Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Obesity

Prevalence Of Gallstone In Relation To Age, Sex And Body Mass Index In Tikrit City

Meqdam A. Khalaf; Abdulhadi M. Jumaa; Ammar L. Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 418-423

gallstones are common diseases in many countries of the world , and incidence rate may reach about 20 % .Most cases of gallstones occur in females , the incidence rate may reach four times to one in comparison between women and men , mainly in fatty , fertile , age of forty female , gall stones are rare before age of 20 years ,but; may occur at any age . many cases are not diagnosed because they do not cause any signs or symptoms , and thus can only be diagnosed accidently by routine abdominal ultrasound.
The aim of study is to evaluate the relationship between age,sex and body mass index as risk factors for gallstone.
a cross sectional study was conducted in Tikrit city during the period from early of May to the end of October 2019 . 468 were enrolled in present study , and only 95 patients were diagnosed as a case of gallstone (29 male , 66 female). All patients attending private ultrasound clinic with different complains, data was collected by using certain questionnaire.
The results showed that, There was highly significant statistical relationship (P – value ≤0.05) between body mass index mean in both gallstone cases(26.628±5.808) and, in cases without gallstone(22.225±1.316). In the present study there was high statistically significant relation(P- value ≤ 0.05) between body mass index measurement above 25(31.97727273± 3.747859149) and measurement below 25(21.85882353± 1.616313889) in patients with gallstone.
The present study conclude that , Body mass index more than 25 considered as an important risk factor for gallstone.

Evaluation of the relationship between obesity and severity of periodontal diseases in rural population: A Study Protocol

Ms. Gauri , Bendre; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal; Dr. Diksha Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2034-2037

Abstract: Background- Excessive accumulation of fat results into obesity. Obesity further
have an adverse effect on health as it has been seen to be associated with diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, heart disease like coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease such as
hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, metabolic syndrome like insulin resistance, some
cancers such as cancer of esophagus, thyroid, kidney, uterus, colon and breast, and
psychosocial problems. Also, obesity is considered to be a risk factor for periodontitis
which is an inflammation of supporting periodontal structures around the tooth which
results from the complex interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune
response. However, the impact of obesity on different severity of periodontal disease is not
evaluated in rural population. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and the
severity of periodontal disease in Rural population. Methodology: A total 400 obese
subjects will be included in the study. Biometric parameters like age, weight, height, waist
and neck circumference, subcutaneous skin fold will be evaluated. Also periodontal
parameters like Plaque index (PI), Papillary bleeding index (PBI), Probing pocket depth
(PPD), Clinical attachment level (CAL) and Gingival recession (REC) will be evaluated
and co-relation between these parameters will be carried out. Results: A statistically
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis. A positive co-relation will be observed
between biometric parameters and periodontal status of obese individual. Conclusion: A
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis in rural population.


Zulfiya Shamsieva; Yusupbaev R.B.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2450-2454

Abstract. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of obesity in pregnant women in
the development of preeclampsia. All women were divided into 2 groups: the study group
included women with obesity (n=120) and the control group of pregnant women with
physiological course of pregnancy without obesity (n=60).

Effects Of Obesity On The Serum Levels Of Free And Total Prostate-Specific Antigen In A Sample Of Iraqi Men.

Dr Ziad Hammad Abd; Dr Ruya Abdulhadi M. Saeed; Omar Farhan Ammar (alrawi)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 142-148

Objectives: the study aims to assess the relationship between obesity and prostatic markers (total prostatic specific antigen (tPSA), and free prostatic specific antigen (fPSA)). Methods: this study was conducted on 127 men aged ≥40 years at The Department of Urology at Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital. Exclusion criteria were a history of previously diagnosed or treated prostate cancer, the use of prostacare or any drugs that affect the levels of PSA in the serum. Results: the age range of the participants of the study was between 40–80 year. The number of men with normal BMI was 26 (20.47%), 47 men were overweight (37%), 33 men were obese (25.98%), and finally, 21 men were severely obese (16.53%). The mean of parameters total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA, fPSA), in the study, were (mean ± SD) (1.683±0.563) ng/ml, (0.537±0.189) ng/ml, respectively. Conclusions: there are no significant relationships between BMI, tPSA, and fPSA, at P≤0.05 in a sample of Iraqi men.


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages -

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, causing expiratory dyspnea, intermittent oxygen desaturation, systemic and pulmonary arterial blood pressure surges, and sleep disruption. The aim of this study is to determine the association between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea and to analyse the most prevalent age group in males.This is a survey based study carried between the month of April 2020-May 2020. This survey was carried out with the help of an online platform. Around 100 male participants aged between 15-60 years participated in this survey. Based on the responses, data was collected and tabulated in an Excel sheet. This was followed by transferring the Excel tabulated data to SPSS for data analysis. Students' unpaired T test was conducted for statistical analysis. Based on the analysis the results were tabulated. The most common age associated with sleep apnea was the age group above 40 years 38%. 82% of the participants had a BMI value more than 35kgm2 . 63% reported with a habit of snoring.52% complained with day time sleepiness.52% revealed a family history of sleep apnea. Based on the results it is seen that obstructive sleep apnea is most common among the elderly population. Majority of the participants had a BMI value > 35kgm2.;and a neck circumference > 40 cm which indicates obesity. Hence it is proved that obesity has a strong association with obstructive sleep apnea


J. Dhivyadharshini; A.S.Smiline Girija; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 367-375

The review gives an overview on the relation between obesity and n-CoV disease. A review has been done to understand the correlation of obesity with the n-CoV disease by retrieving a maximum of related articles from various search engines like PubMed, Google Scholar, MeSH, Core, Cochrane, bioRxiv, Semantic scholar and so on published from 2000 to 2020 (till date). Obesity is associated with SARS- CoV-2 which enhances inflammatory response in obese people compared to actual standard BMIs. Obesity is often specifically related to producing inflammation by triggering a cytokine storm in the lungs, which raises the likelihood of ARDS, thereby requiring respiratory assistance for the main issue. Obesity can hinder breathing by hampering the excursion of the diaphragm, inhibit immune responses to critical infection, it is pro-inflammatory and triggers diabetes and even oxidizing tension to worsen cardiovascular activity. This study indicates that obese people through respiratory viruses COVID19 are more likely to be hospitalized comparatively. The implementation of novel ideas on obesity control of ailments will certainly bring about a massive change. Constraining less dependence on recent literature in this area and also upgrading numerous research to increase consciousness among the general public so that they may take measures not to be vulnerable to COVID 19. The current research has shown a strong incidence of obesity in patients participating in medical treatment with SARS-CoV-2. Obesity can be hazard factored to SARS-CoV-2 severity which needs increased attention in susceptible individuals to take preventive measures.


B.V.M. Anirudh; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Nivethigaa. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 737-747

Sedentary lifestyle has become a huge concern in one's life, in which physical inactivity has become a major health problem. Prevalence of sedentary life is increasing nowadays and is seen more commonly in the student population. Sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity is an important health concern which is increasing day by day around the globe. It affects the whole body which mainly causes cardiovascular problems.The Aim of this research is to bring awareness about sedentary lifestyle, obesity and cardiovascular disease in the student population.A questionnaire of a total 15 questions were prepared and was uploaded through surveyplanet. The responses were collected and then interpreted as pie charts and bar graphs. A total of 100 undergraduate college students have taken the survey. The data was analysed by IBM-SPSS software where descriptive statistics and chi square test was done, where the results are plotted as graphs and pie charts.A total of 100 college students have taken up the survey in which 47% were male and 53% were female. In a question pertaining to how many people were following a healthy diet- 74 % have answered yes and 26% said no. The next question was about exercising everyday in which 62 % said yes while 38% said no. In which 47% males and 15% females have answered yes.97% agree that sedentary lifestyle leads to complications such as obesity. 90% of the students are aware about the increase in sedentary lifestyle among students. 69% have answered that unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity,smoking etc were the common causes of obesity. 95% agree that obesity causes respiratory problems. Almost 95 % students agree that obesity causes systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension which will ultimately lead to cardiovascular problems.Chi square test was done between gender and people who are following a healthy diet and exercising daily where p<0.05 which is statistically significant.Our study showed that almost all students were aware about sedentary lifestyle and its complications, but the females in the study have shown that they do not follow a healthy diet and do not exercise regularly which makes them prone to obesity and ultimately cardiovascular problems. To avoid these problems, awareness has to be spread in colleges about the seriousness of obesity and its harmful effects and how to prevent it.


John Francis; Jothi priya; Lavanya prathap; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2236-2247

Everyone gets separated after a few days when they get bored due to that depression. Self quarantine reduces the economic development of the country. Everyone working has many responsibilities but due to this self quarantine in this lockdown shortage of money leads the country to drop in economic status. Due to self quarantine many are affected mentally, they usually get depressed and lose their peace. Cannot concentrate in what they are doing and change in their mood swings. Self quarantine Self quarantine is most useful during the time of spreading disease. This study is done with the help of an online survey. Many are used to this self quarantine. Many ill effects are there in self quarantine like obesity, due to obesity leads to myocardial infarction but other than these many useful things are occurring due to self quarantine like reducing usage of vehicles which reduces global warming. This study created awareness about the self quarantine and told how to spend free time properly