a failed block and explore the limitations for their use in their routine dental practice, despite the training received during the undergraduate period. 
Methods: A tailor made structured questionnaire was designed and its validity determined using principal component analysis and internal consistency was reviewed with a Cronbachs Alpha value of 0.7. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis.
Results: Out of 600, 444 (74%) responses considered. 56.8% of the practitioners reported a failure of block during the first attempt necessitating the use alternatives. Administration of second block at the same regionby 64.7% practitioners and Gow-Gates (2.3%), Vazirani Akinosi (4.9%) are reported. A significant correlation (p=0.03) was found with respect to the experience of the practitioner and use of mandibular Anaesthesia techniques.
Conclusion: Unlike an institutional based practice, the Mandibular nerve blocks are rarely used, despite their higher demonstrated success rates.It should be a continuous process of learning to self assess their techniques and implement evidence-based practices into their routine dental practice for the benefit of the patient.

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF CANCER ANGIOGENESIS STUDIES IN THE ASPECT OF BRAIN TUMORS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND THERAPY

Zygmunt Siedlecki, Karol Nowak, Sebastian Grzyb, Maciej Śniegocki

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3221-3227

Cancer angiogenesis is a key process in the development of any cancer, including brain tumors: gliomas, meningiomas and metastatic tumors. Both neurooncology and other cancer studies have highlighted angiogenesis and have emphasizedthat inhibiting angiogenesis may be potential treatment for some neoplastic diseases. We presentthe history of research on tumor angiogenesis from the 18th century to the present day. We put emphasis , how during thedecades, new mechanisms of angiogenesis were discovered and what are the prospects for the application of anti-angiogenic drugs in brain tumors potential treatment. The presented manuscript is a review of the history of angiogenesis research over the years, in topic of brain tumors. We put attention that this topic is still relevant and may provide perspectives in neurooncology.

Community Periodontal Index survey and Smoking status of rural population of Nagpur district

Shilpa Ashish Warhekar, Ashish Mahadeorao Warhekar, Satyajit Ashok Tekade, Suruchi Satyajit Jatol-Tekade , Vihang V. Naphade

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3228-3236

Aims and Objective: To evaluate and compare the effect of smoking on periodontal tissues on rural population of Nagpur district.
Material and Methods: A cohort of 400 subjects was randomly selected from age group of 18 to 65 years (200 smokers vs 200 non-smokers). All the subjects were assessed using Community Periodontal Index and a structured questionaire.
Result: The CPI scores 2, 3, 4, were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non smokers (P = 0.001) whereas CPI scores 0, 1 were significantly higher in non smokers (P= 0.001).
Conclusion: within the limitations of the study it can be concluded that smoking has a significant impact on the periodontal health status of an individual. Thus increasing the chances of periodontal disease in smokers as compared to non-smokers
Keywords: Nicotine, Tobacco, Periodontium, community, Public Health
Ethical clearance: Ethical Clearance has been obtained for the study from the Institutional Ethical Board of Swargiya Dadasaheb Kalmegh Smruti Dental College & Hospital.
 

A BIRD’S EYE VIEW ON TRIDOSAGHNA (BALANCING TRI-HUMORS) PHALA OF BHAVPRAKASH NIGHANTU: A LITERARY REVIEW

Dr. KhusbooKumari Gupta,Dr. Sandhya V. Shinde, Dr.Sreenath R, Dr.Rekha Parmar, Dr.Satej T. Banne

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3237-3251

Fruits are an important components of a healthy daily diet. Reduced fruit consumption is linked to poor health and increased risk of many diseases. An estimated 3.9 million deaths Worldwide were caused due to inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption in 2017. Fruits are rich sources of vitamins and minerals, dietary fibre and a host of beneficial non-nutrient substances including plant sterols, flavonoids and other antioxidants and consuming a variety of fruits and vegetables helps to ensure an adequate intake of many of these essential nutrients. In fact, diets high in fruit are associated with all sorts of health benefits, including a decreased risk of many diseases like CHD, Cancer etc. Ayurveda has very intricately bonded the various groups of Ausadha(medicine) and Aharavarga (food) from the nature. The Brihtrayees and Laghutrayee lays explicit examples for subtle connection of different Aharavarga(group of food), Acharyas have mentioned Phalavarga (group of fruits) under Ahara (food). In BhavprakashNighantu, Acharya Bhavmishra have mentionedPhala(fruits) under Amradiphalavarga. Here he has mentioned total60 Phala(fruits). Among them 9 are Tridosaghna (balancing tri-humors). The present study is designed to screen the Tridosaghna (balancing tri-humors) phala (fruits) which can be used in our daily life to improve health of individuals and decrease risk of any disease.

CARDIOTOXIC EFFECT OF CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS

Pooja Babbar, D Lokanatha, Linu Abraham Jacob, M C Suresh Babu, KN Lokesh, AH Rudresha, LK Rajeev, Smitha Saldanha, GH Abhilash, Amit Pandey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3252-3277

One of the most promising problems associated with the use of chemotherapeutic agents for cancer is cardiac toxicity. The root cause of multiple cardiac toxicity disorders such as left ventricular failure, pericarditis, myocarditis, myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, prolongation of QT and hypertension are the antineoplastic agents.Anthracyclines, alkylating agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antimetabolites and HER2-directed therapy are some major medications that can induce cardiotoxicity. A detailed literature survey on different chemotherapeutic agents for cancer has been carried out.The present review and analysis address cardiovascular risks, potential mechanistic mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity and cardio-protective agents used in chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer.

Conscious Sedation: Uses in Medicine and Dental Practice

Ritika Shrivastava, Dr. Rashmi Cherian P, Rajandeep Brar, Harveen Singh Kalra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3278-3288

Dental fear is common among children as well as adults due to the high intensity of pain. Provision to control adequate anxiety and pain has been an integral part of medical and dental treatment and practice. The level of sedation must be such that the patient remains conscious and able to understand as well as respond to verbal commands. The level required for sedation should be adjusted to achieve a proper balance between the need of the patient, the surgical procedure, and the safety of the patient. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have become popular over the past few years. These techniques have a high success rate with low adverse effects, but effective training of these techniques is required. This article summarizes the history, principles, applications, indications, contraindications, the need for conscious sedation, various agents used, and route of administration of these agents in the field of medicine and dentistry.

An Investigation on Detection of Vulnerabilities in Internet of Things

Abhishek Raghuvanshi, Dr. Umesh Kumar Singh, Chetan Bulla, Dr. Monika Saxena, Kishori Abadar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3289-3299

IoT is a woven mixture of traditional systems, sensors, clouds, mobile applications, Web applications and control systems, affecting every aspect of people's lives. Security concerns are increasing with increasingly heterogeneous devices and data processing.  It is also a well known fact that most of the IoT applications and devices are not fully secure and they are vulnerable to certain attacks. On an average, 60 percent IoT applications and devices have some sort of vulnerabilities associated with them. In this research work, an experimental setup is established using server computers, client computers, IoT development boards, sensors, cloud subscriptions. Network host scanning tools and vulnerability scanning tools are used to collect raw data related to IoT based applications and devices. Shodan scanning tool is also used to effectively detect vulnerabilities in IoT devices and perform penetration testing.

Marriage and Broken Vows: A Study of the Techno-Social Aspects and the Victimization of Divorcees in Kerala

Praveen Abraham, Dr. Beena G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3300-3308

The nullity and void of a marriage is defined as ‘Divorce’ in general perspective. It is not confined to just a legal separation but involves various other parameters that result in a dissolution of marriage. Statistical data proves that divorce rate in India has tremendously increased in the last decade with 13 out of every 1000 marriages in India ending up in divorces. Kerala stands second highest in India in terms of divorce rates as per the reports of The New Indian Express daily on February 08, 2018. According to the information from the Ministry of Law, more than thirty thousand cases are pending in the family courts of Kerala for the decree. In addition, many un reported cases of unsatisfied or separated marriages are still hidden under the veils of the so called ‘Sanskar’. Most of these cases are reported in the early stages of marriage normally within a year. Due to a conditioning regarding the stigma attached, many cases go unreported too. Rigid patriarchal controls render women voiceless against seeking divorces or reporting harassment. Seeking liberation from the shackles of a painfully destructive relationship is still an unthinkable luxury in India. Another reason is the high regard for the family’s reputation and feelings. Divorce comes with unbreakable social stigma in India. The slow and long drawn legal process in India and the huge amount of money that has to be spent on it are also reasons for this. The trauma of the divorce especially in women’s life is definitely petrifying and largely marginalized or taken for granted. Infidelity, physical and sexual abuses, lack of communication, financial difficulties etc. are some of the important reasons for marital separation. For this study, 79 samples have been identified by the researcher through the matrimonial advertisements published by divorced people for their second marriage in Malayala Manorama daily from January 01 to March 31, 2020. Interview method is used for the data collection. Based on the responses, the researcher has categorized the group into various sub groups and analysed the reasons for divorce. In most of the cases, the marriage ended up within a year and there were no children.

Kurt Vonnegut and Slaughterhouse-Five: A Pacifistic Study

Sinoj Antony, Ishfaq Ahmad Tramboo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3309-3313

Kurt Vonnegut is considered as one of the champion fictional writers of postmodern literature from America. Though he had written a total of 14 novels, Slaughterhouse-Five published on 31 March 1969 is regarded as his masterpiece, because of its anti-war narration and pacifistic approach. He is a great philanthropist and anti-war writer of the 20th century.  This novel depicts his own war experiences and memoirs during World War II and received good acceptance across the world. Human history had been shaped through war and its atrocities. Various wars and conflicts formed humanity with certain values and ethics. Pacifism is such a quality that opposes war and always promote peace among people and nations. The novel Slaughterhouse-Five depicts the war’s absurdities and atrocities. The major victims of any war are the soldiers, they often suffer a lot during the outbreak of war. This paper mainly focuses on the pacifist approach of the novel Slaughterhouse-Five.  Throughout the novel, Vonnegut mocks the stupidities of human beings who are crazy in war.  The ultimate result of any war is destruction, and human suffering, Vonnegut does not directly promote and exhorts pacifism in this novel instead he is revealing the stupidities of the war with humour and heartfelt narration.

Hyperreality in Media and Literature: An Overview of Jean Baudrillard’s Simulacra and Simulation

Sinoj Antony, Ishfaq Ahmad Tramboo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3314-3318

Hyperreality is a critical theory of postmodernism. The negative impacts of hyperreality are visible in our media and literature fields and it is a threat to contemporary society in association with reality and its copies. Illusions of reality are always formed, and they pretend as the originals. Jean Baudrillard through his book Simulacra and Simulation, originally published in French in 1981 and translated to English in 1983 traces out the fake realities that are promoted by media and literature. He is a well-known critic of postmodernism, his theory of hyperreality is better applicable in postmodern literature and media. People are living in a world where they are always confused with reality and blended reality, even the reality is suppressed under fantasies and illusions, these imaginations often control the world. Media and literature are always influenced by hyperreality, films, advertisements, news, social media, etc. represent artificial realities so that the present world cannot realize the truth and originality. People admire fictional heroes and superficial characters in both media and literature. The kids and youngsters are under the influence of modern technology and communication, IT revolution always accelerated to cope with an imaginative world. Technology created a new world order where people find simulacra are more comfortable and attractive to live with. Hyperreality would gradually lead the people to chaos and confusion, as a result, everything will lose its own identity, originality, and essence.

The Trends of the Farmers of DhiQar Governorate Towards Emulating others in their Adoption of Improved Agricultural Practices in Protected Agriculture and its Relationship to some Personal Factors

Abdulmuttaleb Abbas Salih

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3319-3334

This study aims to identifythe trends of the farmers of Dhi Qar Governoratetowards simulating their fellow farmers who adopt covered agriculture and its relationship to some independent personal factors, which are (age, educational level, agricultural possession, income, leadership role), and the research sample was chosen by 75% of the community Al-Gharaf sub-district, which numbered 60 out of a total of80 farmers in the sub-district, who had adopted this agriculture, with 44.5% of the total community of Dhi Qar Governorate (Jaber, Al-Ziyadi 2013,25,127-151). The data were collected by means of a questionnaire prepared for this purpose, and the correlation, percentages, arithmetic averages, weighted average, t-test were approved. The results showed a clear increase in the respondents ’tendency towards emulating their colleagues in adopting improved agricultural practices. The results also showed a positive correlation at 0.01 level between the trend and each of the income and agricultural holdings level. And there is a negative association relationship at 0.01 level between orientation and each of age and educational level. While the results did not show a significant relationship between the direction and the leadership role that the individual plays in society, the researcher has reached some conclusions and recommendations that can be used by the agricultural extension regarding covered agriculture .
 

DNA Cleavage, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity studies of new Schiff base Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II) complexes derived from o-phthalaldehyde

T. Sujeshwari , E. Akila, P. Maheswaran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3335-3347

A new series of binuclear Schiff base Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) complexes have been synthesized with Schiff base derived from o-phthalaldehyde and p-chloroaniline. The chelation of the metal complexes has been proposed in the light of analytical, spectral (IR, UV–Vis), magnetic, 1H NMR and ESR studies. These data reveals that the Schiff base complexes exhibit the hexa-coordinated geometry. The Schiff base and their metal complexes have been screened for their antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The results of these studies show the metal complexes to be more antibacterial and more significant antioxidant as compared to free Schiff base ligand. All the metal complexes cleave the pUC18DNA in presence of H2O2.

The Positive Impact From Group Counselling With Cognitive Behaviour (GC-CB) To Stress About Cyberbullying Conditions

Akhmad Fajar Prasetya; Mungin Eddy Wibowo; Edy Purwanto; Mulawarman .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3348-3355

Technology has now served as a means of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying represents harassment done at any time and in any place. A victim of cyberbullying may undergo a sequence of emotional effects such as anxiety, stress, depression, or even suicidal intention. The present study aimed to confirm the effectiveness of cognitive behavior group counseling with cognitive restructuring and self- instruction technique in reducing university students’ stress due to cyberbullying. To this end, factorial experimental design was implemented. The participants of the study were 20 private university students in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The data were collected using Social Anxiety Scale. In analyzing the data, repeated measure ANAVA was applied. The result of the study indicated that cognitive behavior group counseling with cognitive restructuring and self-instruction technique was effective in reducing the stress of cyberbullying victims. The study also revealed that self-instruction was more effective in reducing stress, compared to cognitive structuring. Regarding gender, female students exhibited a more significant decrease in stress than male students did.

Comparation Of Bovine Mesenteric Artery With Bovine Mesenteric Vein Patency As Xenograft In Oryctolagus Cuniculus Carotid Artery

Yan Efrata Sembiring; Rakadian Wijaya; Puruhito .; Agung Prasmono; Heroe Soebroto; Oky Revianto Sediono; Arief Rakhman Hakim; Dhihintia Jiwangga Suta Winarno

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3356-3361

Cardiovascular diseases include coronary and peripheral arteries increase every year. Estimated mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases is up to 23.3 million in 2030 and more than 2 million patients will need hemodialysis access in 2030. Gold standard of vascular graft for bypass surgery is autologous artery or vein but sometimes unavailable. Because of limited availability, researchers encourage to search for another vascular graft in biological graft which has characteristics as good as autograft. This study aims to determine which one is better between bovine mesenteric artery and vein as xenograft by comparing each patency. We performed an in vivo test evaluating the patency of mesenteric artery compared to mesenteric vein as xenograft for four weeks. Each group, both artery and vein, consists of 16 grafts implanted in New Zealand rabbit carotid artery. Xenograft patency was evaluated by observing histopathology of intimal layer thickness, thrombosis events, amount of graft stenosis and number needed to treat (NNT). The result showed a statistically significant increasing in the thickness of the tunica intima of both groups. There was no histopathologic thrombus in the arterial and venous groups. Stenosis in the arterial and venous groups was 12.5% and 50% with an NNT value of 3. The conclusion was bovine mesenteric artery xenograft had better patency than bovine mesenteric vein xenograft.

The Effect of Nation Branding “Thoughtful Indonesia” upon the Decision Process of International Tourists to Visit Indonesia in New Normal Era / amid the Covid-19 Pandemic

Ira B Hubner; Juliana .; Nova Irene Bernedeta Sitorus; Rudy Pramono

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3362-3373

The tourism sector is one of the sectors that has suffered the most losses due to the Covid-19 pandemic, namely the impact on travel supply and demand. Travel restrictions and flight cancellations and reduced flight frequencies have significantly reduced the supply of both domestic and international tour packages and trips amidst the continuing decline in demand. This poses additional downside risks in the context of a weaker world economy, geopolitical, social and trade unrest, and unequal performance among the travel markets. In an effort to reach and increase the target of foreign-tourist visits to Indonesia and compete with other countries, the government is more aggressively promoting the “Wonderful Indonesia” nation branding in order to be able to compete with other countries, and provide a better perception for foreign tourists; a good perception affects the number of tourist visits. However, during the COVID-19 Pandemic, the Government issued a new nation brand, namely “Thoughtful Indonesia” which will become a nation branding for Indonesian tourism during the COVID-19 period. This study aims to analyze the effect of nation branding "Thoughtful Indonesia" on the decision to visit Indonesia during the new normal period or after COVID-19 pandemic. This research uses descriptive and verification types of research. The sampling technique used in this research was probability sampling. Based on the research and analysis and hypothesis testing, it is concluded that nation branding has a positive effect on visiting decisions.

Convalescent Plasma Therapy Against Covid-19: A Comprehensive Review

Dr Suchitra Shenoy M, MD; Dr Pooja Rao, MD; Dr Deepa Adiga S A; Dr Nikhil Victor Dsouza, MD; Dr Basavaprabhu Achappa MD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3374-3384

The pandemic COVID-19, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to create havoc all over the world having caused more than 40 million cases and more than 11,32.528 deaths worldwide as of October 21, 2020. The treatment of COVID-19 is proving to be a challenge to the medical fraternity worldwide with no specific drug therapy or vaccine available in sight. The use of Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy, a form of passive immunization, in the treatment of COVID-19 has been gaining ground all over the world including India as convalescent plasma therapy has been used previously in virus infections like MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, H1N1 and other viral infection with some success, when the situation was similar as in any infectious outbreak situations. This review looks at CP therapy as a possible treatment option for COVID-19 in terms of: type of antibodies in the convalescent plasma, mechanism of action, possible adverse effects, current approval status and its limitations in the management of COVID-19.

Experiences Of Cancer Patients With Palliative Care At The Reference Hospital In Medan City.

Shandra .; Setiawan .; Rosina Tarigan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3385-3391

The increasing number of adult patients with advanced cancer emphasizes the importance of providing palliative care with standard oncology care. In Indonesia, the development of palliative care services is still slow and the availability of services is still limited. The complaints that often arise related to physical, psychological, social relations, self-concept, and spiritual aspects cannot be completely intervened with curative and this requires handling with an appropriate approach. The aim of study was to describe the experiences of cancer patients regarding their palliative care at hospital. The study used descriptive phenomenology following the approach of Giorgi. There were 15 participants who qualified using purposive sampling based on the inclusion criteria. The data were gathered using depth interviews. Analysis and interpretation used verbatim descriptions. The research data revealed six themes, namely: namely getting the fulfillment of minimal care needs, getting independent care education at home, having positive and negative attitudes in accepting sick conditions, getting motivation and family support in supporting recovery, feeling comfortable interacting with the palliative care team, and feel pessimistic about the palliative care services provided. The study revealed that the implementation of palliative care has not been optimal. Comprehensive care by an interdisciplinary palliative team is not yet holistic (bio-psycho-socio-spiritual) but still focuses on curative, thus it can be concluded that the fulfillment of palliative care needs is still minimal

Most Common Side Effects Of Antibacterial Drugs In The Treatment Of Bacterial Infection

Mavlyanova Nozima; Mamatova Nodira; Аgzamova Nazifa; Muxitdinova Mavjuda; Sherova Zebo; Buranova Dilfuza; Muxammadjanova Madina

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3420-3426

Primum non nocere is a principle proclaimed by Hippocrates and remains relevant throughout the history of medicine. Unfortunately, pharmacotherapy does not always correspond to it. Although modern oral antibacterial drugs generally have a favorable safety profile, there are still many side effects. Antibacterial, like all medicines, have side effects, some of the side effects can be serious and some are dire. The use of antibacterial drugs in all areas of medicine, often unreasonable indications for their use, free access for the potential consumer - all this leads to irrational use of drugs, starting from an early age. More than 50% of diseases are infectious in nature. Infectious drugs account for 20% of all drugs currently used in medicine. The misuse of antibiotics is fraught with the development of antimicrobial resistance in the pathogen.

An Appearance Characteristic Ulcer In Diabetic Patients At Kitamura Clinic In Pontianak, Indonesia

Suriadi AWCS, CFCN, Ph.D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3436-3444

Background: There are several types of diabetic foot ulcers, namely neuropathic, ischemic, neuro-ischemic, mix ulcer, diabetic bullae, and furuncle/carbuncle. This study intends to identify the characteristics of ulcers in diabetic patients.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kitamura Wound Clinic, in Pontianak-Indonesia from October 2019 to February 2020 to investigate ulcer occurrence in diabetic patients. A sample was used to select 292 study participants. A univariate model analysed the characteristic respondent and ulcers.
Results: The median and range age of the participants was 56 (27-87) years, and 55.1% of the participants were female. The patients with positive neuropathy were 30.8%, the mean of systole blood pressure was 135.68 (±23.9) and diastolic pressure was 83.02 (±11.4). The median and range of HbA1C were 9.8 (6.44 -14). Characteristics of ulcer in diabetic included 36% DUDT (diabetic ulcer due to trauma), 37.3% diabetic bullae, 9.2% furuncle/carbuncle (boils), and 8.6% neuropathic. The most common cause of ulcers was trauma (47.9%) and the most common ulcer locations were 38.4% on the toe and plantar (24.7%).
Conclusion: This study found the characteristics of ulcers in diabetic patient were DUDT, neuropathic, ischemic, neuro-ischemic, arterial, venous, mixed ulcer, diabetic bullae and furuncle/carbuncle. Health care providers should distinguish the types or characteristics of ulcers in diabetic patients so that they can consider wound care and treatment according to the characteristics of diabetic ulcers.

Effect Of Polarized Light Therapy On Incisional Pain After Cesarean Section

Anan Abd El Shafey Anter Ahmed; Khadyga Said Abdel-Aziz; Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed Awad; AbdelRahman Hegazy AbdelWahab Mahmoud; Ahmed Aref Ahmed Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3445-3453

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of polarized light therapy on incisional pain after (SC). Methods: Forty primipara women complaining from incisional pain post CS participated in this study. They had a single full term fetus during their gestation. The participant's ages ranged from 25-35 years. The control Group (Group A) were treated by traditional medical treatment immediately after recovery from anesthesia. The Study Group (Group B) were treated by traditional medical treatment immediately after recovery from anesthesia and polarized light therapy with energy density of an average of 2.4 J/cm2 15 minutes/session, one session /day for 5 consecutive days. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electronic algometer were used to measure intensity of incisional pain post CS in both groups (A&B) before and after treatment. Results: Results of this study found that there was significant decrease of VAS and significant increase of pressure algometer after treatment in both groups A and B when compared with corresponding pre-treatment values (p<0.05). there was significant difference in mean values of VAS and pressure algometer between both groups (A and B) after treatment (p<0.05) (with favor of group B, more decrease VAS and more increase in pressure algometer). Conclusion: It can be concluded that polarized light therapy for 5 consecutive days' post SC is an effective adjuvant therapy in treatment of incisional pain through reducing visual analogue scale (VAS) and increasing electronic algometer.

Identification of Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) using machine learning and analysis on risk factors for CVD

Vikramjit S. Dhaliwal Arunjeet Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3466-3476

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) comprise a range of dis-eases impacting heart and blood vessels. The early detection of CVDs in high-risk patients can certainly help them to recover from fatal diseases and to resume their routine life. The healthcare industry has repository of medical data which is sufficient enough to make predictions of cardiovascular diseases using machine learning algorithms at early stages. In this research paper, the data has been collected from Fortis healthcare centres. The data pre-processing techniques have been used to remove noisy data, to handle missing values, fill-ing default values if applicable and then machine learning based algorithms have been applied to predict whether the patient is suffering from Cardiovas-cular diseases or not. We have also presented analysis on the risk attributes with respect to the sample population in this paper.
 
Results: The performance of the ML based algorithms have been evaluated using confusion matrix, ROC, F1 score, precision and recall scores. The potential attributes have been highlighted and discussed that contribute in the occurrence of CVDs amongst the patients. We have analyzed the risk-factors such as consumption of alcohol and tobacco, blood pressure levels, blood sugar levels, cholesterol measures, other medical history such as diabetes, family his-tory, age and weight of the diseased, and measure of per day physical activity for analyzing the impact of each risk factor on the CVD patients.
 
  Conclusions: In this paper, we have collected data of 70,000 patients from North-India region for the research study. We have attempted to apply classification algorithms for the identification of the patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. It is observed that automated machine learning techniques produce accurate results and can assist the doctors to diagnose the diseased patients in a fast manner. We have also analyzed the risk-factors
 
related to CVDs such as diabetes, consumption of alcohol, smoking, obesity, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, physical activity and family history with chronic CVDs. We have also observed the impact of each respective risk-attribute with respect to cardiovascular diseases. This study will assist the physicians for identifying cardiovascular diseases in patients at early stage using proposed automated system and in analyzing the risk-factors with respect to CVDs. This study also provides insights into gender-wise analysis of cardiovascular cases.

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of perilla frutescens fixed oil

Sudipti Sen, Seema Singh, S K Singh, Dinesh Tripathi, Chetna Mishra, Amit Bhagat, Sunita Singh, Santosh Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3477-3487

Background: The plant Perilla frutescens Linn .belongs to the family Labiatae or Lamiaceae also called as Shiso plant or beefsteak plant purple mint. Perilla seed oil contains high amount of omega-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and these have been well tested as anti-inflammatory compounds that are useful for a variety of inflammatory conditions. Perilla frutescens seeds oil are a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). ALA may also help to prevent and treat depression, reduce menstrual pain, reduce the risk for fatal heart attacks, prevent breast cancer and treat autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Objectives: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Perilla frutescens fixed oil. 
Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing 150–200 g and Swiss mice weighing 25–30 g were used. For investigating the anti-inflammatory effect of natural products, carrageenan- induced paw edema is a suitable experimental animal model .The carrageenan-induced paw edema method and histamine induced paw edema methods were used for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. Carrageenan is a mixture of polysaccharides composed of sulphated galactose units and is derived from Irish Sea moss, Chondrous crispus. Histamine is an organic nitrogen compound involved in local responses. It is a biogenic amine. The analgesic effect of Perilla frutescense seed oil was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test and tail flick test. Typhoid paratyphoid A/B Vaccine method is used for evaluation of   antipyretic activity. 
Results: Results were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Students Newman Keuls multiple comparisons tests. Perilla frutescens fixed oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity from 60 min as compared to vehicle treated animals. This is as comparable to aspirin. The extract showed some significant effect on inflammationand also reduced the number of writhing after acetic acid administration. But the extract does not show any antipyretic activity on Typhoid paratyphoid A/B Vaccine induced pyrexia.
Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that Perilla frutescens fixed oil has an anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic potential. 

Impact of Lockdown and Government Policies on Indian Stock Market Particularly in Pharmaceutical Industry

Vishesh Phogaat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3488-3495

The most comprehensive brief trade study explores the status of the COVID-19 Pharmaceutical Industry and stock market. First, using the developing countries as an illustration, on a global scale, and then on a regional scale in India, we would research the short-term and long-term impact of epidemics on natural resources and the pharmaceutical industry regulations. Identifying these results is important to assist leaders in designing more evidence-based policies to tackle the issues that surround them. Globally we are observing various industries are facing a huge crisis due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The coronavirus outbreak is only creating severe hamper to the public health but also to their livelihood. The year 2020 is really a year of crisis for sure, to the financial markets and the world economy. Almost all the sectors and industries were withstanding the economic slowdown. Even large-cap and blue-chip companies were not the exception In spite of such an unprecedented decline in the share prices across the board, there is one segment that has been showing a ray of hope: the pharmaceutical industry. In this article we try to investigate the impact of the covid -19 and consequential on pharma stock prices.

Evaluation of Cleome Viscosa L. roots extract(s): Anti-allergic, antioxidant and diuretic activities in association of phenolic profile

Seema Singh, Sunita Singh, Dinesh Tripathi, Chetna Mishra, S K Singh, Amit Bhagat, Sudipti Sen, Santosh Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3496-3511

Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae), popularly known as “Asian spider flower”, is a native tree and found abundant in India. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and diuretic activity of the root extracts obtained from Cleome viscosa using in vitro and in vivo experimental models.
Material and Methods: The ethanolic extracts and its fractions obtained from Cleome viscosa roots through Soxhlet extraction was analyzed by various activities. Different extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant (ABTS & DPPH assay), anti-inflammatory (protein denaturation), anti-allergic (milk induced eosinophilia), and diuretic (Lipschitz test) activities.
Results: Ethanolic extract exhibited the total phenolic (4.51±0.4) and flavonoid (5.34±0.93) content and highest antioxidant activity [{in ABTS (at 0.1 mg/mL; 33.62±0.76)} and {in DPPH (at 0.02 mg/mL; 29.30±0.56)} comparable to ascorbic acid, a standard compound {(0.04 mg/mL; 47.45±0.19) and (0.06 mg/mL; 97.14±0.53)} % inhibition] respectively. Whereas at the 150 µg/mL dose of EECV shows 51.07±0.92 % inhibition and viscocity 0.79±0.75 cp as compared to 625 µg/mL dose of Diclofenac sodium shows 56.23±1.98 % inhibition and viscocity 0.92±0.61 cp. Additionally, the total leucocyte count (at 100 mg/kg; 2483.34±148.14 per cu mm) and Eosinophils count (at 100 mg/kg; 66.6±10.54 per cu mm) was observed in anti-allergic activity when compared to the standard (Milk as 4 ml/kg; 3180.21±136.0 and 84.1±42.90) respectively. Also diuretic activity found significant in the petroleum ether fraction (200 mg/kg) as compared against the tested standard drug (Furosemide).
Conclusions: It can be suggested that Cleome viscosa a great potential source of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and diuretic compounds useful for new diuretic drugs from the natural basis.

Frontal Sinus - A New Horizon Towards Growth Estimation

Dr. Priyank Sudani; Dr. Arpita Datta; Capt. Dangar Shyam M; Dr. Anup K Panda; Dr. Jina Jani; Dr. Deep D Patel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3488-3495

BACKGROUND: The human skeleton is a well-balanced dynamic system which responds to different mechanical stresses. The paranasal sinuses occupy a significant amount of space in the cranium which has been a topic of interest in studies to determine their function and factors affecting their morphology and size. The ability to predict the craniofacial growth pattern helps in improving accurately the reliability of treatment planning and long-term success. AIMS: Growth evaluation plays a significant role in the accurate diagnosis and treatment planning of children. This study aimed to correlate the frontal sinus index with anterior and posterior facial heights. The objective was to evaluate the association between frontal sinus morphology, facial heights and sagittal jaw discrepancies for the assessment of growth. METHODS: A total of 50 Lateral cephalograms of the children aged 7-15 years in Ahmedabad were used to measure the frontal sinus dimensions. Correlation between the frontal sinus dimensions, anterior & posterior facial heights and skeletal jaw discrepancies were evaluated and data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Very Low Positive Co-relation was found between the sinus index and ANB angle (0.105073974); Very Low Negative Co-relation was found between the sinus index and SN-GoGn angle (-0.148290904); Weak Positive Co-relation was found between sinus index and Lower anterior facial height (0.275691492) and the sinus index and anterior facial height (0.214073235); Medium Positive Co-relation was found between the sinus index and posterior facial height (0.307817304). CONCLUSION: None of the parameters could be significantly correlated with the frontal sinus index. Hence, at this juncture, the use of this indicator as the sole criterion for evaluating the growth using cross-sectional data is questionable. So, Frontal sinus is not as reliable as a sole criterion for growth evaluation.

A comparative study to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Six-Sigma DMAIC methodology among government and private hospitals of Pune city, India

Mr. Deepak Sethi Sethi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3496-3501

Health care organization aims to provide quality care to patient with good patient satisfaction. Many private hospitals have adopted many strategies to increase the patient satisfaction level. However, government hospitals are still need to look forward towards better patient care. Six sigma is one of the latest approach, which has not yet accepted by the health care industry fully. This paper aims to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Six-Sigma DMAIC methodology among government and private hospitals. Sixty-two samples of nurse administrators ward in-charge, nurse educators were taken by purposive sampling. Pre-experimental approach was used to assess the level of knowledge by self-administer structured questionnaires and five point Likert scale was used to assess the attitude regarding Six-sigma DMAIC methodology. Results revealed that, Most of the nurse administrators from Government hospitals had average knowledge level (Score 11-20) i.e. 28 %, 12 % were having good knowledge score (Score 21-30) but in private hospital majority i.e. 37 % had good knowledge score (Score 21-30), 13% had average knowledge level (Score 11-20) and only 12 % had poor knowledge score (Score 0-10) respectively. Similarly, as far as attitude was concern, Most of the nurse administrators from Government hospitals had poor attitude score (Score 0-20) i.e. 55 %, only 4 % were having good attitude score (Score 41-60). In private hospital majority i.e. 40 % had poor attitude score (Score 0-20), 8 % had good attitude towards Six-sigma DMAIC approach (Score 41-60) and only 14 % had average attitude score (Score 21-40) respectively and there was very week between knowledge and attitude score of private and government hospitals.

AN EFFICIENT DENOISING HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE OF CSA-FIR FILTER FOR REAL TIME ECG SIGNALS

Yalamanchili Arpitha, Dr G. L. Madhumathi, Dr N.Balaji

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3502-3513

In the recent years there is a huge demand for reduction in size and power of portable devices used for monitoring critical signals such as ECG. The technical advancements in VLSI has created a huge impact on biomedical signal processing. VLSI circuits working at high speed can be designed in order to consume less area and power. Especially for ECG signal denoising, digital filters such as FIR and IIR are used in most of the applications. Finite Impulse Filters (FIR) is used widely compared to IIR filters because of their good stability and high order. In this paper, FIR filter with modified carry save adder-based MACarchitectureis introduced to carryout ECG signal denoising application. The input raw ECG signal collected from MIT-PhysionetArrhythmia data base is read using MATLAB and coefficients are generated. resource efficient FIR filter is designedby using carry save adder.Therefore, a carry save adder circuit can be invented with minimal area and power consumption. It is evident that the power line interference noise has been removed and denoised ECG signals have been obtained. And these noises have been removed from ECG MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database (record# 100,101,102 &103). It has 14.98 % less area, 8.83% lees power, 26.24% less delay, 22.48% less APP and 37.29% less ADP.

A Comparative Analysis and Prognosis of Software Functionality with Machine Learning Techniques

Dr Y Narasimha Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3514-3522

At different milestones in the software evolution process, software quality evaluation is a trivial task. This can be used to schedule performance assessment, quality management and project enhancement operations. Two techniques Linear Programming with Multiple Parameters (LPMP) and Quadratic Programming with Multiple Parameters (QPMP) for assessing the quality of software had been employed in the ongoing studies and researches. Several experts conducted research with Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neutral network (NN), C5.0 for quality assessment. These experiments had given poor and low results. In this research, by utilizing corresponding attributes of a multiple datasets, we fine-tuned prediction efficiency. In addition to employing a method of selecting a subgroup of relevant variablesand variance matrix for getting greater and better results, we have applied different tests on latest approaches and accomplished good results for other predictive activities. Machine learning (ML) algorithms such as Logistic regression (LR), AdaBoost (AB), Random Decision Forest (RDF), Bagging Classifier (BC) and Classification Tree (CT) are executed on the data to forecast the software functionality, reliability and disclosed the association between the parameters of quality and production. The investigational outcomes proved that the measure of software quality can be well determined and assessed by ML techniques.
 

STUDY ON IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON 5A'S OF TELEMEDICINE

Anjali, Dr. Lakshmipriya Nagarajan, Sahitya Immidisetty, Simrandeep Kaur, Dr. Mridula Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3523-3538

COVID-19 lockdown restricted movement throughout the world. The whole world was quarantined and a large number of populations faced stressful situations in other aspects of daily life such as unexpected economic downturn, the higher burden on non-communicable diseases, lifestyle changes, various mental health issues, etc. There was a need for innovative and unique solutions to help and address the critical shortage of healthcare providers not only for those who were infected with COVID-19 but also for those who may require medical attention. During this critical situation, telemedicine services resurfaced and become an asset, with greater importance to the health-care delivery spectrum. The rate at which implementation of telemedicine services are occurring throughout the world, it becomes necessary for the organizations to understand the needs of the people who opt for such services. While several healthcare providers and systems have turned to telemedicine to maintain contact with their regular patients to minimize their risks of direct contact, the rate of adoption of this technology among patients hitherto accustomed to face-to-face consultation is uncertain, particularly in developing countries like India. The adoption can be measured with help of five variables i.e. Availability, Affordability, Accessibility, Accommodation, and Acceptability.

DEEP NEURAL NETWORK BASED CLASSIFICATION MODEL FOR FEATURE EXTRACTION

Dinesh Valluru, Jasmine Selva kumari Jeya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3539-3554

Background:
Computer aided diagnosis model developed for the detection of lung cancer can leads to higher survival rate. In recent days, Deep Learning (DL) models finds successful for various applications in medical domain.
Materials and Methods:
In this paper, an effective feature extraction based lung cancer classification model has been presented. The proposed model makes use of Hybrid Feature Extraction (HFE) with Deep Neural Network (DNN) based classification models. The proposed HFE-DNN model undergoes pre-processing to enhance the image quality. Then, feature extraction process is carried out by the use of HFE technique followed by DNN based data classification. The outcome of the HFE-DNN technique can assist doctors in the diagnosis process of lung cancer.
Results and Conclusion:
An extensive simulation results takes place on the benchmark HFE-DNN model and the results confirmed its superior characteristics over the existing methods. The simulation outcome pointed out that the proposed HFE-DNN model has offered effective classification outcome with the maximum accuracy of 85.79%, sensitivity of 79.55% and specificity of 89.03%.

Evaluation And Comparison Of Micronuclei In Exfoliative Cytology Of Buccal Mucosa In Normal Individuals And Sickle Cell Anemia Patients Of Durg City Of Chhattishgarh State

Pankaj Kumar Agrawal, Sonam Agrawal, BN Shivkumar, S P Mosby, C Kiran kumar, Anjali Sen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3555-3563

Context: The mouth and face are highly accessible parts of the body, sensitive to and able to reflect changes occurring internally. In order to contribute the understanding of the role of the different biomarkers and their relationship with the extremely variable clinical manifestation of sickle cells disease, this study investigated the micronuclei frequency in buccal cells in sickle cell traits, sickle cell anemia patients and controls.
Aims: To assess the frequency of micronuclei in buccal cells of patients with sickle cell trait, sickle cell disease and healthy individuals.
Settings and Design: The sample for present study comprised of 30 patients of Sickle cell trait , 30 patients of sickle cell disease and 30 healthy individuals as control .
Methods and Material: .Exfoliative cytology slides were prepared from buccal mucosa. Cells were examined and micronuclei frequency was calculated in percentage for each subject.
Statistical analysis used: Results were evaluated for statistical significance using student t test unpaired and ANOVA test
Results: For group I of sickle cell trait mean micronucleated cell % observed was 0.12 with standard deviation (SD) of 0.13. For group II ( sickle cell disease ) Mean micronucleated cell % observed was 0.75 with a SD of 0.22 for group III (control) mean micronucleated cell % was 0.08 with SD of 0.11.
Conclusions: The study suggests that individuals with sickle cell anemia, regardless of clinically visible oral lesions, show cytological changes in oral mucosal epithelium.
Key-words: Sickle cell anemia ,exfoliative cytology , micronuclei

Efficacy of Strain Sonoelastography in Inflammatory and Benign Swellings of Parotid and Submandibular Glands

Dr.Dhiran Talatule, Dr. V.K. Lohe, Dr. R.R. Bhowate, Dr. Ayesha Sayyad, Dr. Ravindra Kadu, Dr. S.C. Mohod Dr. S.C. Mohod

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3564-3569

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of strain sonoelastography in inflammatorylesions and benign tumours of parotid and submandibular glands.
Materials and Method: Twenty five patients with parotid and/or submandibular gland swellings were incorporated in the study. Ultrasonography and sonoelastography was carried out in all the patients. In inflammatory lesions, medicinal treatment protocol was followed after imaging, whereas in benign lesions histopathological correlation was done for the final diagnosis.
Results: Sonoelastography showed significant correlation between the clinical palpation of the lesion and significant difference between the mean strain ratio and elastographic score between inflammatory and benign lesions.
Conclusion: Sonoelastography can be used along with gray scale ultrasonography as a primary investigative modality in diagnosising parotid and submandibular gland swellings.
Keywords: Sonoelastography, inflammatory lesions, parotid and submandibular glands<