Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Volume 7, Issue 1

Volume 7, Issue 1, Winter 2020


Predictive Value of Coronary CT Angiography and Calcium Scoring for Coronary Artery Problems and Adverse Cardiac Events in Low-risk Chest Pain Patients

Aref Albakri; Giso Frhr.von der Recke; Heyder Omran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-4

Background: Current evidence supporting the predictive value of coronary artery calcium scores (CACs) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for adverse cardiac events in low-risk CAD patients is based on short follow-up periods. However, a long latency between the onset of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the occurrence of adverse eventswarrants longer follow-up periods. Methods: We reported our experience on the predictive power of CACs and CCTA for cardiac deaths and hospitalization in low risk chest pain patientsfollowed for five years. In total, we enrolled 346 patients (mean age=62.07: male=53%)presenting with chest pain, no prior CAD on CCTA and negative to low CACs. The primary endpoint was cardiac death and hospitalization for cardiac causes. Results: During followup, six patients died due to non-cardiac causes (old age, cancer or stroke) and excluded from analysis (person-time follow-up rate=99.13%). In the remaining 340, none achieved the primary endpoint. There were no reported cases of cardiac deaths or hospitalization for cardiac causes (event rate = 0%). All patients were free of coronary artery problems. Conclusion: In low-risk chest patients, CACs and CCTA is an excellent predictor for up to five year event-freeCAD, cardiac death and hospitalization for cardiac causes.

Genetic and Cell biology Discriminants of Sars-CoV2 Infection and Susceptibility to Covid-19 pulmonary complication

P Scalia; SJ Williams; R Luca’; Antonio Giordano; E Bucci

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 5-9

The agent of Covid19, Sars-CoV-2 has caused thousands of fatalities worldwide and overshadowed the number of deaths of other previous coronavirus outbreaks (Sars-CoV1 2002 and MERS-CoV 2012). Although the new coronavirus pathogenicity is actively under investigation, part of its infectious behavior can be linked to its higher binding affinity to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the respiratory tracts. However, the expression of ACE2 per se may not be sufficient to justify the individual variability observed among affected patients in terms of clinical outcome in apparently non-immune depressed, non-elders subjects. The present update provides an overview of the most recent scientific findings related to genetic factors involved in the Sars-CoV-2 infectious process and their potential role in affecting the virus pathogenicity. The present update can provide valuable hints towards developing a predictive screening/susceptibility profile testing on individuals not yet infected and/or in non symptomatic positive subjects towards managing the current morbidity and mortality risk and establishing personalized intervention protocols for the early treatment of the Sars-CoV-2-associated life-threatening pulmonary complication.

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Impact on the Cardiovascular Disease Patient: Special Emphasis on Rheumatic Valvular Heart Disease Care

K Prashanth; M Manjappa; A Srinivas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 10-13

The COVID-19 crisis has surged worldwide putting immense stress on the health care services, leading to institutions deferring elective procedures and struggling to triage the emergency care of the cardiac patient. This has affected the management of the rheumatic valvular heart disease patient especially in Asia and other developing countries, potentially placing these patients at enormous risk for complications like congestive cardiac failure, stroke and death. In this current review, we explore the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the cardiovascular disease patient with special emphasis on rheumatic valvular heart disease care. We try to provide a framework that address the procedural considerations of interventions like percutaneous transluminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and mitral and aortic valve surgeries. We also highlight the implications for the outpatient valve clinic and address the safety issues of the patient and health care workers during this on-going COVID-19 pandemic.

The Advent of Artificial Intelligence in Cardiology: The Current Applications and Future Prospects

K Prashanth; M Manjappa; C Srikar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 14-20

The technology of artificial intelligence is emerging as a promising entity in cardiovascular medicine, with the potential to improve diagnosis and patient care. In this article we review the literature on artificial intelligence and its utility in cardiology. We provide a detailed description of concepts of artificial intelligence tools like machine learning, deep learning and cognitive computing. This review discusses the current evidence, applications, future prospects and limitations of artificial intelligence in cardiology.

Influence of Ambient Temperature on Recording of Skin and Deep Tissue Temperature in Region of Lumbar Spine

A.V. Tarakanov; A.A. Tarakanov; S Vesnin; V.V. Efremov; N Roberts; I Goryanin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 21-26

Medical Microwave Radiometry (MWR) allows non-invasive measurement of human internal body temperature which is potentially useful for diagnosing a range of pathologies. The technique is used to to meaure so-called brightness temperature and it is recommended that investigations are performed in a room with temperature controlled in the range 20 to 24°C. This is not always possible in impromptu investigations or if studies are to be conducted in certain remote facilities or outdoors. We have therefore investigated the influnce of room temperature on brightness temperature (BT) and skin temperature (ST) measurements were obtained using the respective microwave and infra red sensors of the MMWR2020 (former RTM-01-RES) system (www.mmwr.co.uk). MWR measurements of BT and ST were obtained for 93 healthy subjects in the sitting position. Recordings were taken above each of the L1 to L5 vertebral bodies and along corresponding left and right paravertebral lines. The data were subdivided according to whether room temperature was recorded as being from 17.1 to 21.9°С (n=24) (i.e. low temperature), 22.0 to 26.9°С (n =56) (i.e. moderate temperature) or 27.0 to 29.5°C (n=13) (i.e. high temperature). The average value of BT was identical at low and moderate temperatures. No correlation is observed between BT and room temerature. On the other hand average value of ST is linearly proportional to rise in room temperature (R2 = 0.36). In conclusion, the present study has shown that reliable values of BT, but not ST, can be obtained even when room temperature can vary between 17 and 30°C. However, to ensure patient comfort and to support simultaneous measurement of ST, MWR study of the lumbar region should be conducted with room temperature controlled to lie between 22 and 26°C.

Regression of Lumbar Disc Herniation Following Non-surgical Treatment

Eric Chun-Pu Chu; Divya Midhun Chakkaravarthy; Fa-Sain Lo; Amiya Bhaumik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 27-29

Symptomatic disc herniation is the most common disc pathology and can result in substantial disability and poor quality of life. Here, we present a male patient who was diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation at L3/L4 and L4/L5 levels with nerve root entrapment. The patient sought chiropractic treatment for severe back pain which lead to trouble walking. After 7 months of a medical/chiropractic intervention, complete pain relief and recovery of muscle weakness were achieved. At 11-month follow-up, the regression of the herniated discs was documented on MR imaging. This case presentation aims to raise a reappraisal of our knowledge of intervertebral disc herniation in regard to the natural history, the components of herniated material and possible mechanisms behind hernia regression, which holds the key to treating this problem. Through the translation of research evidence into practice, current guidelines recalibrate instructions on the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic disc herniation.

Improvement of adherence to treatment in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) by spreading the 12 months maintenance Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) regimen over 18 months

Rani Zreik; Boris Friedman; Nitza Hirshberg; Gal Rinott Mizrahi; Yael Hod; Ghazi Fari; Freifeld Yuval; Avi Stein; Yoram Dekel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 30-34

Purpose - To evaluate what effect spreading the maintenance BCG regimen from 12 to 18 months has on the treatment completion rate. Patients and methods - Retrospective data about patients diagnosed with intermediate or high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer were collected. Suggested regimen started with 6 weekly induction intravesical full dose BCG instillations followed by 3 weekly instillations, 3 months after the 6th instillation. Thereafter, 3 weekly instillations were delivered 6 months after the 9th and the 12th instillation. In total, 15 BCG instillations were administered within 18 months. Cystoscopy and urine cytology were performed one month following the 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th instillations and then according to guidelines Results - 195 patients met the inclusion criteria. 190 (97.4%) patients completed the induction instillations and 141 (72.3%) completed the treatment protocol. 39 patients discontinued treatment for medical reasons and 15 patients due to non-compliance. 162 patients completed follow up as recommended for a median of 46±20.1 months. Of those, 45 patients (27.8%) and 8 (4.9%) had disease recurrence and progression, respectively. Conclusion - Spreading BCG instillations during maintenance protocol might achieve a better treatment completion rate, mainly due to improved patient compliance. No impacts on recurrence and progression rates have been observed in our cohort. Prospective randomized trials are warranted before suggesting clinical application.

Depression in Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Determinants and Extent in Al-Nasiriyah, Across sectional study

Alaa Hussein Ali Al Nasir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 35-43

Background: at a global level and among child bearing age women, the first leading disease burden cause is the depression. Nationally, scarce published data was related to the depression prevalence among pregnant especially with hyperemesis gravidarum women. Aim: to assess the depression extent among hyperemesis gravidarum pregnant Thi-Qarnian women. Methodology: A cross sectional, hospital based, analytical study was carried out in two teaching hospitals (Bent Al Huda and Al Habobi teaching hospitals) in from first week of September /2015 to end of July 2016. All attendants sufferer pregnant from HG to the obstetric outpatients included in this study. Based on previous Iraqi study (37.2%) for of depressive symptoms prevalence in pregnant women sample size had been calculated such prevalence rate with precision of 5%, confidence level of 95%, and added extra sample of 10%, to reach to 322. Beck depression inventory-II (Arabic version) (BDI –II score of > 20 depression was considered) had been used as a specialized questionnaire designed for the achieve the aim of the study. SPSS version 23 had been used for data analysis, P

Effect of Vaginal Trichomoniasis on Women who Suffer from Delayed Pregnancy

Khadeeja Abees Hmood AL-Khalidy; Hiba Riyadh Al-abodi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 44-49

This study aimed determine the effect of Trichomoniasis on women who suffering from a delay in pregnancy despite previous normal pregnancy with vaginal infection, in order to prove the relationship of Trichomonas vagenalis to the obstruction of pregnancy in women, also detect of effect Trichomoniasis to a level of Gonadotropic Hormone:(Luteinizing Hormone LH and Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH) Which are the most necessary hormones responsible for the composition and maturity of sexual reproduction cells, (200)sample was taken from infected women during the period ( September 2017 to October 2018), these samples examined by wet smear method for diagnostic Trichomonis vagenalis and recorded 51/200(25.5%) positive samples, also these samples examined using Real-time PCR on the basis of 18S rRNA gene and recorded (29.5%)59/200, this study also interested to detect of effect Trichomoniasis to a level of Gonadotropic Hormone:(Luteinizing Hormone LH and Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH) by serological test, a results showed to a significant decrease in the level of hormones when recorded (17.313± 11.221) MUI / ml and (8.011 ± 7.001) MUI / ml respectively in patients, while their concentration was (21.623 ± 17..156) MUI / ml and (10.388 ± 9.835) in the control group.

Desmopressin Efficacy in Treatment of Nocturic Women- A Single-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

Mazin Adday Hasoon

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 50-57

Background: Nocturia is night waking for voiding, is a lower urinary tract problem of anxious symptom. nocturnal polyuria, diminished capacity of the bladder either nocturnal and/or global capacity, and sleep impairment are main pathophysiologic subtypes. fluid restriction mainly awhile before the bed time, anticholinergic therapy, diuretics and hormone replacement therapy are main preventive strategies. Aim of Study: To determine the oral desmopressin efficacy and safety of in nocturia of women as a treatment. Patients and methods: - Sixty-four women with18-80 years’ age with nocturia (nocturia index score >1, more than two voids per night) were invited to attend our study. randomly assigned patients into: 32 women received different desmopressin doses (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg) during dose-titration period(three-weeks), and the other 32 ones received single- blind placebo treatment for 6 or 8 weeks according to their response. Results: In single-blind phase, for desmopressin, 30 (93.75 %) patients with fifty percent or more nocturnal voids reduction against the baseline levels in comparison to only 3 (9.7%)placebo-receiving patients where (P < 0.001). The mean nocturnal voids No., sleep period till 1st nocturnal void, nocturnal diuresis, and allover day volumes changed signscantly preferring desmopressin. (P

Nephrology between Reductionism and Complex Systems: the Role of Philosophy – Review of Evidence and Opinion

Natale Gaspare De Santo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 59-69

Nephrology emerged as autonomous discipline in the 1950s, after the publication of the landmark treatise of Homer Smith entitled The Kidney Structure and Function in Health and Disease (1951). The official foundation took place in 1961. For decades, during the collection of the critical mass of data that granted its autonomy, Nephrology investigated acid–base and electrolyte disorders. However, driven by biopsy, dialysis machines and transplantation its growth has been unstoppable in terms of journals, articles, books, meetings, number of specialists, clinical divisions, university chairs, and specialty schools. The most propulsive force has been, however, the switching of the focus from the care of dialysis patients to the >10% of the population who, in a country, suffer from silent or overt disease leading to chronic kidney disease, requiring a demanding and costly therapy consuming 2–3 % of the total health budget. Historical analysis disclosed that Nephrology as a specialty was born and nurtured in contact zones with other disciplines. These include chemistry, physics, pathology, immunology, pharmacology, genetics, engineering, pediatrics, geriatrics, oncology and cardiology and many more. However research focused on kidney disease, although still lush and appealing, is felt to be stagnant. Another approach based on complexity and holism rather than on strict reductionism – indispensable to provide successful care – may better serve future needs. The potential of complexity is explored along with new techniques, Big Data, and a wider use of artificial intelligence, as well as the links with philosophy, and Systems Biology, Systems Medicine, Systems Pharmacology.

Ease of Intubation While Using Macintosh and (Mccoy’s Type) Laryngoscope Blade Undergoing with Anaesthesiology

N.V. Kanase; Saudamini Gandhi; Saurabh R Todi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 70-73

Various anesthesia devices have been designed to overcome the difficult airway scenario in anesthesia practice. The ease of intubation, timing, and hemodynamic variability between the two groups during intubation are considered as primary results compare. The study was conducted in two groups, each group set aside of 65 patients, named Group A and Group B with normal physical status I-II to endothelial intubation. Determined to perform surgery under anesthesia by consent. This includes simple rigid laryngoscopes for complex fiber-optic incubating devices; However, there is weak evidence to support the superiority of one device over another. McCoy’s blade shows overall minimal haemodynamic response and provides better glottic view and ease of intubation as compared to Macintosh blade.

Metabolic Syndrome and Framingham Risk Score in Coronary Artery Disease Cases

Ganesh Shankarrao Thorat; Virendra C. Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 74-79

Metabolic syndrome is a group of simultaneous conditions that expanding your risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. These conditions include increased blood pressure, high glucose level, and abundance muscle versus fat around the abdomen or triglyceride levels. The objective of the study is to demographic, biochemical, obesity indices and angiographic profile (severity of CAD) of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A prospective and observational study involving a number of 971 patients who had undergone coronary angiogram (CAG) for the 18-month CAD assessment. In present study about half of population had significant abnormality on coronary angiogram. Amongst abnormal coronary angiogram about 50% of patients had single vessel disease. The FRS had positive correlation with severity of coronary artery disease and waist circumference. FRS and metabolic syndrome had critical contribution as score and risk factors with presence of and severity of CAD. To conclude it was suggested to incorporate FRS and components of metabolic syndrome for better management and risk stratification of coronary artery disease at large.

Serum Magnesium Level in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure

Nitin N. Jadhav; Hardik Mahendra Kumar Patel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 80-85

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an overall medical issue, influencing a huge number of people. Magnesium (Mg ++) is the fourth most abundant and second most important intracellular extract in the body. In patients with CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD), Mg ++ homeostasis may change. The present study is to assess the levels of serum magnesium in chronic kidney disease patients. The current cross-sectional study was performed to assess serum magnesium levels in cases with CKD and to detect the correlation of serum magnesium with clinical features and severity of renal impairment. The serum magnesium among patients with CKD had hyper magnesium. The serum magnesium level rises as kidney function deteriorates. There is significant fall in serum magnesium level after dialysis. Its estimation helps in evaluating conservative treatment and dialysis in CKD. Hence early evaluation and treatment of underlying cause for CKD is necessary to prevent further complication and kidney damage.

Serum Uric Acid Level and Severity of Ischemic Stroke

Aparna P. Patange; Kapale R.J.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 86-89

A stroke is the third most common cause of death and the fourth most common cause of infection. Stroke is characterized by the WHO as a clinical condition involving the rapid development of clinical indications of a central aggravation of cerebral capacity lasting more than 24 hours or causing death without a clear reason other than a vascular source. In the present study, a large part of the cases of intense ischemic stroke were found among the males. In the present study, mean cholesterol values, triglyceride values are directly proportional to the severity of the ischemic stroke, among the study subjects. In the present study, 8% cases died, while 92% discharged at home. The current study proved the association of serum uric acid levels with the severity of the acute ischemic stroke.

Immunohistochemical Expression of KI-67 in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Tumors and its Correlation

Vohra Nikita Vinod; Sujata R. Kanetkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 90-94

The ovaries are unique in the variety of lesions that can arise from them. The complex anatomy and physiology of ovary with constant changes from puberty to menopausal age give rise to number of different cells, which are capable of giving rise to tumors. The present study is a two years, prospective study carried out in a tertiary care hospital. It is a descriptive study which included all specimens of ovarian tumors, diagnosed as surface epithelial origin on histopathological studies. Most patients presented with non-specific and vague symptoms over a period of time. Patient’s education and awareness among primary care physicians with timely attention and further investigations, can help in early detection of ovarian malignancies in this subset of cases, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality associated with diagnosis in advanced stages.

Statistical Analysis on Novel Corona Virus: COVID-19

Vimal Kumar M N; JAYA R; Rubesh C M; Aakash Ram S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 95-103

A novel coronavirus, 2019nCoV is identified as the root cause for such a deadly outbreak causing respiratory illness. Due to its widespread impact on the global community, stringent measures were implemented to reduce the effect of the outbreak; self-precautionary measures like using face-masks, hand hygiene, and self-quarantine; environmental measures were insisted to follow and also surface cleaning and community measures to prevent the widespread. The pandemic evolved in China towards the end of 2019 and COVID 19 started to spread all over the globe like a typical wildfire capturing over 190 countries. It grows in a human body with common symptoms like common cold leading to respiratory problems and at times even death. The virus grows exponentially. So, based on the symptoms and the activity of the virus various measures have been implemented. The death rate peaked in the USA and Iran at the end of March and due to comorbidities and many medications has helped in cutting down the numbers. The rate of spread did not shoot up in countries like India due to preventive and cautious care and also due to reduced human contact from the countries with incidence or spread of the vector to other countries.

The Role of Pulsed Radiofrequency for Greater and Lesser Occipital Nerves in the Treatment for Migraine

Rida Alkaabi; Haider Shafi Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 104-109

Background: Migraine pain is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe. Objective: To evaluate the effect of noninvasive pulsed radio frequency (pulsed RF) in Migraine. Methods: In a prospective study of the intervention performed in adult population with Migraine (Diagnosed by specialists) carried on (30) patients undergone pulsed RF for greater and lesser occipital nerves to control recurrent migraine not responding to conventional treatment (resistant) in a period from Jan. 2017 to Jan 2019 in Al Safeer Hospital for surgical specialties and Alkafeel Hospital for surgical specialties both in Karbala / Iraq. The patients got in prone position under local anesthesia with goal positions with the target sites obvious out using anatomical breakthroughs and the position of greatest ache. Pulsed RF by RF needle to the affected side to reach greater and lesser occipital nerves then got 3 sessions (each for 3 minutes, temperature 42 C, voltage 42 V, resistance with 100 Ohms, Current with 230 mA) Patients monitored post-operatively for 2 hours then discharged. Follow up at intervals of 30 days, 6 months and 1 year by phone call or direct interview to assess the post procedure pain scale. Result: Significant pain relieve by means of no or little pain medication and actual life pattern change and performance in 1-year post procedure. Conclusion: A single trial of pulsed RF is effective for pain reliever.

Effects of Infection with Toxoplasma Gondii to the Levels of Thyroid Hormones

Taghreed Ahmed Mustafa Al-Issawi; Aysir Saleh Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 110-114

The present study was designed to detect the effect of toxoplasmosis in the thyroid hormones level Samples were collected during the period from July2019 to January 2020. Where the separated serum was preserved at a temperature (-20) until use. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent technique (ELISA) was used to detect toxoplasmosis. Hormone levels (TSH, TSH, T3 and calcitonin) were also measured using ELISA technology, Hormonal study, the results of the current study showed significant increase (P

Pseudo Bulbar Palsy a Rare NEURO-COVID Presentation

Ahmed Rgeeb; Samer Al-Mudhafer; Hasanain A. Al-Saffar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 115-120

Background: The Global pandemic of COVID-19 with more than half million people passed away from their families tragically, wide variety of signs and symptoms resulted from this Novel SARS Cov2 virus. Although the respiratory and Gastro-intestinal symptoms are dominant, however, neurological symptoms whether specific or nonspecific have been reported. Till now the extents of knowledge regarding the neurological sequel of COVID-19 infection are finite. Pseudo Bulbar Palsy is a neurological disease characterised by dysarthria, dysphagia, facial and tongue weakness in addition to emotional liability resulted from an upper motor neuron lesion in the corticoid bulbar tracts. Peripheral neuropathy, Demyelisation and vascularise are underlying aetiologies. This will result in deglutition, and speech disturbance. Case presentation: 60 years old male from Najaf, went to the emergency department with three days history of drowsiness and anorexia after COVID-19 related fever and myalgias. He had significant risk factors. He had 2 weeks fever following a contact with COVID-19 patient. Examination revealed drowsiness, dehydration, the patient was not aware for time and place, eye refluxes was symmetrical. The face was normal with exaggerated jaw jerk CT of the chest showed evidence of COVID-19 infection confirmed by positive PCR. Brain CT showed only brain atrophy without signs of localised ischemia. Farther blood investigations confirm activity of infection. During this the patient developed tonic clonic convulsion required anticonvulsant therapy; he remained semiconscious, with difficulty to swallow and dysarthria, Irritability, drowsiness and disorientation. He received anticoagulant, Steroids, mannitol. The condition improved and the patient discharged in better condition with two weeks anticoagulation. Discussion: this is a story for a rare complication belong to COVID-19 infection, treated as a stroke, as mention in literatures, many recorded cases of Neurocovid that required treatment accordingly. Conclusion: neurological symptoms of COVID-19are extreme and might be nonspecific but some time life threatening, these might overlap severe infection. The improvement in the neurological sequel overlap the COVID-19 improvement both clinical aspect and investigation.

Symptomatic COVID-19 Cases Admitted to Al Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Mid Euphrates Region of Iraq till May 2020

Hassan Raji Jallab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 121-124

Background: People all over the world were alarmed on February 2020 by the Wuhan
lock down, a Chinese big city, because of the discovery of a new coronavirus with a
major health threat. The virus was initially named 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),
but now is known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-
2).Until February 27th 2020, the virus has infected more than 82,294 and has caused
fatality in 2,804 cases.
Aim of the study: The current study was aiming at evaluating the clinical outcome of a
sample of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 admitted to Al-Diwaniyah teaching
hospital at Al-Diwaniyah Province in the mid-Euphrates region of Iraq.
Patients and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Al-Diwaniyah
teaching hospital at Al-Diwaniyah Province in the mid-Euphrates region of Iraq during the
period extending from February the 2nd 2020 till May the 2nd 2020. The study included 11
patients, 6 males and 5 females with an age range of 19 to 60 years.
Results: The rage range was between 19 and 60 years. The study included 6 males and
5 females. All patients were from urban areas. The major manifestations reported in all
cases were fever, headache and upper respiratory tract symptoms followed by sudden
attack of shortness of breath with 5-7 days. Various occupations were reported such as
students, housewife, self employee, employee and retried. The outcome was cure in 5
cases. Five cases are still under clinical observation and supportive measures till now.
One case fatality was observed and he was a 60 years old male with bronchogenic
carcinoma.
Conclusion: Symptomatic cases are low in number in our province and cure is the main
outcome however mortality is expected even with respiratory support at intensive care
unit.

Repair of Nasal Septal Perforation by Using Inferior Turbinate Free Graft

Mazin Rajeh Alzubaidi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 125-129

Background: Perforation of nasal Septum is a situation characterized by loss of cartilaginous,
bony or both structures of the nasal septum with or without the mucoperichondrium and
mucoperiosteum lining. The causes of septal perforations are endonasal surgeries, trauma,
infections, neoplasms, inflammation, or abuse of inhaled drugs. The main symptoms are
epistaxis, crusting, and whistling, but the majority are asymptomatic.
Objective: this study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of inferior turbinate free graft to
close nasal septal perforations.
Patients and Methods: This is a prospective study, consisted of 20 patients. They were 14 males
and 6 females. They had been assessed at the Otolaryngology Department at Al-Diwaniah
Teaching Hospital, Al-Diwaniah city, Iraq, during the period between January 2017 to January
2019, the age ranges from 20-50 years. Inclusion criteria was symptomatic septal perforation,
located at the cartilaginous portion. Exclusion criteria were the presence of underlying infectious,
inflammatory, or malignant diseases. The surgery began with hemitransfixion incisions. The
perichondral flap is usually raised bilaterally, exposing the entire cartilaginous septum, and
refreshing the edge by knife. partial inferior turbinectomy then did. The medial fleshy part of the
turbinate is resected, then thinning of the flap on a slide. The flap grasped by forceps and
applied through the incision so placed between the cartilage and perichondrial flap covering the
defect, then the the perichondrial flap replaced back to its position. incisions sutured, silastic
sheets applied to cover the whole septum, and merocele nasal Packing inserted for
haemostasis. patient discharged and seen again in the next day for removal of Packing and
cleaning. The silastic sheets removed after 8 days. The patients seen twice monthly for followup.
Results: Complete closure of perforation was obtained in 16 patients (80%). Incomplete closure
occurred in 2 patients (10%). Failure of closure (persistent perforation) occurred in 2 patients
(10%). Improvement of nasal symptoms achieved in all patients with complete closure, patients
with incomplete closure did not show significant problems due to the perforation. patients with
persistent perforation had no Improvement in their symptoms.
Conclusion: Inferior turbinate free graft through the endonasal approach, is useful to close small
and medium-sized septal perforations with minimal morbidity and short operative time.

PREVALENCE OF MUCOSAL LESIONS IN COMPLETE DENTURE WEARERS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH AGE AND GENDER: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Rupawat Divya; Dr. Vinay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 131-138

A complete denture with accurately extended borders, an optimal vertical dimension, finely finished and polished with no irregularities and proper hygiene maintenance are prudent to the success of the denture. A lack of these factors causes oral mucosal lesions. Complete denture wearing patients are often associated with the presence of various denture-related oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of denture-related oral mucosal lesions in complete denture patients and its association with age and gender. A retrospective study was done in a university based setting in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. Ethical clearance was obtained from SRB Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India. The data collection was done from the Dental Information Archiving System (DIAS). It is a recording system of all the data related to the medical and dental history of patients and the treatment done in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. Data of 86000 patients between june 2019 and march 2020 was reviewed from the patients records and analysed that was documented in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. Data of 512 patients with complete denture prosthesis regarding oral mucosal lesions namely epulis fissuratum, angular cheilitis, traumatic ulcers and denture stomatitis was analysed. The data entered was tabulated and analysed for the prevalence of these oral mucosal lesions. Chi square test done to check the association with age and gender. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Software for Windows, version 20.0. The prevalence of traumatic ulcers was 23%, that of angular cheilitis was 22%, epulis fissuratum was 31% and denture stomatitis was 24% . There was a significant association of these lesions with gender (more predominant in females). More importance should be given to these patients regarding oral hygiene and awareness programs should be carried out for dentists to update their skills.

ASSESSING OF KNOWLEDGE OF SIDDHA MEDICINE HAVING ANTIVIRAL PROPERTY

Vamshi Ram V; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy; Dr. Preetha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 139-148

Siddha medicine is an ancient system of medicine practicing in south India till today. In the siddha system, it is considered as each and every individual is a microcosm of this universe. The human body consists of the five primordial elements earth, water, fire, and space and it contains the 3 humours- vatha, pitta, and kapha and the several physical constituents. Based on these humors, the siddha system of medicine detecting, analysing and treating the various diseases.The siddha system of medicine deals with curing all diseases including microbial, bone related disorder, etc. without causing any side effects. The main aim of the study is to assess the antiviral property of the siddha medicine. A survey based questionnaire was done to create knowledge about the antiviral property of siddha medicine. A total questionnaire of 15 questions were collected by google form SPSS statistical analysis was done. The results were collected and data were analysed. The overall awareness of all sub groups was fair reporting correct answers. This study concludes that awareness and measures have been taken towards siddha medicine having antiviral property.

AWARENESS ABOUT THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA DURING COVID19 AMONG GENERAL PUBLIC OF CHENNAI - A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

C.M. Aathira; Dr. R. V. Geetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 149-160

Media follows every step and multiple stories to provide the public with continuous updates. It has transformed and evolved to an effective communicating mode through radio television internet access it conveys a sense of unity and 80 to 90% of the people browse news for an average of 24 hours a week. It is recognised as a powerful source as it helps in shaping the things happening around the world and ourselves. Social media has an important role to play in every aspect like business, education and all other important information not only as an entertainment tool. Nowadays, some companies utilise social media platforms to advertise their products and sell them online. Educators use social media to communicate some useful stuff related to their subject and share their opinion. It also has a dark side to be discussed like the spread of misinformation. Even before the authorised announcement of Covid19, the use of mask and hand sanitizers was at a hike due to the panic caused by social media regarding the outbreak. A cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of the public on social media on the pandemic COVID 19. The sample size chosen for the study was hundred people from the Chennai district. A questionnaire consisting of 15 questions were circulated through online and the data collected were statically analysed using SPSS software. Chi square test was used to analyse the significant difference between the gender and responses on knowledge and awareness based questions.It is clear that the majority of the population are aware about the role of social media during covid-19 and also the spread of misinformation through the same media platform. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the population involved in this study is aware about the role of social media during covid-19

AWARENESS ON IMPORTANCE OF FOOD T0 BOOST IMMUNE SYSTEM - A SURVEY

Monesh Babu J D; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 161-168

The most basic definition of immunity is that the ability of the organism to resist the invasion of microorganisms and harmful substances.A well-functioning system is vital for survival. The system should be perpetually alert, observation for signs of invasion or danger.Adequate and acceptable nutrition is needed for all cells to function optimally and this includes the cells in the immune system.The immune system plays a major role in keeping our body healthy and prevents various diseases, especially the viral diseases. It is important to take immune boosting adequately through a balanced diet.. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of food on the immune system.Approval was obtained from the institutional review board, prior to the start of the study. Simple random sampling was done. A total of 141 participants were involved in the study. Self administered questionnaire of close ended questions was prepared related to the immune system and distributed through online survey forms “GOOGLE FORMS”. SPSS software was used to analyse the results. Chi square test was used as inferential statistics. Results:The present study observed that 93.4 % of the participants responded that the survey was useful and they have gained maximum knowledge about the importance of food on immunity.The present study thus concluded that the food plays a major role in boosting immunity.

KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS AND PRACTICE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE DENTAL STUDENTS ON USAGE OF ANTIBIOTICS FOR ENDODONTIC TREATMENTS

V.A Muralidharan; Sindhu Ramesh; Dr.Gheena. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 169-185

Endodontic infection is the infection of the root canal system and the microorganisms play a tremendous role in pulpal and periapical disease. The primary aim of endodontic treatment is to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal system. This can be achieved by a combination of local and systemic use of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in dentistry especially in endodontics has become a practice towards inappropriate prescription and overdose leads to adverse side effects and bacterial resistance. An undergraduate student will have only limited knowledge in this regard. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and perception on usage of antibiotics among undergraduate students for endodontic therapy.This present study is a cross-sectional, descriptive questionnaire study conducted among dental undergraduate students in Chennai, India. The study was conducted from March to April 2020. A descriptive questionnaire study was conducted among 320 dental students in the city. A structured questionnaire was prepared focussing on antibiotics indication in dentistry particularly in endodontic treatment. Assessment of subjects awareness and attitude towards use of antibiotics for patients after endodontics procedures included in the questions relating to the knowledge of the basic antibiotics regime and its course. The subjects were requested to respond to each item in the specific format given. All the participants were allowed to choose one of the given three to four choices for each item in the questionnaire.A large population of students of 320 were familiar with this antibiotic resistance. Compared with the juniors, the senior students have a wider knowledge for prescribing antibiotics for various endodontic procedures.Most of the students prescribed Amoxicillin (30.82%)for any endodontic treatment for a duration of three days (26.42%) compared to other antibiotics.This study concludes that undergraduate dental students may prescribe antibiotics inappropriately and hence a proper and extensive guideline must be given to them to be followed . A thorough knowledge and awareness must be there on the antibiotic regime and its usage to all students before entering their clinics.

ASSOCIATION OF ACE EXPRESSION AMONG HYPERTENSION PATIENTS IN COVID - 19 PANDEMIC

Akshayaa. L; Smiline Girija; A.S, Ezhilarasan. D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 186-193

The present review provides valuable information about the ACE expression and its association with hypertension in COVID-19 patients. The potent use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, found to increase the ACE expression in hypertension and cardiovascular diseased patients which leads to acute lung injury. Currently there is no clear evidence that impact use of ACEI or ARBs could increase the severity of COVID -19 infection in hypertensive patients.COVID -19 being an infectious disease increases the mortality and morbidity of patients with hypertension. Previous studies have been reported that hypertension is considered as a prognostic indicator in SARS nCov infection. Few studies have also reported that there is no significant association of ACE expression with Covid 19. Review data was collected using the recent articles searched from PubMed, the google scholar, core, Cochrane, from 2000 to 2020. The present review highlights all the possible factors between ACE expression among hypertension patients and covid disease.

DISTRIBUTION OF AGE AND GENDER FOR FIXED DENTAL PROSTHESIS AMONG PATIENTS IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL SETTING- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

M. Ovia; Revathi Duraisamy; Adimulapu Hima Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 194-200

included patient’s details were collected by assessing the report from the data of 86,000 patients between June 2019 and March 2020 .The inclusion criteria were : Patient’s name, age, gender and PID and Patient’s who underwent Fixed Dental Prosthesis.From this we obtained 932 patients who underwent Fixed Dental Prosthesis.Data was tabulated in Excel and imported to SPSS.The type of statistical analysis used in this study was Correlation and Association. From this, we observed people of age range 31-40years received FPD at a higher rate (34.05%) and people of 20-30 years (26.96%),
>50years (20.62%), 41-50yrs (18.37%) which was lesser comparatively.Males received FPD at a higher rate (53.60%) than females (46.19%) and transgenders (0.21%).The association between the gender and age of patients who received FPD was done by Chi square test (Chi-square value - 46.955a; P-value : 0.000). Since, P(<0.05) there was a higher significance between the age and gender of patients who received FPD.The prevalence rate of Fixed Dental Prosthesis was found to be 1% since out of 86,000 patients visited dental college 932 patients had Fixed Dental Prosthesis. This study shows that as age increases people show less preference for prosthetic restoration to replace missing teeth no matter what the reason, maybe. Steps should be taken to educate every possible patient about the importance of replacement of missing teeth since it can affect general health and can also cause damage to the adjacent tooth.

KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS IMPROVING MEMORY

V. Thiru kumaran; R. Gayatri devi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 201-207

Memory is the remembrance of information in the past time for the purpose of influencing action in future. Memory retaining capacity may vary from one person to another. It is mainly controlled by the brain which is encoded and stored in it. There are many techniques that have been found to improve memory including cognitive training, psycho, pharmacology, diet, stress management and exercise. Each technique has the ability to influence memory in a different way. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that influence memory and cognition. An online survey with a self structured questionnaire to analyse the measures done to improve memory and problems causing memory loss. Results analysed using SPSS software version 2.0. Chi square test was done to analyse the association between various parameters. Among 100 participants, 76% responded that improving memory is important. 95% responded knowing the reasons for decreased memory. 67% responded that ageing reduces memory. So this survey is evident that the majority of the population were aware about the memory, causes and steps to boost the memory. This study may also help them to maintain good memory power and the people to be aware of improving memory as well as find the causes for memory loss and avoid them.

PREVALENCE OF CANINE IMPACTION IN CHENNAI POPULATION

Pooja Umaiyal. M; Srirengalakshmi .; Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 208-215

Impacted tooth is a pathological situation in which a tooth cannot or will not erupt into its normal functioning position. Canines are of higher frequency among impaction after the impaction of third molars. They play an important role in the functional and aesthetic view of a person. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of impacted canines in the Chennai population. A retrospective study was conducted in a hospital setting at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals evaluating and analysing 912 patient case records visiting a dental hospital from June(2019) to March(2020) who have impacted teeth and among which 45 patients had impacted canines. The data was collected after reviewing 86000 patients records. Documented information included patients’ age, gender, dental status and orthodontic status. The collected data was then tabulated and analysed using SPSS software. Among the participants 4.9% had impacted canines. It was most predominant in the age group of 10-20 years (60%) followed by 21-30 years with 24.4%. It was higher in prevalence among males with 55.5%. The prevalence of maxillary canine impaction was 77.8% with upper right maxillary canine being most predominantly impacted (33.3%), unilateral impaction being the most common among them. Mandibular canine impaction consisted of 22.2% of the population. Within the limits of this study, the incidence of impacted canines were found to be reported more among the age group of 10-20 years. Male predilection was present in the current study. Maxillary canines were highly prevalent for impaction when compared to the mandibular canines.

PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS FOR CROWDING IN PATIENTS WITH CLASS III MALOCCLUSION VISITING A PRIVATE DENTAL COLLEGE IN CHENNAI

Ilankizhai RJ; Dr. Ravindra Kumar Jain; Dr. Madhulaxmi M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 216-223

Numerous studies in the past have been conducted to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in different populations. These show extreme variations and it is only right to determine the prevalence in a referred population. Class III malocclusion even though it is the least common, treatment planning and treatment is quite difficult, thus characteristics of class III malocclusion need to be studied in detail.The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of crowding among patients with class III malocclusion visiting Saveetha dental college and hospitals. A retrospective study was done using case sheets of patients visiting the university hospital from June 2019- February 2020. About 100 case sheets of patients visiting the department of orthodontics containing information on malocclusion type and crowding was retrieved and analysed using SPSS 20.0. The study included 100 patients out of which 74% were males and 26% were females.Crowding was observed in 51% of the patients with class III malocclusion. Out of which 62.75% of the patients were reported to have minimal crowding ,31.37% had moderate crowding and 5.88% had severe crowding of the mandibular incisors. There was no statistically significant association between age, gender, and severity of crowding as determined by pearson's chi-square tests.Within the limits of the study, it can be concluded that mild mandibular crowding was the most common finding in class III malocclusion patients.

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE REGARDING OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS AND INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS - A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

Karthiga Devi. G; Deepika Rajendran; Pradeep D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 224-237

Infection control practices are important in a clinical setup to avoid the risk of infection among the patients and practitioners. Proper infection control measures such as proper basic disposal and sterilization of instruments that are basic infection control measures should be directly followed in a clinical setup. This study aims to access the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding occupational hazards and infection control measures among dental students. The study was conducted among dental undergraduates and postgraduates.The study group consisted of 3rd year, 4th year and Interns and Postgraduate students. Total number of students included in the study was 121 participants. The data was collected and analysed through IBM SPSS statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics were done. About 90.9% of the dental students answered that the dental clinics are more prone for infectious disease. Among all the dental students, 76.9% of the students experienced the accidental injury in clinics. Among them 44.6% of the students reported that needle injury was the cause for the occupational injury followed by 21.5% of scalpel blade, 4.1% of burs. About 11.4% of dental students were not immunized against Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among them who received vaccination, 43.8% of them had completed the three recommended doses of HBV vaccination. The students know the importance of infection control and the knowledge among all students about the protocols about infection control was high but practice was quite low. A better knowledge of infection control is essential for safe practice in dentistry. This will ensure the provision of better and safer dental health-care service for the population.

A SURVEY AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS ABOUT THEIR OPINION ON ONLINE CLASSES DURING COVID-19 LOCKDOWN

Taanya Imtiaz; Kavitha. S.; V. Vishnupriya; Gayathri. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 238-252

Introduction: Online classes due to lockdown has been an unavoidable essential part of our daily life. In this study the opinion from different mentalities will be noted to get an intention about online classes. Different questions were asked about the classes for instance: class organisation, helpfulness, interest, accessibility, comfortability, impact of learning, comparison between regular and online classes and their preferences among them. This is attained due to different advanced social platforms. Materials and methods: The survey was conducted among 153 college students in 2020. The students were interviewed with a questionnaire containing 15 explanatory questions about online classes during lockdown. The data was then collected and manipulated in 2020 using SPSS software (chi square test). Results: 57.3% of the student population replied that the online classes are helpful, 29.3% may be and rest 13.3% replied no. 52.6% said that they invest proper time for learning and 32.9% sometime, rest 14.5% replied no. 66.7% replied that effective communication was attained and 20.2% not sure and the rest of 13% said no. 38.6% said the classes are good, 37.3% said classes are average and 16% said very good and rest of them said no. More than 87% of them preferred regular classes than online classes and the rest 12% said online classes. Conclusion: If a proper algorithm and plan is followed the online classes conducted will be welcomed by the students, few disadvantages of social media and cyberspace are present.

PROS AND CONS ON THE MEASURES TAKEN BY THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT TO CURB THE MENACE OF COVID 19 - A REVIEW

S. Padmaja; Smiline Girija AS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 253-259

Aim: This review gives an overview on the pros and cons of the measures taken by the Indian government and also its impact on the public health and economy.
Materials and methods: The review is done by collecting and analyzing the articles from pubmed, google scholar and other government websites and were analysed. Period of the article retrieval ranges from Jan to May 2020 with proper inclusions and exclusions on the articles towards the data.
Results: When the articles were analysed pros outweigh the cons of the measures and had severe impact in the control and spread of Covid 19. Social distancing and lock-down measures were such measures taken with significant reduction in the covid 19 transmission. But they also resulted in certain specific adverse effects like disruption in the supply of basic amenities, fall of economy and unemployment.
Conclusion : We conclude that the public must strictly abide by the government measures since it has resulted in certain unforeseen events, albeit, advantageous results too. Together with the public support, the menace of covid-19 can be put to an end.

CLAUSTROPHOBIA IN STUDENTS PERSPECTIVE

Ashwin Jaikumar Ram; Dr. Venkatesh Kommi; Dr. Keerthi Sasanka; Dr. Anjenayelu K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 260-269

AIM: The study aims to know the effects of claustrophobia and its perspective among the students.
INTRODUCTION: Claustrophobia is a form of anxiety that is caused due to the fear of closed spaces. The person will be psychologically affected because of it. Claustrophobia can be analyzed with the help of Agoraphobia. Agoraphobia means getting fear of what would happen to them in public places. Claustrophobia will cause severe breathing difficulties as well. The treatment for the claustrophobia was given according to analyzing the patients and by referring to many previous studies. During the hospital procedures, the patients who had claustrophobia said to have more RBC compared to the patients who did not have claustrophobia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey has been created through Google forms and it has been circulated through social networking and the results obtained through the responses from the survey obtained from the students were put in the form of the pie chart.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: From the results obtained, we would come to know that 41.5% of students have mentioned that it does not affect their studies and a majority of the students have told that by having good ventilation they could get rid of claustrophobia.
CONCLUSION
We would like to conclude that the majority of the students are aware of claustrophobia and it does not affect your studies.

CAN CELIAC DISEASES BE A CAUSE OF DEPRESSION

G Preethi; Dr. Keerthi Sasanka; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy; Dr. Padma Ariga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 270-275

Aim: The aim of this study is to do a review on celiac diseases and the interlink between celiac diseases and depression.
Introduction: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease which is triggered due to the exposure of dietary gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Often, celiac disease can be associated with depression and many other health disorders. Previous studies have shown that a lifetime depressive symptoms can occur in one third of the celiac patients. Celiac disease can develop at any age. Since celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder, it is associated with other autoimmune disorders. If left untreated, celiac disease can lead to additional serious health problems. Celiac diseases can be treated by natural methods like consuming gluten free food, healing of intestines with aloe vera , paprika, dietary supplements, nutrients etc. The main therapeutic intervention of celiac disease is a gluten-free diet but however now the dietary agents are under active investigation.
Methods : The present study has collected various articles related to the current topic from various internet sources such as PubMed, Google Scholar, PMC, etc..The articles were reviewed between the period 2000 to 2020.
Conclusion: Thus healthcare professionals need to be aware of these ongoing psychological burdens of celiac disease and support patience and recommend a gluten-free diet. This study emphasises whether celiac disease is associated with depression.

EFFECT OF AYURVEDIC MEDICINES ON COVID-19 AFFECTED PATIENTS

Sheetal Kumari; Dr. Gheena. S; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 276-284

Ayurveda is a pseudoscientific system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. Ayurvedic medicines have been proved to be beneficial against viral infection. Ayurveda therapies have varied and evolved over more than two millennia. Therapies are typically based on complex herbal compounds, minerals and metal substances. Ayurveda follows the concept of Dinacharya, which says that natural cycles (waking, sleeping, working, meditation etc.) are important for health. Hygiene, including regular bathing, cleaning of teeth, oil pulling, tongue scraping, skin care, and eye washing, is also a central practice. Plant-based treatments in Ayurveda may be derived from roots, leaves, fruits, bark, or seeds such as cardamom and cinnamon. Products made of Ayurvedic herbs and shrubs play a beneficial role to fight against viral infections.
In the present study , ayurvedic medicines have been perceived to be beneficial against viral infections especially patients affected with COVID-19 by lieu of a literature review. Data was collected and was referred to in brief about the effect of ayurvedic medicines and other alternative medicines. Quality Assessment of various articles was done with context to this present study. Finally it was concluded that ayurvedic medicines were deemed to be potentially effective against patients affected with COVID-19 and other viral infections; though the claim needs to be proven by scientific studies.

COVID-19: ITS INCIDENCE AND RECOVERY AMONG GLOBAL POPULATION - A REVIEW

Soorya Ganesh; Dr. Lavanya Prathap; Dr. V.Vishnu Priya; Dr. Preetha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 285-291

Background:
Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome . The
disease was first identified on december 2019 in Wuhan,the capital of China Hubei province and has since
spread globally resulting in the ongoing 2019-2020 coronavirus pandemic. Most recently,the middle east
respiratory syndrome coronavirus(MERS-COV)was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. In a timeline
that reaches the present day which is an epidemic of cases with unexplained low respiratory infection
detected in Wuhan,the largest metropolitan area in China’s Hubei province which was first reported to the
WHO country office in China,on dec 31,2019.
Aim:To review the incidence and recovery of COVID-19 pandemic outbreak among the global
population.
Materials and methods: This is a literature review conducted using article sources from databases-
Scopus and PubMed from september 2019 to April 2020. The articles are screened for data extraction and
the characteristics of studies are tabulated. The collected data is analysed and the results are reported.
Results and Conclusion: The findings of the review suggests that the recovery cases are less compared
to active cases,because it is so contagious which represents the average number of people to which a single
infected person transmits the virus is relatively high.

ASSOCIATION OF TRAUMA FROM OCCLUSION AND GINGIVAL RECESSION IN MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR TEETH

Bharathi R; Arvina Rajasekar; Senthil Murugan P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 292-298

Background: Trauma from occlusion has been defined as injury to the periodontium resulting from occlusal forces that exceeds the reparative capacity of the attachment apparatus. It refers to tissue injury due to distorted occlusion. Gingival recession is the exposure of root surfaces due to apical migration of the gingival tissue margins.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of trauma from occlusion with gingival recession in mandibular anterior teeth.
Materials And Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2019 to April 2020 using the patient records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. 200 patients with trauma from occlusion were recruited. Presence or absence of gingival recession in mandibular anteriors were studied. Data was tabulated in excel and statistically analysed.
Results: Among 200 patients with trauma from occlusion, 89 patients had gingival recession in relation to mandibular anteriors. There was no significant association between trauma from occlusion and gingival recession in mandibular anterior teeth (chi-square test; p= 0.120, not significant).
Conclusion: The present study showed no significant association between trauma from occlusion and gingival recession in mandibular anterior teeth.

ACTIVITIES WHICH PEOPLE DO DURING LOCKDOWN - COVID 19 - A SURVEY

Arunn Jaikumarr Ram; Venkatesh Kommi; L.Keerthi Sashanka; Anitha Roy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 299-310

AIM:
The aim of the survey was to know the various activities which people do during lockdown - COVID 19
INTRODUCTION:
A major disaster in the year 2020 is COVID 19. It has a high rate of spread and affected almost all countries. During this period lockdown is very essential (quarantine). People do various activities during this time to keep themselves entertained. A lot of extracurricular activities and in-house activities are being done during this. People do this to keep themselves engaged.
MATERIALS AND METHOD:
The questionnaire was prepared with the help of Google forms and circulated. A total of 104 responses were received .The data was collected, analysed by SPSS and the results were plotted with the help of pie chart and bar graph.Chi-Square test was carried out and p < 0.05 was considered as significant.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
People try to stay at home, trying to keep themselves engaged, play different games, and do different activities during the lockdown. 81.73% of the people said that lockdown was necessary and 18.27% said it was not necessary. The sleep time has changed for most of the people during this lockdown. There is an equal percentage of people who say that their appetite has increased when compared to a decrease during the lockdown.
CONCLUSION:
Almost all people try to follow the rules and keep themselves quarantined, and they keep themselves occupied by doing various activities and spending time with their family.

AWARENESS ON THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF NATURAL MEDICINE AMONG ADULTS

Shreejha M. V; Kavitha. S; Vishnu Priya. V; Gayathri. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 311-323

Introduction: There has been a global rise in the use of natural products and natural medicine among
people. Proper regulation of natural medicine and products ensure good quality to control standards,
enhance the consumers safety that facilitate their modern healthcare system, mainly because of their lack
of side effects.
Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge, awareness and attitude, towards natural
medicine and products among adults.
Materials and methods :A cross sectional study was conducted among the adults [101people]. The
questionnaire was circulated online through google forms and the collected data were analysed using SPSS
software. The Pearson Chi square test was done in association with the gender of the respondents.
Results: The survey results showed that 79.2% of the people have knowledge about natural medicine.
90.1% of the participants believe natural medicines are effective, 75% of the participants use natural
medicine products in their regular life, 61.4% said natural medicine is more effective than pills.
Conclusion: The present study showed that the awareness and knowledge on natural medicine among
adults is quite good.

FACE MASK HEALTHY OR UNHEALTHY- A REVIEW

N. Naveenaa; Leslie Rani; M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 324-333

The facemask is a personal protective equipment which is used to prevent the droplet or aerosol spread. Due to the pandemic spread like SARS, COVID-19 the mask is recommended to be worn by all the people to prevent the infection. It is one of the non-pharmaceutical ways of prevention, it helps in controlling the spread but not in complete eradication of the disease.This is a widely used way of prevention, which is cheap, non-invasive and has capacity to reduce the mortality rate due to respiratory infection. The major problem associated with these equipment are, they are commonly misused and they go out of stock even before the health care sector receives these equipment. So proper selection of masks is required to prevent the infection and also to reduce the demand of masks in the health sector. The aim of this review is to understand the importance of masks and needs of the personal protective equipment during the onset of any pandemic conditions. A systematic search strategy was done and the articles were found using keywords. Literature was taken from databases like PubMed and Google Scholar. The articles which discussed face masks were included and other articles which had the different types, advantages and disadvantages were also included. The review summarises the needs and the urge to use a face mask at the onset of pandemic condition. Selection of proper mask is emphasised to reduce the demand of masks.

NOMOPHOBIA AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH AND MIND - A STRUCTURED REVIEW

Aarthi. K; Dr.Lavanya Prathap; Jothi Priya. A; Dr. Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 334-341

Introduction: The term used to describe a growing fear in today‟s world is Nomophobia, a portmanteau for “ no mobile phone phobia”,refers to the discomfort or anxiety caused to a person by the non- availability of a phone. Nomophobia arises from a feeling of not being able to make and receive phone calls, send or receive text messages, losing internet connectivity and access to social networking sites and being able to access information online .The aim of the review is to explore Nomophobia and its impact on health ocomplications.
Materials and methods: The articles were collected from PubMed Database and the selection criteria for screening the literature were population with Nomophobia age group between 17 - 25. The search keywords included were nomophobia, cell phone addiction, health implication, anxiety, no mobile phone phobia. The study was conducted in the year 2020. The study group consisted of a population with Nomophobia between the age group 17-25.
Result and Conclusion: This review is done to understand the clinical symptoms, complications and various preventive measures taken against nomophobia and from the obtained results after screening relevant articles based on selection criteria it can be concluded that the addiction towards cell phones and social media might lead to depression , loss of memory and anxiety.

PANDEMIC OUTBREAK OF COVID-19 AND HISTORY OF OTHER PANDEMIC OUTBREAK IN PAST CENTURIES: A REVIEW

Shilpa Merlyn Jose; Dr. Lavanya Prathap; Ms. Jothi Priya A; Dr. Preetha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 342-349

Background: Pandemic Outbreak is an epidemic which is spread over multiple countries or continents. There were many pandemic outbreaks in the past centuries. Many pandemics have still not yet been identified and cure is also not identified. The present pandemic outbreak, COVID-19 started off at Wuhan, China in December 2019 and within a month it reached many countries across the world. However the preventive measures taken were somewhat similar to the previous pandemic.
Aim: The aim of the study is to review the pandemic outbreaks in the past century and in the present century.
Methodology: Articles were collected from the past 20 years (2000-2020). The Articles were collected from databases like scopus, google scholar and Pubmed and were reviewed based on the output variables. Results and conclusion: Many pandemic diseases were reviewed from the past centuries, some of these diseases caused many deaths and also have caused a huge decline in the country’s economy. Preventive measures were similar for all the diseases except for AIDS and Bubonic Plague

LIFE-SAVING ADVANCES IN SKIN CANCER TREATMENT

Yazhlini P; Dr Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 350-358

AIM: This study aims to find out about life-saving advances in skin cancer treatment.
INTRODUCTION: Skin malignant diseases are those that emerge from the skin. They are due to the development of abnormal cells that can invade and spread to different parts of the body there are three types of skin cancer- basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanomas. Hereditary factors strongly influence the risk factor of skin disease and malignant growth. Basal cell malignant growth develops gradually and can harm the tissue around it, however, it does not spread to distant areas or result in death. Squamous cell skin disease is bound to spread. Melanomas are the most aggressive. Although hereditary variables may have the least impact on skin management growth, most skin cancers are caused due to exposure to UV radiation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of various scientific literature was done in preparation of the manuscript. Several databases were searched for relevant articles from pub med and Google scholar. Databases of individual journals were searched for keywords such as skin cancer, sunlight on skin cancer, treatment, advances, prevention etc. The exclusion criteria were case reports, review and studies in other languages.
CONCLUSION: From the review, we can know about many recent advances for the cure of cancer. Personalised vaccines, cell therapy, gene editing and micro-treatment are newer technologies for treating cancer. In future cancer can also become a curable disease.

VELSCOPE- A RECENT EXAMINATION TOOL IN DENTISTRY

Neha .; Dr. Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 359-366

Oral cancer is a global health disease that has a major impact on an individual's health, psychology and
lifestyle. It is the 6th most common cancer in the world and has a high prevalence worldwide, and is found
more in men than women. It is attributed to a myriad of causes which especially include tobacco smoking,
alcohol consumption and chewing betel quid. Survival rates of oral cancer are very poor despite advances
in therapeutic interventions. Detecting oral cancer at an early stage is believed to be the most effective
means of reducing death rates. Thus arises the need for an important diagnostic tool which is able to detect
pre-malignant and malignant lesions at an early stage. Treatment helps only for about 5 years after which
recurrences are seen. The only way to reduce recurrences is early diagnosis. VELscope, also known as
Visually-Enhanced Lesion scope, serves this purpose. It is an important diagnostic tool that uses an autofluorescence
based imaging system to detect lesions and allows enhanced visibility of the premalignant
and malignant lesions. It emits a harmless, non-invasive blue coloured LED fibre optic light that shines in
the patient’s mouth. The fluorescent light is absorbed by normal tissues whereas neoplastic lesions lose
fluorescence and become dark. This helps in quick and non-invasive diagnosis

OBESITY AS A MAJOR RISK FACTOR IN N- COV DISEASE

J. Dhivyadharshini; A.S.Smiline Girija; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 367-375

The review gives an overview on the relation between obesity and n-CoV disease. A review has been done to understand the correlation of obesity with the n-CoV disease by retrieving a maximum of related articles from various search engines like PubMed, Google Scholar, MeSH, Core, Cochrane, bioRxiv, Semantic scholar and so on published from 2000 to 2020 (till date). Obesity is associated with SARS- CoV-2 which enhances inflammatory response in obese people compared to actual standard BMIs. Obesity is often specifically related to producing inflammation by triggering a cytokine storm in the lungs, which raises the likelihood of ARDS, thereby requiring respiratory assistance for the main issue. Obesity can hinder breathing by hampering the excursion of the diaphragm, inhibit immune responses to critical infection, it is pro-inflammatory and triggers diabetes and even oxidizing tension to worsen cardiovascular activity. This study indicates that obese people through respiratory viruses COVID19 are more likely to be hospitalized comparatively. The implementation of novel ideas on obesity control of ailments will certainly bring about a massive change. Constraining less dependence on recent literature in this area and also upgrading numerous research to increase consciousness among the general public so that they may take measures not to be vulnerable to COVID 19. The current research has shown a strong incidence of obesity in patients participating in medical treatment with SARS-CoV-2. Obesity can be hazard factored to SARS-CoV-2 severity which needs increased attention in susceptible individuals to take preventive measures.

ADVANCED NEUROIMAGING TECHNIQUES IN EVALUATING PEDIATRIC EPILEPSY

K. Sree Kala Priyadharsini; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 376-382

Accurate localization of the seizure onset zone is important for better seizure outcomes and preventing
deficits following epilepsy surgery. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have increased our
understanding of the underlying etiology and improved our ability to noninvasively identify the seizure
onset zone. Using epilepsy-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols, structural MRI allows
better detection of the seizure onset zone, particularly when it is interpreted by experienced
neuroradiologists. Ultra-high-field imaging and postprocessing analysis with automated machine learning
algorithms can detect subtle structural abnormalities in MRI-negative patients. Tractography derived from
diffusion tensor imaging can delineate white matter connections associated with epilepsy or eloquent
function, thus, preventing deficits after epilepsy surgery. Arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI,
simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG)-functional MRI (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography
(MEG) are noninvasive imaging modalities that can be used to localize the epileptogenic foci and assist in
planning epilepsy surgery with positron emission tomography, ictal single-photon emission computed
tomography, and intracranial EEG monitoring. These advanced structural and functional imaging
modalities can be combined with postprocessing methods to better understand the epileptic network and
obtain valuable clinical information for predicting long-term outcomes in pediatric epilepsy.

EMERGING ROLE OF DNA VACCINE

R. Pon Preeja; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 383-389

DNA vaccination is a strategy for securing against illness by infusionWith hereditary designed plasmid containing the DNA sequences encoding the antigen against which a resistant reaction is looked for so cell straightforwardly produce and immunised creating a defensive Immunological response.DNA immunisations have been named “Third generation of vaccines” the ongoing effective vaccination of subjects against the scope of an irresistible specialist and a few tumour models of illness with plasmid DNA vouches for the amazing idea of this progressive in methodology in vaccinology.DNA antibodies evoke defensive CD 8+ immune system microorganism reaction. Malarial naive volunteers who were inoculated with plasmid DNA encoding a malarial protein create an antigen-explicit hereditary confined CD8+ lymphocytes subordinate CTLs.Reactions were coordinated against each of the 10 peptides tried and were limited by six human lymphocytes antigen (HLA) class one alleles.DNA encoding a mycobacterium antigen gives an effective and straightforward strategy for producing defensive invulnerability and that this methodology might be helpful for characterising the defensive antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis prompting the improvement of progressively successful antibody .The immunisation with DNA encoding Mycobacterium antigen generates protective immunity. In future DNA vaccines can be applied to boost the immune system.

FOODS THAT CAN BE AVOIDED TO MAINTAIN IMMUNITY

Amirtha Varshini; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 390-396

Foods contain various substances which control the physiological functions of the body, modulating
immune responses which is one among the important functions of foods. Immune functions are
indispensable for defending the body against attack by pathogens or cancer cells and plays a pivotal role
in the maintenance of health. The immune system is supported by the fragile balance that comes with a
healthy lifestyle. Adequate sleep, exercise, and, of course, a healthful diet all contribute to maintaining the
body’s system of defense against illnesses.The immune system acts to guard the host from infectious
agents that exist within the environment and from other noxious insults. Nutritional deficiencies seem to
weaken the immune system leading to increased disease and mortality. Extrinsic factors can adversely
affect immune responses producing states of secondary immunodeficiency and a consequent increased risk
of infections. After all, a healthy body and sane mind is all we would like to survive the challenges of this
fast paced world. So it is important to take care of a healthy immune system. In addition to knowledge of
foods which boosts immunity, it is also important to know the foods that should be avoided to maintain a
healthy immune system. This study reviews the foods that can be avoided to maintain immunity and thus
promote the immune system.

ROLE OF PAX9 AND MSX1 GENE POLYMORPHISM IN CONGENITALLY MISSING LATERAL INCISORS – A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Seerab Husain; Ashwin Mathew George; Sri Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 397-411

Aim:
The aim of this study was to evaluate and review articles and researches done on the polymorphism of PAX9 and MSX1 genes in congenitally missing lateral incisors.
Materials and methods:
A thorough search of the electronic database through Cochrane library, PubMed central, LILACS and BMC and manual hand searching of orthodontic journals was done till March 2020. The keywords included in the search were: “Genetics”, “lateral incisors”, “agenesis”, “PAX9”, “MSX1”. The studies were selected as per the PRISMA guidelines. Articles were shortlisted based on the exclusion and inclusion criterias. Of all the obtained results, 12 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria and they were analysed for the role of polymorphism of PAX9 and MSX1 genes in the congenitally missing lateral incisors.
Results:
Results of this systematic study show an association of PAX9, EDA and WNT10A gene pleomorphism with congenitally missing lateral incisors. MSX1 gene however is not shown to have an association with lateral incisor agenesis.
Conclusion:
This systematic review has provided a clear view on the role of the pleomorphism of different genes on the agenesis of lateral incisors, which will help the reader understand the problem better and handle it with better precision. Future studies are required to further conduct more randomised controlled trials, which will provide more concrete evidence to the claims.
Clinical significance:
Maxillary lateral incisors are the third most common congenitally missing teeth in the human dentition, preceded only by the third molars and mandibular second premolars The cause of lateral incisor agenesis is thought to be rooted to a genetic etiology.

RECOMMENDED MEDICATIONS FOR N- COV DISEASE - A REVIEW

Dhayanithi. J; Smiline Girija A. S; Brundha M. P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 412-420

With the raising concerns on the mortality rate in the recent covid pandemic, the lacunae of proper treatment strategy plays a vital factor. Since there is no approved medication for COVID-19, medications involving hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chloroquine phosphate were recently recommended. The National Medical Products Administration of China has approved Favilavir, an antiviral medication, with minimal side effects and a moderate control on viral replication. Remdesvir, another antiviral, has drawn the attention of several researchers to treat the novel COVID-19 virus as COVID-19 is identical to SARS and MERS viruses. Remdesvir, was successful in the previous outbreaks of SARS and MERS. Some researchers also suggest high doses of vitamin C supplementation may improve the patient's condition. This review thus provides a basic overview on the recommended medication and urges the need to develop novel anti-covid drugs and vaccines

ALLOGENEIC BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA - A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Deepthi Sogasu; Brundha MP; Smiline Girija AS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 421-430

Multiple myeloma is a hematological malignancy of the plasma cells with evidence of bone marrow infiltration. It is accompanied with extramedullary plasmacytomas. There are a variety of possible treatment options, but this review focuses on allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Allogeneic bone marrow transplant is commonly known as stem cell transplantation. From the review, the results suggest that this can be used as a treatment option for fit young individuals as compared to older individuals. It also shows better results during the early stages relative to the later stages with poor prognosis. In conclusion, allogeneic bone marrow transplant can help treat multiple myeloma, but it depends on factors such as age, stage of cancer, fitness of the individual.

NEED OF HEALTH INSURANCE POLICIES AND ITS COVERAGE - A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY

C. Prathiba Reichal; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 431-442

Health insurance policies help in fulfilling the basic needs and provide financial stability. It covers medical, surgical and dental treatment bill payment. Children ‘s health insurance program and public health insurance program have benefits on children and senior citizens. Senior citizens insurance plan is valid for he people with age group of 60 and above. Health insurance policies have certain paneled hospitals that accept the health insurance coverages and that other hospitals do not. Queries are arising regarding the inclusion of COVID-19 under the insurers policy coverages. The aim of the present study is to analyse the knowledge and awareness on the need of health insurance policies and its coverages among the public. The cross sectional survey is conducted among a sample population 100. The age group sample population is 18-60 and the survey is conducted via an online portal. Descriptive statistical analysis is made by SPSS software. The results are represented in the form of a bar graphs. 43% of the sample population have family floater policy plans. Star health insurance and allied Co.Ltd has the majority of insurers among the total sample population. OPD and dental treatment are also covered under general health policy coverage. IRDA guidelines state that insurers diagnosed with COVID-19 are eligible for insurance claim. Hence, the sample population has awareness and knowledge about the need of health insurance policies and coverages. Hence,the current study culminates that the sample population has awareness and knowledge about the merits and demerits of having a health insurance plan and it is found to be statistically higher when compared with the previous research.

ARDS AND ITS UNDERLYING PATHOGENESIS IN N-COV DISEASE

Padma priyaa. N; Smiline Girija. A.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 443-451

ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) and COVID 19 is an alarming concern in the recent n-CoV pandemic. The main pathophysiological events include the severity of hypoxemia and poor respiratory mechanics. The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) accounts for 40% mortality in about 200,000 critically ill patients annually within the United States including the recent covid pandemic. ARDS is as a result of protein-rich pulmonary edema that causes excessive hypoxemia and impaired carbon dioxide release. The medical disorders related to the development of ARDS consist of sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration of gastric contents, and predominant trauma. The lung injury is caused by pro-inflammatory cytokine release and platelet based damage to the endothelial and epithelial boundaries of the lung. Resolution is delayed due to damage to the lung epithelial barrier, which prevents removal of alveolar edema fluid and deprives the lung of adequate quantities of surfactant. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy, despite the fact that cell-based total remedy and different therapies currently being tested in scientific trials may additionally provide novel treatments for ARDS. This review thus highlights on the various factors underlying the covid - 19 mediated ARDS.

ROLE OF COMMONLY USED ASIAN SPICES IN BOOSTING IMMUNITY AGAINST INFECTIOUS AGENTS

Kethan Umakanth; Geetha RV; Smiline Girija AS; Lakshmi T

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 452-458

Spices are normally used for adding flavour to the food. Especially Asians use a variety of spices or spice blends to make food aromatic, hot, savoury and sweet. Spices not only add aroma to the food but also come with notable nutritional values and give a lot of health benefits. The spices that are typically used in Asian cuisine are Cinnamon, garlic, cloves, cumin, basil, star anise, galangal, ginger, coriander, turmeric, cilantro, pepper, ajowain etc. The main aim is to try and understand the role of commonly used Asian spices on boosting immunity against infectious agents. A large number of plants are used to treat many diseases as they possess antimicrobial activity. However, Challenges include Extinction or disappearance of a few indigenous varieties, Low productivity, Insufficient quantities of quality species and Poor product quality. Many people do not know the importance of spices and its effect on the immune system. There is a need to understand the traditional systems, to help visualise the future better . there is a necessity to link the past and the present of medicine. This can help in giving new directions for a better understanding of different diseases etc. As this is a review various other related research articles are acquired using the Search engines such as PubMed, google scholar, google Cochrane databases and MESH. Their data is taken as the base for our study.

LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN ITALY

Apurva Choudhary; Smiline Girija AS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 467-475

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) reached pandemic world-wide especially in Italy
from early March 2020. Many factors were under discussion among public health experts for the
exorbitant mortality rate in Italy than other countries. A coordinated global response was desperately
needed to prepare health systems to meet this unprecedented challenge in Italy. This review illustrates
predictions, chronic comorbidities, effects of COVID 19 on Italian health system. Covid disease affecting
the elderly population with co-morbidities, the same was associated in the mortality rate among elder
population in Italy in a greater rate. The mortality rate in Italy was also higher due to the asymptomatic
cases not being tested and isolated with initial screening. The most serious outcome of COVID 19
pneumonia was recorded among the population in Italy. Exhausted number of ICU’s beds, ventilators and
respirators revealed their un-preparedness for the covid-19 pandemic. This review thus focuses on the
various factors to be considered in future pandemics by analyzing the covid - 19 pandemic in Italy.

AWARENESS AND KNOWLEDGE OF HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE AMONG PUBLIC

A.Sankari Niveditha; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 476-485

The aim of the study is to create awareness and knowledge of Hydroxychloroquine among the general public. Hydroxychloroquine (CHQ) was first recognized as a potent antimalarial agent. It was used for the prevention and treatment of acute attacks of malaria. Hydroxychloroquine is FDA-approved to prevent and treat malaria and also to treat the autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Quine advanced forms are chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine used for antimalarial treatment. Hydroxychloroquine has immunomodulatory effects and it may cause retinopathy. A survey was conducted among the general public during the pandemic COVID 19. The study setting was an online setting with a varied population. The sample size included 100 people and predominantly were South Indian population. The sampling method was a simple randomized method. Both the gender were included and the population was above 18 years. From the study, we come to know that 55% of people are aware of the drug hydroxychloroquine. 47% of the people were aware of the side effects of the drug hydroxychloroquine. 92% of people had knowledge about India exploring drugs to foriegn nations. 91% of people agreed that hydroxychloroquine along with common antibiotics can be used for the treatment of COVID 19. 43% of people are aware of the contraindications of the drug. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine can cause abnormal heart rhythms such as QT interval prolongation and rapid heart rate called ventricular tachycardia. Patients with other health issues are at higher risk when receiving these medications. Hence from the study we can conclude that the study population has only minimum knowledge and awareness about the drug hydroxychloroquine. This study helps in improving the knowledge and creating awareness among the people.

ROLE OF MULTIVITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS AMONG GENERAL PUBLIC DURING PANDEMIC SITUATION

S. Shreenidhi; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 486-491

Multivitamins are directly intaken supplements that are believed to increase human health. Multivitamins thrive in providing a stable health and easier way. The urge to meet the growing population, the need to provide them with the at most health benefits has brought in the development of multivitamin supplements. The consumable products are a combination of minerals and vitamins that are packed under one capsule to bring about the health needs satisfaction. These multivitamins are consumed at variable high levels without understanding its underlying mechanism it has on health thereby the importance in the role of health is a must for which a thorough search was done in the database like Google scholar, research gate, PMC using keywords “multivitamin”,”role of multivitamin “, “general public knowledge”, pandemic situation. Articles with similar data were collected and added to the current study. It is important to know the role, consumption forms, attitude of the general public towards multivitamins especially during cases of pandemic to aslo create awareness on the side-effects caused by the intake of multivitamins under self prescribed methods

AWARENESS OF VARIOUS MEASURES TAKEN BY DIFFERENT GOVERNMENTS IN CONTROLLING COVID-19 PANDEMIC-A SURVEY

Thirukumaran .; Ganesh Lakshmanan; R.Gayatri Devi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 492-500

Coronavirus is a newly discovered infectious disease, most people infected by coronavirus experience respiratory illness and require special treatment for recovery. Older people underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease diabetes chronic respiratory disease develop serious illness.National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have been varied, and have included containment measures such as lockdowns, quarantines, and curfews. More than 6.15 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 371,000 deaths. More than 2.63 million people have recovered from the virus.The most affected countries in terms of confirmed cases are the United States, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Turkey and China. The main aim of this study is to determine and rank the measures adopted by each country to fight against covid 19. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 10 questions that were distributed through the google docs. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analysed by performing the statistical software “SPSS VERSION 20”. The data was represented in the pie chart form. From this study population, 88% of the study population agreed that Covid 19 has to be controlled by all means. Nearly 70% of the population follows social distancing and 56% of them follow self isolation if they have symptoms and every country is working hard to contain it and minimise its impact. It is very important to prevent covid-19, because there is no vaccine found for treatment, preventive methods vary, and have measurements like quarantine, lockdown, curfews, sanitising our hands after coming home, using personal protective equipment. This study helps us to get knowledge about the measurements taken by different countries to control covid-19 and creates awareness on how to prevent covid-19.

A SURVEY ON THE EMOTIONAL AND ANXIETY LEVELS DURING POST VACATION PERIOD AMONG HOME SICKNESS INDUCED COLLEGE STUDENTS

Deepika. R; G. Sridevi; A.K. Anjali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 501-517

Homesickness is the mental and physical distress caused by the anticipated separation of students from their families. This homesickness may lead to depression, stress, and other psychological problems. The objective of this study is to observe the post-vacation mental state of the students who have been suffering from homesickness in the hostel. In this study, a standardized tool that measures the level of anxiety of the students was used. A questionnaire DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale), containing 21 questions was used which was circulated among 100 -1st-year dental students of Saveetha Dental College who were affected by homesickness. Data collection was done through the administration of Google forms and the data were analyzed in SPSS version-15 using cumulative frequency and percentage analysis. The results of the study showed that the post-vacation period had considerable changes in the student population. The students developed a feeling of positivity, had good energy levels and they were not stressed and anxious and felt enthusiastic during the post-vacation period. Thus the present study concludes that physical and mental stress disorders can only be reduced by spending time with family and home place.

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING BLOOD DONATION AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS

Indumati M; Dr. L. keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha S; Dr.Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 518-531

Blood donation is the process of collecting, testing, preparing and storing blood and their components. Blood helps to carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Blood donation is a remarkably safe medical procedure. Blood can save millions of lives and young people are the hope and future of a safe blood supply in the world. The collection of blood donors is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. Blood transfusion is one of the most important essential needs to manage patients suffering from various medical conditions. Nowadays, voluntary blood donors are the only source of blood in the blood banks.A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among undergraduate dental college students aged 18-25 years to access their knowledge,attitude and practice regarding blood donation . A total of 200 participants were involved in the study. Self administered questionnaire of close ended questions was prepared and it was distributed among undergraduate dental college students through online survey forms “GOOGLE FORMS”. SPSS software was used to analyse the results. Chi square test was used as inferential statistics. In the present study, the majority of the study participants 87% agreed that blood donation is important . About 85.5% of the participants have positive feelings about blood donation and only 14.5% have negative feelings about blood donation. Interestingly, about 71.5% have donated blood voluntarily . About 82.5% were aware of the minimum weight required for donating blood and 17.5% were not aware of the minimum weight required for donating blood . 66% of the participants responded correctly to June 14th as World Blood Donor's Day . Only 22.5% responded to O negative group as universal blood donor group. In the present study, Knowledge, attitude, practice regarding blood donation is moderate among the dental undergraduate. For further augmentation
,awareness should be created through various programs and published to the public

IMPACT OF FAST FOOD ON DEPRESSION IN THE ADOLESCENT POPULATION

B. Aishwarya Reddy; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Nivethigaa. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 532-539

Depression In adolescence is linked with a range of adverse outcomes and substantial risk for morbidity
and mortality across the life span. Fast food is a common element of many adolescent’s diets. This leads to
pediatric obesity and the consequence could be increased risk of depression. A diet high in sodium could
develop symptoms of depression in early adolescence and that diet could be a modifiable risk factor for
depression in adolescent patients.The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between fast food
intake and mental health in the adolescent population.An online questionnaire was prepared and circulated
among the adolescent population.The sample size is 100. The data was tabulated and then imported to
SPSS software by IBM and the statistical Chi square test was done.Out of 100 adolescents, 71% were
females and 29% of them were males. 81% of them follow a mixed diet. 90% of the adolescents consume
fast food.The prevalence of consumption of fast food is much higher in the adolescent population. Out of
various types of fast foods, the prevalence of consumption of sweets is much higher in the adolescent
population. And most

PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON LOCKDOWN FOR COVID-19 - A SURVEY

Harini M; Ganesh Lakshmanan; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 540-548

COVID-19 is a respiratory syndrome affecting countless numbers of lives all over the world. It is reportedly caused due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus which is known to impair the lower respiratory tract causing distress. Available evidence suggests that COVID-19 is to have natural origin and is transmitted by inhaling the droplets expelled from the sputum of infected patients. As governments have put down mandatory lockdown as a strategy to mitigate the COVID 19 pandemic, this study aims to view the public perception of imposed lockdown on them. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 people of South Indian population, belonging mostly to age groups >10 years of age. The study population were asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and the data was analysed using SPSS version 20. From the study population, the whole of 100% of the participants gave a positive response when asked if they were aware of COVID-16 and were also aware of the lockdown situation. 100% of the population think that the lockdown for COVID-19 is highly essential in order to completely eradicate the virus. This study gives an insight on the positive public perception towards lockdown imposed on them for COVID-19.

HAS W.H.O DONE AN ERROR WITH COVID- 19 IN REGARDANCE WITH ITS JANUARY- 2020 REPORT ON HUMAN TO HUMAN TRANSMISSION- A SURVEY ON A POPULAR PERCEPTION

Subaraman M; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr. Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 549-560

The COVID-19 epidemic in China is a world health threat. So far now it is the largest outbreak of atypical pneumonia since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003. Within weeks of the onset of COVID-19 the total number of cases and deaths exceeded those of SARS .SARS is similar to COVID-19, and SARS is a beta-coronavirus that can be spread to humans through intermediate hosts such as bats, though the actual route of transmission of COVID-19 is still debatable. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020. It has been debated among the political leaders claiming that there is error from the part of WHO in giving a wrong impression at the golden hour where the pandemic could have been averted. A survey conducted with a self prepared questionnaire comprising 15 questions with a sample of 100 people of Tamil Nadu state. The questionnaire was prepared with questions comprising of covid 19 and who January WHO report, these questions help to determine perception on COVID-19 and WHO January report and that help to depict their knowledge and awareness on this topic and what is their critical perception of the role of WHO in handling the COVID pandemic. WHO plays a role in the process of updating the methods to prevent and cure the pandemic outbreak COVID-19. WHO is found to test the positive and negative responses shown by the possible methods present against COVID-19 and displays the most trusted method among the available methods.In the previous study, more than half of the participants are found to show high concern about swine influenza pandemic. In the present study, around 71% of the participants are aware of the COVID-19 pandemic and the controversial role played by WHO in spreading the COVID-19 pandemic. This study concludes that during this pandemic outbreak most of the participants are aware of the role of WHO in the process of controlling and updating information related to the global pandemic condition. It is evident from this study that people are sceptical about the role played by WHO in managing COVID-19

WHAT IS THE SOURCE AND ORIGIN OF COVID 19 -A SURVEY ON POPULAR PERCEPTION

Shradha Jalan; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr. R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 561-571

COVID-19 is a respiratory syndrome affecting countless numbers of lives all over the world. It is reportedly caused due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus which is known to impair the lower respiratory tract causing distress.Over 4 million laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported worldwide in about 187 countries. The study aims at analyzing the public perception on the source and origin of COVID- 19 and to spread its awareness among citizens. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 people. The study population was asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and the data was analysed using SPSS version 20. From the results analysed from the responses of the study population, the majority of the participants gave a positive response and awareness about the source and origin of COVID-19. This study gives an insight on the public perception towards the source and origin of covid 19.

EXPONENTIAL SPREAD OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN EUROPE AND AMERICA - A PUBLIC PERCEPTION SURVEY

Saivarshine S; Ganesh Lakshmanan; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 572-584

Coronavirus (Covid-19) upsurge is the current outbreak (SARS-COV-2) which has spread to many other countries from the sea markets of Hubei Province,Wuhan, China. Following the initial outbreak, there was a major and exponential spread of COVID-19 pandemic in Europe and America. The rate of detection of new cases and mortality rate in Europe and America surpassed even the actual cases of China and even went many fold than the chinese cases. This study aims at bringing the public perception towards this phenomenon. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 15 questions that were distributed through the google forms. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analysed by performing percentage distribution and chi square analysis using the statistical software “SPSS version 20”. The data was analysed and the output represented as pie charts and bar charts. People of different age groups largely had a good idea about the reasons for the exponential spread of COVID-19 pandemic in Europe and America. This study analysed the statistics on the knowledge among the public about reasons for exponential spread of covert 19 pandemic in Europe and America and a majority of population were of the opinion that prompt government action and policies can save lives. COVID-19 is a pandemic which is spreading rapidly all over the world in a very short period of time. In general, the public perception is that for preventing the instantaneous transmission of the virus, preventive measures by government policies and maintaining good health conditions among the people are critical to get a favourable outcome.

TO ASSESS THE AWARENESS OF PRE- MALIGNANT CONDITIONS IN DIAGNOSED CANCER PATIENTS IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL

Dr Aditya Reddy P; Dr Abdul Wahab P U; Dr Jagadish V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 585-590

Globally oral cancer is one of the ten most common cancers with prevalence being high in Central and South East Asian countries. This retrospective study conducted to estimate the prevalence of oral pre- malignant lesions(OPML).A institutional retrospective study was carried out among individuals aged ≥18 years. The first clinical sign and their first dental visit was noted. Oral cavity of all the participants was examined in detail by the study investigator as per WHO guidelines and biopsy reports were thoroughly
.The mean duration of the patient dental visit after initial clinical symptom seen is 64.3 days.A significant association was seen between the number of males affected more compared to females.The study reinforces that use of substances such as tobacco, alcohol and areca nuts are the modifiable risk factors for OPML.

AWARENESS ABOUT EFFECT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CONTROLLING SYSTEMIC DISEASE AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS: A SURVEY

Sneha Kannan; Venkatesh K; Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 591-599

The aim of this study is to get awareness about the benefits of physical activity and its effect on dental students. Recently, it has been recognized that lack of physical activity , especially regular stretching of arms and legs, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus and low birth weight. The purpose of this study is to get awareness about the importance of physical activities and their benefits during the busy schedule of dental students. Dentistry is a field of challenges, especially the health of a budding dentist must be on top priority . A well maintained body is equal to a peaceful mind and it can be attained only through exercise. A cross sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. A total of 104 people of Saveetha Dental College were made to answer all the questions. The result will be analyzed using statistical analysis.
In this study, it was found that 90% are aware of the effect of physical activity to control systemic disease and only 14% are not aware of the statement. It has been proven that physically active individuals gain less weight over time and maintain good health. Thus infrastructure improvements such as sports activity in colleges among faculties, combined with regular exercise provide additional physical activity that would help to reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases in the future.

KNOWLEDGE AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF VIRAL INFECTIONS AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS- A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

Sneha Sree. S; Abilasha Ramasubramanian; Jayanth Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 600-615

A virus is composed of nucleic acid either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat.It requires a living cell to multiply. A viral infection can lead to a spectrum of symptoms from asymptomatic to severe disease.Worldwide,5% of health-care-related infections are being transmitted. Dentists are considered being a high risk group for cross-infection.Therefore it is important that dental students have adequate knowledge and awareness of viral infections.The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge, awareness and attitude about oral manifestations of viral infections among dental students.A self explanatory questionnaire comprising 20 questions was presented to 205 students. The questionnaire enquired about oral manifestations of different viral infections and their precautionary infection control measures .Out of 205 students 86.34% were males and 13.66% were females,189 of them knew that the most common oral manifestation in HIV patients is candidiasis.92.6%agreed that a dentist could get Herpetic paronychia.When asked if treatment of patients with viral infections required special clinics 68.1% responded yes.Our study showed that the dental undergraduate students had adequate knowledge on oral manifestations of viral diseases but lacking knowledge about infection control protocol for the various diseases. Hence students should improve their attitude towards them in their dental practice.

IS INDIA CAPABLE OF MANAGING PANDEMIC— A SURVEY ON POPULAR PERCEPTION AMONG INDIANS

Jayadharani. C; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 616-625

Pandemic is a global affection which has effects on health, social and political levels,As many countries are trying to tackle the current COVID pandemic, this study aims at analysing the popular perception on the capabilities of India in managing a pandemic among the local population. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 South Indian population, The study population were asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and Data was analysed using SPSS software version 20. From the results, the majority of the study population answered positive responses regarding India’s capability of managing pandemic and also awareness of Pandemic among people of India.. 100% of the population were aware of the pandemic and its outbreaks. This study gives an insight on the popular perception toward India’s capability of managing pandemic, and creating an awareness on its spread.

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS REGARDING AUTISM AMONG UNDERGRADUATE DENTAL STUDENTS IN CHENNAI- A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

Sabaritha .; Dr.L.Keerthi sasanka; Dr. Sridevi; Dr. Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 626-639

Autism is a neurological developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, speech, and limited, repetitive behaviour . The cause of autism is not known . Autism risk factors include gender, males are three to four times more likely than females to get autism, family history, age of parents, and other disorders such as fragile, tuberous syndrome. Most of the autism work is conducted in high income countries. Therefore this study was conducted to check the knowledge of dental students regarding autism. This is a cross sectional survey was conducted among dental students through a self administrated questionnaire through an online survey link (I.e.) google forms . The responses were collected and statistically analysed. Chi square test was used to analyze and compare the education level of students and their knowledge on toothbrushes and it‟s replacement .The data was represented as pie Charts and bar graphs . The survey was conducted among dental students within the age group of 17 to 23 years. This survey was responded by 56.4 percent of females and 42.9 percent of males among them 91.7 percent of the people were aware of autism and only a few people were not aware of it. In this study we conclude that most of the dental students are aware of autism and they have sufficient knowledge about it.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN OBESITY AND OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA IN THE YOUNG ADULT AND AGED MALE POPULATION - A SURVEY BASED ANALYSIS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages -

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, causing expiratory dyspnea, intermittent oxygen desaturation, systemic and pulmonary arterial blood pressure surges, and sleep disruption. The aim of this study is to determine the association between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea and to analyse the most prevalent age group in males.This is a survey based study carried between the month of April 2020-May 2020. This survey was carried out with the help of an online platform. Around 100 male participants aged between 15-60 years participated in this survey. Based on the responses, data was collected and tabulated in an Excel sheet. This was followed by transferring the Excel tabulated data to SPSS for data analysis. Students' unpaired T test was conducted for statistical analysis. Based on the analysis the results were tabulated. The most common age associated with sleep apnea was the age group above 40 years 38%. 82% of the participants had a BMI value more than 35kgm2 . 63% reported with a habit of snoring.52% complained with day time sleepiness.52% revealed a family history of sleep apnea. Based on the results it is seen that obstructive sleep apnea is most common among the elderly population. Majority of the participants had a BMI value > 35kgm2.;and a neck circumference > 40 cm which indicates obesity. Hence it is proved that obesity has a strong association with obstructive sleep apnea

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF DENTAL STUDENTS IN MANAGING HYPERGLYCEMIC PATIENTS INDICATED FOR EXTRACTION

Prabhav Kumar Iyer; Dr. Deepika Rajendaran; Dr. Sarvana Dinesh S.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 660-676

Hyperglycemia is a condition in which there is an increase in the blood glucose level of the person. It is one of the most common systemic conditions in middle aged Indians. It is important for a dentist and dental students to be aware of the condition especially while performing invasive procedures as delayed wound healing, coma and hypoglycemic shock are some of the most common complications encountered in some patients. Hence, it is important to know about this condition to prevent any kind of medical emergency on a dental chair. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of dental students while managing hyperglycemic patients indicated for extraction. This study was carried out in a self administered questionnaire format among the students of a dental university. The questionnaire was created on an online platform called “Survey Planet” and was filled by 100 students. The questionnaire consisted of the major aspects of knowledge on hyperglycemia and how students will manage the patient before performing the extraction procedure on them. Based on the tabulated results, it was seen that dental students have greater knowledge towards dealing with hyperglycemic patients indicated for extraction. 64% said that they can perform extraction on a hyperglycemic patient. 93% said that they would test an elderly patient to check their blood glucose level before the procedure. 72% were aware of the management of hyperglycemia. 45% of the participants said that they would do the treatment only after the patient consulted a physician. 11% said that they would deny the treatment. 82% of the participants said that they would keep the appointment for the extraction in the morning. Thus we can conclude that dental students have good knowledge and attitude toward managing hyperglycemic patients indicated for extraction

ANXIETY LEVELS AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF WORKING INDIVIDUALS BEFORE AND DURING LOCKDOWN- A SURVEY

Pravalika .; Gifrina Jayaraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 677-685

The anxiety among workers develops as their living has changed and economically are affected.Their future is not certain.The fear starts building as the lockdown period increases.To overcome such fears the government must take actions to provide proper employment and wages after the lockdown ends.A survey was done to know how the workers are affected and to know the difference of mentality of a working person before and during lockdown.A questionnaire was prepared and circulated to 100 workers and the responses were collected and analyzed through SPSS.85.3% of population are affected by the lockdown with high levels of anxiety. Therefore more than 50% of the participants are more anxious during lockdown than before lockdown.Many are affected but are confident that they can overcome the crisis after the lockdown comes to an end.To overcome such anxieties in future,the government has to take measures to avoid unemployment.

PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF LOCKDOWN AMONG STUDENTS

Shifa Jawahar Ali; Gifrina Jayaraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 686-696

Schools and colleges are closed to practice social distancing to reduce the spread of the coronavirus disease. Although online classes are being conducted, some teachers have reported that they do not find the online classes as effective as the real classroom. In online classes, there is reduced student interaction, lack of realistic experience and absence of community feeling. The lockdown is generally considered to have more negative psychological effects due to financial loss, inadequate supplies and fear of life. A cross sectional survey was conducted among students to study the psychosocial impact of lockdown among students.The study population in the study are the students with a sample size of 200. The questionnaire consisted of 31 questions divided into three parts and was shared to students using online survey platform. 17.5% of the students felt that they could communicate to friends the same way as that of regular class, 53.5% did not and 29% partially felt so. 57% of the students felt anxious that their studies are affected during this lockdown, 21.5% did not feel anxious and 21.5% partially felt anxious. Most of the students are showing some symptoms of depression due to the closed schools and colleges and social distancing as a result of lockdown. Hence teachers have to handle them differently after the lockdown ends

AWARENESS AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN HEALTHCARE AMONG DOCTORS - A SURVEY

Samyuktha P S; Geetha R V; Jayalakshmi somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 697-708

Artificial Intelligence is a progressive, rapidly developing field. It has the potential to ease diagnosis, treatment and care of patients. It is vital that medical professionals are aware about Artificial Intelligence and its scope in health care. Artificial Intelligence has the capability to ease diagnosis and care. The future of medicine is Artificial Intelligence based. A survey was carried to assess the awareness levels about Artificial Intelligence and its scopes in Healthcare. A questionnaire was circulated among medical and healthcare professionals. The total participation for the study was 100. The results were collected and tabulated to be analysed using SPSS windows version 20. There was an overall positive response from the participants. 92% believed that Artificial Intelligence is the future of medicine. Recent advancements have made it imperative that the healthcare workers be aware of Artificial intelligence and its scopes. Artificial Intelligence is reaching the medical field. It is a reality that a certain level of hyperbole seems to have taken over the discussion of Artificial Intelligence in healthcare. On one hand, healthcare industrialists and researchers highlight the need for high quality health data, on the other hand, physicians are still waiting for evidence of the usefulness of these tools and wonder who will be held responsible in case of an injury due to the tool, and the other ethical factors associated with it. It can be concluded that the participants had a moderate level of knowledge about Artificial Intelligence and its scopes, which can be improved.

CHANGE IN THE DIETARY HABITS OF PEOPLE DURING THEIR NORMAL LIFESTYLE VS LOCKDOWN PERIOD- A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

M. Ashritha; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 709-722

Humans require different quantities of diet to lead a healthy and active life. Good nutrition or proper intake of diet is necessary which is in relation with the body's dietary needs. A well balanced diet plays a major role and becomes the cornerstone of good health. The type of diet consumed by the people has lost it‟s quality over the years due to the work pressure and stress experienced by the people. During a pandemic, where people are forced to stay at their homes, the food consumption changes. There is a lot of possibility of people to change their diet inorder to improve the quality of their life. A questionnaire was prepared regarding the changes in the dietary habit of the people during the lockdown vs normal period. It was circulated among the people of Tamil Nadu. The questionnaire was uploaded in google forms. Finally, the data was collected, compiled and statistically analysed.The dietary habits have changed to a significant level during this lockdown period. There is an increase in the consumption of food during the lockdown when compared to the normal lifestyle.This study reveals that the lockdown has affected the people‟s dietary habits due to multifactorial reasons

AWARENESS OF VARIOUS DIETS FOR DETOXIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF ORAL HEALTH AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS

Sarvasri T; Dr. L. Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 723-736

Eating a variety of foods rich in nutrients from all the food groups promotes healthy teeth and gums. This means eating a balanced diet of fruits, vegetables, protein drinks, drinks high in calcium and whole grains for a healthy smile and a healthy body. The aim of the present study is to find out whether the dental students are aware about the various diets for detoxifications and maintenance of oral health. A cross-sectional survey based study was conducted among the dental students on the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students. 79% were aware of the various diets taken for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. 83% thought that there is a link between oral health and oral health conditions. This study concludes that the dental students were aware about the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health

AWARENESS ON SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE, OBESITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT POPULATION

B.V.M. Anirudh; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Nivethigaa. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 737-747

Sedentary lifestyle has become a huge concern in one's life, in which physical inactivity has become a major health problem. Prevalence of sedentary life is increasing nowadays and is seen more commonly in the student population. Sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity is an important health concern which is increasing day by day around the globe. It affects the whole body which mainly causes cardiovascular problems.The Aim of this research is to bring awareness about sedentary lifestyle, obesity and cardiovascular disease in the student population.A questionnaire of a total 15 questions were prepared and was uploaded through surveyplanet. The responses were collected and then interpreted as pie charts and bar graphs. A total of 100 undergraduate college students have taken the survey. The data was analysed by IBM-SPSS software where descriptive statistics and chi square test was done, where the results are plotted as graphs and pie charts.A total of 100 college students have taken up the survey in which 47% were male and 53% were female. In a question pertaining to how many people were following a healthy diet- 74 % have answered yes and 26% said no. The next question was about exercising everyday in which 62 % said yes while 38% said no. In which 47% males and 15% females have answered yes.97% agree that sedentary lifestyle leads to complications such as obesity. 90% of the students are aware about the increase in sedentary lifestyle among students. 69% have answered that unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity,smoking etc were the common causes of obesity. 95% agree that obesity causes respiratory problems. Almost 95 % students agree that obesity causes systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension which will ultimately lead to cardiovascular problems.Chi square test was done between gender and people who are following a healthy diet and exercising daily where p<0.05 which is statistically significant.Our study showed that almost all students were aware about sedentary lifestyle and its complications, but the females in the study have shown that they do not follow a healthy diet and do not exercise regularly which makes them prone to obesity and ultimately cardiovascular problems. To avoid these problems, awareness has to be spread in colleges about the seriousness of obesity and its harmful effects and how to prevent it.

KNOWLEDGE, PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF ANAEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

Sharwini Baskar; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 748-763

Pregnancy has some physiological changes which complicate the process of diagnosis and treatment. Over 200 million people suffer from anaemia especially among women of reproductive age. Anaemia is a major health problem among pregnant and non-pregnant women. Anaemia during pregnancy is considered as a public health problem especially in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined anaemia during pregnancy as a haemoglobin concentration of less than 11g/dl. In severe anaemia, the haemoglobin level is 6g/dl. Anaemia threatens both mother and foetus. The causes may be multifactorial, such as nutrient deficiency, parasitic infections or chronic infections. It may also be due to acute blood loss. It may also depend on geographical location and economic status. The effects of anaemia on mothers are tiredness, weakness, dizziness and affects the immune system. In children, it may cause preterm delivery, low birth weight. On both the mother and the fetus it can cause mortality and morbidity. Intake of balanced diet and awareness programmes on anaemia is a measure to prevent anaemia. This study is to evaluate the awareness and prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted containing a set of self-developed questionnaires. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software. The results are analysed and tabulated. The result was gained as follows, 25% of the participated population‟s haemoglobin level is less than 11, 75.89% of the population participated are aware that anaemia can affect pregnant women, 66.07% of the population agree that haemoglobin level less than 11 can cause anaemia. From the study, it is obvious that there is an awareness between the effects of anaemia during pregnancy.

AWARENESS ON DIGITAL EDUCATIONAL TOOLS FOR VIRTUAL TEACHING AND INTERACTIVE LEARNING - A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

L.Sai Charan; Dr.Keerthi Sasanka; Dr. V. Vishnu Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 764-771

Online tools refers to any program, app, or technology that can be used via an internet connection and and hence teachers ability to present information. The paper examines the usefulness of the internet as a tool for interactive learning, teaching and research. It further exhibits the level of satisfaction of students and their perception towards online tools and online classes. Survey research method was employed. Questionnaire was the main instrument utilised for data collection. The findings of the study shows that most of the students are pretty much satisfied with present online tools, but still there is a need for a bit of improvement. The aim of this study was about enhancing the quality of learning and teaching. Meet the learning style or needs of students, improve user accessibility and time flexibility to engage learners in the online learning process.A study was carried out by using multiple-choice structured questionnaire among 114 students, the questionnaire was prepared in such a way that we can assess the attitude, their perception and awareness towards online tools and online classes. The data was collected and statistically analysed. Results showed that within the limitations of the study, most of the students are pretty much satisfied with the present online tools and online classes but still definitely there is a need of improvement of online classes and the interaction between students and the teacher .Our findings of the study proved that majority of the students are satisfied with the present online tools for teaching and learning, but they’re expecting improvisation in future

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING WITH INSUFFICIENT SLEEP IN ADULT AND AGED MALE POPULATION - A SURVEY BASED ANALYSIS

Vigneshwaran Ravichandran; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 772-784

Sleep disturbance is one of the most commonly reported health complaints. Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with sleep disorders in the general population. Many studies have shown the association of active smoking with sleep disturbances . But studies examining the association between active and passive smoking with insufficient sleep are limited. A questionnaire was created with a set of 12 questions related to active smoking , passive smoking and sleep disturbances. 100 random participants of adults and aged males by random sampling method . The participants were asked to fill the questionnaire in an online forum. The results were collected and statistically analysed. Almost half of the participants (48 %) have a smoking habit. Among the participants , employers and students have a high level of smoking habit (81%). 52 % of the participants have exposure to passive smoking. 70% of the participants have sleep disturbances. 64 % of the participants have sleep related breathing problems. 67 % of the participants have awareness on passive smoking. 78 % of the participants are willing to quit smoking and to avoid passive smoking. The present study highlighted the effects of active and passive smoking in sleep insufficiency and sleep disturbances. Thus the association of active and passive smoking with insufficient sleep in the adult and aged male population is determined.

GREEN TEA DRINKING HABITS AND AWARENESS AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS

Mohamed Thameemul Ansari; M.Dhanraj Ganapathy; A.K. Anjali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 785-798

Green tea is the most popular drink consumed across the world. It is made from Camellia Sinensis plant. The
dried tea leaves are processed and used to produce various types of tea products. Green tea drinking habits
have many health benefits. Health professionals like medical and dental students are undergoing high
pressure during their Study time. Green tea may benefit them from its Consumption range and knowledge
about green tea among dental students is unknown.A questionnaire-based study was conducted. 18 questions
were created about green tea drinking habits, about its uses, about its Origin, and its View on green tea. A
survey was conducted through online platforms ( Google forms ) and responses were collected. The data
Collected were Collected, analyzed and tabulated according to the Values.The knowledge and awareness
about health benefits of green tea consumption was adequate among dental students.

PREVALENCE AND IMPACT OF STRESS AND DEPRESSION IN ADULTS WITH DIABETES - A SURVEY

Preety Rajesh; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 799-809

Depression occurrence is found to be three times higher in people with diabetes mellitus. Sometimes the majority of the cases with depression are under diagnosed. According to the International diabetes federation, diabetes is the largest global health emergency of the 21st century. A questionnaire was created with a set of ten questions related to diabetic patients and depression. 100 random participants of the age 25- 50 years took the survey and a random sampling method was done. More than half the participants are well aware that depression is common in adults with diabetes (57.5%). 71.3% think that diabetic patients are more anxious than a normal person, 54.5% are aware that using antidepressants in diabetic adults can be risky, 51% think that diabetes can be under diagnosed during treatment and 70% are aware that glucose metabolism will be altered if the doabetic patient is under depression or stress. Awareness about diabetic patients who could possibly be dealing with stress and depression was created.

AWARENESS, KNOWLEDGE AND PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION, SLEEP APNEA AND SLEEP - DISORDERED BREATHING DIFFICULTIES IN MALES AMONG CHENNAI POPULATION

Shruthi Manivannan; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Murugan Thamaraiselvan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 810-821

Hypertension, sleep apnea and sleep disordered breathing are the important Global public health challenges the world is facing nowadays with the highest prevalence rate all over the world. Recently a large body of work has been going on in finding the association of sleep- disordered breathing, sleep Apnea and Hypertension in the Male population.The aim of this study is to determine the association of sleep- disordered breathing, sleep Apnea and Hypertension in the young, Adult and aged Male population.Standard survey questions based on sleep disordered breathing, sleep apnea and hypertension were designed and was uploaded in an online survey platform and circulated among the males. A total of 100 responses were collected and were statistically analysed. In this study we observed that there is an association of sleep disordered breathing, sleep apnea with hypertension (p<0.001, independent sample t-test).Since there were no previous studies to encounter this association in India. This study serves as an eye opener for the early diagnosis and treatment of sleep disordered breathing, sleep apnea and hypertension in the young, Adult and aged Male population. This study will be beneficial in the awareness of health care professionals to consider the evaluation of patients with hypertension, sleep apnea and sleep disordered breathing

CHLOROQUINE AS A PROPHYLACTIC AGENT FOR COVID-19 INFECTION - A SURVEY AMONG SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

Keerthana. B; Dr.R.Gayatri Devi; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 822-831

COVID 19 being the deadliest disease all over the world regarded as the pandemic, the hope of every people is to get an effective medication that can counter it. There is a strong belief that chloroquine may help in controlling the virus. It is taken as an oral preparation. Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is a drug class 4- aminoquinoline. Chloroquine is contraindicated in people with heart disease or diabetes. It has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause toxicity easily.A derivative of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine was synthesised first in 1946. Chloroquine is primarily used to prevent and treat malaria in areas where malaria remains sensitive to its effects. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared consisting of 10 questions and was distributed to a random population through Google docs and we got almost 100 responses. About 63% of the participants are aware of COVID-19 and chloroquine. SPSS software was used to analyse the data for descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis for association with gender. About 50% of the participants' perception is that chloroquine will protect them from COVID-19, and are aware that hydroxychloroquine and other forms of chloroquine are undergoing a clinical trial of COVID-19. If it succeeds it will have a big impact on the current crisis.

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF EARLY ONSET DEMENTIA AMONG GENERAL POPULATION - A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

Swetaa. A; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Jessy. P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 832-842

Dementia is a collective term used to describe various symptoms of cognitive decline, such as forgetfulness.
It is a symptom of several underlying common phenomena with an aging population.The aim of the study is
to assess the knowledge on the management of quality of life of people with early onset dementia. A
questionnaire was created with a set of 12 questions related to Dementia and management of dementia . 100
random participants of adults and aged males and females by random sampling method . The participants
were asked to fill the questionnaire in an online forum . The results were collected and formatted in Pie
charts, Chi- square test was used and statistically analysed using SPSS .100 participants participated in the
survey, out of which 97% of them are aware of dementia, 63% of the population responded females are more
prone to dementia, and 67% of them responded that Alzheimer is the most common symptom. From the
current study it shows that the majority of the population are aware of dementia but its effects in the later
years of life are not much known. Also the quality of life in such cases diminishes as age progresses.
Awareness studies on the survival of early onset dementia are more informative as many younger patients
tend to suffer without diagnosing the condition and live without proper treatment or cure. Thus we conclude
that further management should be taken in control of early onset dementia by conducting several awareness
studies at larger populations

MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ILIUM WITH REFERENCE TO ILIAC CREST OF PELVIC BONE FOR SEX DETERMINATION

S. Santhosh Bala; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Vivek Narayan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 843-849

Determination or identification of sex of an unknown individual is the most important step in forensic science and archeology. The morphometrical analysis of the human pelvic bone is considered to be the hallmark for sex determination. Morphometrical analysis is the study and measurement of shape, size and structure of the pelvic bone in this case. In the present study a total of 24 dry human pelvic bones of known sex (12 male and 12 female) and without any gross abnormality were collected from the department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India for evaluation. Sliding vernier calipers were used for measuring the iliac crest length and depth. All the data obtained were statistically tabulated using SPSS and represented graphically. The average value of the right sided male pelvic bone was 41.47mm and the left sided average value for males was 40.92mm. The average value of the left side and right side of the iliac crest was 42.97mm and 43.63mm. Respectively for the females With clear varying mean values of the male and female pelvic bones it is clear that the sex can determined using iliac crest of pelvic bone and serves as a reliable criteria

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE - A REFLECTION OF SELF AWARENESS, SELF CONFIDENCE, RESPONSIBILITY, FLEXIBILITY AND ADAPTABILITY AMONG DENTAL COLLEGE STUDENTS

M.B. Sai Keerthana; G. Sridevi; S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 850-868

Emotional intelligence is the ability of a person to control and react according to emotions and feelings. Emotional intelligence is an inborn ability that makes people recognise, learn, feel, understand the emotions they are going through. Emotions are nothing but feelings that should be used properly as it has a huge impact in our lives. Emotional intelligence has an impact on various characters and attitudes of a person like self confidence, responsibility, adaptability, and self awareness. Emotional intelligence usually helps a person during a team performance rather than an individual performance. A standard set questionnaire designed was used to assess emotional intelligence among dental students. The study shows that the majority of the students have knowledge about emotional intelligence and intellectual capability. The present study concluded that the majority of the students are self aware and are able to manage their stress and emotions better. They were found to be self confident , trustworthy and adaptable and flexible. Among all of the students females are seen to cope up with their stress and are able to manage their emotions better than male participants

KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN CHENNAI POPULATION

Ashinie. C; M. Jeevitha; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 869-882

Adolescence is an important period of transition from girlhood to womanhood. Menstruation is the physiological process that indicates the onset of puberty. The practice of menstrual hygiene also depends on socioeconomic, cultural and religious differences. Menstrual hygiene plays an important role in the overall health of women. The aim of the study is to analyse the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in the Chennai population. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 102 girls of Chennai population to analyse their knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene through an online survey. A self administered questionnaire was prepared with 10 closed ended questions and circulated among the parents through online survey forms “Google forms”. The responses were collected and statistically analysed by SPSS using chi square test. The results were represented by bar charts and frequency tables.Among the 102 participants 98.8% of them are aware of menstrual hygiene 96.1% of the girls use sanitary pads as the absorbent, and about 99% of them dispose of their used absorbents in dustbins. 94.1% have knowledge on the effect of not following good menstrual hygiene. The study concludes that the girls of Chennai population have adequate knowledge and good practice of menstrual hygiene

IMPACT OF ECONOMY IN RATIONAL THINKING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL BEING

Kesava Priya S; Keerthi Sasanka; K. Venkatesh; V. Vishnu Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 883-888

An interdisciplinary investigation that interfaces with psychology and economics. It relates to individual behavior of mental health of a person. For every person the personal utility about rational thinking and authority of migration. The cyclic nature provides a good environment. During ice age they provide a coherent chain of reasoning and safeguard their race against nature. The aim of this review was to find the impact on the economy on rational thinking and psychological well being. A literature review will be carried out from scopus and pubmed databases from 2000 till date. The rational evolution and exponential discounting will be related to the evaluation which depends on the amount of delay and behaviour addiction which procrastinates the impulsive preference and immediate reward for hyperbolic discounting

AUDIT ON SUTURE TYPES USED FOR NECK DISSECTION WOUND CLOSURE IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA PATIENTS

Jembulingam Sabarathinam; Kathiravan Selvarasu; Dr Madhulaxmi M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 889-896

A suture is a device, either natural or synthetic, which is used for ligation of blood vessels and in wound closure following surgery. Its major functions are to hold tissues together following wound closure or surgery. Neck dissection procedures leave open wounds which need to be approximated for the process of wound healing and aesthetic considerations. Henceforth the aim of the current study is to assess the type of sutures used in surgical wound closure of neck in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma following radial neck dissection in private institutional setup in chennai. Data was procured from the case sheets of patients undergoing radial neck dissection following surgical management of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The data was tabulated in MS-Excel and analysed by SPSS software (Version 20). The results were inferred. 60% of the external surgical wound closure were sutured using silk sutures while 40% where sutured using polyglactin and nylon sutures. 60% of the internal wound closures were closed using polyglactin while 40% was using polypropylene and nylon.Polyglactin 910 and silk were the most predominantly used suture materials for internal and external surgical wound closure in an private institutional set up in Chennai.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE ON IMPACT OF DAY TO DAY LIFE IN SARS, MERS AND COVID-19 - A PERCEPTIONAL SURVEY

Surya Sitara; Ganesh Lakshmanan; Gayatri Devi R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 897-907

COVID-19 is a viral infection associated with pneumonia that originated from Wuhan city in December
2019. In the end of 2019, it began spreading in China. It can spread through air droplets and close
communication with those COVID-19 infected people. There were similar episodes of novel respiratory
viral infection like SARS, MERS etc in the past. The main aim of this study is to determine the
comparative impact of day to day life in SARS, MERS and COVID-19. An online survey with a self
structured questionnaire to analyse the comparative impact of SARS, MERS and COVID-19 pandemic
was carried out. The questionnaire was designed using the online survey platform google forms and the
link was circulated through social networks and with the collected responses a descriptive statistical
analysis was carried out using the “SPSS software 2.0”. It is evident that around 97.7% of participants are
aware about SARS and MERS and nearly 92.2% of participants were aware about the symptoms of SARS,
MERS and COVID-19. Majority of participants were aware of the economic impact, social distancing and
intensity of harm caused by the COVID-19 than other epidemics. SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are dead
full respiratory disorders. This study revealed that the majority of the population were aware about the
difference on impact of these respiratory diseases on day to day life and graded the COVID -19 has the
most impact comparatively.

ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL, SOCIAL AND HORMONAL FACTORS AMONG FEMALE PATIENTS WITH LICHEN PLANUS VISITING A PRIVATE TEACHING HOSPITAL FACILITY IN CHENNAI, INDIA - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Dr. Casilda Sushanthi. L; Dr.Pratibha Ramani; Dr.Hannah. R; Dr.Gheena. S; Dr.Abilasha Ramasubramaniam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 908-918

Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects the skin and oral cavity. The characteristic symptoms of oral lichen planus (OLP) are burning sensation and pain at the lesion site. Incidence of OLP is higher in females than males. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the correlation of OLP with personal, social and hormonal factors in female patients visiting Saveetha dental college and hospitals, Chennai.This retrospective study includes a total of n=36 clinically diagnosed cases of OLP. The patient data were retrieved from DIAS,which is a common database for clinical and treatment details of the patients. The retrieved data were tabulated using Microsoft Excel 2016, according to personal, social and hormonal factors and then exported to SPSS for statistical analysis. Descriptive analysis and chi square tests for association were done using SPSS. Among 36 OLP cases, 41.6% were In the age group of 46- 55 years, 19.4% were in the age group of 36- 45 years, and 19.4% were in the age group of above 55 years. Majority of the study population 98% had no history of tobacco usage and were non vegetarians. 33% had anxiety in their life and 30.5% were in their peri menopausal phase. It was observed that Oral lichen planus incidence was higher in the age group of 46-55 years and also showed higher incidence in peri menopausal women. Along with hormonal factors, stress was also observed to have a significant role in oral lichen planus progression.

SSPOPULAR PERCEPTION ON COVID-19 ABOUT BEING A BIOENGINEERED WEAPON- A SURVEY

S. Selvapriya; Ganesh Lakshmanan; Gheena. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 919-926

Among many controversial claims on COVID-19 pandemic , one such claim is that the SARS-CoV- 2 virus came from a lab, and is the result of an attempt to manufacture a vaccine against the AIDS virus. Another one was that the novel coronavirus may have been accidentally leaked by an intern working at the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China. These led to the claims that COVID-19 is really a lab-made bioweapon. An online survey was conducted with a self structured questionnaire comprising 10 questions about the facts and claims of Covid-19 as a lab made bio weapon. The results were analysed statistically with statistical software “SPSS version 20” and the result was represented in the pie chart form. In the present study, awareness of the pandemic outbreak, and claims of Covid-19 as a lab made bio weapon were analysed among the responses of general population, 82.1% are of the perception that Covid-19 is a lab made bio weapon and among them 80.2% of participants think Covid-19 is Chinese bio weapon. The study concludes that most of the people are of the perception that Covid-19 is really a lab made bioweapon and the study concludes that claims of Covid-19 are a bio weapon that China has created holds ground among the popular perception.

EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT MODALITIES FOR MANAGEMENT OF ORAL SUBMUCOUS FIBROSIS

Dr Swetha Bhat; Dr Senthilnathan Periasamy; Dr Murugaiyan Arun

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 927-935

senthilnathan@saveetha.com
3arunm.sdc@saveetha.com
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to highlight various pharmacotherapeutic treatment modalities and to
compile them to assist in early intervention and management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis
This study was conducted on 92 patients who reported to the Department of Oral Surgery and Oral
Medicine, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. They were clinically diagnosed with oral submucous with
standard data grading and were given a combination of treatments currently available. Out of 92 cases,
85(92.4%) were males and 7(7.6%) were females which showed a male predominance with a ratio of 12:1
in the prevalence of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The age group affected the most was 35-50 years (54.28%).
Oral systemic antioxidants was prescribed to 54% of the patients and was the most frequently used
treatment modality in the pharmacotherapeutic management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Management of
Oral Submucous Fibrosis has been the subject of controversy ever since it was first stated in 1952. This
study attempts to compile the available treatment and its current status to assist early intervention of the
disease.

EVALUATING THE INCIDENCE OF CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES IN PARENTS OF PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH CLEFT PALATE

Dr Sneha Krishnan; Dr. Senthilnathan Periasamy; Dr Murugaiyan Arun

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 936-944

This study is aimed to determine and assess the incidence of consanguineous marriages in parents of patients presenting with cleft palate. This retrospective study involved 48 patients who reported to the Outpatient Dental Department of Cleft and Craniofacial Centre of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai between the year June 2019-March 2020. Parameters such as age, gender, history of consanguineous marriages and presence of other cleft were evaluated and assessed by a single examiner and reviewed by 2 independent investigators. In this study, we observed that the incidence of consanguineous marriages in parents presenting with cleft palate was 18.75%. There also seemed to be a slight female predilection of cleft palate patients with a history of consanguinity (55.55%) as compared to males(44.4%). Within the limits of this study, the consanguinity is associated with cleft palate, the incidence usually being the least among isolated cleft palate patients.

ORAL LICHEN PLANUS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH DIABETES MELLITUS - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

H.Firdus Fareen; Deepika Rajendran; Sri. Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 945-954

Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disorder of unknown origin. OLP has been reported to be associated with different medical conditions such as diabetes, hepatitis C infection, liver disease, and oral cancer. This study was aimed to evaluate the association of oral lichen planus among diabetes mellitus patients. In this study from June 2019 to March 2020, the clinical records of patients with oral lichen planus were evaluated. Data of age, gender, presence of diabetes mellitus and clinical variants of oral lichen planus were obtained from the records of the private dental college. Chi-square test was used to determine correlation between variables, while the Chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of oral lichen planus patients with diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of oral lichen planus patients with diabetes mellitus was found to be 24.5% with mean age of occurrence was 50-73 years (47.2%) with higher incidence among females (66%). Erosive lichen planus was observed to be the most frequent form of oral lichen planus (49.1%) followed by reticular form (39.6%) and others. The results of this study shows that there was no statistical significant difference seen in patients with oral lichen planus among diabteic mellitus patients (p value >0.05). From the above study it can be concluded that there is no apparent association of diabetes mellitus with oral lichen planus due to the limitation of small sample size as the data was not location specific in this study.There is a need for more studies to be conducted with specific designs such as cohort and case-control studies, especially with larger sample size and involving other perspectives which could be useful in preventing and reducing the incidence of these lesions among diabetes mellitus patients.

RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS USED FOR DIABETIC AND NON DIABETICS PATIENTS

Amina Mehrin Bano; Dr.Hemavathy O.R; Sri Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 955-962

Orofacial infections of odontogenic origin have long plagued mankind. The discovery of the miracle drug
by fleming in the year 1928 and the routine use of penicillin after the landmark discovery of the powder
form of the antibiotic by florey and chain leading to significant change in the management of odontogenic
infection .The spread of infection is governed by factors such as impaired host defence, the virulence of
microorganism, functional abnormalities of the host and a lack of or delayed treatment. the microbiology
of odontogenic infections in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals has been found to be variable. Though
the effects of diabetes can affect infection severity , length of hospital stay, susceptibility to antibiotics
and outcome of treatment is unassured . Differentiation in antibiotics prescribed is also observed.The aim
of the study was to analyse the prevalence of the use of antibiotics among diabetic and non-diabetic
patients in a south indian dental university clinic . The list of all diabetics and non diabetics patients
treated for pain, dental infections , swelling were retrieved by reviewing 86000 patient records who have
visited the hospital during the study periods from june 2019 to march 2020 from the university
database.Data tabulation was carried out in Excel. The data was imported and transcribed in Statistical
Package for Social sciences version 16(SPSS,IBM corporation). Descriptive analysis was carried out.A
total of 9128 patients were included in the study based on treatment done of which 580 patients(6.3%) had
diabetes mellitus. Only 3.5 % of the male population and 2.8% of the female population has
diabetes.Amoxicillin 93.2% was found to be the most frequently prescribed antibiotics among nondiabetic
patients and diabetics patients 1.6% .A combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin was
prescribed to 0.5% of the whole study population .A combination clavulanic acid and
amoxicillin(augmentin )was prescribed to 4 % of the total diabetic study population and 0.4% of the nondiabetic
study population that is about.The relation between the diabetic status of a patient and the
antibiotic prescribed showed a significant statistical relationship in a Pearson's Chi square test with p value
of 0.001(p<0.005).The prescribing practises in dental offices can be improved by increasing awareness
among dental practitioners about the recommended guidelines for prescribing antibiotics . The most
commonly prescribed antibiotics among diabetic patients was Augmentin (4.08%) and for non diabetics it
was amoxicillin (93.25%). .

RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON ASSESSMENT OF POST OPERATIVE ANTIBIOTICS PRESCRIBED FOLLOWING MANDIBULAR THIRD-MOLAR EXTRACTION

Gokul Gunasekaran; Pradeep D; Dr. Sri Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 963-970

Surgical extraction of mandibular third molar is the most frequently performed procedure in oral surgery. This procedure is associated with significant postoperative sequelae such as trismus, swelling, pain and infection. The need of antibiotic therapy during the removal of the mandibular third molar has been a questionable choice. The need for proper post surgical comfort leads to the efficacy of antibiotic use by the surgeon for a procedure as common as third molar surgical extraction.This study aimed to assess the postoperative antibiotics prescribed in mandibular third molar extraction is effective in preventing inflammatory and infective complications.The study was conducted among patients who reported to a dental college for surgical removal of mandibular third molar. The data was collected and tabulated in MS-Excel and was analysed using SPSS software.The prevalent antibiotics used post third molar extraction among all age groups was found to be amoxicillin. Pearson’s Chi square value: p value: 0.418(>0.05) Hence not statistically significant. Amoxicillin is the most prevalent drug prescribed post third molar extraction to prevent postoperative complications.

FILLERS IN COMPOSITE RESINS- RECENT ADVANCES

Gajapriya M; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; Geetha R V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 971-977

Composite restorative materials represent one of the many successes of modern biomaterials research, since they replace biological tissue in both appearance and function. At least half of posterior direct restoration placements now rely on composite materials . Composite resins are a class of dental restorative materials that are a mixture of organic and inorganic components. The primary organic components are the resin, the coupling agent, the initiator and filler. Fillers play a pivotal role in the performance of composite resins. Fillers can be from a wide range of materials. Fillers in composites can be made of glasses, ceramics, metals etc. Glass fillers are usually made of crystalline silica, silicone dioxide, lithium/barium-aluminium glass, and borosilicate glass containing zinc/strontium/lithium. Ceramic fillers are made of zirconia-silica, or zirconium oxide. The development and implementation of composite dental restorative materials rely on a comprehensive understanding of each component of the composite and consideration of methods for changing each component. The aim of the review is to showcase the recent advances in composite resin fillers which have substantially improved the clinical performance of composite

DISINFECTION OF IMPRESSION MATERIAL- A REVIEW

Sree lakshmi S.B; Jayalakshmi Somasundram; R.V Geetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 978-985

Dental impressions are categorized under semi-critical objects in dental practice and require high level
disinfection or sterilization. Sterilization in an autoclave will compromise the dimensional accuracy of the
impression hence it is not feasible. Until 1991, the recommended procedure for disinfection of impression
was rinsing under running water with which only 40% of bacteria, viruses and fungi were removed and
potential for transmission of microorganisms remained there. In recent times, a pre wash of the impression
with running water is advocated first to cast off all particles, blood and saliva prior to active disinfection
procedure. Disinfection of dental impression should be a routine procedure in the dental office and dental
laboratory. However, most of the dental professionals in private clinics, hospitals, dental schools and
prosthetic laboratories are not following the required protocols for impression disinfection. Keeping in
view the above findings, it is of utmost importance to raise the level of awareness in dental professionals
involved in any process of handling, transportation, processing and storage of the dental impressions.
With this background ,the aim of this review is to generate an update on the various techniques of
impression disinfection along with their mechanism of action , dimensional stability ,cause of infection on
impression material and effects of disinfectant on impression materials.

PREVALENCE OF SALIVARY GLAND DISEASE IN PATIENTS VISITING A PRIVATE DENTAL COLLEGE

Dr.Abarna Jawahar; Dr.G. Maragathavalli; Dr.Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 986-996

The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of salivary gland diseases in patients visiting a private
dental college. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients who visited the Department of Oral
Medicine from March 2019 to March 2020.Clinically diagnosed cases of salivary gland diseases which
included salivary gland neoplasms, xerostomia, necrotizing sialometaplasia, mucocele, ranula, sjogren’s
syndrome, sialodochitis, sialadenitis were included in the study.The details of each case were reviewed
from an electronic database.From the study we found that 17 patients were diagnosed with salivary gland
disease.The most commonly observed salivary gland disease was mucocele of the lip with a frequency of
41.17% in the study population followed by xerostomia (17.65%).Salivary gland disease can occur due to
variable causes and might significantly affect the quality of life and daily functioning.Only with a
thorough knowledge of the subject it is possible to detect the diseases of the salivary gland in their early
stage and manage them more efficiently.

ASSOCIATION OF AGE AND GENDER DISTRIBUTION IN PATIENT HAVING CLASS III/ CLASS IV CARIES RESULTING IN ROOT CANAL TREATMENT IN UPPER AND LOWER ANTERIORS

Santhanam. P; Dr. Subash Sharma; Dr. Raghu Sandhya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 997-1005

Aim of the study was to assess the association of age and gender distribution in patients having class III/ class IV caries resulting in root canal treatment in upper and lower Anteriors. This is a retrospective clinical study carried between the month of June 2019 to March 2020. Data of patients with diagnosis of class III/ class IV caries and prognosis to RCT were collected. Thus a sample size of 56 was obtained and tabulated in excel. Excel tabulated data is transferred to SPSS software for analysis. Based on software analysis and chi square test results were tabulated. We got a result that male patients aged between the age group of 61-70 years are most affected by class III/ class IV caries resulting in root canal treatment. Maxillary right permanent central incisor [11] is the most common tooth to be affected anteriors in upper arch and mandibular left permanent canine is most commonly affected anteriors in lower arch. Within the limitations of this study, we observed that male patients showed higher incidence of class III, class IV caries resulting in root canal treatment compared to female patients. Class III and class IV caries are observed to be more prevalent in the age group 61-70 years. Thus early diagnosis and conservative treatment of class III and class IV caries can prevent teeth from progressing to RCT.

PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ORAL CANCER

Yandeti Srinivasulu; Abdul Wahab; Senthil Murugan.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1006-1015

Oral cancer is one of the most common major debilitating diseases affecting the world community.It is one the most commonest form of cancer in south asia especially countries like India,pakistan,bangladesh are most affected.This occurs mainly due to habits like smoking,gutkha and paan chewing and areca nut.most of people affected were between age groups third and sixth decades,so they are also prone for the systemic diseases.this will further complicate both the treatment plan,treatment.added to this, their postoperative complications and prognosis all depends on comorbid conditions like systemic diseases.so the aim of the study is identify the prevalence and risk factors associated with oral cancer .This is an Retrospective study.In this study a total 86000 patients records were analysed and after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria,a total of 53 patients from Department of Oral Oncology , Saveetha Dental College, who were diagnosed as oral cancer were considered for this study.Subjective and objective observations are recorded that includes age, gender, habits and systemic diseases of oral cancer patients. Period of study is from June 2019 to March 2020.All the datas of the patients were reviewed by an external reviewer and were tabulated.Statistics done with Chi Square test using SPSS.The results obtained in this study indicates that habits 39% and systemic diseases 45% were associated with oral cancer.Habits and systemic diseases are strongly correlated with oral cancer, these are risk factors for prevalence of oral cancer. Within the limitations of the study there are significant risk factors like habits and systemic diseases that are associated with the causation of oral cancer which has direct implications on the severity of disease and this will also enable us to pave the way for providing better comprehensive treatment for oral cancer.

KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RECENT MODIFICATIONS IN THE CLASSIFICATION OF ODONTOGENIC TUMOUR AMONG ORAL PATHOLOGIST - A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED SURVEY

Aswani. E; Abilasha .; R Gheena. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1016-1031

Classification is the process of grouping similar entities under one category for the case of their comprehension and better handling. The WHO systems of classification is a time - honoured system that has prevailed from decades together and is under constant evolution. Classification of Odontogenic Tumours was formulated by Pieree Paul Broar and has undergone several transformations over 1989 - till 2017. So many entities appear every year in the classification. The study aimed to assess the knowledge , awareness regarding recently revised modification of OT among oral pathologists.A cross sectional, questionnaire based survey study was conducted among 100 oral pathologists around chennai and puducherry population. Ethical clearance was given by the institutional review board and study was conducted over a period of 2 weeks through the questionnaire in google forms and sent in an email link. Questionnaire was divided into various sections based on demographic data, awareness and knowledge along with feedback questions are added in that survey. The statistical analysis done with software 2.1.0 version and microsoft word and excel sheet were used to generate tables and graphs.Of the 100 questionnaires are filled and returned to the response rate of 100%. Majority of the participants fall under the age of 28 - 29 years of about 51% remaining in 24-27 years (34%) with female predominance of 93% (n=93. Majority of the participants were PG residents of about 81%. In that 15% of the participants are not aware about the update version of classification.This survey is first of its kind. From the survey, we conclude that although oral pathologists were aware about OT classification but still most of the PG residents did not have enough knowledge regarding updation in the classification of OT. So, to create awareness regarding odontogenic tumour classification is of utmost importance for oral pathologists as odontogenic tumours are key lesions in diagnosis of oral and jaw swellings

AWARENESS REGARDING IMPACT OF MUSIC ON PATIENTS ANXIETY DURING DENTAL TREATMENTS

V. Mathivadani; A.K Anjali; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1032-1042

Music reduces stress and increases physical energy, depending on the tempo, melody, and genre of music we listen to . Even from the emergency room to the physical therapy practice, music can ease stress, improve immune and hormone production, elevate mood, and reduce pain. Dentists can use music for more outcome of the patients and using music during sedation improves recovery rate after the procedure. The study aims to know the awareness among patients having anxiety during dental treatments. Cross sectional questionnaire survey conducted among dental patients . Information of question was obtained from the questionnaire using survey planets and data represented in MS Excel and statistical analysis was done using SPSS software.The results were collected and then analysed through SPSS software. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out and chi square test was used and p value was calculated. About 86% patient felt relaxed while listening to music while compared to other time in the clinic 84% patient felt reduction in the pain which listening to music in dental clinic 92% thought that music reduces the anxiety level and distract patients while getting treated in clinic 36% patient felt anxious during dental treatments. Most of the patients feel anxious while getting treated in the dental clinics . music plays a major role in reducing anxiety . While getting treated many of the patients felt that music helps in distracting during pain .Many of the patients suggested practicing music therapy in dental clinics .

ASSESSMENT OF RUBBER DAM USAGE AMONG DENTIST IN INDIA

Kaviya. L; Dr. Anjaneyulu K; Dr. Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1043-1057

Rubber dam was introduced by Dr.Barnum in the 1860 s, the main advantage of using rubber dams in endodontics include patient protection from medicaments, aspiration of endodontic instruments, tooth debris, and irrigating solutions. The aim of the study to determine the prevalence and frequency of rubber dam usage during endodontic procedures among dentists in the state of TamilNadu, India.A survey was conducted among 101 dentists in the state of Tamil Nadu, India by preparing a set of questions, and the answers were collected through an online survey method.In this survey, 82.2% feel comfortable to use a rubber dam,36.6% never use a rubber dam to pediatric patients,89% always use a rubber dam to adult patients,61.4% not using rubber dam for all cases of RCT,73.8% need to gain knowledge about rubber dams through training programs,23.8 % told patients discomfort was a reason for not using a rubber dam, 80.2% not using rubber dam while taking X- rays,45.5% take more than 5 mins for applying a rubber dam to patients,63.4% told it is easily available for clinical usage.The present survey shows there is a low prevalence of its usage during endodontic treatment. Greater emphasis should be placed on the advantages of using rubber dams in clinical dentistry at dental school and through continuing dental education for practitioners to update their knowledge

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE QUALITY AND LENGTH OF THE OBTURATION AND ROOT CANAL FAILURE: AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY

Rukhsaar Gulzar; AnjaneyuluK .; Mahalakshmi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1058-1067

Quality of obturation is one of the factors that influences the outcome of endodontic treatment. Thus the present study was conducted with the aim to determine the influence of length and quality of obturation on the failure of endodontic treatment. For the purpose of data collection, the preoperative radiographs of failed endodontic cases reported to the institute between June 2019 and April 2020 were analysed. Data was tabulated in excel sheet as poorly filled canals, obturations short of apex, obturations extending beyond the apex and adequate obturation. Further, the teeth were grouped into six categories as maxillary anterior, premolar and molars and mandibular anterior, premolar and molars. A descriptive statistical analysis and chi square test was performed. The results were represented in the form of tabulation and bar graphs. Of the 225 cases that matched the inclusion criteria, maximum endodontic failures were seen in maxillary anteriors (41.8%) followed by mandibular molars (25.8%) and maxillary molars (13.3%). Of these endodontic failure cases, 144 were due to poor and incomplete obturations (64%) 58 obturations were homogenous but short of the apex (25.8%). Only 15 cases were reported with over obturation (6.7%) and 8 radiographs depicted adequately obturated teeth undergoing endodontic failure (3.6%). Poorly filled canals were the primary reason that contributed to the majority of endodontic failures.

ASSESSMENT OF TYPE OF RETRACTION MECHANICS COMMONLY CHOSEN BY ORTHODONTIC RESIDENTS

Swapna Sreenivasagan; Aravind S Kumar; Remmiya Mary Varghese; Sri Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1068-1074

This study was designed to understand and evaluate the choice between friction and frictionless mechanics in extraction space closure. The orthodontics case sheets were evaluated to identify extraction cases. After examining 428 case sample tabulation of choice between friction and frictionless mechanics were examined. More female patients underwent orthodontic treatment. More cases were treated by friction mechanics rather than by frictionless mechanics. Only 55 cases of the whole were treated by loops for retraction and space closure. More orthodontists preferred retraction using friction mechanics which can be attributed to factors like being treated by faster mechanics, less cost and lesser demanding skill of clinician. The chair side time required is reduced

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENDER AND DENTAL EROSION IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

Nor Syakirah binti Shahroom; Arthi Balasubramaniam; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1081-1090

Dental erosion is a public health problem as it may affect various age groups and gender. It may lead to dentin hypersensitivity and eventually pulpal exposure if the erosion is severe and not treated which causes pain. Therefore, the study was done to find the association of gender with dental erosion. A retrospective study was conducted using University hospital patient records from July 2019 - March 2020. A total of 149 case sheets were reviewed. The data variables such as socio-demographic data, presence of dental erosion and number of teeth involved with dental erosion were retrieved and analyzed. Results were present with frequency distribution and chi-square test for association. Dental erosion was prevalent in males (64.4%) than females (35.6%). The age range of the patients included in the study was 21-80 years old out of which 21-40 years (14.8%), 41-60 years (57%) and 61-80 years (28.2%). Erosion in maxillary teeth involving 0-5 (85.8%) was the highest followed by 6-10 (14.1%) and erosion in mandibular teeth involving 0-5 (87.9%) was the highest followed by 6-10 (11.4%) and 11-15 (0.7%). There was no statistically significant association between gender, age with dental erosion in maxillary and mandibular teeth (p>0.05). Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that dental erosion was prevalent in males of early 60’s and there was no association between gender, age with dental erosion in maxillary and mandibular teeth.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PEER PRESSURE AND RELAPSE DURING TOBACCO QUIT PROCESS

Keerthika Saravanan; Arthi Balsubramaniam; Santhosh Kumar MP

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1091-1098

It has been established that smoking is a very different addiction to break. Many smokers persist in
tobacco use for several years and cycle through multiple periods of remission and relapse Smoking is not a
single event process and relapse is an ordinary component of this process. International guidelines have
greatly emphasized on relapse prevention. Very few studies examine the association between the number
of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and physiological
distress. This study aims to evaluate association between peer pressure and relapses during tobacco quit. A
retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 75,000 patient records of University hospital for a period
of nine months from June 2019 to March 2020. About 150 case reports containing information on tobacco
dependence and quit rate (in terms of number of relapses) were retrieved and analysed. Descriptive
statistics was done to present the sociodemographic details. Chi-square association was done to find the
association. Most of the participants (34%) were in the age group 29-38 years, followed by 49-59 years
(26%), 19-28 years (24%) and 39-49 years (16%). About 13.3%, 20%, 4%, 10% of 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs,
39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs of patients respectively had peer pressure during their quitting process.About
11.3% 20%, 8.67 and 13.3% of patients in the age group 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs, 39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs had
no relapses during the quitting process.No significant association between age and number of relapses
(p=0.746; not significant). Hence proving no influence of age on relapse during quitting process. About
28% of patients with peer pressure and 25.3% without peer pressure had no relapse during quitting.
However 19.3% and 27.3% with and without peer pressure had >1 number of relapses. during their
quitting process,No significant association of peer pressure in relapse (p=0.295, not significant). No
influence of peer pressure on relapse during the quitting process. Peer pressure is not much influencing the
number of relapses during the quitting process, however a watch over this factor to be taken in account
during cessation counselling

IMPACT OF SMOKING ON PERIODONTAL HEALTH

Kiruthika Patturaja; Arvina Rajasekar; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1099-1104

Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults. It is an inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. It is associated with various risk factors. Tobacco is one of the potent risk factors for periodontal disease. The aim of the present study was to find the impact of smoking on periodontal health. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 200 male patients (Group 1: 100 smokers; Group 2: 100 non-smokers) were recruited. Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. The present study showed that smokers had a high prevalence of periodontitis (37.5%) when compared to non-smokers (8.5%). Whereas, non-smokers had a high prevalence of gingivitis (41.5%) when compared to smokers (12.5%). Also, there was a statistically significant association between smoking and periodontal health (p=0.000). The findings of the present study showed that smokers had increased risk of periodontitis than non-smokers.

PREVALENCE OF CLASS I, II, III MALOCCLUSION IN PATIENTS WITH BILATERAL CLEFT LIP AND PALATE

P. Deeksheetha; Arvind S; Nashra kareem

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1105-1112

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of class I,II, III malocclusions in patients with bilateral
cleft lip and palate. Cleft lip and palate are the most common congenital defects. Cleft lip and cleft palate
can be divided into bilateral cleft lip and palate and unilateral cleft lip and palate. In patients with cleft lip
and palate the prevalence of other dental anomalies is very common. Cleft lip and palate patients require a
multidisciplinary treatment approach, to correct the cleft and other other associated defects. This study
was done in a university based setting on the bilateral cleft lip and palate patients who reported to our
hospital. The data was obtained by reviewing case sheets from June 2019 to March 2020 of Saveetha
dental college and hospitals. The data was collected and tabulated in the excel sheets and exported to the
SPSS software for statistical analysis. The prevalence of Class I was 52%, class III was 28% and Class II
had 20% prevalence in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients. There was a difference between the incidence
of different types of malocclusions among different genders, with more male predilection, however it was
statistically insignificant. The prevalence of Class I malocclusion was more in our Bilateral cleft lip and
palate population.

CORRELATION BETWEEN SMOKING AND SEVERITY OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Cinthura. C; Arvina Rajasekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1113-1120

Smoking is a highly prevalent addiction present worldwide, especially in India. It not only affects the pulmonary system but also has a major impact on oral health. Periodontal disease comprises a range of polymicrobial infectious diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis that affect the tooth-supporting structures. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for periodontal disease progression and can also alter treatment response. This study aims at associating the type of tobacco use and periodontal disease progression. This retrospective study was conducted among 500 patients using their records from the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019-April 2020 and patients who had smoking habits were identified. Data regarding their age, gender, type of tobacco use and periodontal status were collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows (SPSS version 20.0,IL,Chicago,USA) for analysis. The results of the study showed that among the patients with smoking habits, individuals within the age group of 25-35 years (31.4%) showed the highest prevalence of tobacco use whereas people among 65-75 years (1.2%) had the least. Majority of the smokers were diagnosed with periodontitis (84.4%), followed by gingivitis (12.4%) but diagnosis of healthy gingiva was very rare (3.2%). Smokeless form of tobacco was commonly used (61.2%). There was a male predominance (94.2%). Smoking, especially the type of tobacco used and severity of periodontal disease was found to have a strong association (p=0.000). The study draws attention to the fact that tobacco usage has a negative impact on oral health and can lead to periodontitis.

PREVALENCE OF CLASS II DENTAL RELATION IN PERMANENT DENTITION - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Karthikeson. P.S; Arvind S; Kiran Kumar P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1121-1127

Malocclusion is a common development disorder which can create a negative impact on children and adults. Angle had classified malocclusion into class I, class II , class III based on upper and lower molars. Prevalence of malocclusion varies among different populations based on their ethnicity. This study aims to find out the prevalence of class II dental relation among permanent dentition patients in our population. The study is done among patients who came to the dental college. Patient data is collected from dental case records of patients with permanent dentition. With the collected data, class II malocclusion prevalence among patients were evaluated. Results were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Out of 37756 patients, 1017 patients (2.69%) had class II malocclusion among permanent dentition. 52.95% were males and 47.05% were females. Prevalence of Class II div I was higher (88%) than class II div 2 (12%). Chi square test done between type of malocclusion and gender was found to be insignificant with P value of
0.564. Within the limitations of the current study, it was found that prevalence of class II malocclusion was less in our population with no significant difference in distribution among males and females. 

COMMON CHIEF COMPLAINT OF PATIENT SEEKING ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT

H. Sruthi; Dr.Arvind S; S2Dr.Sri Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1128-1133

In the earlier days orthodontics was more focused towards rectifying a malocclusion.But nowadays there is a shift towards maintaining the balance between functional efficiency ,structural balance and esthetic harmony. Understanding the perspective of a patient's orthodontic treatment needs helps in better treatment planning.The aim of this study was to identify the major chief complaint of the patient seeking orthodontic treatment.In this retrospective study records of 900 patients undergoing Orthodontic treatment were obtained .Their chief complaints were screened and were classified into esthetics, pain and functional. Esthetics chief complaints were further subdivided into crowding, proclination and spacing
.Results showed that majority of the patients seek orthodontic treatment for esthetic reasons.Among esthetics crowding was found to be the major chief complaint, followed by proclination and spacing

CORRELATION BETWEEN ANTEGONIAL NOTCH DEPTH, SYMPHYSIS MORPHOLOGY AND RAMUS LENGTH IN DIFFERENT GROWTH PATTERNS OF ANGLE’S CLASS II DIV 2 SUBJECTS

S. Abirami; Ashwin Mathew George; Remmiya Mary Varghese

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1134-1149

In orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics ,thorough knowledge of skeletal and dental components that contribute to Angle’s class II div 2 malocclusion is essential because these elements may influence the approach to treatment.When planning of orthodontic treatment for malocclusion, one has to take into account the growth pattern , because it would considerably affect the success of the treatment. Facial growth and development is important because amount and direction growth will alter the need for orthodontic biomechanics.The aim of this study was to compare between antegonial notch depth, symphysis morphology, and ramus morphology in different growth patterns in skeletal class II div 2 subjects. In this study, lateral cephalograms of 47 skeletal class II div 2 subjects were traced. The sample was divided into average, horizontal, and vertical growth patterns based on jarabak’s ratio. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was performed to determine the comparison between groups for all these variables.Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was done to determine correlation between all variables within all the groups. Results showed that Depth of antegonial notch is found to be greater in vertical growth patterns compared to horizontal and average growth patterns. Large symphysis angle and symphysis width is noted in the horizontal growth pattern. Small ramus height is noted in vertical growth pattern compared to horizontal and average growth patterns. In horizontal growth pattern antegonial notch depth was found to be highly correlated with symphyseal angle (r=0.374) and low correlation was found with symphysis width (0.147) and ramus length(r=0.178).In vertical growth pattern , antegonial notch depth was found to be highly correlated with symphyseal angle (r=0.353) and negative correlation was found with ramus length (r = -0.021),symphysis width (r= - 0.676).In average growth pattern , antegonial notch depth was found to be highly correlated with ramus length(r=0.169) and low correlation was found with symphysis width (r=0.033) and negative correlation was found with symphysis angle (r=-0.403).This study concluded that antegonial notch depth ,symphysis morphology and ramus height are significantly correlated with different growth patterns in skeletal class II malocclusion but are highly significant in horizontal growth patterns. All parameters are significantly correlated with different growth patterns.

ASSESSMENT OF FURCATION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS - AN INSTITUTIONAL BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

Inchara. R; Dr. Balaji Ganesh .S,; Dr. Subhashree. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1150-1158

Menopause is associated with many systemic and oral changes. Many researchers have tried to evaluate the influence of hormonal changes associated with menopause in the periodontium. The aim of this study isto evaluate the furcation sites in postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis. It is a single centered retrospective study. A total of 215 case records that met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the study. Patient records were collected and evaluated. The data analysis was done using SPSS software.Within the limits of the study, grade II furcations are more common compared to grade I, III and
IV. Furcations are most commonly seen in 16,26,37,46 as compared to other molars. In relation to 46, grade II furcation was more common in the age group of 50-60 years, p value = 0.014 ﹤0.05 which was statistically significant. In relation to 47, Grade II furcation was more common in 50-55 years of age, p
value =0.031﹤0.05, which is statistically significant. Post menopausal women are more prone to poor periodontal health status. There is a need to create awareness about periodontal health and the associated problems in postmenopausal women.

AGE AS A RISK FACTOR IN PATIENTS WITH DRY SOCKETS : A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Kethiswar Raj; Balakrishna R N

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1159-1165

Alveolar osteitis which is also known as dry socket, is an inflammation of the alveolar bone. Usually, this occurs after a postoperative complication of tooth extraction.Alveolar osteitis can occur where the blood clot fails to form or is lost from the socket and this leaves the empty socket where bone is exposed to the oral cavity, causing a localized alveolar osteitis limited to the lamina dura . This most specific type is known as dry socket and is associated with increased pain and delayed healing time.The aim of the study is to compare the prevalence of dry socket and age as a risk factor in patients who visited Saveetha Dental College.The objective was to find the base in Saveetha Dental college by the data collected for the theoretical framework for research proposal.In materials and methods , there are certain requirements that were necessary such as case control study for a better understanding , patients details who visited saveetha dental college for a background check , data obtained from the outpatient record was to ensure that the data can be supported , followed by analytics of dry socket patients to know the total number of patients involved ,the sample size obtained and the tabulation of data was done in excel sheet and finally a satisfied analysis is done with the proper data.The majority of patients that are with dry socket were around the age range from 28 years to 47 years and is more common in females than in males and majority of them are non-smokers.Even in the gender prevalence , the total number of females are more than males by numbers and it is obtained with the confirmed data.The mean age group from the age range of 28 years to 47 years is the age group 50 years and the positive statistically significant correlation between the age and dry sockets.The type of test used in this study is this chi square test and the P value of the test is <0.05 which is significant.We can observe the graph showing distributions such as age where the age group from 28 years to 47 years has a total value of (9 with 53.1%) and we also can conclude that the age group from 55 years to 74 years have a total value of 46.9%.In gender we can tell from the graph that the male group has a total value of (8 with 47.1%) and that the female group has a total value of (52.9%).From smoking we can conclude that a total of (76.5%) of the obtained patients are non-smokers and a total of (23.5%) of the obtained patients are smokers

RECENT DISCOVERIES IN PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS

Anu Iswarya Jaisankar; Brundha M.P; Ezhilarasan. D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1166-1173

In the Human sphere of life, Protection is defined as any measure taken to guard or protect an object or a human against any kind of Physical, Chemical and Biological hazards. Personal protective equipments are the equipments that offer complete protection against these kinds of hazards.They are designed in such a way that they ensure one’s safety to the fullest. The hazards addressed by protective equipments include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, Bio hazard and airborne particulate.They are routinely used by Health care Professionals for preliminary protection. They enhance Occupational safety and also impose a barrier between the user and the environment. A Tremendous number of personal protective equipments had been invented in the last two decades. This review article has studied more than 55 articles on Personal protective Equipments. The article discusses such equipments that are needed for self protection of mankind which includes Face protective, Eye protective, Head protective, Ear protective, Ballistic protective and Foot protective equipments.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RT- PCR IN COVID 19

Kameswari. S; M.P. Brundha; D. Ezhilarasan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1174-1181

Coronavirus which is an irresistible sickness was spread overall pandemic. First events of obscure etiology in Wuhan, China. This distinguished a novel coronavirus now named as a SARS COV 2. It is secured by fat protein which is a solitary abandoned RNA genome. The infections are round or pleomorphic with wrapped particles.SARS-COV incites a huge scope starting in China and the new infection is by all accounts infectious and the COVs have become the significant pathogens of developing respiratory maladies. The indications of the beginning periods of the infection are vague. The death rates for cases all around stay between 1% to 2%. Rapid duplication of infections is additionally an entangled factor in identifying the ailment. Consequently the recognition of this sickness can be distinguished by different strategies like RT-PCR (Real time Polymerase Chain Reaction), CT (Computed Tomography) and so forth… RT-PCR is one among them. Detection of infection by RT-PCR in clinical examples offers the alternative of conclusion in the beginning periods of the ailment and its application incorporates genotyping, mutation detection. RT-PCR techniques during the initial hardly any long periods of ailment have been low and much better affectability is after day 6 of the ailment. RT- PCR technique which is found to be a standard method for diagnosing the positive cases. This helps in finding true negativity and rule out the serological positive cases. Thus, this review at the advantages and disadvantages of RT- PCR in COVID 19.

RECENT TYPES AND FUNCTIONS OF FACEMASKS

L. Akshayaa; Dr.M.P. Brundha; Dr.Ezhilarasan D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1182-1188

Face masks are the personal protective equipment which prevents the entry of toxic chemicals, microbes into our body. It acts as an effective barrier against infectious diseases. A respirator is the special type of equipment which protects the wearer from inhaling toxic chemicals, dust and airborne particles. Personal protective equipment (PPE) used by the health care providers are designed to protect the skin and the mucous membrane of eyes ,and nose which can reduce the risk of exposure to blood borne pathogens. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has suggested the use of standard surgical masks, cloth masks, and extended type of respirators in pandemic conditions. The recent types of face masks are N95,99, FFP1,2, surgical masks, single, double-layered masks, cloth masks etc. The filtration efficacy of each mask varies according to the manufacturer, as when compared with N95 masks of about 90 % and surgical masks only with 90%. Many studies have discussed the different types of face masks being used by healthcare providers, professionals, and people in the community. A review with valuable information about the recent types, functions of face masks were collected using the recent articles searched from pubmed, google scholar, core, cochrane etc, which are dated from 2000-2020. The aim of the present study to review about the recent types and functions of face masks used by the community people and health care providers.

REQUIREMENTS OF BACK TO BACK CROWNS IN 2 TO 6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN IN MAXILLARY ARCH - AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Ivan Obadiah; Deepa Gurunathan; Vignesh Ravindran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1189-1196

Stainless steel crowns have been proved to be successful and efficient full coverage restoration in pediatric dentistry especially after pulp therapy and for restoring multi-surface carious lesions. These crowns are usually pre-formed and are selected according to the size of the tooth that requires the crown. The purpose of this study is to determine the common reasons for requirements of back to back stainless steel crowns in the maxillary arch of children aged 2 to 6 years. This cross sectional observational study was carried out retrospectively by analysis of the case sheets for the treatment done with back to back stainless steel crowns in the right and left quadrants of maxillary arch and thereby determining the requirements for the same. Out of 69 pairs of back to back crowns, 90.4% of the teeth required pulpal treatments; 8% of the teeth required Class II restorations; 11% of the teeth were given back to back crowns as an abutment for space maintainers in the upper arch. Back to back crowns in the maxillary arch were placed mostly for teeth treated by pulpectomy, followed by abutments for space maintainers.

PARENTAL PREFERENCE FOR TREATMENT UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA FOR CHILDREN BETWEEN 2-5 YEARS OF AGE

Niharika Kotian; Deepa Gurunathan; EMG Subramanian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1197-1203

Performing dental procedures on children is usually a challenge for dentists especially on those children who are anxious and lack the ability to cooperate. Depending on the child's emotional and psychological state of mind and the usual behavior management techniques may not help in carrying out the dental procedures effectively.In these circumstances, an alternative such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia may become necessary.This study was undertaken to assess dental treatment under general anaesthesia preferred by parents for their children.Data was collected from patient management software and analysed using SPSS software. Chi square test was done to check the association and a p value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. All children who underwent general anaesthesia from September 2019 to February 2020 were included in the study . Assessment for the reason of general anaesthesia was done. Parental preference for general anaesthesia was also assessed. It was observed that out of 80 children , parents of 53 children preferred treatment under general anaesthesia . Parents preferred treatment under general anesthesia more for male children as compared to female children. Parents preferred general anesthesia more in the age group of 2 to 3 years as compared to 4 to 5 years . Single visit treatment was the most preferred reason for general anaesthesia. We observed that parents preferred treatment under general anaesthesia for children between 2-5 years of age.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGE AND TEETH REFERRED FOR RETRIEVAL OF SEPARATED INSTRUMENT - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Karthikeson. P.S; Deepak. S; Kiran Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1204-1210

Endodontic file fracture is an uncommon event. It is important to assess the variations in root and root canal morphology before initiating any endodontic treatment .Occurrence of instrument fracture is reported to range between 0.3% and 16.2% . The aim of the study is to assess the association between age and teeth referred for retrieval of a separated instrument. In this retrospective study a total of 82000 patient records were reviewed and data related to instrument retrieval were extracted and tabulated for data analysis. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and chi square test was used to determine the occurrence of instrument fracture in patients undergoing root canal treatment based on age and teeth. Occurrence of instrument fracture was found to be highest in the 31 to 41 years age group and there is no relation between age and teeth referred for retrieval of separated instrument.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ORAL LEUKOPLAKIA SMOKING AND ALCOHOL HABITS IN PATIENTS

Priyadharshini Suresh Babu; Deepika Rajendran; Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1211-1220

Oral leukoplakia is seen as a predominant white patch in the oral mucosa and is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. Habits such as tobacco, betel nut chewing and alcohol increases the incidence of oral leukoplakia. This study was aimed to evaluate the association of oral leukoplakia in patients having smoking and alcohol habits. In this study, patients having oral leukoplakia were sorted out by reviewing and analysing 86,000 patients records who visited the private dental college during the time period of June 2019 to March 2020. The personal history with habits such as smoking and alcohol were also recorded. A Chi-square test was used to determine association between variables to obtain the results. In our study, we found that the males showed higher prevalence of Oral Leukoplakia than females. A statistically significant result was found in patients between 41-50 years of age (29.2%) with smoking habits (84.8%) and alcohol intake habits (51%). It also showed that there was stronger association between oral leukoplakia and patients with both smoking and alcohol habits, than in patients having alcohol habit alone.

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, PRACTICAL APPROACH OF DENTIST TOWARDS TREATING ORAL SUBMUCOUS FIBROSIS PATIENTS ATTENDING PRIVATE DENTAL HOSPITAL - A SURVEY BASED STUDY.

Nivethitha R; Dr.Deepika Rajendran; Dr. Saravana Dinesh S.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1221-1236

Oral submucous fibrosis(OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder of oral mucosa affecting mainly the population in south and southeast Asia. OSMF is precancerous condition caused by areca nut chewing characterised by restricted mouth opening, burning sensation and stiffness and blanching of oral mucosa.Complete regression of the condition had not been achieved in all cases with any of the present treatment regimen.The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge among dental students about the significance of Oral Submucous Fibrosis and it’s management. The questionnaire based study was conducted among 100 participants. A self administered questionnaire was used. The questionnaire based study was conducted through an online forum , google form software. The questions were formed to observe knowledge,attitude,and practical approach of dental students towards treating OSMF patients attending private dental hospitals .The data collected were stored and results were analysed by SPSS software. Out of 100 participants, 55% participants reported that females have an increased prevalence of OSMF compared to male. Majority of participants were aware that betel quid were the most common habits and blanching mucosa were the common features associated with OSMF. 60 % of participants were aware that stopping gutka / pan chewing habits alone will not resolve the problem in patients having trismus. Within the limits of the present study, students showed good knowledge on the various clinical and diagnosis aspects of Oral submucous fibrosis, however the knowledge on the management aspect of oral submucous fibrosis was moderate. A better knowledge of OSMF will endure safer health care services for the population.

PREVALENCE OF DENTURE STOMATITIS AMONG DENTURE WEARERS IN PATIENTS REPORTED TO A PRIVATE DENTAL HOSPITAL.

Sharon keziah.V Sharon keziah.V1; Dr. Deepika Rajendran; Dr. R. Pradeep Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1237-1246

Denture Stomatitis( DS) is one of the common denture related complications in patients wearing dentures after years of denture use. There have been various studies on its prevalence despite the fact that its exact etiology is still unknown. Removable dentures have served as an important prosthesis in dentistry, whereby it helps in regaining the phonetics and masticatory functions as well as esthetics in edentulous patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors that can cause denture stomatitis in denture wearers. This study was designed as a retrospective clinical study. All the patients with removable dentures (Complete dentures , Removable Partial dentures , Cast partial denture ) were taken into account and the data was retrieved. The data was analysed and results were recorded.Out of the 1415 subjects wearing dentures (complete or partial ) , 80 were found to have denture stomatitis in which 57.4% were women and 42.6% were men. The majority of the DS patients were in the age group range of 51-80 years. Temporary partial dentures (50%) were the most prevalent type of prosthesis in patients with denture stomatitis. When the medical history was reviewed most of the patients did not have any underlying systemic diseases(61.1%) did not have any medical condition, (18.5%) were diabetic, (11.1 %) were hypertensive. When all the diabetic patients(2577) were evaluated , 9.32% had denture stomatitis .In the study, it was observed that denture stomatitis was prevalent in elderly patients with slight female predilection. Diabetes was the most prevalent systemic illness associated with denture stomatitis

ASSOCIATION OF AGE AND GENDER OF PATIENTS WHO UNDERWENT REATTACHMENT OF FRACTURED TEETH

Aishwarya .S; S.Delphin Priscilla Antony; Suresh V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1247-1253

Epidemiological studies indicate the annual incidence of dental trauma globally is at about 4.5%. Approximately one‐third of children and toddlers (primary teeth) and one‐fifth of adolescents and adults (permanent teeth) sustained a traumatic dental injury.The aim of the study is to evaluate the association of the patients undergoing reattachment of fractured teeth and compare the age and gender of the patient.The majority involved the maxillary central incisors, mainly from falls in toddlers at home and contact sport in adolescents. It is a retrospective study. The details of the patient records were reviewed and analyzed from June 2019 to March 2020 out of which data of 10 patients who had undergone fractured tooth reattachment were included in this study. The details like age, gender, tooth number were evaluated and entered in SPSS, version 23.It is observed that there is no significant difference among age and sex of the patient who underwent reattachment of fractured teeth. Within the limitation, males had undergone more attachment procedures than females. Endodontic approach was most prevalent in all age groups while conservative approach was prevalent only in 20 to 40 years age group.

PREVALENCE OF TYPES OF SECONDARY IMPRESSION TECHNIQUES USED BY DENTISTS IN COMPLETE DENTURE PATIENTS- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Anupama Deepak; Dhanraj Ganapathy; M. Jeevitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1254-1262

Impression making is an important part of replacement of the teeth. In complete dentures, secondary impression techniques play a major role in the fabrication of the prosthesis, as they help in recording accurate borders and extension on the impression. Recording the secondary impression plays a major role in the retention, resistance and support. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of types of secondary impression techniques used by dentists in complete denture patients. This was a cross sectional study containing sample size of 200. This study was conducted in a university setting. Data was collected from a digital case sheet record and categorised into mucocompressive, mucostatic and selective pressure techniques. Data was then entered in MS Excel Sheets and statistically analysed using IBM SPSS Version
20.0 and graphically represented. Selective pressure impression techniques (42.3%) was the most prevalent type used among dentists. Impression techniques play a major role in the fabrication of denture for its retention, resistance and support.

PREVALENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE IN COMPLETELY EDENTULOUS PATIENTS

Chithambara Shathviha Palaniappan; Dhanraj Ganapathy; Mebin George Mathew

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1263-1268

Generic systemic disability questions the success rate of the complete denture. Systemic factors are main determinants for prognosis of denture. Most complete denture age groups have contributing health causes.Most individuals in the entire denture age group are likely to have health conditions leading to denture difficulties. The general health status of the patient, host resistance and the systemic factors are the main determinants of the denture 's prognosis. A total of 372 patients were taken and analysed for systemic diseases in complete denture wearers.The study was done under university setting.The results were analysed using SPSS software version 20 by IBM. The result observed is that the prevalence of systemic disease is less in completely edentulous patients.From the present study it was observed that the presence of systemic disease completely edentulous patients is 38..17%.Additional care should be maintained while treating those patients.

PREVALENCE OF ERRORS IN TOOTH PREPARATION IN PATIENTS VISITING A UNIVERSITY DENTAL HOSPITAL- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Anupama Deepak; Dhanraj Ganapathy; M. Jeevitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1269-1280

Tooth preparation is a procedure done for replacements of missing teeth, where it not only reduces the tooth structure but also preserves the biological value of the tooth. These are carried out for Fixed Partial Dentures and Full Mouth Rehabilitation. Fixed partial dentures are commonly done in cases of single missing tooth as it mainly depends upon the span length and the abutment health. The abutment teeth play a main role in partial dentures where replacements depend upon the abutment health. The aim of this cross sectional study was to determine the prevalence of errors in tooth preparation. The sample size of this study was 200 subjects. This study is conducted in a university setting, Chennai. Data was collected from a digital case sheet record of 200 subjects and coding was done in MS Excel sheets and statistically analysed using IBM SPSS Version 20.0. Chi square tests were used to analyse the data statistically. These data were then graphically represented. In this study, prevalence of various errors in tooth preparation were noticed, among which over reduction (67.5%), under reduction (93%) and gingival damage (75%) were more prevalent among other errors in tooth preparation. Damage is mostly seen on the posterior regions especially in the mandibular distal aspects. To prevent these errors, low speed handpieces and proper equipment with utmost care should be provided. Therefore in conclusion, tooth preparation can lead to various errors and care has to be taken while doing tooth preparation.

KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SUTURING TECHNIQUE IN EXTRACTION WOUNDS AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS -A SURVEY

Debarun David; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1281-1290

Suturing is the process of joining two surfaces or edges together along a line by sewing .The aim of the study was to find out the different types of suture technique in extraction wounds . The study was focused to assess the different types of suturing techniques in extraction wounds .The sample size of the study was about 100 participants , a set of questionnaire is being created by use of Google form software , the data collection software score .The results were collected and statistically analysed . There is a significant relation between the dental students and their knowledge about the different suture techniques seen in extraction wounds. This study created awareness on different suture techniques and improved the knowledge about suturing techniques which are absolutely necessary to become a competent surgeon .

IS COVID-19 REALLY A LIFE THREATENING PANDEMIC - A SURVEY ON POPULAR PERCEPTION

Abinaya. S; Dr.Durairaj Sekar; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1291-1301

Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface and belong to the family Coronaviridae within the order Nidovirales. Coronaviruses broadly infect vertebrates including humans, birds, bats, snakes, mice, and other wild animals. The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of Saliva or discharges from the hose when an infected person coughs or sneezes. At this time, there is no specific vaccine way or treatment for COVID 19. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared to comprise about 13 questions based on the topic of the survey and circulated to about 100 people through an online google form. The questions were studied carefully and corresponding answers were marked by the participants. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. From the results, the majority of the study population gave positive responses that COVID-19 is really a life-threatening pandemic.100% of the population were aware of the pandemic, it’s outbreaks in several countries and its devastating effects. This study gives an insight into popular perception of COVID-19 as a life-threatening pandemic and awareness on its spread and ways to control it

EVALUATION OF PRIMARY TEETH WITH CARIES REQUIRING PULPECTOMY AND EXTRACTION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 5-7 YEARS OLD VISITING A UNIVERSITY DENTAL HOSPITAL

Anupama Deepak; EMG Subramaniam; Ganesh Jeevanandan; M. Jeevitha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1302-1312

Dental caries in the form of early childhood caries is more prevalent in children. Severe form of caries extending throughout the coronal structure in the root can result in tooth pain. These kinds of teeth with caries extending to the pulp may require pulpectomy or extraction. Pulpectomy is a restorative treatment done in primary teeth which is used to extirpate the coronal and radicular pulp and seal the entire root canal using an obturating material. The obturating material is of different types. The commonly used material is the Metapex, which helps in the natural resorption of the roots, exfoliation and does not irritate the periapical region. Extraction in children can be due to trauma or grossly decayed teeth in children due to caries extending subgingivally or presence root stumps. Children presenting with class 2 caries have been exposed to caries involving the pulp. Early childhood caries is one of the most infectious diseases of childhood having a chronic progression rate resulting in the destruction of tooth structure. They are of different types and patterns being rampant caries, nursing bottle caries. This is generally associated with unusual dietary patterns and improper feeding patterns in children with prolonged use of baby bottles for milk feeding. Caries in children are mainly caused by the bacteria Streptococcus mutans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the primary teeth with caries requiring pulpectomy and extraction in children between 5-7 years old. A retrospective study was carried out using digital records of 903 subjects. These data were collected from DIAS and coded in MS Excel sheets. The collected data was analysed by computer software SPSS version 21 using Chi square test and graphical illustration was done. From the above study, it was found that extraction and pulpectomy was common in males, with prevalence of extraction in the maxillary arch among children of 7 years and pulpectomy in children of 5 years , and seen in the mandibular posterior region.

PREVALENCE OF GINGIVITIS IN 5-6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN WITH EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Anisha A Mahtani; Ganesh Jeevanandan; Ravindra kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1313-1321

Having a broad knowledge about the association of gingivitis in children with caries will give us a better insight on what to expect when the patient arrives and how to proceed with the treatments. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the association of gingivitis in 5-6 year old children with Early Childhood caries. This would enable us to understand the prevalence of various diseases in a population and help us to devise appropriate treatment plans. A retrospective study was conducted amongst 755 children aged 5-6 years who were diagnosed with Early Childhood Caries upon reporting to a dental hospital in Chennai from June 2019 to March 2020. The gingival health status of these patients was evaluated based on the digital case records. The data of 755 children were reviewed and the data was extracted. Data Analysis was done using IBM SPSS Software Version 20 to run Chi Square tests.The results revealed the overall prevalence of gingivitis among 5-6 year old children with ECC to be 18.3% with 81.7% of children with clinically healthy gingiva and no incidence of periodontitis. Prevalence of gingivitis among 5-6 year old children with Early Childhood caries was 18.3%. The study also found a statistically significant relation between gingival health and age of the patients with ECC.

BEING PRODUCTIVE IN COMPLETE ISOLATION - A SURVEY

Nandini. P; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr .S . Gheena

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1322-1329

In 2019 -2020 coronavirus is a major public health issue and self-isolation is among the best suggestions to reduce the spread of the virus.COVID-19 is a communicable disease caused by a newly discovered virus named ‘coronavirus’ which is rapidly spreading all around the world. The coronavirus pandemic is being, with physicians seen as the frontline soldiers with the war against the disease. COVID-19 infected people are experiencing mild to moderate respiratory disorder and they are getting recovered without requiring special treatment but for some, it is a fatal outcome. As a mitigatory measure, lockdown is imposed by most of the governments. The main aim of this study is about the public perception of being productive during the lockdown. A self-structured questionnaire was distributed through google forms linked to 100 individuals of the general population of India. The questionnaire was studied carefully and answers were marked by the participants. The results were collected and the data were analysed using SPSS software version 20. The majority of Indian population are aware of COVID -19 and that they know the density of medical support. The overall accept lockdown as a necessary measure. Most of them know about the COVID -19 outbreak associated with the population around the world. 90% of the participants know the outbreak of coronavirus and the advantages of being isolated. The results of this survey concluded that in India people are aware and they know how to be productive during this isolation period. The study shows that being productive can make people do more things and be creative and learn more things.

DEVELOPING A UNIVERSAL VACCINE - TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY AND POPULAR PERCEPTION AMONG MICROBIOLOGIST - A SURVEY

Sutharshan G S; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr.Durairaj Sekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1330-1340

An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. The vaccine is a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against infection, prepared from causative agents of a disease treated to act as an antigen. Every infectious disease has an individual vaccine developed specifically for it. The main aim of the study is to find the perception and feasibility of universal vaccines that can be used against multiple infections, among microbiologists. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 15 questions that was distributed through the google forms. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analyzed by performing the statistical software “SPSS version 20”. The data was represented in the pie chart form. From this study population, the whole of 67% of the participants gave a positive response about the awareness of the universal vaccine and its feasibility . The survey research helps to find the feasibility of developing a universal vaccine. From this study, it is clear that microbiologists have knowledge and awareness about universal vaccines.

PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG ADOLESCENT VISITING DENTAL COLLEGE OVER A PERIOD TWO YEAR

Anjana. G; Dr. Gheena. S; Dr.R. Balakrishna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1341-1345

Dental caries(DC) is one of the most prevalent oral diseases of health concern often affecting adolescents.Dental caries is a biofilm mediated,diet modulated, multifactorial, non communicable,dynamic disease resulting in net mineral loss of hard fissure of the oral cavity. It is determined by biological, physiological, behavioural and environmental factors of an individual. As a consequence a carious lesion is produced. People of all ages are affected by dental caries.Adolescents are individuals between 10-19 years old and proven to have a high caries experience. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of Dental caries among 10-19 years old patients visiting Saveetha Dental college between june 2019-april 2020. A total of 5445 patients data was analysed from their case records and analysed for incidence among gender,correlation with age.It was found that out of 5445 patients,3021 patients(73%) were male and 2412 patients(25%) were female and 2 patients(2%) were transgenders.Patients of the age group of 13-19 years had more incidence and the age group of 14-15 year old had least incidence. Within the limitations of this study it can be concluded that male patients have more DC than female patients among the 10-19 years age group in an outpatient population of a Dental College.

EFFECT OF SMOKING ON GINGIVAL HEALTH - A REVIEW

Reishy V; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayatri Devi R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1346-1352

Smoking is recognised as a risk factor for human health. It is related to many problems like respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, cancer, etc. Smoking is associated with incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It increases the number and depth of periodontal patients. Loss of tissue strength caused due to harmful compounds like tobacco, increase gingival recession and changes to the oral cavity. Prevalence of moderate and severe diseases are higher in smokers than non-smokers. Smoking affects both gingival epithelium and connective tissue. Density of blood vessels is decreased in smokers. Effect of smoking on vascular status is caused by nicotine compounds. This review was done based on the articles obtained from various platforms like PubMed, PubMed central and Google Scholar. They were collected with a restriction in time basis from 2000-2020. The inclusion criteria were original research papers. In vitro, studied among various conditions and articles that contain pros and cons. Exclusion criteria came into account for review articles, retracted articles and articles of other languages. All the articles are selected based on the effect of smoking on gingival health. Thus, smoking results in various oral health problems like incidence of gingivitis, periodontitis, epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. It affects gingival recession and changes to the oral mucosa. This review article gives knowledge about the correlation between smoking and health of gingival treatment with various dental problems.

MAXILLARY AIR SINUS AUGMENTATION

Arun Kishroe RN; Gifrin Jayaraj; Gayatri Devi R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1353-1359

Maxillary sinus augmentation also known as sinus lift technique is done in posterior maxilla when the tooth is extracted. It is done to regenerate the loss of alveolar bone to place dental implants.The aim of the study is to know which is best for maxillary sinus augmentation. The search was done in PubMed, Google scholar for relevant articles. Out of which, a few systematic reviews and original citations are cited in the review. The relevant articles are explained briefly with the findings, pros and cons and the limitation and future scope of the study is also discussed in the article below. It is concluded that the outcome for maxillary sinus augmentation, the best techniques that can be used for this augmentation and the best biocompatible material which can also be used.

WHAT COULD BE THE TAKEAWAY MESSAGE FROM COVID-19 PANDEMIC FOR FUTURE PANDEMICS? - A PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY

Trisha Sasikumar; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1360-1369

CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]. It has caused a lot of deaths worldwide and is growing uncontrollably. Many factors like public co-operation and handling of the government efficiently are responsible for control. AS new norms were formulated and observed, in this current COVID-19 pandemic, This study aims to find the perception of people on the takeaway message from this pandemic to any other upcoming similar scenario. A self administered questionnaire was prepared comprising about 9 questions based on the topic of the survey and circulated to about 100 people through an online google sheets link. The questions were studied carefully and corresponding answers were marked by the participants. The data was collected and statistically analysed. The overall result was positive wherein the public was co-operative about the lockdown and found ways to keep themselves occupied and they believe that the government of India was performing efficiently and that it is well-equipped and can handle any future pandemics. This study helps us understand the public perspective on the current, serious issue going on in the world.

PREVALENCE OF TOOTH FRACTURE AMONG ADULT POPULATION VISITING DENTAL HOSPITAL

B Vivek Babu; Dhanraj M; Samuel Raj Srinivasan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1370-1376

Dental injuries result in functional , esthetic and psychological disturbance accompanied by great concern.Traumatic dental injuries are due to the physical impact on a tooth and its surrounding tissues which may be direct or indirect trauma to the teeth may result either injury of pulp, with or without damage of crown or root displacement of the tooth from the socket. The most frequent causes of these injuries are falls, sport activities, bicycling, traffic accidents. A cross sectional retrospective study of, study population will 100 adult patients visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospital with tooth fracture . Data was gathered and analyzed. The data was tabulated and Chi square analysis done using IBM SPSS software version 20. With the limited population and parameters of this study, there is a more prevalence of tooth fracture in male over females .The most common tooth involved in fracture is 21.Traumatic dental injuries are recognized as a public dental health problem worldwide.

SALIVA AND VIRAL INFECTIONS - A REVIEW

Keerthana B; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1377-1383

Viruses cause familiar infections and diseases like common cold, flu. They invade living, normal cells and use those cells to multiply and produce colonies of cells.Viral infection is a proliferation of harmful viruses inside the body. Viruses infect the host body by introducing their genetic material into the cells. The main aim of this study is to explore detailed information about saliva and viral infections. This research is seen as a scoping literature review. In seeking to identify the relevant articles, we used common databases such as the Pubmed and Google scholar online websites. Totally 27 articles are found related to the topic. 12 articles are used in this study. From the articles collected and reviewed, it is understood that viral infections can transmit through the saliva and oral specimens, though saliva protects the body from infections. It is concluded that, as saliva has become the transmitter of the virus, we should maintain proper oral hygiene and oral health to prevent these viruses. Future studies have to be done on the viral infections causing cancer.

ENAMEL REGENERATION - A REVIEW

Ranjana V; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1384-1394

Outermost covering of the teeth is dental enamel. Enamel is the hardest substance and highly mineralized tissue present in the human body which is almost 96%. It is formed by developing enamel organ epithelial cells called ameloblasts. The protein present in the enamel that helps in the mineralization process is Amelogenin. It is revealed that stem cells can be used for whole tooth regeneration and enamel regeneration but the main problem faced in fabricating cell free synthetic enamel is the formation of the complex interprismatic substance. The main aim of this review was to analyze and review on the various methods of enamel regeneration. This review was done based on the articles obtained from various search engines such as PubMed, PubMed central and Google scholar. They were collected with a restriction in time basis from 1997 - 2020. The inclusion criteria were original research papers, review articles, in vitro studied among various conditions and articles that contain pros and cons. Exclusion criteria came into account for retracted articles and articles of other languages. All the articles were selected based on Enamel Regeneration. The level of evidence of the reviewed articles were categorized as per the criteria of the centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, UK. Enamel is the hardest mineralized tissue, which can withstand masticatory forces and gives protection to underlying dentin and pulp. Enamel cannot be regenerated since the ameloblast which forms the enamel, gets degenerated. Therefore, it should be preserved, as there is no material found to exactly duplicate it.

SALIVA IN DIABETES-A REVIEW

Danisca Uthayasankar; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1395-1403

Saliva is a unique fluid which plays an important role in maintaining the normal oral health of an individual. Diabetes is the major factor that leads to the changes in the salivary pH, salivary flow and dental caries. 32 articles were collected from the pubmed website and were included as citations in our present review. Salivary glucose and blood glucose level are directly proportional to each other. Normal level of salivary glucose is 0.5-1.00 mg/ml. Salivary hypofunction in diabetic individuals is observed. Diabetes leads to the reduction of salivary pPH and salivary flow. It also helps in multiplication of harmful microorganisms in the oral cavity.

AGE ESTIMATION USING CEMENTUM - A REVIEW

Sundar R; Gifrine Jayaraj; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1404-1410

Cementum is a surface layer which is seen below the radicular dentin. It is near to the neck region of the tooth and thick at the root apex. It is formed by the cells known as cementoblast. Cementum helps the tooth to be attached to the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone through the sharpey’s fibre. Cementum helps in the repair and regeneration of damaged teeth. It has a high anti-absorption capacity. Age estimation using cementum technique is reliable to the teeth which is not affected by periodontal disease. Combined method of biological age estimation had high correlation when compared to public symphysis morphology and similar error were found among both the methodsThe literature search on age estimation using cementum as carried out for papers published from google scholar and pubmed with the intention of retrieving all original reports that were relevant to it. This review helps to provide deeper understanding about age estimation using cementum which benefits the dentist and forensic department.

ENAMEL COLOUR IN AGE ESTIMATION - A REVIEW

Pratheebha C; Gifrina Jayaraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1411-1419

Age is an important factor in clinical practice, research, and court of law. One of the interesting applications of forensic odontology is age estimation by means of teeth. Dental development is relatively independent from other systems maturation. Detectable variation in the tempo of tooth mineralization and duration of tooth maturation between children from different geographical regions were reported. Enamel is translucent and varies in color from light yellow to grey white. The color of the teeth has been reported to be affected by chronological age. Enamel color may also depend on environmental factors viz. diet, occupational habits, vitamin deficiencies, fluoride level in drinking water etc. Enamel color was found to be associated with the chronological age . The enamel color was evaluated using a VITA classical shade guide. Identification of individual age with no birth record can be done using enamel color. Further advance in enamel shade for age estimation with increased sample size would enhance the knowledge and improve the accuracy of methods used in the field of forensic odontology.

TOOTH REGENERATION- A REVIEW

Hemaanhini Tamilmani; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1420-1426

Tooth loss is quite common worldwide. For treating a lost tooth, treatments such as dental implants (most common worldwide), fillings (made up of inert dental material), dentures, etc. These techniques can restore all the functions of a normal tooth. But using dental tissues and other dental related materials are still a mystery to the dental world. Pubmed research revealed 117 relevant articles. Out of which a total of ‘33’ systematic reviews and their original citations were included in this review. Tooth regeneration is a very complicated process and needs more depth study on this topic. From many of the researches that were reviewed in this article it was seen that there were many new methods developed but none were approved for applying in real life. Tooth regeneration is a vast topic and requires a lot of knowledge to be understood. This study can be used as reference for future research.

CURRENT TRENDS IN ANTIBIOTIC PRESCRIPTION FOR VARIOUS PERIODONTAL FLAP SURGICAL PROCEDURE - A HOSPITAL BASED ANALYSIS

Niveda Rajeshwaran; GurumoorthyKaarthikeyan .; Priyalochana Gajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1427-1439

The aim of the present study is to assess the current trends in antibiotic prescription for various periodontal flap surgical procedures among periodontists in Chennai. Retrospective data collection was conducted from June 2019 to March 2020 on patients who visited the outpatient department of Periodontics for multitude of flap surgical procedures. The type of flap surgery done and the antibiotic regimen prescribed were recorded. The data was tabulated using excel and SPSS software version 23.0 (Statistical Package For The Social Sciences) was used for descriptive statistics.The distribution of antibiotics after flap surgical procedure among the above mentioned groups were expressed in terms of percentage. Chi square test was done to assess the association between the study variables.Based on this hospital based assessment, it was found that the most commonly prescribed antibiotic was amoxicillin 500mg, followed by a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole for flap surgical procedures like Open flap debridement, Resective osseous surgery and regenerative osseous surgery. The least preferred antibiotics were azithromycin and doxycycline.There was statistically significant association between gender and type of antibiotic given, with a higher percentage of males receiving a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole than females. There was no significant difference between the antibiotics prescribed for patients who underwent Resective or regenerative flap surgery. Thus Amoxicillin is the most preferred, cost-effective and less toxic drug which acts against both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. However care must be taken in administering antibiotics in order to avoid misuse and overuse of antibiotics.

ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL VARIANTS OF LEUKOPLAKIA WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOBACCO - AN INSTITUTION BASED RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Gayathri Karthikeyan; Hannah R; Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1440-1448

The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of leukoplakia in different types of tobacco users. Tobacco utilization in India is increasing but there are considerable changes in the types and methods by which it is used. Oral cancer affects as many as 274,000 people worldwide annually 20. In this study The data collection was carried out during the period between July 2019 to march 2020. After searching through 86,000 patient records the Sample size for the study was taken as 93 patients diagnosed with leukoplakia. The data that was collected was tabulated in excel and then imported into SPSS software. Smoking form of tobacco was found to be used by 72.92% of patients. Smokeless form of tobacco use was noticed among 25% of the patients and a combination of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco used was noticed among 2.083% of the patients . Homogenous types of leukoplakia were found among 76.04% of the patients followed by the non-homogenous form which included about 23.96% of the patients. Males were the most common gender comprising about 96.88% of the patients and females comprised about 3.13% . It was also noted that the most common type of tobacco used was cigarettes. Chi- square test was done to associate the type of tobacco used and clinical variants of leukoplakia, it was not statistical significant (p=0.596). Within the limitations of the present study we were able to conclude that there was no association between the habit of tobacco use and the clinical variant of leukoplakia . Multicentric study with a larger sample size will give a more definitive outcome.

ASSOCIATION OF AGE AND GENDER IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING VENEERS FOR DISCOLORED UPPER ANTERIOR TEETH- A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

Swarna. S. K; Haripriya. S; Subash Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1449-1461

Veneer is a layer of tooth coloured material that is applied to a tooth to restore localized or generalized defect and intrinsic discolorations. The composite veneers are direct tooth colored restorative materials placed over the surface of the tooth. The ceramic veneers are the lab processed or indirect veneers. They have good esthetic value due to translucency and tend to mimic the appearance of natural teeth. This study was done to derive an association between age and gender in patients undergoing veneer treatment for discoloured upper anterior teeth. A total of 168 case sheets of patients with veneer treatment done for upper anterior teeth were reviewed and analyzed. The patients undergoing veneer treatment with direct composites and indirect laminates for discoloured upper anterior teeth were included for the study. The population selected for the study was in the age group of 18-65 years. The most commonly treated upper anterior teeth for veneer treatment was also analyzed. Data was tabulated using excel sheets. The ratio of male and female patients choosing veneer as a treatment option was calculated. The type of veneer most commonly preferred was derived. The association between age and gender in the choice of veneer treatment was statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Out of 168 teeth, 105 (62.5%) were male and 63 (38.1%) female patients. Most of the people of both genders, who have chosen veneer treatment, were in the age group of 18-30 years which was not statistically significant (p>0.05). 145 (86.3%) patients have undergone composite veneer treatment, whereas only 23 (13.9%) patients opted for ceramic veneers. Within the limitations of the study, maxillary central incisors with composite veneers were commonly observed in the age group of 18-30 years. There was significant association between age and veneer treatment and composite veneers was more preferred as a treatment option by patients of both genders.

CASES REQUIRING RETREATMENT DUE TO OVEREXTENDED OBTURATION - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Kalyani . P; Iffat Nasim; M. P. Santhosh Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1462-1473

Root canal treatment is one of the most commonly performed procedures in a dental office. It is aimed at removing the entire pulpal tissue, debris and microbes and creating a three dimensional fluid impervious seal of the root canal. The failure of root canal treatment can occur due to a number of reasons like underfilling, missed canals, overextended obturation, persistent lesion,etc. Overextended obturation irritates the periapical tissues leading to periapical lesion and possible cystic transformation. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and management of cases of retreatment due to overextended obturation. The retrospective study involved analysis of case sheets of all patients undergoing retreatment RCT and data tabulation based on the following parameters: age, gender, tooth number, techniques of gutta percha retrieval, cleaning & shaping and obturation techniques. Using SPSS Version 20.0, categorical variables were expressed as frequency and percentages and significance of associations was tested using a Chi-Square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Incomplete obturation was the most common reason for root canal retreatment (52.5%). The prevalence of overextended obturation as a reason for retreatment was 14.1%. The overall prevalence of retreatment due to overextended obturation was 0.10% among all other dental procedures. H files were highly used for GP retrieval (52.4%). The association between technique of cleaning and shaping & technique of obturation [p=0.021<0.05] was statistically significant. The use of H-files was mostly followed by lateral compaction technique of obturation while the use of rotary files was followed by matched taper single cone obturation. Incomplete obturation is the most common reason for retreatment and overextended obturation is the third most common reason. H-files were the most preferred for GP retrieval in cases of retreatment. The usage of solvent varied significantly based on the method of GP retrieval. The technique of cleaning and shaping determined the technique of obturation.

ASSESSMENT OF PATIENTS REPORTING FOR POST ENDODONTIC RESTORATION AFTER COMPLETION OF ROOT CANAL TREATMENT TO DENTAL HOSPITAL

KrishnaKanth Jaju; Iffat Nasim; J. Mahalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1474-1481

Endodontically treated teeth are more prone to fracture compared to vital teeth.Clinical outcome of endodontically treated teeth is influenced by a variety of factors, tooth position in the arch,number of proximal or occlusal contacts, type of abutment, crown placement, amount of tooth structure loss due to caries,previous restorations or endodontic access, trauma, and periodontal status.Theaim of the present study was to evaluate the number of patients reporting for post endodontic restoration after completion of root canal treatment to dental hospital. This is a retrospective study conducted during June 2020. Included patients who visited a dental hospital in chennai,India from June 2019 - March 2020. Data of patients was collected from case records, tabulated into excel sheets under headings age,gender,teeth no, patients reported back for post endodontic restoration.Then data was analyzed using SPSS software(23.0 version). Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the chi square test. In the present study 66.2% of patients reported for post endodontic restoration, 33.8% of patients did not report back for post endodontic restoration. Failure to report back for post endodontic restoration was less in the present study. Being busy with other activities and long distance were some reasons given by patients who failed to report back for post endodontic restoration.

3D PRINTING - A NEW DIMENSION IN DENTISTRY

Neha N; Dr. Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; Dr. Subhabrata Maiti; Dr.Jessy P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1482-1497

3D printing otherwise known as additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping or layered manufacturing is a relatively new, quickly growing and rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that has got numerous applications in healthcare and also in many other fields. Recently, it has become a subject of great interest in planning surgeries. Additive manufacturing method involves the production of a 3D model by laying down or adding successive layers of material. 3D printers are equipment that produces 3D models using CAD technology or 3D scanners. It has received more importance with the advancement in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as CBCT, intraoral scanning and CAD/CAM in dentistry. Different techniques are employed in 3D printing namely stereolithography, photopolymer jetting, power binder printers, direct light processing, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling, electron beam melting, etc. Dental laboratories are able to produce 3D printed restorations, crowns, bridges, orthodontic appliances, surgical guides and implants quickly with higher precision and accuracy. This is done by methods that combine oral scanning, CAD/CAM designing and 3D printing. The rate of success of 3D printing has improved the quality and accuracy of dental treatment. With the application of 3D printing, it has become possible to replicate the desired complex geometry which was not feasible with conventional techniques. Thus 3D printing has led to a transformation in digital dentistry with its extensive learning and penetrating opportunities and a wide range of applications. The aim of this article was to review the techniques and current applications of 3D printing in dentistry.

PERCEPTION OF DENTAL STUDENTS TOWARDS ONLINE CLASSES

Aditi Chopra; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1506-1519

The pandemic of coronavirus has quickly impacted the entire world, and the government has responded with a lock down. The lock down involves shutting of schools and colleges and a shift from traditional classrooms to online classes and e-learning. This has a lot of benefits such as flexible timings, convenience, no commute et cetera. However, these are contradicted by no practical classes, no personal attention from staff and a strayed student teacher relationship. A questionnaire survey consisting of 12 questions was prepared and circulated through an online survey portal among 100 dental students in India. The questions were prepared to analyse the perception of dental students towards online classes. Online classes have changed the education system for the time being. Students are involved in e-learning through online education portals and online platforms, which helps them to efficiently utilise their time. Despite the advantages that online classrooms have, results show that dental students prefer traditional classrooms over them.

PRION PROTEINS AND DIABETES MELLITUS - A REVIEW

S. Vidyashri; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; MP Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1520-1528

The objective of this article is to provide an overview on the association between Prion proteins and diabetes mellitus which is important so as to understand the aetiology of diabetes mellitus and provide better treatment plans. Prions are misfolded proteins Which have the ability to transmit their misfolded structure to normal variants of the same protein. Prions form abnormal aggregates of protein known as amyloids. Islet amyloid polypeptide, IAPP, is a precursor protein which causes islet amyloid polypeptide amyloidosis, AIAPP, and is said to lead to type two diabetes. Prion aggregates are generally stable and resist proteolysis. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterised by high blood sugar level over a long period of time. It is mainly caused by insulin deficiency or resistance. Prion mediated diseases are generally neurodegenerative disorders such as Kuru, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease etc. There are two isoforms of prions which are PrP and PrPSc. PrPSc is the infective form and is capable of converting PrPC into infective state. In this review, we discuss the association of prion protein with diabetes mellitus, the structure and propagation of Prion proteins and the link between diabetes mellitus and other prion mediated diseases via cross seeding. A review has been done in order to understand and analyse the association between prion protein and diabetes mellitus by retrieving a minimum of 20 articles from various data search engines including pubmed, Google scholar, MESH, core, bioRXiv, Semantic scholar and so on. This review gives a clear understanding of prion proteins, their structure, propagation and disease causing abilities. It is also analyzed that diabetes mellitus could not be just a disease which is caused by insulin deficiency or resistance but could also be the consequence of protein misfolding.

COMPOSITION AND USES OF N95 MASKS -A REVIEW

J. Dhivyadharshini; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; M. P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1529-1540

The key aim of this article is to provide a description of the structure and uses of N95 mask that is necessary to advance Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE) during this COVID19 pandemic. Examples of personal safety gear designed to shield the user from infectious debris and from fluids contaminating the skin include the N95 respirators and medical masks (skin covers). A commercially available N95 respirator needs a suit factor of one hundred within the work-place to be deemed adequate. While we did not subjectively locate the respiration function needed with the prototype masks to vary from that necessary with a standard N95 filtering face device, this mask should not be used by people with respiratory risk of any sort. Although testers wear the masks easily for an hour, at any point in strenuous work or adverse environmental environments we can not think about their usefulness. This review offers detailed knowledge and appreciation of the structure, applications of N95 masks and, in turn, the advantages of N95 masks over other forms of surgical masks. Limitation and prospective range of the research were also addressed, as this subject is necessary to advance PPE in this COVID19 pandemic. This research contributes greatly to learning about the composition and uses of N 95 masks, and also helps to educate and make the general public informed of the critical role of N 95 masks during this pandemic assault.

ROLE OF DIETARY POLYPHENOLS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PEPTIC ULCER

Barani Shankar; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1541-1546

Peptic ulcer disease is a multifactorial and complex disease involving gastric and duodenal ulcers. Despite medical advances, the management of peptic ulcer and its complications remains a challenge. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that, among a broad reach of natural molecules, dietary polyphenols with multiple biological mechanisms of action play a pivotal part in the management of gastric and duodenal ulcers. The current review confirmed that dietary polyphenols possess protective and therapeutic potential in peptic ulcer mediated by: improving cytoprotection, re-epithelialization, neovascularization, and angiogenesis; up-regulating tissue growth factors and prostaglandins; down-regulating anti-angiogenic factors; enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO; suppressing oxidative mucosal damage; amplifying antioxidant performance, antacid, and anti-secretory activity; increasing endogenous mucosal defensive agents; and blocking helicobacter pylori colonization associated gastric morphological changes and gastroduodenal inflammation and ulceration. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity due to down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and cellular and intercellular adhesion agents, suppressing leukocyte-endothelium interaction, inhibiting nuclear signaling pathways of inflammatory process, and modulating intracellular transduction and transcription pathways have key roles in the anti-ulcer action of dietary polyphenols.Polyphenols ubiquitously present in vegetables and fruits are progressively viewed as natural dietary ingredients vital for a balanced diet. Administration of a sufficient amount of dietary polyphenols in the human diet can result in perfect prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer. In conclusion, administration of a significant amount of dietary polyphenols in the human diet or as part of dietary supplementation along with conventional treatment can result in perfect security and treatment of peptic ulcer. Further well-designed preclinical and clinical tests are recommended in order to recognize higher levels of evidence for the confirmation of bioefficacy and safety of dietary polyphenols in the management of peptic ulcer

PREVALENCE OF EROSIVE LICHEN PLANUS : A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

T. Santhosh; Jayanth kumar Vadivel; Sankari malaiappan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1547-1554

Oral Lichen Planus(OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease which has potential to transform into a malignancy mainly into squamous cell carcinoma. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of erosive OLP among all OLP cases in a particular ethinic group of people. Materials and method :Data retrieved was from 86000 case sheets from saveetha dental college. The case sheets showed 94 patients with OLP. Most of the patients were in the age group of 50-60 years with a female predominance. 48 patients were erosive OLP variant. A chi square analysis showed erosive OLP had a tendency to occur more in the buccal mucosa(p<0.05). A chi square analysis to compare gender was not significant(p>0.05) This study shows that there is more prevalence of erosive OLP with a female predominance and affecting the buccal mucoa.

PREVALENCE OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS AMONG OUT PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS REPORTING TO PRIVATE DENTAL COLLEGE, CHENNAI- A HOSPITAL BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Jerusha Santa Packyanathan; Jayashri Prabakar; Ganesh Jeevanandan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1555-1564

Fluoride is a double edged sword. It possesses cariostatic property and can also cause developmental disturbances. Cariostatic effects prevent the carious decay, increasing the mineral solubility and remineralization. But with higher doses it manifests as dental fluorosis. enamel hypo mineralization manifests as mild white lesions, Pitting forming horizontal lines or large pigmented (brown to black) defects. There must be an equilibrium between the caries prevention and fluoride contribution to enamel pathology. The main aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of dental fluorosis and to estimate the severity of fluorosis based on Dean’s fluorosis index. This is a record based study with a sample size of 210, irrespective of the gender. The study was conducted at the institution and the data was collected from the patient records. The data was categorised into age groups, gender and Dean’s fluorosis index. The coding was done in MS excel. The data was transferred to a host computer and processed using SPSS software version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) by tabulation and graphical illustration. Descriptive statistics was used to study the data collected and to analyse frequency distribution. The results showed that prevalence of Dental Fluorosis is highest in the 21- 30 years age group (64%). 70% of the population were males. The severity of the fluorosis was predominantly moderate (33%) among the overall population, 2% of the population had questionable form of fluorosis, 22% reported with very mild forms of fluorosis, 27% had mild forms of the fluorosis and only 16% had severe manifestations of the disease. The prevalence of fluorosis was not associated with the age and gender of the patient (p value>0.05)

CARIES RISK ASSESSMENT USING CARIOGRAM PROFILE AMONG 18-20 YEAR OLD PATIENTS ATTENDING PRIVATE DENTAL COLLEGE, CHENNAI: A HOSPITAL BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Subashri. A; Jayashri Prabakar; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1565-1579

Dental caries are reversible dynamic biochemical events, and remain a public health problem due to its characteristics, cost of treatment and effectiveness of quality of life.Dental caries has a highest and longest association with dental profession. Dental caries do not undergo any termination or diminution if untreated and required expertise and professional treatment. But the risk factors should be studied and modified so that dental caries can be prevented. Despite the fact that various successful treatment goals have been developed the disease is still prevalent. In olden days dental caries detection was considered as a boon.To assess the caries risk of 18 to 20 year old patients using cariogram visiting private dental College in Chennai city. A total of 170 patient records taken who visited college from the period of June 2019 to March 2020. Cariogram images taken and analysed individually. Data were tabulated and statistically analysed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics were expressed by means of frequency and percentage. Chi-square test was used to find the association of cariogram variables with age and gender. Out of 170 samples 32.4% of them were females, 67.6% males. Based on age group 23.5% of them were 18 years, 19 years - 38.8% of age and 37.6% of the population were 20 years of age. The significant association was observed between gender and fluoride, with more usage of fluoride measures by the males when compared to the females.

PREVALENCE OF DEVELOPMENTAL MAXILLARY MIDLINE DIASTEMA IN CHILDREN- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Westeous Dominic Pereira; Jessy P; Surendar S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1580-1586

The midline diastema is a space (or gap) between the maxillary central incisors.Midline diastema in mixed dentition is the so-called “ugly duckling” stage for children. The space can be characteristic of normal growth in primary and mixed dentition. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of developmental maxillary midline diastema in different age groups of children. A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted by collecting the patient records and dental radiographs from June 2019 to march 2020. The maxillary radiographs of children of age group 6-12 years were collected, measured the midline width and statistically analyzed. The results proved that maximum midline diastema width was seen in the age group 6-8years. Within the limitation of the current study, prevalence of maxillary midline diastema decreases with age. Midline diastema is usually a part of normal dental development and hence its presence during the mixed dentition period is not a matter of concern. However, if the diastema is present even after the eruption of lateral incisors and canine, an orthodontic intervention will be necessary.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FIRST DENTAL VISIT AND PAIN IN CHILDREN -A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

SarojiniRamyaPillay .; Jessy P; Remmiya Mary Varghese

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1587-1596

Oral health is a vital part of overall infant health.An early age between 6 months to 12 months dental visit is important in rendering prevention,intervention and parental counselling regarding oral health. Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual potential tissue damage according to internal association for the study of pain. Aim of the study is to assess the association between age of the first dental visit and pain in children. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the patient records from the Department of pedodontic, Saveetha Dental College,visited from February 2019 to February 2020.The children with first dental visit without the past dental history were collected and from which whosoever first visit with chief complaint of pain data were gathered . The collected Data was then subjected to statistical analysis using spss version 20.0.Overall prevalence of chief complaint of pain during first visit was (96.5%). Among first dental visit with pain about 47.2 % was seen in the age of 6-8 years while the least was (14.0%) seen at the age of 11-13 years.The results proved that many parents were unaware about the right age of the child first dental visit.Most of the parents bought their children to the dentist after their child experienced or suffered from pain.There is a need to raise awareness about the importance of oral health care of their children sensitively at the budding stage of life

A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF PREFERRED CHOICE OF TREATMENT FOR GINGIVAL RECESSION COVERAGE

Gaurav Nitin ketkar; Karthickraj S M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1597-1604

Periodontal plastic surgeries have gained popularity in recent years and tremendous advancements and documentations have been published using various allogeneic materials , allogeneic grafts, and guided tissue regeneration. This study aims to find out the frequency of the techniques used for the recession coverage procedure in private dental college, chennai. This was a single university based study where retrospective analysis was carried out using data collected from digital patient data recording software. More inclination for using grafts over flap techniques was found amongst the screened individuals. 81.3% procedures performed in the study population had a preference for autogenic grafting over flap for recession coverage procedure. The percentage of connective tissue graft (CTG) procedures was 54.9%. Within the limits of the study it could be concluded that surgeons had inclinations towards using grafting procedures over flap techniques as the outcomes were predictable in grafting procedures.

AWARENESS ON FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY AMONG DENTAL UNDERGRADUATES

Bipin .; Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha .; Kiran kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1605-1621

Forensic odontology deals with legal investigations in which it primarily involves the identification of the offender by comparing dental records to a bite mark left on the victim. It is especially used for the application of the principal of law and criminal investigation.Aim of the study is to evaluate knowledge and awareness on forensic dentistry. This special brand deals with the dental evidence obtained from the victim. As the field of forensic dentistry focuses on the methods of detection, collection and analysis of bite mark remains is very helpful in crime investigations to analyse the acquired evidence. In the past decades oral pathologists had major responsibilities in developing forensic science. A cross sectional study on undergraduates was carried out using a questionnaire with close ended questions. The survey had 15 questionnaires circulated in Google forms and 100 responses were obtained from the population, representation of data was in pie chart and bar graphs. Majority of the study population answered yes as they feel forensic odontology is very much essential to deal with crime investigation. 62.7% of the study population responded positively where they are able to differentiate the work of forensic anthropologists and a forensic odontologist first. The students' knowledge on forensic odontology and what it deals with, was significant with the year of study where final year students are more aware about forensic odontology. P value = 0.00(<0.05) which is statistically significant. This study concludes that most of the participants have knowledge and awareness on the role of forensic dentistry among dental undergraduates.

AWARENESS ON ROLE OF LASERS IN COSMETIC DENTISTRY AMONG DENTAL UNDERGRADUATES

HemanthRagav N V; KeerthiSasanka. L; Archana Santhanam; Subabratamaiti .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1622-1634

The aim of the study was to evaluate the awareness on the role of Lasers in dentistry among dental undergraduates. LASER- Light Amplification By Stimulated Emission of Radiation. After successful usage of lasers in the medicinal field, it is possible for laser application in dentistry. Lasers play a major role in apicectomy, surgeries, operative dentistry, etc,. Lasers are utilized in all controls of dentistry and the administration of lasers is to delicate hard tissue in regular procedure as an essential instrument. The present study is a cross sectional survey conducted among 100 dental students to analyse their efficacy of online teaching. A self administered questionnaire was prepared with 15 questions and was circulated among dental students through google forms. Survey conducted and 1st year undergraduate students are more aware of laser technologies in dentistry when compared to others. 57% of students reported that they are aware that use of laser technology will reduce the use of anaesthesia. 60% of students reported that they need theoretical and practical laser education. 57% of students reported that they are aware about the role of lasers in pain management. This study concludes that most of the participants have knowledge and awareness of lasers in dentistry.

AWARENESS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF FIXED PROSTHODONTICS AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS

KirthickKumaran. A.S; KeerthiSasanka. L; ArchanaSanthanam .; Kirankumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1635-1646

The aim of this study was to create awareness on fundamntals of fixed prosthodontics among dental students.It is the specialised area of dentistry involving the replacement. Missing teeth of the cast prosthesis is permanently cemented.Complete development of dental process leads to new complete virtual environment without any physical model situation.This study was a cross-sectional survey based study conducted among the dental students on the fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students.In the present study about 56% of the population are aware of the prosthodontics and 44% of the population is not aware of the prosthodontics. Regarding the parts of fixed partial dentures 39% of the population are aware and 61% of the population are not aware of it. This concludes that the knowledge and awareness on the fixed prosthodontics is moderate among the dental students, in which among them the second year undergraduates had a higher knowledge on the fixed prosthodontics.

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS REGARDING RISK FACTORS FOR ORAL CANCER AMONG GAS AGENCY EMPLOYEES IN TIRUPUR

Roshan A; Dr.Keerthi Sasanka; Sridevi. G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1646-1657

Cancer is defined as the uncontrollable growth of cells that invade and cause damage to surrounding tissues. Oral cancer appears to be a growth or a pain in the mouth that doesn't go away. Oral cancer, including lip, tongue, cheek, mouth floor, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx (throat), can be life- threatening if not diagnosed and treated early. Cancer that occurs inside the mouth is sometimes referred to as oral cancer or oral cancer of the cavity. Mortal cancer is one of several types of cancer in a category called head and neck cancers. Mouth cancer and other cancers of the head and neck are often treated in the same way. This study was designed to create and assess awareness on oral cancer among employees of gas agencies in Tiruppur district. A self administered questionnaire prepared and circulated via google form link. The data was manipulated, analysed and tabulated. The obtained data was represented as cumulative percentage in pie charts. Association analysis between age groups of the participants and awareness on oral cancer was done by Pearson Chi square test (SPSS version 22) and the data was depicted in a Bar graph. The results of the study revealed that the participants were aware that smoking, chewing tobacco, and pan leads to increased chance of oral cancer. The present study concludes that the people of Tirupur were aware of the incidence of oral cancer and risk factors associated with it.

AWARENESS ON PROSTHODONTIC REHABILITATION OF CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE PATIENTS AMONG DENTAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN CHENNAI - A SURVEY

Malavika P; Dr. L. keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha S; Dr. Kiran kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1658-1667

Cleft lip or cleft palate are the openings or splits in the upper lip of the roof of the mouth or both. Cleft lip
/ palate affects approximately 1 in 700 live births. Most clefts are likely caused by multiple genetic and non genetic factors. Cleft lip and cleft palate are the most common congenital defects of birth. Cleft lip and cleft palate occurs in the forms of syndromic and non syndromic. Prosthodontic rehabilitation aims at providing a better oral health by aiming to improve functional and esthetic demands. Patients suffering from cleft palate are not seen generally much but their number is not negligible as well. The aim of the present study is to study and analyze the knowledge of prosthodontic rehabilitation of cleft lip and cleft palate patients among undergraduate dental students and to create an awareness on this topic. A questionnaire was created and circulated on an online platform and the responses were collected . The datas were collected and analysed with the help of statistical software SPSS. The data collection software used is google forms . The steps followed in software analysis are data collection, data analysis and data interpretation. The results show that most respondents were aware of prosthodontic rehabilitation of cleft lip and cleft palate patients among dental students. The chi square test shows that most of the female respondents are more aware about prosthodontic rehabilitation of cleft lip and cleft palate patients.

ANALYSIS OF MICROWAVE DEWAXING AND ITS ADVANTAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL AUTOCLAVE DEWAXING - A REVIEW

Jayavabushana V; Keerthi Shashank; Venkatesh .; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1668-1672

Dewaxing is the process of removing wax from the ceramic mould which is covered with wax or melting the wax pattern out of ceramic mould. The heating should be rapid enough to minimise expansion of the wax in order to avert ceramic mould cracking and dimensional alteration. The current survey considers the benefits of helping out Dewaxing through the microwave over customary autoclave strategy for Dewaxing. The Microwave Dewaxing is feasible, fundamentally diminishing the fuse of soil and water, which is inescapable in the Autoclave Dewaxing process. This research is to utilise the advantages of Microwave Dewaxing and to get more knowledge about Microwave Dewaxing, exploring the efficacy of Microwave Dewaxing, and to know the efficiency of Microwave Dewaxing. This is a review study setting, evaluating the advantages of Microwave Dewaxing technique over Conventional Autoclave Method. Data for the study were collected from search engines like PUBMED, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, MeSH, Cochrane and Semantic Scholar. A total number of 35 articles were searched and a total number of 29 articles were selected. A number of articles with known concepts are 7, a total number of 8 articles with recent updates. The data obtained from the present study concludes that it may be useful for practitioners to make high quality dentures with minimal time expenditure when compared to Conventional Autoclave Dewaxing methods. This research will also be helpful to get more knowledge about the advantages of Microwave Dewaxing over Convention Autoclave Dewaxing systems.

PREVENTIVE AWARENESS ABOUT EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA - A DENTAL STUDENTS PERSPECTIVE ON CURRENT STATUS

Sheetal Kumari; Dr. L. Keerthi. Sasanka; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy; Dr. Visalakshi Ramanadhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1673-1682

Influenza is an infectious disease caused by Influenza virus. Symptoms may include- fever, cough, headache, sore throat muscle and body pain and fatigue. These symptoms begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. Old age people and children are at great risk due to this virus. Complications of influenza may include viral Pneumonia , secondary bacterial pneumonia sinus infections and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. Influenza spreads around the world in yearly outbreaks, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 290,000 to 650,000 deaths. Three of the four types of influenza viruses affect humans : Type A, Type B, and Type
C. Type D has not been known to infect humans, but is believed to have the potential to do so. In this present study, data was collected and was verified using a standard software. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS software and representation was done using pie charts and graphs. Data was entered and verified using a standard computer software. Type of analysis used was chi square. It was concluded that a maximum number of awareness was shared about the influenza, its causes, symptoms and risk factors associated with it.

EVALUATION OF ERRORS IN PREPARATION DESIGNS FOR ESTHETIC VENEERS

LasyaGenji .; Dr. KeerthiSasanka. L; Dr. Raghu Sandhya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1683-1690

Esthetic veneers are thin custom made shells that cover the labial part of the anterior teeth. They are also known as dental veneers, porcelain veneers, porcelain laminate veneers. They are used to mask the tooth discoloration, further used to the teeth which are worn out, chipped, broken, uneven or irregular in shaped teeth. For the success of esthetic veneers proper preparation design is needed. The aim of the study was to evaluate errors while preparing designs for esthetic veneers. We reviewed patients records, analysed data of 400 patients between June 2019 to March 2020 and clinical findings were recorded. The data was then tabulated in microsoft excel. Chi square test was used for comparison of groups. Within the limitations of the study, we found that the clinical errors surfaced after evaluation are moderately low. This shows a positive outcome of the esthetic veneer treatment.

PREVALENCE OF TOOTH WEAR AMONG OUT PATIENTS ACCORDING TO TURNER AND MISSIRLIAN CLASSIFICATION - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Gayathri R Menon; Kiran Kumar Pandurangan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1691-1700

Tooth wear is a multifactorial condition which can lead to the loss of dental hard tissue which is enamel and dentin. Attrition is mechanical wear of tooth as a result of function or parafunctional habit caused due to tooth to tooth contact. Attrition on the occlusal surfaces of teeth is happening throughout life which results in esthetic disfigurement, occlusal disharmony, pulpal trauma and impaired function. Premilarily diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures of tooth wear is necessity and an important part of day today practice. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine prevalence of tooth wear based on age and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with age groups of 27-73 years and reviewing the 86,000 patient records between June 2019 to November 2019. A total of 58 patients were evaluated for category, age and gender of tooth wear. The Collected data were recorded by evaluating the clinical photographs and examination. Data were collected and tabulated in the excel sheets which were Imported to the SPSS version 20 for statistical analysis. Out of 58 patients 53.4% were males and 46.6% were females. The prevalence of tooth wear is more among 61-70 years of age with male predilection. The most prevalent type is category 2 followed by category 1 and category 3.

FLAVONOID APPLICATION IN TREATMENT OF ORAL CANCER-A REVIEW

Sudarsan R; Lakshmi T; Anjaneyulu K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1701-1713

A wide range of organic compounds that are naturally occurring called flavonoids are primarily found in a large variety of plants. Some of the sources include tea, wine, fruits, grains, nuts and vegetables. There are a number of studies that have proven that a strong association exists between intake of dietary flavonoid and its effects on mortality in the long run. Flavonoids at non-toxic concentrations are known to demonstrate a wide range of therapeutic biological activities in organisms. The contribution of flavonoids in prevention of cancer is an area of great interest in current research. A variety of studies, including in vitro experiments and human trials and even epidemiological investigations, provide compelling evidence which imply that flavonoids’ effects on cancer in terms of chemoprevention and chemotherapy is significant. As the current treatment methods possess a number of drawbacks, the anticancer potential demonstrated by flavonoids makes them a reliable alternative. Various studies have focussed on flavonoids’ anti-cancer potential and its possible application in the treatment of cancer as a chemopreventive agent. This article summarizes the effects of flavonoids in relation to its anticancer potential and its clinical application in treatment of oral cancer.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS ABOUT NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DENTISTRY

Angel Fastina mary D A; Lakshmi Thangavelu; Leslie Rani. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1714-1723

Nanotechnology is a science involved within the design, synthesis, characterization and applications of materials and their components at nanoscale dimensions. The present study has been done to assess the knowledge and awareness about nanotechnology in dentistry among undergraduate dental students by distributing 12 questionnaires about nanotechnology among undergraduate dental students. The collected data was supported through SPSS software. The questions were based on knowledge necessary for nanotechnology in dentistry. Out of 100 participants' responses, 59% were aware of nanotechnology and only 67% of participants used nanomaterials within the clinical practice and 72% weren't using it. This study revealed that undergraduate dental students have significant knowledge about nanotechnology.

PERCEPTION AMONG GENERAL PUBLIC ABOUT CONSTITUENTS AND USAGE OF SOAPS AND SANITIZERS

Akash .; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1724-1733

Soaps and sanitizers are the materials used for hand sanitation. The perception of the general public regarding the difference between the constituents of soaps and sanitizers has been evaluated in this survey. Soaps are sodium or potassium fatty acids whereas sanitizers are chemically based hand sanitation methods. These alcohol based hand sanitizers work against a wide spread variety of microorganisms but not spores.compounds such as glycerol may be added to prevent drying of the skin. Aloe vera gel has a greater impact on reducing skin dryness problems. This research is a cross-sectional study, clearly scientific investigation which was held in 2020 among the people of chennai to create awareness on the constituents between the soaps and sanitizers. 80% of the people know the constituents of the soap and sanitizers. 39% of the people are aware of the working of the soap. By the survey we can conclude the people are aware of the constituents of soap and sanitizers.

GENDER DIFFERENCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL HABITS- A RETROSPECTIVE CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY.

Rinieshah Nair R Baskran; Mahesh Ramakrishnan; Balaji Ganesh S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1734-1741

Oral habits are a result of frequent repetition of certain definitive sets of nerve impulses. The etiology of the development of oral habits include anatomical, mechanical, pathological, physiological, imitation or just plain behaviour. Commonly occuring oral habits include thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, mouth breathing, bruxism, finger biting, finger nail biting, cheek biting and masochism. Treatment may vary from different oral habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the gender difference in the development of oral habits among patients. Materials and methods: Data collection was done in a university setting.One hundred case records were reviewed from the time period of June 2019 to March 2020. Excel tabulation and SPSS Version 22 was used for data analysis. Results and discussion: There was no statistical significance between the variables that were analysed. (p-value>0.05) Conclusion: This study shows that there is no significant difference between gender and oral habit development.

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT POST ENDODONTIC RESTORATIONS USED IN ENDODONTICALLY TREATED MAXILLARY AND MANDIBULAR MOLARS

Sneha Pai; Manish Ranjan; Adimulapu Hima Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1742-1750

Dental caries and trauma are two main causes for pulpal inflammation or infection for which root canal treatment is carried out. These conditions cause moderate to severe loss of tooth structure which is restored using post endodontic restorations like post and cores. The post provides intracanal retention of the core and crown restoration and distributes functional loading over a large area to achieve favourable stress distribution in endodontically treated teeth. The two commonly used post and core systems for posterior teeth includes prefabricated metal post and custom made post. The aim of this study is to evaluate various post endodontic restorations practiced for maxillary and mandibular molars.
For this study, data of all post endodontically treated maxillary and mandibular molars from June2019 to March2020 was extracted from the patient management software of saveetha dental college,Chennai. The retrieved data was evaluated by 2 reviewers. Parameters like age,gender and tooth number were noted and correlation between these parameters was studied using chi square tests.
The study showed no statistically significant difference in the use of prefabricated metal post and custom made posts in maxillary and mandibular molars[p value > 0.05(chi square test)]
Prefabricated metal posts were seen more commonly placed in the age group of 18-30 years with equal distribution among the two genders while custom made posts were commonly placed in the age group of 31- 40 years and was commonly distributed among females.

RADIOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OSSEOUS CHANGES IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

Abarna jawahar; G.Maragathavalli .; Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1751-1761

Oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) primarily affects the soft tissues,but involvement of jaw bones is seen in about 12–56% of patients.In these cases,radiographic analysis is essential inorder to observe the pattern of bone involvement.A retrospective study was conducted on patients who visited the department of oral medicine from march 2019 to march 2020.The clinical findings,histopathological diagnosis of OSCC patients who showed bone involvement in the digital panoramic radiographs were reviewed from electronic database.Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the radiographic findings.We observed that the majority of patients presenting with oral squamous cell carcinoma involving the jaw bone belonged to the age group 40-50 years with male predilection(76.9%).Mandible was most commonly involved with the right posterior alveolar region being the most commonly affected site.The radiographic changes observed predominantly in the lesions were smooth borders(53.85%) with an altered trabecular pattern (46.15%).The effect of the lesion
on the surrounding structures were spiked root appearance in 84.62% and floating tooth appearance in 69.23% of cases.Presence of saucerization was seen in 76.92%.Hence digital panoramic radiographs are valuable aids in diagnosing the involvement of jaw bones in oral malignancy and thereby help in devising the treatment plan.

TYPES OF OPEN APICES SEEN IN IMMATURE PERMANENT TEETH IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS VISITING DENTAL COLLEGE

AlaguRathiBharathi .; Mebin George Mathew; M. Sivakumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1762-1768

An immature permanent tooth is a newly erupted tooth with incomplete root formation. Once the tooth erupts, it takes upto three years for root completion. Any trauma or pathology to the tooth during this tooth might cause the tooth to lose its vitality. This clinical scenario is a challenge to the clinician as root does not develop further and may fracture. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the types of open apices seen in immature non vital permanent teeth. Data was retrospectively collected from the clinical records of patients who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, from June 2019 to March 2020. 34 patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Data was analysed using chi square test.Results showed that 27 males (79.41%) had open apices compared to females (20.59%). Non blunderbuss(55.28%) canals were more common compared to blunderbuss canals (44.12%). Within the limitations of our study, we conclude that non blunderbuss canals were found to be more common. Male patients had higher prevalence of open apices compared to females.

ANIMALS AS A RESERVOIR OF HUMAN INFECTIONS

Vindhiya varshini; VN.P. Muralidharan; Jayalakshmi , Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1769-1775

Viruses are Submicroscopic infectious agents that replicate and grow only inside the living cells of an organism. These viruses are important especially when they are capable of infecting humans. Such diseases are called zoonoses. Viral zoonoses include Lassa fever, Ebola fever,SARS,Avian flu etc.The aim of this study is to present a short review of recent literature available on animals as reservoirs for human viruses. A detailed study is done by reviewing several articles on animals as reservoirs for human viruses. Thorough search of articles was carried on the databases Pubmed and Google scholar.Viruses continue to be a major threat in both endemic and pandemic forms.Early diagnosis and treatment plan to be implemented, as it continues to be a major health threat and becomes worse day-by-day. Hence Knowledge and awareness needs to be initiated and implemented.

CBCT IMAGING IN ASSESSING IMPACTED THIRD MOLARS COVERING LETTER

Abhinaya LM; Muthukrishnan Arvind; Deepika Rajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1776-1785

Impaction denotes a tooth failing to attain its normal position to reach the occlusal table with third molars impaction being common in the mandible. The conventional radiographic views such as peri-apical, panoramic radiograph are two dimensional representations of three dimensional structure. Absence of information on relation of vital anatomical structures to impacted teeth, bone quality is a drawback for the operating surgeon which could lead to pre or post operative complications. CBCT imaging fills the lacunae of two dimensional imaging and holds a key role in impaction assessment.A retrospective analysis of 45 patients who underwent CBCT imaging prior to extraction of impacted third molars were included in the study and the data was analysed using SPSS.Among the 45 patients, 20 were males (44.4%) and 25 were females (55.5%) and the age group commonly affected with impaction was between 25-30 years (35.5%).The frequency of impacted third molars was more in mandible (80.0%) compared to maxilla (20%).There was significant correlation between nerve involvement and angulation of impacted third molars.CBCT imaging modality provides a three dimensional view to help in better treatment planning, anticipating possible complications post surgery. CBCT must be recommended as the only imaging modality in impaction assessment.

PHOTOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF CEPHALOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS IN SKELETAL CLASS I SUBJECTS : A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Reshma Mohan; Navaneethan R; Nivethigaa Balakrishnan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1786-1796

Photographic evaluation is a very close representation of the appearance of the person, especially in Orthodontics. With the advent of cephalometrics, the emphasis shifted to the assessment of bony foundation of the face and positions of teeth. However, it was soon realized that the correction of hard tissues to the normal values need not always bring about an improvement in the facial appearance. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between craniofacial measurements obtained from cephalometric radiographs and analogous measurements from profile photographs in skeletal class I subjects. Lateral cephalograms and standardized facial profile photographs were obtained from a sample of 35 skeletal class I subjects. Angular and linear measurements were done using FACAD Software at Saveetha Dental College , Chennai. Statistical tests were done using SPSS Software. The statistical tests done were Pearson’s correlation test and linear regression . On comparing the angular and linear cephalometric and photographic measurements, significantly high correlation was found. The study was found to be statistically significant with P value <0.001. The FMA value showed the highest correlation. The photographic method of measuring cephalometric values has been found to be a highly significant and reliable tool, provided standardized protocol is followed. Hence, it may be considered a feasible and practical diagnostic alternative , particularly if there is a need for a low-cost and non-invasive method.

LOCAL ANAESTHETIC ADMINISTRATION DEPENDING ON TOOTH VITALITY DURING CROWN PREPARATION - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Harini Kumaran; Nivedhitha M .S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1797-1807

Local anaesthesia has been widely used in the medical and dental field. It produces anaesthesia by inhibiting excitation of nerve endings or by blocking conduction in peripheral nerves. During single crown preparation, dentists use anaesthesia even for root canal treated teeth during cord packing for gingival retraction to achieve haemostasis and to minimize pain. 356 patients who had undergone treatment for single crown preparation were selected and their treatment details like vitality of tooth, type of LA agent used, site of administration were reviewed. Details were tabulated in the Excel sheet and SPSS importing was done. Chi square tests were done between age, gender, type of arch and vitality of tooth with local anaesthetic agent used and the site of local anaesthetic administration. 1:2,00,000 epi+lidocaine was the most administered LA agent in both vital and non vital teeth. Commonly used site was buccal vestibule. This study concluded that buccal vestibule was the most common site of LA administration in both vital and non vital teeth and there was no statistical significance in the local anaesthetic agent used or site of administration in different age groups or gender or type of arch(p>0.05).

HABIT BREAKING APPLIANCES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PARAFUNCTIONAL ORAL HABITS

Harini Kumaran; Nivethigaa B; Nivedhitha M.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1808-1813

Oral habits such as finger and thumb sucking, lip sucking, mouth breathing when used excessively or continuously can lead to poor dental health or malocclusion.The use of habit breaking appliances will restrict oral habits and prevent malocclusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, gender and age distribution of usage of habit breaking appliances in the management of parafunctional oral habits. 44,100 patient records were reviewed from June 2019 to March 2020. Patients who had undergone treatment with habit breaking appliances were selected and their treatment details were obtained from the patient records to obtain the prevalence. Details on habits and habit breaking appliances were also noted and tabulated in excel and imported to SPSS. Descriptive statistics and chi square test were done. There was a statistical significance between age and habits breaking appliances (p<0.05). No statistical significance was noted between gender and appliance usage. Treatment with habit breaking appliances was more prevalent in males. Thumb sucking was the most prevalent habit among the studied population and tongue crib was the preferred choice of appliance.

ASSOCIATION OF SUPRAERUPTION AND ABSENCE OF OPPOSING DENTITION

Reshma Thirunavakarasu1; Nivethigaa B; Balaji Ganesh S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1814-1819

Supraeruption can be defined as a phenomenon whereby the crown of the tooth erupts beyond the occlusal plane. Occlusal plane disruption can result in improper distribution of occlusal force resulting in trauma from occlusion. Supraeruption of teeth with opposing missing teeth will lead to migration of the gingival margin and increase in the crown height. The aim of this study was to determine the association of supraeruption with relation to opposing missing teeth. A retrospective study was done in an institutional setting to study the association of supraeruption and opposing missing dentition. Among patients who have visited the dental facility, the records of the patients were obtained from a given time period of June 2019 to April 2020. The patients case sheets were analysed using parameters which are supraerupted teeth (upper posteriors & lower posteriors), opposing missing (upper posterior, lower posterior, & NIL) and gender. The data was sorted and was tabulated in excel. Analysis of data was done in SPSS software. The association of supraerupted teeth and its correlation to opposing missing teeth was evaluated. Total of 153 supraerupted teeth were noted. It was found most of the supraerupted upper posteriors had missing lower posteriors (81.05%) whereas some had no missing opposing teeth (12.42%). In all supra erupted lower posteriors, the upper posteriors were missing (6.54%). .Significant association between supraeruption and opposing missing teeth.

ASSOCIATION OF PERIODONTAL HEALTH AND ANGLE’S MALOCCLUSION- AN INSTITUTIONAL BASED STUDY

Thanish Ahamed. S; Nivethigaa B; Mebin George Mathew

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1820-1826

Of the several pathologies that affect the oral cavity, malocclusion is the third most important problem in the world population. It not only affects the appearance but also affects the periodontal health. The aim of the study was to assess the association between periodontal health and different angle’s malocclusion. This retrospective study was conducted among outpatients reported to Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019 to March 2020. The study consisted of 300 patients (50 patients in each group). Patients were segregated into six groups based on Angle’s classification (Group 1: Class I; Group 2: Class II division 1; Group 3: Class II division 2; Group 4: Class II subdivision; Group 5: Class III; Group 6: Class III subdivision). The type of molar relationship was then correlated with the periodontal status. Out of 300 patients, the prevalence of gingivitis (92%) was higher among Class II subdivision patients and the prevalence of periodontitis (22%) was higher among Class II division patients. Also, the correlation between different types of malocclusion and periodontal health was assessed and found to be statistically not significant (p=0.306).

DENTAL FLUOROSIS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING A DENTAL HOSPITAL IN CHENNAI.

Umayal. S; Pradeep Kumar; R Smiline Girija. A.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1827-1833

Dental fluorosis is a sign of prolonged high fluoride exposure. The aim of the study is to assess the severity of dental fluorosis among the patients visiting a Dental College in Chennai, Tamilnadu. A retrospective institution based study was conducted by evaluating and analysing 291 patient case records visiting a dental hospital from December(2019) to March(2020) who had signs of dental fluorosis. Data such as age, gender, type of dental fluorosis were documented from the online database of saveetha dental college - DIAS Dental Information Archiving Software. Ethical approval was obtained by the institutional ethical board at Saveetha University. The data was examined by two examiners. The data collected was reviewed and subjected to statistical analysis using IBM SPSS software version 20.0. The present study shows Females and middle aged patients with dental fluorosis visit dental hospitals more frequently.

HUMAN DENTAL PULP STEM CELLS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN DENTISTRY- A REVIEW

Mohamed Thameemul Ansari.K. A; Raghu Nandakumar; A.K. Anjali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1834-1838

Stem cells are special human cells that can develop into any cell type of the organism if it's induced and have the ability to renew themselves under suitable conditions. Applications of stem cells exist in manyfields. A Review study is conducted to analyze and investigate dental Pulp stem cells and its application. Human pluripotent stem cells (either human embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells) can differentiate into every cell type of the human body with infinite self-rentention capacity. Hence, pluripotent stem cells are an ideal source to generate specialized cell types for cell replacement therapy, e.g. beta cells for diabetics Nevertheless, due to a large number of differentiation steps, current protocols for in vitro cell differentiation are rather complex.. To regulate the cell growth and differentiation, almost 20 signaling proteins and small molecules last for more than four weeks. Not all cells differentiate into the targeted cells but take incorrect differentiation paths during this multistep process.. This can lead to a highly heterogeneous cell population with beta cells that are not fully functional. This paper reviews the recent studies and researches about dental pulp stem cells and their applications in the field of dentistry.

USES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR ANTI- INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY - A REVIEW

FarhatYaasmeenSadiqueBasha .; Rajeshkumar. S; SS Raj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1839-1843

Inflammation is a natural immune process caused by physiological disturbance in the body. The characteristic signs of inflammation are redness, heat, swelling, pain and loss of function. This whole process is a protection mechanism produced by the body following any injury.
But sometimes this also ends up harming the body. For such times drugs are needed to suppress this condition, they are called anti inflammatory drugs. NSAIDs are the widely used drugs of choice. Examples are aspirin, diclofenac, mefenamic acid etc. But the prolonged use of these drugs is also known to produce side effects. Many plants are said to contain phytoconstituents that possess anti inflammatory activity. Since plants are natural, easily available and produce little to no side effects, they are believed to be a safer source of cures or drugs.
The aim of this review is to determine the state of knowledge on medicinal plants and their antiinflammatory activity. This review discusses how plants may be used in medicine for their anti inflammatory activity.

PREVALENCE OF TIME DURATION FOR ESTHETIC ZONE REPLACEMENT AFTER EXTRACTION.

Kalaivani Natarajan; Dr. Rakshagan V; Dr. Mahesh Ramakrishnan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1844-1850

An implant supported crown or a conventional fpd is the most common treatment for the replacement of maxillary anterior teeth. The maxillary anterior region claims both esthetic and functional rehabilitation. The important factors involved in the replacement are - bone in the edentulous area, occlusal function, systemic conditions, socioeconomic status and willingness of the patients.The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of tme duration for esthetic zone replacement after extraction. The study was conducted as a retrospective university-based study. Data of patients who underwent fpd treatment in maxillary anterior region was collected and analysed using SPSS software and the results were obtained. Chi square test was used to find the association between groups.The frequency rate of replacement of maxillary anterior was highest in the age group between 26 - 45 years (63.4 %). The frequency of replacement was higher in males (59.7 %) than in females. Most of the replacements were done at 2 months time interval. However, no statistically significant association was found between the groups.

MANDIBULAR ARCH FORMS IN CLASS II DIVISION 1 MALOCCLUSION

Anubhav Das; Ravindra Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1851-1857

The dental arch form is defined as the shape formed by the configuration of the bony ridge of the jaw. Arch form dimension and variations have been studied by several authors. Consideration of the arch form is of utmost importance, because it is crucial that the arch form should be examined before starting upon the treatment as this gives valuable information about the position into which teeth can be moved if they are to be stable following treatment. Different methods have been developed to describe the dental arch morphology ranging from simple classification of arch shape through combinations of linear dimensions to complex mathematical equations.This study is a cross sectional retrospective study which has been undertaken in a university setting. Case records of 300 class II division 1 malocclusion patients in the age group of 12- 40years were included for the study and an analysis was done on different dental arch forms prevalent in class II division 1 malocclusion. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed for association of arch form with gender, age group of the included records in SPSS software by IBM. Chi- square test was performed,frequency distribution was performed. No significant statistical association between gender and arch form , age group and arch form in class II div 1 malocclusion was seen.

PREVALENCE OF POSTERIOR CROSSBITES IN SUBJECTS WITH CLASS II MALOCCLUSION

Baala vignesh .A; Ravindra Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1858-1863

Crossbite is the discrepancy in buccolingual relationship between the upper and lower teeth involving skeletal or dental components. Cross bites can be anterior or Posterior and skeletal or dental and unilaterally present or bilaterally present. Posterior crossbites as and when identified should be corrected since they are known to cause growth impairment. This study was done to report the prevalence of posterior crossbites and gender association in class II malocclusions. This retrospective study was done on case records of the patients who had reported to the orthodontic department, saveetha dental college, in the past 8 months. 1016 class II malocclusion case records in the age range 12-40 yrs were selected for the study, presence of posterior crossbites was evaluated in them and the frequency of crossbites was tabulated and statistical analysis was done in SPSS.The study showed that the overall prevalence of posterior crossbite in class II malocclusions was 3.8 %. single tooth crossbites(73.7%) were more common than multiple teeth crossbite(26.3%). No gender association for posterior crossbites was noted. In conclusion the present study reports a prevalence of 3.8% for posterior crossbites in class II malocclusion and there was no significant gender association.

ASSESSMENT OF SEVERITY OF MANDIBULAR INCISOR CROWDING AMONG LATE MIXED DENTITION SUBJECTS

Nurul Afiqah Amani Binti Zaaba; Ravindra Kumar Jain; K. K. Shantha Sundari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1864-1872

Dental crowding is defined as a disparity in the relationship between tooth size and jaw size that results in imbrications and rotation of teeth. The causes of mandibular anterior crowding are multifactorial in nature. There are various associated factors that can cause mandibular incisor crowding, mainly mandibular growth, early loss of deciduous molars, incisor and molar inclination along with musculature of oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of dental arch crowding among late mixed dentition patients in the subjects visiting a university hospital. About 134 cases were reviewed, which consisted of 60 female patients and 74 male patients. They were divided into two age groups which were, 9-10 years and 11-13 years. For each patient, their dental status and photographs were reviewed and cross verified by two examiners. The severity of mandibular incisor crowding was classified based on the number of teeth involved through observations of photographs of the lower arch. Then, the collected data were recorded in and tabulated. Based upon the severity of mandibular incisor crowding, mild stage (43.37%) of crowding of mandibular incisor was the most prevalent, followed by moderate (28.44%) and severe (28.44%). The results from this study showed male patients (55.2%) had more prevalence towards mandibular incisor crowding in comparison to female patients (44.8%). There was a non statistically significant correlation of severity of crowding with gender (chi square test, p =0.069) and age group (chi square test, p =0.756). The age group of 11-13 years old ( 58.2%) was more affected than the age group of 9-10 years (41.8%). Within the limits of study, mild crowding of mandibular incisors was most prevalent, followed by moderate and severe. The present study also showed male patients had more prevalence towards mandibular incisor crowding in comparison to female patients. The age group of 11- 13 years old was more affected than the age group of 9-10 years.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SOFT- TISSUE CHIN COMPENSATION IN SKELETAL CLASS I AND CLASS III MALOCCLUSION

Akriti Tiwari; Ravindra Kumar Jain; Remmiya Mary Varghese

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1873-1878

Soft tissue analysis is integral for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Both hard and soft tissues must be considered for harmonious facial esthetics and optimal occlusion. As there has been the latest paradigm shift from hard tissue to soft tissue and how it is affected in treatment. Visualizing only the hard tissues alone, i.e., the teeth and jaws in terms of discrepancy posed a problem which could be easily tackled in a direct manner to achieve ideal values. But soft tissue drape compounded the problem. This is due to the variability in soft tissue thickness covering the teeth and bone. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare soft tissue thickness in skeletal class I and class III pattern Materials and methodology-This was a retrospective study based on a university-setting wherein the lateral cephalograms of the patients who had visited saveetha dental college and hospital were retrieved. The total sample consisted of 20 lateral cephalograms. Independent t-test was carried out to evaluate soft-tissue chin thickness difference between skeletal class I and class III. Chi-square test was done to evaluate gender association. The significance level for the p-value was set at 0.05. Independent T-test reported that there was a statistically significant soft-tissue chin thickness observed between skeletal class I and class III (p=0.02, p<0.05). Chi-square test indicated that there was a statistically significant association observed in gender (p=0.012, p<0.05) Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that there was a significant soft-tissue chin thickness observed between skeletal class I and class III. There was a statistically significant association of soft tissue chin thickness at Pog in both males and females.

A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS ASSESSING THE FREQUENCY OF ADOLESCENTS WITH PARTIALLY EDENTULOUS ARCH WILLING TO TO UNDERGO ORTHODONTIC CORRECTION BEFORE PROSTHETIC REPLACEMENT

Faazila Fathima; Remmiya Mary Varghese; Dr.Senthil Murugan P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1879-1886

Orthodontic tooth movement prior to prosthetic treatment is necessary for some patients, in order to optimize both esthetic and functional aspects of dental treatment.A patient may require prosthetic orthodontic interdisciplinary treatment when he/she has missing teeth.Orthodontic treatment will help in correcting the tooth alignment such that sufficient space is available for replacement.However,even though various options are available for treatment of missing teeth, patients preference is of utmost importance. The aim of the study is to assess the frequency of adolescents with missing teeth willing to undergo orthodontic correction before prosthetic replacement.It is a university setting study. 322 adolescent patients reporting to the orthodontic department in Saveetha dental college were included in the study. These patients were assessed for missing teeth and their willingness to undergo orthodontic correction. The data was entered in SPSS and analyzed using Chi square test. From the results, it was observed that the majority (54%) of the adolescents with missing teeth were not willing to undergo orthodontic correction before prosthetic replacement. Individuals in the age group of 16 to 20 years (65% ) showed more willingness for orthodontic treatment. Also, 58% of the females in the study population were willing for orthodontic correction while only 39% of the males preferred orthodontic correction.Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the majority of the adolescents with missing teeth were not willing for orthodontic correction before prosthetic replacement.This may be due to increased treatment time required and lack of awareness on the effectiveness of interdisciplinary treatment approach.

EVALUATION OF SITE PREDILECTION FOR SOCKET PRESERVATION

Nur Liyana Hannah Binti Izham Akmal; Revathi Duraisamy M.D.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1887-1894

Changes in alveolar ridge in terms of volume, height and morphological features tend to be clinically significant and may result in difficulty for the placement of a conventional bridge or an implant-supported crown. Bone deformities or resorption from tooth removal can be prevented by a procedure called socket preservation. Studies have discussed the rationale of performing socket preservation as a therapeutic procedure following tooth extraction which includes the procedure done during or after the removal of tooth in order to reduce the risk of external ridge resorption and increase the formation of bone with the socket. This study aims to evaluate the site predilection for socket preservation in maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth following extraction. It is a retrospective study conducted by reviewing 86,000 patient case records of the Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. A total of 25 consecutive case records of patients for a period of October 2019 to March 2020 with signed informed consent were selected from the Departments of Prosthodontics and Implantology based on the inclusion criteria of patients who have undergone socket preservation procedure indicated for implant placement. Information such as patient’s name, patient’s identification number (PID), age, gender and area of socket preservation were retrieved from the patients’ case records. Datas were entered in Excel and analyzed using SPSS software version 23.0. Descriptive analysis was done for the assessment of age, gender and area of socket preservation. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the association of socket preservation with age and gender. Significant level test was set at less than or equal to 0.05 (p≤0.05). In this study, higher prevalence of socket preservation was seen in the upper anterior region (60%) than the other sites. Most cases of socket preservation were seen in males (80%) as compared to females (20%). Socket preservation was done mainly in individuals within the 21-30 years age group.Within the limits of the study, socket preservation is done mainly in individuals within the 21-30 years age group with higher predilection in males compared to females. Most of the socket preservation procedures are done in the upper anterior region, followed by upper posterior, both upper anterior and posterior and lower posterior. However, there is no significant association between the area of socket preservation with age and gender.

ASSOCIATION OF PATIENT’S EDUCATIONAL STATUS AND SUCCESS RATE OF COMPLETE DENTURES AMONG FEMALES

Ilankizhai RJ; Revathi Duraisamy; Madhu laxmi M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1895-1906

Complete denture helps in replacement of missing dentures. The success and satisfaction of the complete denture is based on numerous factors like speech, fit, aesthetics, psychological factors and also educational status of the patient.The aim of the study was to determine association of patients educational status and the success rate of complete dentures delivered in Saveetha dental college among females.A retrospective study was done using the 86,000 case records of patients visiting University hospital from June 2019 - December 2019. Out of the total data 60 case sheets of female patients who have received complete denture were retrieved and analysed. The patients were then called by phone and asked to fill the questionnaire. Outcomes from the survey were correlated with the educational status of the patients using pearson's chi square test.Out of the 60 patients, 56% of the patients were satisfied with the fit of the denture, 61% satisfied with the facial appearance and 90% were satisfied with the size and shape of teeth and gums and 49% were not satisfied with chewing capabilities. Patients who were more educated were very particular about aesthetics and mostly not satisfied. However generally satisfaction increased with literacy rates and educated patients were more satisfied with the speech factor.Patients who were educated had better satisfaction with speech with their dentures as compared to uneducated patients.Patients who were educated were found to be less satisfied with the aesthetics of the denture than uneducated patients.

ASSESSMENT OF FMR PATIENTS BASED ON TURNER AND MISSIRLIAN CLASSIFICATION- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Amit Kumar Singh; Revathi Duraisamy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1907-1915

The objective of full mouth rehabilitation is not only the reconstruction and restoration but also to maintain the health of the entire stomatognathic system. Full mouth Rehabilitation can be defined as the reestablished state of functional and as well as biological efficiency where teeth with their periodontal structure, the muscle of mastication and the TMJ mechanism all function together and in synchronous harmony. Tooth material loss (wear) occurs as a natural process during the lifetime. In some cases tooth wear is severe and there will be a decrease in the vertical dimension. Hence it is mandatory to evaluate the vertical dimension before further treatment planning. So this present study aims to assess the patients requiring Full mouth Rehabilitation based on Turner and Missilarian classification. patient records were analyzed with the data of 86000 patients between June 2019 and March 2020 from this a sample size of 65 patients were selected for the study. Data tabulated with parameters such as age, name, gender, classification of Turner, and Missilarian classification and their categories. Data import to SPSS for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics having a frequency, percentage, and chi square test done for association.Male is found to be slightly more prevalent than females. The most common age group affected were above 50 years of age group with categories-2 was more frequently seen. Chi-square test showed no Statistical significance between age/gender with the diagnosis of Turner and Missilarian categories since p value>0.005. Turner and Missilarian classification category 2 was found to be more in males above 50 years of age group. This study needs further extensive research with a large sample size in the future.

COMPARISON OF BONE LEVELS BETWEEN DENTATE AND EDENTATE REGIONS IN MANDIBLE - A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Sanjana Devi; Revathi Duraisamy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1916-1925

The human body is constantly changing. Scientific evidence shows that alveolar bone undergoes changes after extraction. These changes continue as time of edentulousness progresses. These changes continue occurring even after prosthesis is inserted.Different methods for the assessment of alveolar bone height have been commonly used in practice out of which the panoramic radiograph is excellent for visualization of general structures of the face. The aim of this study is to compare the bone levels in dentate and edentate areas of the mandible with orthopantogram. A retrospective study done in the Department of Prosthodontics, Saveetha Dental College. Data was collected from a total of 86000 patients who visited Saveetha dental college between Jun,2019 to March,2020. Out of this, OPG of 40 patients in the age group of 35-50 years and who fell in Kennedy's Class 1 classification of mandible were retrieved for the study. The OPG was analysed in ImageJ software. The bone height was measured from the inferior border of the mandible and the crest of the ridge in edentulous areas; the inferior border of the mandible and the alveolar crest in the dentulous areas. The height was obtained in pixels from the software which was later converted into distance in millimeter (mm). The data obtained was tabulated in SPSS for windows, version 20. Paired t-test was done to determine difference in the bone levels of dentate and edentate regions.The paired samples t-test revealed statistically significant difference between dentate and edentate regions in both males (P=0.000) and females (P=0.000). The correlation between dentate and edentate regions for males and females was also statistically significant with P=0.011 and P=0.000 respectively. Pearson correlation was done between gender and difference in bone levels in dentate and edentate regions was not statistically significant with P=0.342. However, Pearson correlation was done between age and difference in bone levels in dentate and edentate regions was statistically significant with P=0.031. The present study was conducted to understand the correlation between bone levels in the dentate and edentate areas of patients with Kennedy's class 1 mandible. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there is significant difference in the bone levels of dentate and edentate areas in both male and female patients.

THE USE OF PIT AND FISSURE SEALANT AMONG ADULT POPULATION - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

B. John Rozar Raj; Samuel Raj Srinivasan; Niveditha. M.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1926-1932

The term pit and fissure sealant describes the material that is introduced into the occlusal pits and fissure of teeth, thus forming a protective barrier and prevents the development of caries. The aim of the study was to assess the use of pit and fissure sealants in the adult population. This was a retrospective study and records were assessed from patients visiting dental college from June 2019 to March 2020. Data of pit and fissure sealants performed on patients above the age of 18 years was collected. Excel tabulation was done. SPSS was used to analyze the data and summarize the results. In this present study, pit and fissure sealants were used in 4379 adult patients. Pit and fissure sealant was used more between the age group of 18 to 30 years and most commonly in maxillary first molar. Pit and fissure sealant was used more in maxillary arches with the percentage of 55.2%. Distribution of pit and fissure sealant was used more in male patients with a percentage of 55.2%. From the present study, we can conclude that pit and fissure sealant were used more between the age group of 18 to 20 years. And sealant application was more predominant on maxillary first molar compared to other teeth

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HAEMOGLOBIN LEVEL AND SEVERITY OF PERIODONTITIS - AN INSTITUTION BASED STUDY

Subasree .Soundarajan; Sankari Malaippan; Priyalochana Gajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1933-1942

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between haemoglobin level & severity of chronic periodontitis. This retrospective study was carried out by analysing the patient records from June 2019 to March 2020 at Saveetha Institute of Medical & Technical sciences (SIMATS).Two forty four patients were included in the study. Parameters assessed were a)Demographic details – Patient name, Patient identity number, Age & Sex; b)Periodontal parameters – Probing pocket depth (PDD), Loss of attachment (LOA), Bleeding on probing (BOP), Severity of Periodontitis (mild, moderate & severe);c) Blood parameters - Haemoglobin levels (g/dl). Data was analysed using SPSS version 23.0. Bivariate Pearson correlation of Haemoglobin with mean PPD, mean LOA & mean BOP score were calculated. Mean Hb was compared with severity of periodontitis using ANOVA. A total of 244 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the study sample was 40.42 (±11.38). Females constituted about 58.06%, whereas males constituted 41.4% of the study sample. Majority of the population had severe periodontitis (64.76%), followed by mild periodontitis (18.03%) & moderate periodontitis (17.21%). The mean haemoglobin level in severe periodontitis (13.35g/dl) is higher when compared to moderate and mild periodontitis (13.30g/dl & 13.18g/dl respectively). Mean PPD was 5.24 mm, mean LOA was 4.6 mm & mean BOP score was 0.98. Association between mean CAL and mean haemoglobin levels was positive and statistically significant with a p value of 0.012. Mean Hb level was not significantly different with varying severity of periodontitis

PREVALENCE OF IMPACTED TEETH AMONG DENTAL PATIENTS - AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY

Nurul Husniyah binti Che Soh; Santhosh Kumar M P; Arthi B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1943-1951

Dental impaction is a common problem presented by patients when seeking dental treatment. It can be described as a tooth that fails to erupt into the dental arch within an expected period of time, either partially or completely impacted. The reasons for impaction can be due to inadequate arch length and space available for eruption, excessive soft tissues or genetic abnormality. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of impacted teeth among dental patients. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the patient records from a dental hospital from June 2019 until March 2020. Data regarding patients having impacted teeth were retrieved after analyzing 86000 case sheets. Radiographs and intraoral photographs were used to assess the patterns of impacted teeth. 785 patients diagnosed with impacted teeth were selected and evaluated for its prevalence based on age and gender. Excel tabulation and SPSS version 23 was used for data analysis. The statistical tests used for the demographics was frequency, percentage and for tests of association between categorical variables was Chi-square test. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Impacted teeth were predominantly present in males (57.5%) than in females (42.6%) among the dental patients. Mandibular left third molars showed the highest frequency of occurrence (45.7%) followed by mandibular right third molars (39.2%). Impacted teeth were predominantly present in the age group of 21-30 years (54.14%) followed by the age group of 31-40 years (23.69%) among the dental patients. Association between age and impacted third molars was statistically significant. [p value=0.003(<0.05)]. However the association between gender and impacted third molars was statistically not significant. [p value=0.136(>0.05)]. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that impacted teeth among dental patients were predominantly seen in the age group of 21-30 years with male predilection. Prevalence of mandibular third molar impactions was high with the left mandibular third molar being the most common impacted tooth in our study population.

PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS FOR DENTAL CARIES IN SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH MALOCCLUSION

Nur Liyana Hannah Binti Izham Akmal; Ravindra Kumar Jain M.D.S .; Revathi Duraisamy M.D.S .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1952-1963

Malocclusion is one of the common dental problems reported in children that refers to the malalignment of the teeth or improper relationship of the dental arches due to altered developmental systems of the orofacial complex. Several studies have reported on the relationship between malocclusion and dental caries in which the presence of malocclusion such as crowding and spacing may act as predisposing factors in the development of dental caries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries among 12-16 years old school children with malocclusion. It is a retrospective study conducted by reviewing 86,000 patient case records of the Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. A total of 313 consecutive case records of patients for a period of June 2019 to March 2020 with signed informed consent were retrieved and analysed. Patient’s name, patient’s identification number (PID), age, gender, malocclusion and dmft score were collected from the patients’ case records. Data collection and analysis were done using the SPSS version 23.0. Descriptive analysis was done for the assessment of age, gender, malocclusion and dental caries. Chi square test was used to evaluate the association of dmft score with malocclusion. A total of 134 children with malocclusion were affected by dental caries (42.81%). The overall dmft score was 1.5. Most of the children present with dental caries were within the 12-14 years age group (60.45%), followed by those within the 15-16 years age group (39.55%). High prevalence of dental caries was seen in males (52.24%) as compared to females (47.76%). Most of the children had Class I malocclusion (70.93%), followed by Class II malocclusion (29.07%). In terms of crowding, mandibular crowding (57.19%) was more common among the children when compared to maxillary crowding (38.98%). There is a statistically significant association between maxillary crowding and dental caries. No association of dental caries with mandibular crowding and dental malocclusion. Within the limits of the present study, dental caries is seen in 134 of the patients with an average dmft score of 1.5. There is a positive association between maxillary crowding and dental caries but no significant association of dental caries with dental malocclusion and mandibular crowding.

PREVALENCE OF MAXILLARY CANINE IMPACTION AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN CLASS I AND AND CLASS II MALOCCLUSION- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Shalini Sathiyamoorthy; Ravindra Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1964-1969

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction in Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Impacted teeth are defined as teeth that remain incompletely or completely embedded in the jaw bone or mucosa. The maxillary canine is one of the most important teeth in terms of aesthetic and function. The maxillary canine impaction is more frequent then mandibular canine impaction. After the third molars the maxillary canine are the second most frequently Impacted teeth.This retrospective study was conducted in a university setting. Data was collected from the patients who visited Saveetha Dental College between June 2019 and March 2020. Among 980 patients who had reported for orthodontic treatment and prevalence of maxillary impaction was calculated. From this data 100 case records of class 1 and 100 case records of class 2 malocclusion cases were selected randomly and variables like age, gender, and frequency of maxillary canine impaction were recorded. The prevalence of maxillary canine impaction was 2.4% according to this study. Gender distribution was 41.6%males and 58.4% females. The results of this study showed that Maxillary canine impaction was more prevalent in females when compared to males ( 6.6% : 5.2%). Maxillary canine impaction was higher in class I malocclusion when compared to class II division I (8% : 4%) and with higher prevalence in females with Class I malocclusion.However prevalence of canine impaction was not significantly associated with gender and type of malocclusion

A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ASSESSING THE LIP COMPETENCY OF PATIENTS WHO UNDERWENT ORTHODONTIC THERAPY

Preethi Mariona; Remmiya Mary Varghese; Sreedevi Dharman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1970-1979

Clinical photography is essential to evaluate craniofacial and dental relationships. It can be used to assess soft tissue profiles changes in the long run. The study aims at assessing the lip competency of patients who underwent orthodontic therapy using preadjusted edge wise appliance. The retrospective study was carried out by collecting the Frontal and Profile views of photographs taken for the patients who underwent long- term fixed appliance therapy. It was seen that 41 patients had undergone Orthodontic therapy. Excel tabulation of the data was done followed by the results that were obtained after SPSS analysis. The statistical test performed was the chi-square test. 36.59% of patients with incompetent lips had undergone orthodontic therapy. 36.59% of patients in the age group of 21-30 had competent lips and 19.51% of the patients of the same age had incompetent lips. It was seen that during pretreatment,majority of frequency of the competent (39.02%) as well as incompetent (29.27%) lips were seen in females as compared to male patients. Chi square test shows p value >0.05, non significant association. Thus it was observed that all the patients were found to have competent lips after completion of orthodontic therapy.

SEVERITY OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING A PRIVATE DENTAL INSTITUTION- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

B. John Rozar Raj .; Samuel Raj Srinivasan; Niveditha. M.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1980-1986

Dental fluorosis is a specific disturbance in tooth formation caused by excessive fluoride intake during the development of tooth. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of dental fluorosis in a private dental institution. This was a retrospective institutional study. Samples were collected from June 2019 to March 2020 from patient records who visited a private dental hospital. Data of dental fluorosis was collected. Excel tabulation was done. SPSS results were obtained. P<0.05 considered significant. In the present study, 191 patients had dental fluorosis. Among patients with dental fluorosis, percentage of mild fluorosis was 50%, percentage of moderate fluorosis was 26%, percentage of very mild fluorosis was 12% and 7% percentage of severe fluorosis was found. Further, 7% had questionable fluorosis. From the present study we can conclude that the frequency of mild dental fluorosis was more among the patients who visited our dental institution in chennai. Males had higher prevalence of dental fluorosis as compared to females and greater frequency of dental fluorosis was found in the age group of 16 to 30 years, However, the results were not statistically significant.

EVALUATION OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN IMPACTED TEETH AND TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS

Trishala A; M.P.Santhosh Kumar; Arthi B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1987-1995

Impaction of the third molars has been established as a factor with the potential to damage temporomandibular joints. Furthermore, the trauma resulting from the surgery of third molars has been reported to be a predisposing factor in the progression of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) symptoms. The high frequency of third molar surgery can result in an increased number of patients who suffer from chronic oral and facial pains. Thus, it is important to identify those patients who have pre‐existing pain or any signs of dysfunction in their temporomandibular joints and masticatory structures, prior to third molar surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between impacted teeth and temporomandibular joint disorders. A retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the case records of patients who underwent treatment in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital from June 2019 - March 2020. The study population included 96 patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint disorders and 98 patients without TMD. Thus the sample size included a total of 194 patients who were evaluated for the presence of impacted teeth. Data was collected and statistical analysis was performed. Microsoft Excel 2016 (Microsoft office 10) data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to SPSS IBM (version 23.0). Descriptive statistics and chi square test were employed with a level of significance set at p<0.05. The most prevalent age group among the patients was 21 - 30 years (34.39%), followed by 31 - 40 years (29.29%). 60.8% were male patients and 39.2% were females. TMD was predominantly present (29.38%) in patients with impacted teeth than in patients without impacted teeth (20.1%) and the results were statistically significant (p=0.003). Within the limits of this study, there is a significant association between the presence of impacted teeth and temporomandibular joint disorders. Therefore, it is important to include an assessment of the temporomandibular apparatus in the pre‐operative evaluation of patients with impacted third molars.

PREVALENCE OF MISSING PERMANENT FIRST MOLARS IN PATIENTS SEEKING ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT.

Purva Verma; S.P Saravana Dinesh; Naveen M. Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1996-2002

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of missing permanent first molars in the South Indian population who reported for orthodontic treatment to a dental hospital. A total of 550 OPGs of patients who reported for orthodontic treatment to the hospital were assessed for missing permanent first molars.The data was retrieved from the extensive electronic database record of the hospital. Descriptive analysis was done to represent the data. Prevalence of missing permanent first molars was found to be 5.8%. A significant percentage of the orthodontic population have missing permanent first molars. A thorough clinical examination, from an orthodontic perspective will help formulate a better treatment plan.

ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF CONDYLAR FRACTURES IN MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA

Ramvihari Thota; Senthilnathan Periasamy; Mahathi N

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2003-2009

The present study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of the prevalence and types of condylar fractures of the mandible. Details of a total of 21 cases of mandibular condyle fracture were collected out of a total of 86,000 cases from databases of saveetha dental college which were undergone in the period time from June 2019 to March 2020. All these were checked for pattern or type of fracture based on Lindahl’s Classification. Results of this study showed that out of 21 cases of mandibular condyle fracture 19% showed no displacement, 28.6% showed deviation of the condylar segment, 19% showed displacement of fracture segment, 9.5% showed deviation with dislocation and 23.85% showed displacement with dislocation. Also, the study showed a male predilection for the condylar fractures of the mandible. In this study within the limitations, there is significant male predilection and more number of deviation type of condylar fractures of the mandible.

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH FRENAL ATTACHMENT AND FRENECTOMY- A

K. Thirumagal .; Sheeja Varghese; Ravindra Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2010-2020

patients who underwent frenectomy/ frenotomy for high frenal attachment in a dental hospital from June 2019 to March 2020. No gender or age restrictions were. 99 patients were included in the study. Digital case sheets were reviewed and the following data including the details like patients gender, age, site of high frenal attachment, reason for frenectomy were extracted, tabulated and analysed statistically with Chi square test using SPSS version 20. Among those 99 frenectomy cases. The males were ( 43.4%) and females were (56.6%). The prevalence of frenectomy was more in female gender as compared to male gender. The common reason behind frenectomy was spacing (61.6%) and the more common site of high frenal attachment was S2 (Maxillary anterior sextant) (55.5%) compared to S5 (Mandibular anterior sextant). There was a significant difference in the reasons for frenectomy between site(p < 0.05 )and sites underwent frenectomy and age of the patient(p < 0.05).No significant difference in the reasons for frenectomy between males and females (p > 0.05). From the study it can be concluded that the common reason for frenectomy is diastema and the reasons for frenectomy is influenced by the site of high frenal attachment and the age of the patients.

ROLE OF TASK FORCE COMMITTEE IN HOSPITAL INFECTION CONTROL DURING EPIDEMICS AND PANDEMICS

Nirubama.K .; A.S.Smiline Girija; Ezhilarasan D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2021-2029

Pandemics are defined as large- scale outbreaks that can greatly increase mortality and morbidity over a wide geographic area and cause significant economic, political and social disruption due to spread of infectious disease. Risk of pandemic and epidemic conditions have occurred throughout history and appear to be increasing in frequency, particularly because of the increasing emergence of viral disease from animals. Other associated risk factors include older age, longer hospital stays, immunosuppression, frequent encounters with healthcare facilities, mechanical ventilatory support, multiple underlying chronic illnesses, recent invasive procedures, indwelling devices and being in a critical care unit. Management of acute infections transmitted to susceptible patients via cross infections and emergence of antimicrobial- resistant pathogens need attention in a hospital set-up. Task forces committee are organisations of small groups of resources and people brought together to establish a specific objective, to complete the expectation that the group will disband when the objective has been completed. The task force committee is actively involved in resolving issues on hospital acquired infection during pandemic and epidemic outbreak of disease and this review underpins the same.

HANTAVIRUS AND ITS ASSOCIATED IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS

Ananya R; Smiline Girija; Ezhilarasan D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2030-2037

Hantavirus is a zoonotic virus manifesting two vital clinical symptoms viz., hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome. With a sudden onset of fatigue, fever, and body aches, in extreme cases can lead to shortness of breath and had resulted in major outbreaks in past decades. Pro- inflammatory cytokine responses and reticulo endothelial systems take the lead role in establishing the immuno-pathogenesis of the hantavirus disease. The virus genome consists of these segments of negative stranded RNA, where the large (L) segment encodes the viral RNA polymerase, the medium (M) segment the glycoprotein precursor which is co-translationally cleaved into the envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc, and the small (S) segment the nucleocapsid protein (N). Hantavirus are divided into Old world and New world hantavirus based on the geographic regions in which they occur. They are strictly associated with their reservoirs hosts which are rodents, but from recent researches reported, also insectivores. Both innate and cellular immune responses function effectively in evading the viral replication, however the mutations and the typical variations in the virus finally establishes a disease in humans. This review thus provides an overview on hanta virus and its associated immune-pathogenesis.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, PRACTICE BASED SURVEY ON DIGITAL DENTISTRY AMONG DENTAL PRACTITIONERS

Shree RanjanPandey; Sowmya K2,Pradeep. S; Pradeep. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2055-2067

The aim of the present survey is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the use of digital dentistry in endodontics among practitioners. Questionnaire based survey comprising 15 questions divided into knowledge based, attitude based and practice based questions. The questionnaire was circulated via electronic media through mails. 218 responses were received from the respondents. On analyzing the responses to the questionnaire, it was found that the most of the practitioners were looking forward towards use of digital dentistry based procedures.Highly significant values were obtained when statistical analysis was done about the question pertaining to this trend for better clinical outcome with [p Value = 0.001],Other relevant facts being,Titanium Oxide powder is used with CEREC System with [p Value = 0.038],which was statistically significant.Within the limitations of the study, it shows that the knowledge with respect to digital dentistry based procedures is moderate compared to attitude and practice among respondents.The survey revealed that most of the participants were looking forward to enhance their knowledge and skills in the field of CAD-CAM

PRESENCE OF ORAL LESION AS A FACTOR TOWARDS EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI- TOBACCO COUNSELLING AND QUIT RATES IN OUT PATIENTS OF PRIVATE DENTAL COLLEGE- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.

Indumathy. M .; Sri sakthi; Arthi Balasubramaniam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2068-2077

Tobacco use is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions including oral pre-cancer and cancer. The type and location of the lesion varies with the type of tobacco used, the way it is used, and the frequency and duration of use. Hence our study is aimed to determine the effectiveness of anti-tobacco counselling and the presence of oral lesions in patients and their willingness to quit the habit. A retrospective analysis was conducted among 398 participants, of which all were smokers, 320 patients diagnosed with oral mucosal lesions, 78 patients without any lesions. The study protocol included data collection with digital software entry. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22 and a chi-square test was employed, with a p value < 0.05 considered to be statistically significant. The lesion was most common among the age of 31-40years (33.33%), followed by 41-50years (26.92%), 18-30years (20.5%), 51-60years (12.8%) and >60% (6.4%). The review was high among the patients with oral lesion (57.6%), anyways patient with lesion and did not turn up for review is 42.3%. The study population diagnosed with oral mucosal lesion and who had come for review visits had the highest willingness for quit rate (62.7%), than with patients only came for intervention visit (37.2%).

CARIES RISK PROFILE AMONG ADULT POPULATION WITH SYSTEMIC DISEASE ATTENDING A PRIVATE DENTAL COLLEGE IN CHENNAI

Manali Deb Barma; D Sri Sakthi; Jayashri Prabakar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2078-2086

Systemic diseases have higher risk of compromised oral health like tooth loss, higher lifetime caries experience thus emphasising the significant relationship between systemic disease and oral conditions. Dental caries is considered a serious public health problem affecting the long term prognosis of teeth and contributes to a major global burden of oral diseases among adults. Hence, this study aims to assess the caries risk profile among adults with systemic disease. A retrospective study was conducted among 61 participants aged 35 years and above. Data was collected using the electronic patient records, between the time period of August 2019 - January 2020, yielding a total of 61 participants with complete data. Plaque accumulation score using Loe and Silness Index, dental caries experience, salivary flow rate, fluoride exposure were recorded and entered into Cariogram application, to generate a pie chart in order to categorise patients into different caries risk groups. Descriptive statistics and Chi square were performed to analyze the data. The mean age of the participants was 55.2±10.9 years. Among all participants, 40.9% had diabetes. When categories into different caries risk groups, 37.1% were categorised into “high medium risk” group. Statistical significant value of p <0.05 was found between cariogram score and systemic disease. Systemic diseases have a significant effect on the deterioration of oral health, especially in terms of carious lesions. Caries risk assessment should be carried out compulsorily for patients with systemic diseases to reduce the burden of dental caries, as an early assessment will lead to better prognosis and better quality of life.

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF SCHOOL TEACHERS IN EDUCATING SCHOOL CHILDREN REGARDING SIGNIFICANCE OF GOOD ORAL HEALTH AND RELATED PRACTICES-A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

Nivetha g; Sri sakthi d; Arvind s

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2087-2094

ABSTRACT:
School teachers play a vital role in the overall development of achild.With proper knowledge on oral health and related practices they can instill good oral hygiene practices and related behaviours from a very early age. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of school teachers in educating school children regarding oral health.A questionnaire consisted of 15 questions on oral health’s knowledge,attitude and practice were formulated and distributed among school teachers.The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software and chi square tests were done between knowledge and gender,attitude and gender and practice and gender.The results were formulated in tables and graphs.The results showed that 85% of school teachers had good knowledge,95% had positive attitude and 66% had good practice regarding oral health.The study concludes that school teachers had adequate knowledge and positive attitude in educating school children regarding oral health.

GINGIVAL RECESSION IN DISIMPACTED CANINES - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Oviya. V. J; Srirengalakshmi .; Deepa Gurunathan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2095-2103

Multidisciplinary management is essential when the canine fails to erupt on time. This requires combined surgical and orthodontic intervention. Good periodontal status is necessary for the positive outcome of treatment. Hence the objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of gingival recession in disimpacted canines. A retrospective study was conducted. Data collection was done through reviewing 86000 patients who had visited a hospital in Chennai from June(2019) to March(2020). A total of 6 patients who had undergone disimpaction of canine were evaluated. Data such as age, gender, site of impaction, presence of gingival recession were noted. The data was analysed statistically through IBM SPSS software. The study group belonged to the age group ranging 13-21. Disimpaction was performed higher among males(66.6%) compared to females. Among the samples, about 57.14% of canines were palatally impacted. No gingival recession was seen in the study sample. The incidence of gingival recession in the disimpacted canines was not statistically significant and did not reach clinical significance due to very less sample size.

ASSESSMENT OF ATTRACTIVENESS OF SMILE BASED ON CANINE SHAPE AND POSITION- A PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

Asha.S. Hariharan; Subhabrata Maiti; Rakshakan V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2004-2013

Canine is the cornerstone of the arch, and has a strategic position . The current study involves assessment of attractiveness of smile based on canine shape and position.The study was done in a university hospital setting of Saveetha Dental College.The study was designed to be a cross sectional retrospective study. The study was based on the photographic analysis of the position, shape and prominence of canine and its effect on the perceived esthetics of the smile. 70 photographs of patients were selected from the institution's database, and evaluated. The perceived esthetics of each smile was graded on scale of 1-5, 5 being excellent aesthetics. The obtained data was tabulated and statistical analysis was done using SPSS( Version 23) .There was a statistically significant association with the position(p=0.012) and shape(p=0.006) and cervical prominence of the canine(p=0.000) with the perceived esthetics. The position and characteristics of the canine play a major role in the perception of aesthetics of the smile. A better understanding of these factors could highly improve the process of teeth selection or the rehabilitation of smiles

REALITY OF LEON WILLIAM’S CONCEPT IN INDIAN SCENARIO-A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Sanjog Agarwal; Subhabrata Maiti; Subhashree R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2014-2022

Selection of maxillary anterior teeth for complete dentures is crucial in clinical practice and controversy about the validity of even the best method to employ still exists. Leon Williams formulated and publicized a method called the “Geometric theory” which is still widely used. Williams believed that there exists a relationship between the face-form and the form of the maxillary central incisor in most people and that this relationship should be taken into account in the tooth selection procedure.A Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in an institution, on randomly selected individuals. The study group consisted of adult patients who attended the outpatient Department of Prosthodontics from June 2019- March 2020.86000 case sheets were evaluated and Chi-square test and frequency analysis was used to explore the relationship between two variables.Leon Williams criteria was fulfilled by only 41% individuals Ovoid face form 41% is more common in indian population as compared to other forms.Ovoid and square tapering tooth forms are more common compare to other tooth forms 30% with square tooth form being the least 12%.In females leon williams criteria was more matched than males. But the difference was not significant. This study concludes that there is a much greater percentage of dissimilarity between incisor and face-form, in sample Indian population. The “Williams’ law of harmony” to select artificial teeth stands inconclusive in the sample Indian population both in males and females.

RELATION BETWEEN PRIMARY STABILITY AND BONE DENSITY -A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Thanish Ahamed. S; Subhashree R; Mebin George Mathew

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2023-2032

The use of dental implants has gained immense popularity and inside acceptance. A secure implant primary stability is positively associated with a successful implant integration and long-term successful clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of primary stability in success of dental implants. The present retrospective study was conducted among 1263 patients who had undergone implant therapy in the Department of Implantology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai from June 2019 to March 2020. Data regarding bone type, bone density of the implant site were collected and analysed. In the present study, most of the type of bone density seen commonly was D2 bone and around 42.79% of the patients had D2 type of bone density in the lower posterior region. The next commonly seen bone density was D1 and in the lower posterior and lower anterior region with 8.51% and 2.36% respectively. In association with the gender and the bone density males had more bone density than females. Most of the type of bone density seen was D2 ( 34.12% in males and 30.58% in females, followed by D1 type of bone density ( 6.93% in males and 6.62% in females). Positive correlation was obtained between bone density and primary implant stability. The correlation was found to be statistically significant (p=0.000). The present study showed a strong relationship between bone density and the primary implant stability.

ROLE OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND LITERACY LEVELS TOWARDS USAGE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND ITS DEPENDENCY- A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

S. Sushanthi; Sri Sakthi; Arthi Balasubramaniam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2033-2040

Socioeconomic status (SES) and literacy level is a major determinant of tobacco use but little is known whether SES affects nicotine dependency or not. Socioeconomic status (SES) is strongly related to smoking behaviour. The association is so strong that smoking is regarded as a marker for deprivation and one can identify disadvantaged groups by simply observing their smoking prevalence. The main objective is to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on nicotine dependence. A retrospective study was conducted using case records of patients attending private dental college from July 2019- March 2020 . A total of 201 case sheets of patients who had the habit of tobacco use with recorded nicotine dependence score and their income and educational status were retrieved. The study included two measures of SES - education and income using the Modified Kuppuswamy scale(revised version february 2019). Nicotine dependencies are assessed using Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test was used to analyze the data. More prevalence of literate participants(78.6%) and middle income smokers(<25000) (43.78%) are more prevalent among the study population . No statistically significant association was found between education and nicotine dependence scale(p = 0.750); income and nicotine dependence ( p=0.432) . Chi-square tests were used for association and descriptive statistics were used. Nicotine dependency shows insignificant variations across different indicators of SES- income and education among patients attending private dental college in Chennai.

EVALUATION OF DENTURE AESTHETIC FABRICATED WITH BPS TECHNIQUE - A RETROSPECTIVE PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDY

Tulsani Minal Gopal; Subhashree R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2041-2048

The biofunctional prosthetic system (BPS) is designed in such a way that there is better comfort, function and aesthetic to the patient. The impression making and recording the maxillomandibular relation is a standardised in BPS method, this makes the dentist to understand the subject and makes things easier. There are 4 clinical procedures in BPS technique, which reduces the appointment time for the patient. With all the shortcomings of conventional complete denture and advantages of biofunctional prosthesis, we conducted a retrospective analysis of aesthetic outcome of complete denture constructed with biofunctional prosthetic system conducted in private university setup. A retrospective study was done in which 45 BPS dentures were placed from 1 June 2019 till 1 March 2020 were included. Data was reviewed from the patients records and analysed the data of 86,000 patients between June 2019 and March 2020 that were documented in a private institute. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Chi Square test and Pearson’s correlation was done for assessing the correlation between age and all the parameters checked, and between gender and all the parameters. Out of 45 patients, 44.4% BPS dentures were fabricated for the age group of 61-70 years. 51.1% of the patients were Males. Out of the total population for 55.6% of the population square shaped teeth were used and for 44.4% of the population tapered teeth were used. 53.3% of the population had premolar to premolar smile, while 31.1% of the population had molar to molar and 15.6% had canine to canine smile. In 82.2% of the teeth setting, the intercanine width matched the interalar width. 37.8% of the population had complete exposure of anterior teeth on smiling. According to our reviewers 62.2% of patients' smiles were attractive. From the present study, it can be concluded that the shape of the teeth showed a significant difference in perception among the individuals whereas the other parameters showed no difference.

PREVALENCE OF VARIOUS ADJUNCTIVE TREATMENT INVOLVED IN FIXED PARTIAL DENTURE - RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Chaitanya Shree P .; Subhashree R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2049-2055

According to the clinical condition and diagnostic findings, American College of prosthodontics (ACP) have developed a classification for partially edentulous patients. They are based on 4 criteria and each is based on 4 classification. The 4 criteria is based on location and extent of the edentulous span, condition of the abutment tooth ( localised adjunctive treatment, insufficient tooth structure), occlusal plane and the condition of the edentulous ridge. This classification is done to provide potential benefits to the clinicians and plan a proper treatment planning for the patients undergoing dental prosthesis. The adjunctive treatment are Periodontal treatment, endodontic treatment and orthodontic treatment involving any of the sextant. Fixed partial denture (FPD) is one of the most commonly employed treatments for replacement of missing teeth. Most of the patients prefer for a fixed replacement of the missing tooth. One such option is fixed partial denture. Splinting the adjacent teeth and replacing the missing teeth is how a fixed partial denture is done. The abutment teeth evaluation and its dental status is at most important for the success of the fixed partial denture. If there is any compromise in the dental status of the abutment teeth, adjunct therapy is done. This study aimed to identify the localised adjunctive treatment involved in the patient who had fixed partial denture treatment in a private dental hospital setup.

PREDICTION OF INCISAL TOOTH MORPHOLOGY IN PATIENTS REPORTING FOR ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT

Hanshika Ravi; Dr.A. Sumathi Felicita; Dr.Dinesh prabu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2056-2065

Morphology of tooth varies among individual patient.It is an important consideration in evaluating occlusion and esthetics.The incisor teeth have different shapes namely triangular, rhomboid, square. Shape of incisors also plays a major role in esthetics.It is important for proper finishing of the dentition at the end of orthodontic treatment.The aim of this study is to determine the incisal tooth morphology of the patients visiting the orthodontic treatment.This study was conducted as a hospital based study localised to the Chennai population. Data was systematically reviewed and retrieved from the archived database.The data was grouped into two groups. Group 1 patients had class I malocclusion and Group 2 Patients had class II and Class III malocclusion. Shape of incisors were evaluated for all the patients of both the groups. On analysing the results, among the patients of Group1, 84.21% of the males and 91.30% of the females had triangular incisors.Among the patients of Group 2, 70.59% of males and 68.42% of the females had triangular incisors, irrespective of the type of malocclusion. On chi square analysis, the value was found to be 0.356 ( p value > 0.005), does not have significant association.It was concluded that the most predominant shape of the incisors was found to be triangular

OCCURENCE OF NUMBER OF CANALS IN MANDIBULAR SECOND PREMOLARS IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

K.Ajith Kamath; Surendar Sugumaran; S Haripriya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2082-2087

Mandibular second premolars are one of the most complex among detention in humans. They often present with several patterns of complexities. It also varies based on age, sex, race etc. In the present study by a retrospective manner, we have assessed the occurrence of number of canals in mandibular second premolars in South Indian Population. Case records of 86,000 patients availing treatment at Saveetha Dental College between June 2019 and March 2020 were analysed, and the required data was extracted. 550 teeth were chosen for the study. Statistical analysis of the extracted data was done using SPSS software (SPSS Version 23.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) Graphs were derived. Correlations were made based on gender of the patients and type of tooth.Within the limits of the study the occurrence of more than one canal was more prevalent in females(11%) as compared to males(9%) in the south indian population.(P<0.05). Also the occurrence of a single canal was more prevalent in 45(44%) as compared to 35(40%)(P>0.05). More correlations can be studied by doing similar studies in larger populations and studies can be done based on geographical location and races

EVALUATING NUMBER OF PREFABRICATED FIBER POSTS PLACED IN THE LOWER ANTERIORS WITH 2 OR MORE WALLS PRESENT

Gayathri Karthikeyan; Surendar Sugumaran; Jaiganesh Ramamurthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2088-2096

The endodontically treated teeth with extensive loss of tooth substance have numerous problems due to significant reduction in the capability to resist a myriad of functional forces Today, it is accepted clinical practice to use a post to retain the coronal restoration after a tooth has been endodontically treated when significant amounts of the coronal tooth structure is missing. The aim of the study is to assess the number of prefabricated fiber posts placed in the lower anterior with 2 or more walls present. After analysing 86,000 patient records , the sample size chosen for the study was 24 patient records. The data that was collected was tabulated in excel and then imported into SPSS software. Incomplete data were excluded from the study. Chi square test was the statistical test employed for statistical analysis and it was noted that the most prevalent prevalent gender to undergo this treatment were female (66.67%) , most prevalent teeth to be treated was 31, 32, 42 (21.21%) and most prevalent wall present was 2 walls ( 69.70%). Correlation between the patient age and the no of walls were seen to be statistically significant p
= <0.05 (p=0.001). Within the limits of this study, the prevalence of prefabricated fiber post in lower anterior teeth was most commonly seen in females among the lower canines. Significant association was present between the number of walls present and age .No significant association was present between the number of walls present with gender and type of teeth. Fiber reinforced posts are the most preferred posts to be used in anterior teeth, due to its flexural strength being similar to that of dentin and also better distribution of stress among the remaining tooth structure.

PREVALENCE OF DIFFERENT FULL VENEER CROWNS IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL SETTING

Sanjog Agarwal; V. Ashok; Subhabrata Maiti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2097-2106

Recent advances in ceramics have greatly improved the functional and esthetic properties of restorative materials.New materials offer an esthetic and functional oral rehabilitation, however their impact on opposing teeth is not well documented.The aim of the study was to evaluate prevalence of different materials for full veneer crowns used by dentists for a single full veneer crown based on location and choice made by dentist..A Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in an institution, on randomly selected individuals. The study group consisted of adult patients who attended the outpatient Department of Prosthodontics from June 2019- March 2020.86000 case sheets were evaluated and frequency distribution test was used to explore the relationship between two variables.Comparison of the groups showed that Hand layered zirconia crown was preferred by 42.3 % individuals.Metal ceramic was predderd by 10.3% of the individuals.Monolithic zirconia was preferred by 47.4 % of the individuals.With the era of metal free crowns monolithic is preferred to solve the chipping problems which are to be considered before getting a hand layered zirconia crown or a metal ceramic crown.

KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS AND IMPACT OF EPIDEMIC OUTBREAK AMONG UNDERGRADUATES

Pinky Ruskin; Venkatesh .; Preetha. S; KeerthiSashank. L

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2107-2117

Extraordinary measures have been taken to control the quick spread of the covid-19. People's adherence to control measures is affected by their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards covid-19 during the rapid rise of outbreak. A self developed online questionnaire was created and was completed by the participants. The questionnaire consisted of 12 questions regarding the knowledge towards covid-19 and also it includes the questions on confidence in winning the battle against covid-19. Most undergraduate students are knowledgeable about covid-19, optimistic attitudes and preventive practices towards covid-19. Health education programs aimed at improving covid-19 knowledge that are helpful for the undergraduates to hold optimistic attitudes and maintain appropriate practices.

CAD/CAM CERAMICS- THE PARADIGM SHIFT IN FIXED PROSTHODONTICS

Charanya Suresh; Venkatesh Kommi; Muralidharan. N. P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2118-2126

Ceramics are broadly utilized as circuitous helpful materials in dentistry because of their extensive biocompatibility and satisfying aesthetics. The objective is to review the different CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials are highlighted and a subsequent literature search was conducted for the relevant subjects utilizing PubMed followed by manual search. Advancements in CAD/CAM innovation have catalyzed inquiry in all-ceramic biomaterials and their applications. Feldspathic glass ceramic and glass penetrated ceramic can be manufactured by conventional research facility strategies or CAD/CAM. The appearance of polycrystalline ceramics may be a coordinate result of CAD/CAM innovation without which the manufacture would not have been conceivable. The clinical employments of these ceramics have met with variable clinical victory. Numerous choices are presently accessible to the clinicians for the creation of aesthetic all ceramic restorations.

AWARENESS ON THE ADVANTAGES OF USING SEMI ADJUSTABLE ARTICULATOR AMONG UNDERGRADUATE DENTAL STUDENTS

Vikraman K S; Dr. Venkatesh; Dr.Keerthi sasank; Kavitha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2127-2139

A survey was conducted in Saveetha dental college among undergraduate students.This study aims to assist with understanding the procedure of mounting models in a semi adjustable articulator which takes place most often in dental laboratory following on from a facebow recording and intra-occlusal records being made.The bite fork will be carefully removed from any packing and a check will be made that the maxillary model to be mounted into the articulator sits in bite registration material in a stable manner. Most commonly semi-adjustable articulator sits in the condylar guidance angle and Bennett angle that can be adjusted.A cross section survey was initiated in the students of saveetha dental college, Tamil Nadu about the advantages of using semi adjustable articulators. Nearly 100 people responded that the survey data has been collected and plotted as a graph. Data has been collected with the help of SPSS software and data has been analysed.100 people responded to the survey only limited people option has been collected.In our survey we found that the UG students are having moderate knowledge on advantages of using semi adjustable articulators.

AWARENESS ON IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON KNOWLEDGE ENHANCEMENT AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS

Thana Lakshme. P.S; Vishnu Priya .V; Gayathri. R; Kavitha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2140-2154

Technology, actually the application of knowledge on practical skills. Technology has owned the entire world with its accessibility and advancement. This technology had changed the education process not in what to learn but also in the way of learning.It had led to development of education, skills, communication and attitudes towards the future environment. Acquiring knowledge is a process not a product and this process is taken over by technological development. This study aims to create awareness on the impact of technology in knowledge enhancement among college students. It comprises a small population size of 110 participants. A self structured questionnaire involving their personal view on technology and its impact and the awareness they have on technology was distributed to the targeted population. The data were collected, analysed and presented as pie charts. Then arriving at conclusion, technology though possess negative impacts made a greater positive impact on knowledge and education.

ATTITUDE TOWARDS SOCIAL NETWORKS AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS - A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

Moulishree .; Vishnu Priya; K. R. Don; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2155-2172

Social networks are seen as a group of internet based technology. It provides a platform to share contents, interest and develop new skills and personalities in the virtual world . The definition for this depends from person to person. There are no boundaries to the use of social networks. The aim of the study is to determine the attitude towards social networks among different age groups. A well structured questionnaire enclosed with closed ended questions was prepared which was surveyed among 100 active participants . The data collected is analysed in SPSS software version 22 by descriptive analysis. The questionnaire is administered to the participants to online google forms link.There exists a positive attitude towards social networks among all age groups. Awareness on advantages and disadvantages of the social networks should be inculcated in the minds of the younger generation.

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON RECENT ADVANCES IN THE TREATMENT OF HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA - A SURVEY

Aksha sharen Arul Edwin; Jothi Priya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2173-2184

Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is a cancerous disease that affects the lymph nodes within the human body. The location of the disease is how it is classified and diagnosed. The majority of the patients can be potentially cured with the use of radiotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy, a proportion of them will relapse or develop resistant disease for which treatment options are limited. The aim of the study Is to determine the knowledge awareness about recent advances in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The objective is to study the level of awareness and knowledge about advanced treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma and associated risk factors among the Indian population. A survey was conducted from April to May among 100 people in the state of Tamil Nadu, India by preparing a set of standard questionnaires and answers were collected through online survey methods such as google forms. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and chi square analysis was done for correlation. The results clearly indicate that 57% percent of the population is aware about the recent advances in the treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma and 42% percent of the population not aware about the treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The conclusion of this study is that the above statistical analysis about knowledge awareness on recent advances in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma has provided a clear view of current advanced treatment procedure and technique for the betterment of patients in future.

ROLE OF HERBAL MEDICINE IN DENTAL HEALTH- A DETAILED REVIEW

P. Anushya; A. Jothi Priya; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2185-2196

Dental Disease is one of globally affecting diseases. Oral bacteria involved within the bloodstream are linked to coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and stroke. Oral hygiene plays an important role within the prevention of oral diseases, including periodontitis, cavity and oral candidiasis. Consequently, the utilization of both chemical and mechanical plaque control is suggested for optimal oral hygiene. Sodium hypochlorite it’s not only irritant to the periapical tissues but also possesses disadvantages such of instruments, blazing of surrounding tissues, undesirable taste, high toxicity, corrosive to instruments, inability to get rid of the smear layer, reduction in coefficient of elasticity and flexible strength of dentin. As well as Antibiotics like tetracycline, penicillin, amoxicillin, metronidazole and antiseptics like chlorhexidine which are commonly used in dentistry, but they have many side effects. While herbal medicine is so effective in oral diseases and has less side effects. The present study is aimed at reviewing various extracts of herbal products and their effects on dental health. The articles were collected from pubmed, scopus and google scholars. The outcome is predicted on the previous studies which debate the role of herbal products in dentistry and this collected data is analyzed by using appropriate statistical tools. The use of herbal medicine in dentistry is helpful in reducing inflammation and controlling plaque formation. From this review study, it is evidenced that Ginger, Garlic, Aloe Vera and Miswak showed better results than conventional denitrificans in dental plaque and gingival inflammation reductions. The disadvantages of using herbal medicine like Clove oil is meant to cause serious problems like pharyngitis, vomiting, cytotoxicity, kidney failures, damage to the liver, seizures, difficulty in breathing and others if used in higher doses. Therefore, the Preclinical and clinical trials are needed to gauge biocompatibility and safety before herbal medicine are often recommended conclusively for oral care.

SEGREGATION OF MEDICAL WASTE AND DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT - A SURVEY

Divyashri S; Jothi priya A; Vishnu priya V; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2197-2209

Segregation refers to basic separation of different categories of waste generated at some source and thereby reducing the risk as well as cost of handling and disposal. Segregation is the most crucial step in biomedical waste management. There are 4 major types of waste, they are general, infectious, hazardous and radioactive. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation and disposal of medical waste.This study involved the segregation of medical waste and disposal among the age group of 18 to 25 yrs. A set of 15 questionnaires were framed and sent through the online google form link. The questionnaire is based on the knowledge,attitude and information about the segregation and disposal of medical waste. Among 100 medical students 77% were aware about the segregation of the medical waste & 23% of the students were not aware about the segregation of the medical waste. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation of medical waste. From that we can protect our health and environment.

AWARENESS ON THE PANDEMIC DISEASE BETWEEN BOTH RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION

E. Dhivya sri,; A. Jothi Priya; Hannah R; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2210-2221

To investigate the awareness about pandemic disease between both rural and Urban populations.Self - administered questions were prepared. The questions were distributed in Google forms and hundreds of participants participated. The statistical data was analysed.Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate awareness regarding an infectious respiratory illness (45% close), risk of pandemic (42.3%), available vaccines (52.3%), majority of participants (82%) would pandemics cause sudden, widespread morbidity and mortality as well as social political and economic disruption.Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of pandemic disease both Urban and rural population still, active interventions are required in all areas of pandemic not only to improve their knowledge and awareness regarding pandemic between both rural and Urban population adults also.

ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND HISTORY OF COVID 19 - A REVIEW

Ganesh S,; Jothi priya .A; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2222-2229

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which arises in Wuhan, China and spreads all around the world. The Genomic analysis shows that SARS-CoV-2 is related to severe acute respiratory syndrome- like (SARS-like) bat viruses, so bats could be the possible primary reservoir for this disease. The intermediate source of origin is not known, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed largely. Most adults or children with COVID-19 infection are with mild flu-like symptoms and a few patients are in critical condition and develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, even death of the individuals. The most commonly reported Symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia or fatigue,pneumonia, and complicated dyspnea,where's less common reported symptoms include headache, diarrhea, halmoprysis, runny nose, and phlegm producing a cough. Still There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available for COVID-19.Few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulting in clinical recovery. The current review is about the history of covid 19.

CHALLENGES FACED BY CHINA ON COVID-19

Hiranya . S; A.Jothi Priya; V.Vishnu Priya; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2230-2235

COVID-19 disease is caused by coronavirus, a dreadful virus which affected China on December 19 in the city of Wuhan .In humans , these viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to death.Most people infected with this virus have mild to moderate respiratory illness. This dreadful disease is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease,diabetes,chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.The spread of disease is rapid from one country to another.In most of the studies it is being told that the death rates are increasing due to coronavirus.There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat coronavirus. To review the challenges faced by china on covid19. The literature review is planned using a database like pubmed from the years 2015-2020 to know about the challenges faced by China

AWARENESS OF SELF-QUARANTINE- A SURVEY

John Francis; Jothi priya; Lavanya prathap; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2236-2247

Everyone gets separated after a few days when they get bored due to that depression. Self quarantine reduces the economic development of the country. Everyone working has many responsibilities but due to this self quarantine in this lockdown shortage of money leads the country to drop in economic status. Due to self quarantine many are affected mentally, they usually get depressed and lose their peace. Cannot concentrate in what they are doing and change in their mood swings. Self quarantine Self quarantine is most useful during the time of spreading disease. This study is done with the help of an online survey. Many are used to this self quarantine. Many ill effects are there in self quarantine like obesity, due to obesity leads to myocardial infarction but other than these many useful things are occurring due to self quarantine like reducing usage of vehicles which reduces global warming. This study created awareness about the self quarantine and told how to spend free time properly

COVID -19 VS HANTAVIRUS- A REVIEW

Obuli Ganesh Kishore. S; Jothi Priya. A,; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2248-2254

There is a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19 which has taken the lives of many people.A detailed structured review of the corona virus could bring about any development in the field of research concerning the discovery of vaccines it treatment methods for COVID-19.Another virus called the Hanta virus that had originated in China was another pandemic which was controlled in the initial stages itself. Different articles and research journals were selected, analysed and computed for better understanding. The collection and analysis of data was done in the year 2020. A review of the epidemiology,clinical features,diagnosis,symptoms and treatment of corona virus and Hantavirus could help in advancements in its field of research. Also the comparison of economical impacts in the world during the pandemic virus attack can also be helpful to be economically prepared to face the crisis and reduce the chaos. But certain limitations that come across in this review had to be rectified for a proper result.But this review can be used for any quick reference regarding these deadly viruses.

AWARENESS OF GASTROINTESTINAL PROBLEMS ON CONSUMPTION OF SPICY FOOD

Ngoubinah Pretty; Jothi Priya; Hannah R .; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2255-2267

Spicy things have a sharp, strong and pungent flavour. Hot chilli pepper,gastric occurs when the stomach lining is inflamed and can be caused by eating spicy food. There have been attempts to measure the effect of spicy food stuffs that might provoke or increase gastrointestinal reflux. High prevalence of spicy food in Asia may modify gastrointestinal burning symptoms in patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder. The inflammation of gastric is most often the result of infection with the same bacterium that causes most stomach ulcers. Gastritis may occur suddenly or appear slowly over time. The infection is usually passed from person to person, but can also be transmitted through contaminated food or water. Preparation of self structured questionnaire circulated through online survey link. The results were collected and were represented in pie-chart. According to this result most of the population are aware of gastrointestinal problems. Further studies can be done to prevent gastrointestinal problem, Preventive measure should be taken to avoid gastrointestinal problem.

AWARENESS OF DENTAL PULP STEM CELLS AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS

Shilpa Merlyn Jose; A.Jothi Priya; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2268-2278

Stem cells are undifferentiated or partially differentiated cells which differentiate into various cells and can divide indefinitely to more or less the same type of stem cells. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are used to treat diseases like leukemia, lymphoma and spinal cord injury, heart failure, loss of hearing, blindness and vision impairment. DPSCs also have the capability to form clones of dental-pulp like cells. Due to its capability of changing into neural cells it can also send impulses to the brain. A well structured questionnaire containing socio-demographic information, knowledge, attitude and perception was framed and circulated through online survey links. The results conclude that the awareness of DPSCs was good among college students . Some of them knew the therapies done using these cells but were not fully aware of its properties and thus further studies can be done to increase the awareness and knowledge of the use of DPSCs.

AWARENESS OF BUBONIC PLAGUE AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

Tahoora Taskeen L,; Jothi Priya; Dr. Lavanya Prathap; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2279-2288

The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge and awareness of bubonic plague and its complication among dental students. Bubonic plague is a bacterial disease caused by yersinia pestis, symptoms of which are fever, headache, vomiting. It is spread through infected fleas. No vaccination has been discovered but can be treated with antibiotics such as gentamicin, streptomycin etc. This study involved 100 participants in the age group of 18-25 years. A well structured questionnaire comprising 10 questions covering socio- demographic information, knowledge, attitude, perception was framed and administered to the participants through online google forms link. In the current study 52.88 % of dental students were aware of bubonic plague. 54.81% students were aware that it was transmitted through infected fleas. 39.6%were aware that bubonic plague is a bacterial disease. 72% of students responded that probability is more for treating bubonic plague with antibiotics. 51% of students were aware that bubonic plague was caused by yersinia pestis. 51% of dental students had responded that swollen lymph nodes are the major symptom of Bubonic plague. 49% of dental students responded that france was the first country to be affected with bubonic plague. 44.2% students were aware that bubonic plague affects the lymphatic system. 52.9% participants responded that the probability of transmission of plague from dead animals is more. 51% of students responded that the probability of transmission from human to human is more. In 2018 Bland et al had done a study reporting that human ectoparasites such as fleas can transmit Bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis whereas in the current study 54.8% students were aware that bubonic plague transmitted through fleas. In 2008 Nils Stensth et al had done a study reporting Bubonic plague can be treated with antibiotics whereas in the current study 19.3% participants were aware that it can be treated with antibiotics. The current study was to analyse the knowledge and awareness of bubonic plague and its complication. This study shows 45% of dental students were aware about bubonic plague.

ECONOMIC DECLINATION DUE TO COVID- 19 LOCKDOWN - A REVIEW

Yoshita Guntupalli; A. Jothi Priya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2289-2295

COVID 19 is a strain of coronavirus which is virulent and spreads easily among humans. It has become a pandemic and has caused a global emergency. Though the death rate is not that high it is still considered dangerous. It has caused a huge impact on the global economy. The purpose of this study is to analyse the economic impacts on various sectors of Indian economy. Several relevant articles were selected, analysed and computed inorder to gain accurate information of the economic losses we have faced. National lockdown has impacted not only the Indian economy but also the global economy very severely. Many sectors such as the travel and tourism industry, the live events industry, hotels and real estate have been shut down and have faced severe losses. The GDP has faced a slight declination. The data collection and study analysis was conducted in the year 2020 in Private Dental College, Chennai.

AWARENESS ON THE SLEEPING HABITS AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS - A SURVEY

Mohamed Thameemul Ansari; A.Jothi Priya; A.K. Anjali; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2296-2306

Sleep is a natural recurring process of the body. Sleep should be a healthy sleep and it is essential for body and mind. When you don’t get the recommended seven hours of sleep each night, there can be serious consequences in the workplace. Sleepiness and fatigue on the job can cause reduced productivity. These problems can result in higher costs for employers. Sleep and alertness problems are common in shift workers and people who work long hours or multiple jobs. It is important for employers to make healthy sleep a top priority among their workforce. Lack of sleep impairs your ability to function properly. You are more easily distracted. You also are less likely to detect and correct errors. Sleep has a major effect on dental college students also. Due to high workload and many circumstances students are not able to maintain their sleep cycle properly.

AWARENESS ABOUT THE RISK FACTOR AND COMPLICATIONS OF DENGUE VIRUS AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS - A SURVEY

Raja kumar; Jothi Priya; V. Vishnu Priya; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2307-2321

Dengue is especially affecting the tropic and subtropic regions of the planet . It's mainly caused by Dengue, a member of Family Flaviviridae. Four serotypes of Dengue are DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4. 67,000 people are diagnosed by Dengue and it's been reported by NVBPCP. The aim of this study is to make awareness on risk factors and complications of Dengue virus among college students .The Survey on awareness about the danger factor and complications of Dengue virus among college students was conducted employing a google form link. We've distributed our survey among 100 college students. Then , we used a sampling method. Also, we've used statistical software as SPSS for our data. 59.05 % agreed that they're conscious of Dengue virus, 40.95% are still not aware . 58.10 % agreed that it had been transmitted by files, 27.62 % responded thanks to mosquitoes, 11.43 % responded thanks to Aedes mosquito, 2.86 % responded and still don’ t know. Awareness camps , social media , workshops , seminars could also be conducted to make awareness of risk factors and complications of Dengue virus among college students.