Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : obesity


Comparison of vitamin D3 levels in normal, overweight and obese individuals.

Mahesh Poojeri, , Manisha Biswal, Suraj Rao H, Bhanukumar M, Akash Duragkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 531-538

Obesity is considered as a global epidemic. It is associated with risk of multiple health problems. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in India. Vitamin D deficiency is increasingly associated with insulin resistance, type 2 DM and CVD, conditions also commonly linked with overweight and obesity.
Aims:
Comparison of vitamin D3 levels in normal, overweight and obese individuals without comorbidities.
Settings and Design:
Cross sectional observation study
Methods and Material:
189 eligible individuals were enrolled, divided into 3 groups based on BMI- normal, overweight, obese according to guideline for Asian population. Excluding secondary obesity. Blood samples for vitamin D measurement and anthropometric measurements were taken.
Statistical analysis used:
Comparison among different BMI categories will be done using ANOVA (Analysis of variants) followed by post hoc comparison.
Results:
Our study revealed that Hypovitaminosis D was most common in the obese and subjects with central obesity. Overall 64.6% had Vitamin D deficiency, 22.2% had insufficiency, only 13.2% had normal vitamin D. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 68% of subjects with central obesity as compared to 32% without central obesity.
Conclusions:
In our study there was hypovitaminosis D in all 3 groups, but the mean level of 25(OH) D was very low in obese and overweight individuals without comorbidities and hypovitaminosis D directly proportional to the central obesity. Overall vitamin D deficiency is present in even normal individuals.

The Effect of Obesity on the Incidence of Late Menopause in Women Age 55-65 Years in the Work Area of the Medan Johor Health Center in 2022

Suriati Lubis

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3290-3293

Menopause indicates that a woman's menstrual and reproductive period has ended. This happens because the ovaries are aging causing the production of the hormone estrogen to decrease. A woman's body who is obese will make some estrogen in fat tissue so that fat women have estrogen levels that are higher than normal estrogen levels so that with active estrogen, women are still menstruating (late menopause). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of obesity on the incidence of late menopause in women aged 55-65 years in the Medan Johor Health Center Work Area in 2022. The study was an observational analytic study with a case-control design. The results found that there were 34 women (69.4%) aged 55-65 years in the case group with obesity (BMI > 25). The results of bivariate analysis using the simple logistic regression test showed that there was a significant effect between obesity and late menopause where a p-value of 0.015. The conclusion is that there was an effect of obesity on the incidence of late menopause in women aged 55-65 years in the working area of ​​the Medan Johor Health Center in 2022. The advice given is that women who have experienced menopause should carry out regular checks and maintain an ideal body weight to avoid risk factors for health problems at the age of menopause and maintain a healthy lifestyle to avoid complications after menopause.

Study of Serum Lipid level on Obese and Non-Obese Young Adult Subjects in Central India

Dr. Om Prakash Garg, Prof. (Dr.) Sunil Kumar Khare, Prof. (Dr.) Maninder Bindra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4538-4545

Background: Obesity is a major public health problem that results in decreased life expectancy, especially in younger age groups. Both lipid and blood sugar are found to be deranged in people who are obese for a long period of time. Obesity is a metabolic disorder and its outcome is due to multiple interactions between genes, lifestyle and the environment. This study aims at measuring and correlating values of serum cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels in obese and non-obese individuals.
Material and methods: A total number of 100 individuals of the age group between 18-29 years, coming for health check-ups at L.N. Medical College and J.K. Hospital, Bhopal were selected for the study. They were divided into groups. One group with BMI over 25 is considered an obese group, and another with a BMI less than 25 is considered a non-obese group. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for blood cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
Results: A significant increase in levels of Serum Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL and a significant decrease in HDL in obese young adult males and females were observed. The young adult obese have relatively larger changes in serum lipids at any given level of obesity. The study has documented several lipid profile abnormalities among obese and non-obese subjects.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the presence of statistically significant changes in fat proportions is considered a risk factor for Heart, blood vessels and obesity in central India

Clinical study of various intraoperative complications observed during lower segment caesarean section surgeries at a tertiary care hospital

Pankaj Narayan Baravkar, Tanavi Pankaj Baravkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2277-2282

Background: The cesarean section increases the likelihood of requiring a blood transfusion, the risk of anesthesia complications, organ injury, infection, and thromboembolic disease. Present study was aimed to study, various intraoperative complications observed during lower segment caesarean section surgeries at a tertiary care hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was retrospective, descriptive study, medical records of women had intraoperative surgical complication/s duringLSCS surgeries at our hospital were analysed.
Results: Incidence of intraoperative complications was 4.87 % (104 out of 2134 LSCS surgeries). Majority were from 26-30 years age group (38.46 %), had parity 1 (46.15 %), had history previous 1 LSCS (38.46 %) & previous 2 LSCS (33.65 %). Common risk factors noted were Obesity (BMI > 25 kg/m2) (37.5 %), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (20.19 %), Anaemia (19.23 %), previous laparotomy (17.31 %) & h/o intraoperative complication in previous LSCS surgery (16.35 %). In cases with previous LSCS, common indication was impending scar dehiscence (34.62 %) followed by elective LSCS for previous ≥ 2 LSCS (25 %), Antepartum Hemorrhage - Placenta previa (10.58 %), Fetal Distress (9.62 %), Obstructed Labour / Second stage LSCS (8.65 %). Intra-operative complications noted were extension of uterine incision (37.5 %), Dense uterine adhesions (35.58 %), intra operative atonic post-partum haemorrhage (28.04 %), scar dehiscence (18.27 %), bleeding from placental bed (14.42 %), bladder injury (3.85 %), Injury to inferior epigastric vessels (2.88 %), placenta accreta spectrum (1.92 %) & bowel injury (0.96 %). Maternal mortality was observed in 2 cases (1- placenta accreta, 1 – post-partum hemorrhage)
Conclusion: Pregnant women posted for LSCS with pre-operative high-risk factors such as obesity, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (20.19 %), history of previous laparotomy/intraoperative complication in previous LSCS surgery are prone for intraoperative complications. 
LSCS, obesity, intraoperative complication, previous LSCS surgery 

Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension among adults in Rajasthan, India

Dr. AjeshKumar Damor; Dr. Guru Kumar Sain; Mahesh Kumar Kharadi; Dr. PrafulBala Honta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1823-1828

Background::Hypertension is a major public health problem among India. It is a important area of research due to its high prevalence and being major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and other complications.

Effect of Body Mass Index on Lipid Profile of Type 2 Diabetic Patients at an Urban Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

K. Priyadarshini, Dr. Manila Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 701-716

Introduction:Diabetes mellitus is an important global public health problem. In addition to being a chronic disease, obesity is a key risk factor for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that leads to disability. This study aimed at investigating the effect of Body Mass Index on serum lipid profile in type II diabetic patients.
 
Material and Methods
This is a prospective study and observational study will be done in the Department of Physiology in collaboration     with the Department of Medicine, Index Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Indore.Inclusion Criteria:Only Diagnosed cases of male and female Type II Diabetes Mellitus cases aged 30-60 suffering from more than 2yrs. The diagnosis of diabetes is made on the basis of (Revised American Diabetic Association criteria). Fasting glucose >126mg/dl and 2hr postprandial plasma glucose >200mg/dl.
 
Results: The mean (± SD) of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases. When compared these variables between controls and cases was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Comparison of various motor nerve variables like latency, amplitude and nerve conduction velocity between control and cases are graphically shown.
 
Conclusion: A significant negative correlation between BMI and HDL-C was observed, while the correlation between BMI and LDL-C was observed to be insignificant. HDL-C was found significantly higher in patients with normal BMI. These results are important to indicate that there is modest impact of BMI on lipid profile. Therefore, assessment and management for altered blood lipids should not be based on a patient’s body weight or BMI.

Study of prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among school children aged 6-14 years studying in affluent private schools in Hyderabad and associated social factors leading to obesity and overweight

Dr. Abhishek Mahankali V; Dr. Karanam Pranoty; Dr. Pallati Vijay Ananth

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1737-1749

Background: The term "obesity" refers to an abnormal expansion of the adipose tissue that can be caused by an increase in the number of fat cells (hyperplastic obesity), an increase in the size of the fat cells themselves (hypertrophic obesity), or a combination of both of these factors. The body mass index (BMI) is frequently used as a measurement of obesity.

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its associated risk factors in a tertiary care center, Rajasthan, India

Dr. Ajesh Kumar Damor; Dr. Guru Kumar Sain; Mahesh Kumar Kharadi; Dr. Praful Bala Honta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1829-1835

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, debilitating disease constitutes a global health threat and burden, especially in developing countries. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 and its associated risk factors.

ASSOCIATION OF ABDOMINAL OBESITY WITH PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE IN ADULT INDIAN MALES

Anju Goel, Taruna, Manisha Gupta, Prateek Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1673-1679

Background: Obesity is linked to a wide range of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnoea, pulmonary embolic disease and aspiration pneumonia.
Aims and Objective: To assess the correlation between Obesity markers (BMI and waist circumference) and PEFR in adult males.
Material and Methods: One hundred male subjects in the age group of 20-50 years were recruited, their obesity parameters BMI and WC were recorded by standard methods and Peak expiratory flow rates by Mini Wright’s Peak flow meter.
Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant negative correlation of BMI with PEFR (r = -0.3885) and Waist circumference with PEFR (r = -0.4010, p<0.05). Conclusion: Obesity produces significant deterioration in the PEFR.

Association of serum Leptin with Gonadotrophins and Prolactin in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients attending Tertiary Medical Hospital in Southern Odisha

DrPrachi Jena; DrRasmita Kumari Padhy; DrDevi Prasad Pradhan; Prof. Dr.Nirupama Devi; Dr.Lipika Behera; Dr.Manaswini Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 429-438

Introduction: Leptin is an ob gene encoded adipocyte derived hormone which serves as a relay link between metabolic signals and brain to regulate the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis. Leptin is associated with obesity which is a major cause of PCOS in women of reproductive age group. Aim: The purpose of study was to evaluate the association of serum leptin concentration with gonadotrophins and prolactin in women with PCOS. Material and Method: Itwas a case control study conducted for a span of oneyear at one year, at Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MKCG Medical College and Hospital from December 2018 to December 2019, where 60 PCOS subjects and 30age matched normal ovulatory controls of 15 – 30 years age group with BMI<25 kg/m2 were included. BMI was calculated and study population was divided into 2 groups that is Lean PCOS group with BMI < 25kg/m2 and Obese PCOS group with BMI ≥ 25kg/m2.Serum leptin, gonadotrophins and prolactin were estimated on 2nd or 3rd day of menstrual cycle. Data was represented as mean and standard deviation and statistical analysis was done in SPSS version 25. Data analysis was done using one-way ANOVA test, correlation was calculated by using the Pearson’s correlation method. A ‘p’ value of

STUDY ON VOCAL CORD PALSY AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING ENT DEPARTMENT OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL.

Bagade Vinod G, Dahire Prashant L, Baravakar Jalindar P, Bhondwe Meghraj R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2039-2046

Background: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. It also includes the ability to lead a “socially and economically productive life.” Obesity is a cluster of non-communicable diseases which creates an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. That is why obesity is now termed as “New World Syndrome”. Aim- To study health status of Bank Employees in a City with special reference to Obesity. Objectives- 1.To study prevalence of generalized obesity. 2. To study association between prevalence of generalized obesity with socio-demographic factors in Bank Employees.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out among bank employees in Ambajogai city of Maharashtra from August 2016 to December 2018 in 236 bank employees.
Results and conclusion- Overall 43.6% of bank employees had generalized obesity. The prevalence of obesity by waist-hip ratio was 46.6%. The prevalence of overweight was 14.4%. The prevalence of generalized obesity increased significantly with increasing age (p=0.029). Generalized obesity was more prevalent in female employees than male employees but no significant association found. The prevalence of generalized obesity was significantly associated with factors such as age, post of bank employees, history of addiction and mixed type of diet. The factors like sex, religion, marital status, socioeconomic status, and education were not statistically associated with generalized obesity.

STUDY OF CLINICO-SOCIAL & PROFILE OF YOUNG OBESE INDIVIDUALS AT A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

Mohsin Mohammed Bava, Roshan M , Nithasha N H

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2024-2030

Background: Obesity can alter lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. There is an epidemic rise in obesity in the country. Dyslipidemia (DLP), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) has been recognized as a common complication of obesity. Present study was aimed to study clinico-social profile of young obese individuals at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, descriptive, observational study, conducted in young individuals (18-40 years age group), with BMI ≥25kg/m2. Results: Among 150 young obese individuals, common age group was between 36 -40 years of age (53.3 %) and the mean age was 34.43 ± 3.76 years. Majority were male (62 %) as compared to female (38 %). Majority cases were in the BMI group of 25-30 kg/m2 (74%) as compared to > 30 kg/m2 (26%). High risk factors such as alcohol consumption (38 %), smoking (43.3 %) & family history of obesity (25.3 %) were also noted. The most common associated comorbidity was dyslipidemia found in 12.7% of cases followed by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in 8.7% and then impaired fasting glucose in 8% of cases. 69.3% of cases had no history of comorbidities It was found that impaired fasting glucose was seen in 53.3% of cases where as only 11.3% were having type 2 diabetes mellitus.  In this study, it was found that dyslipidemia was seen among 82% of the cases. High TC, LDL and TC/HDL-C ratio was found in 3.3%, 22% and 62.7% of subjects, respectively. Percentage of hypertriglyceridemia was 36.7% among the cases. Low HDL was found in 33.3% of subjects.
Conclusion: Young obese individuals are prone for altered fasting blood sugar (impaired fasting glucose &/and type 2 diabetes mellitus) & dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and high TC/HDL-C).

To study the effects of weight reduction in osteoarthritis knee in obese patients

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 6128-6132

Objective: To study the effects of weight reduction on clinical and functional outcomes in obese patients with early osteoarthritis (grade 1 and 2).
Methods: Study included 100 patients. All patients were selected from orthopaedic and diet clinic. All these patients were obese with BMI>30 kg/m2 and suffering from early osteoarthritis(grade 1 and 2). Severity of osteoarthritis was scaled on WOMAC pain and WOMAC functional scoring system. All the patients were managed with weight reduction diet plans and reviewed after every 15 days for clinical improvement. Final assessment of these patients done at 3months. As per their percentage weight loss they were divided in to four group (weight loss<5%, 5-10%, 10-20% and >20%).

Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients with Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Study

Bhausaheb Vasantrao Jagdale, Gouse Bin Mohammad Shaik, Vinay Kshirsagar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2413-2418

Background:Body  adiposity,  especially  ectopic  fat  accumulation,  has  a  range  of  metabolic  and cardiovascular effects. This study aimed to investigate whether thyroid function is associated with various regional fat quantities in euthyroid subjects.
Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted on 90 patients divided into 2 groups (a) newly detected hypothyroids (b) normal control group. Cases were matched with controls in having similar environment exposure and age group. All patients had routine symptom and clinical assessment. Laboratory investigations such as complete blood picture, pulmonary function test, chest x ray and thyroid function test were done. Data was entered and analyzed.
Results: In this study author observed a significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio in hypothyroids. FVC between cases and controls did not show statistical significance, although the mean FVC was found to be lower in cases (1.44) as compared to controls (1.79). The various respiratory patterns seen in cases were as follows: obstructive pattern (32%), followed by mixed pattern and restrictive pattern (28%, 22% respectively). Furthermore, we observed that there was no significant correlation between TSH or fT4 with FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC.
Conclusion: This study shows that hypothyroidism causes significant decrease in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, thereby suggesting obstructive patterns of lung involvement. Therefore, PFT can be used routinely as a screening test for all hypothyroid patients to detect early respiratory dysfunction and thereby optimize treatment especially in obese patients and patients with pre-existing lung disease as hypothyroidism adds to their respiratory dysfunction.

Effect of obesity on parasympathetic nervous system

Dr. Ravi Manawat, Dr. Manila Jain, Dr. Vipin Kumar Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1693-1697

Introduction: Obesity is associated with adverse and deranged cardiovascular events which could be due to the altered Sympathetic and parasympathetic balance seen in these individuals. In recent times Obesity is recognized and considered as a Major, worldwide, health issue.
Material and Method: The Present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Index Medical College, Indore (MP).50 Obese (25 male and 25 female) and 50 non obese (25 male and 25 female) young adults were included. A parasympathetic test was performed on both the groups. All data are expressed as mean± standard deviation. Comparison between groups of obese male, non-obese male, obese female and non-obese female was performed using student’s t-test (t-test for two independent samples / Two-tailed test). Differences was considered significant at p<0.05.
Result: It was observed that obese young adults had reduced parasympathetic activity.
Conclusion: This altered balance of Autonomic Nervous system increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders.

Analysis of Safety and Efficacy of a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in the Morbid and Super Obese Patients at a Tertiary Care Centre

Gopal, Sharad Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1339-1343

Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been proved to be the benchmark
treatment for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The overall morbidity and mortality rate is 5–
10% and 0.1% respectively, and an open conversion rate of 5–10% is commonly
reported in the literature. Over a century, classical cholecystectomy (Open method) has
been the method of choice in the surgical management of gall bladder diseases. One of
the risk factors for cholelithiasis is obesity, the incidence of which is increasing
worldwide due to the change in lifestyle habitat. Therefore, surgeons are likely to
encounter increasing number of obese patients who require a cholecystectomy for
symptomatic cholelithiasis. Conventionally obesity has been considered as a relative
contraindication to LC, as the technical difficulties associated with this procedure in
these patients were thought to be associated with higher morbidity and mortality as well
as increased open conversion rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety
[peri-operative morbidity and mortality and the incidence of bile duct injuries (BDI)]
and efficacy (duration of surgery, LOS and open conversion rates) of an elective LC in
the morbid/ super obese patients (BMI > 40) compared to patients with a BMI < 26 and
a BMI 26–40.

A Cross-sectional study on Coronary risk factors among students of a medical college in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka, India

Dr.Nanjesh Kumar S,Diwakar Kumar Singh, Animesh Gupta, Shahul Hameed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 707-714

Background:Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) like ischaemic heart disease,
cerebrovascular diseases account for 17.7 million deaths and are the leading causes.
CVDs occurs in Indians a decade earlier than the western population.Lifestyle-related
behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for the increased burden of CHD, and
research related to these risk factors among medical students is essential, considering
their role as future healers and role models in public health intervention programs.
Objective: Study the prevalence of coronary risk factors among students of a Medical
college in Mangalore.
Methodology: A cross sectional study was done among M.B.B.S students of a Medical
College from November 2017 to March 2018. The study comprised of 500 students. A
pre-tested semi structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Data was
collected by interview cum, clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations.
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software.
Results: Out of 500 subjects 293 were females and 207 were males. 380 (76%) subjects
were consuming transfattyacid food items. 150 (30%) subjects had overweight and 40
(8%) subjects had Obesity. 80 (16%) subjects had Truncal obesity, 135 (27%) subjects
were consuming alcohol and smoking was seen in 58 (11.6%) subjects.107(21.4%)
subjects had high cholesterol. 90 (18%) subjects had lack of physical activity, 71
(14.2%) subjects had family history of CHD. 8 (1.6%) subjects had Hypertension and
10 (2%) subjects had impaired fasting blood sugar.

A study on prevalence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension among healthy school children at an altitude of 4000-5000 feet

Dr. Divyabh Gehlot, Dr. Neelam Grover, Dr. Hemant Gupta, Dr. Rajeev Vinayak, Dr. Amudeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 430-437

Introduction: Early diagnosis of hypertension is an important strategy in its control which is usually
missed in OPD practice. Kumarhatti, Solan, was selected as the place of study based on the new AAP
2017 criteria to find the prevalence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension at an altitude of 4000-
5000 feet.
Objective: To measure blood pressure of school going children and to classify BP measurements into
normal BP, Elevated BP and Hypertension.
Methods: 600 children between 10 to 17 years of age were selected from urban and rural schools. The
final diagnosis of HTN was made if a child or adolescent had auscultatory confirmed BP readings
≥95thpercentile on 3 different visits. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS20.
Results: Prevalence of EBP, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension was found to be 15, 8%, 4.5% and 1%
respectively in the study. Prevalence of EBP and stage 1 hypertension was higher in urban population
(17.2% and 5.3% respectively) whereas stage 2 hypertension was almost equal in both population
(P<0.05). Prevalence of EBP, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension was maximum in obese category as
38.6%, 13.63%, 6.8% followed by overweight 24%, 11.25%, 2.5% respectively (P<0.05). The prevalence
of positive family history among study subjects was 15% (N=90) with P value<0.05.
Conclusion: Prevalence of hypertension was 5.5% in the study subjects. Prevalence of EBP and stage 1
hypertension was higher in urban population. Our study revealed that prevalence of elevated blood
pressure and hypertension was significantly more in overweight and obese children and with positive
family history compared to normal children proving obesity and positive family history as an important
risk factor for hypertension in children.

A Prospective Study Evaluating the Correlation of Sleep Pattern, Melatonin Secretion and Obesity

Annie Sandhu1, Dharminder Singh2, Akashdeep Singh2, Kuldip Singh Sandhu3, Savvy Aujla4 .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3174-3180

Background: The present study aims to assess correlation of sleep patterns, melatonin secretion, and obesity.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-two subjects in age ranged 11-17 years of both genders were subjected to fasting blood glucose, insulin level, uric acid, lipid profile and renal function test measurement. Insulin resistance and level of melatonin with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were determined.
Results: There were 30 males and 22 females without insulin resistance (IR) and 40 males and 30 females with IR. There were 6 prepubertal, 12 pubertal, and 34 postpubertal subjects without IR and 8 prepubertal, 15 pubertal, and 47 postpubertal subjects with IR. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) (Kg/m2) was 29.1 and 34.2, Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) (mm Hg) was 128.6 and 134.2, Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) (mm Hg) was 66 and 72, total cholesterol (TC) (mg/dl) was 160.2 and 164.8, triglyceride (TG) (mg/dl) was 70 and 104.2, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) (mg/dl) cholesterol was 54.2 and 46.8 and Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (mg/dl) cholesterol was 92 and 98 in subjects without IR and in subjects with IR respectively. The mean uric acid was 5.3 mg/dl in subjects without IR and 5.9 mg/dl in subjects with IR. The mean MT6s:Cr (Melatonin 6s: Creatinine) ratio was 31.4 in subjects without IR and 27.4 in subjects with IR. The difference between both groups was found to be significant (P< 0.05).

Contemporary directions in fatty liver disease in light of low-carbohydrate approach: a review by public health India

Abhinav V Pathare, Anup B Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 808-817

This study aims to equip health professionals with essential directions for their practice and
research in fatty liver disease. In fatty liver disease, excess fat is accumulated in the liver
cells, and it mainly has two types: Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (AFLD) and Non-Alcoholic
Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). AFLD is widely accepted to be associated with excessive
alcohol consumption. However, in NAFLD's case, although the name acknowledges that it is
not associated with excessive alcohol consumption, the exact cause of NAFLD remains
ambiguous. Furthermore, for almost four decades, without specialised treatments and
prevention strategies, NAFLD has constantly increased, affecting more than a quarter of the
world's population. Meanwhile, although the current dietary recommendations for NAFLD
patients orbit around the conventional High-Carbohydrate Low-Fat diets, mounting evidence
advocates the broader benefits of Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat (LCHF) diets in this regard.
Therefore, focusing on the databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google
Scholar, the authors have carried out an advanced literature search reporting on the efficacy
of LCHF diets on NAFLD. After a comprehensive search—using appropriate "keywords and
Boolean operators" and "inclusion & exclusion criteria"—the authors selected a potentially
relevant set of existing peer-reviewed articles for this narrative review. After critically
investigating the LCHF-NAFLD theme, the authors found that LCHF diets may significantly
decrease liver fat and may even reverse the disease by targeting the key causes of hepatic fat
storage, i.e., high insulin levels, excessive calorie consumption (mainly from carbohydrates),
and excessive consumption of refined carbohydrates. Additionally, LCHF diets may provide
a comprehensive health benefit beyond liver health. The authors conclude that the LCHFNAFLD
theme represents a rich vein of research opportunities. The authors encourage and
call researchers, doctors, nutritionists, dieticians, and related-health professionals to engage
more with the LCHF-NAFLD theme.

A STUDY OF HEALTH STATUS OF BANK EMPLOYEES IN A CITY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OBESITY

Bagade Vinod G, Dahire Prashant L, Baravakar Jalindar P, Bhondwe Meghraj R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1674-1681

Background: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. It also includes the ability to lead a “socially and economically productive life.” Obesity is a cluster of non-communicable diseases which creates an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. That is why obesity is now termed as “New World Syndrome”. Aim- To study health status of Bank Employees in a City with special reference to Obesity. Objectives- 1.To study prevalence of generalized obesity. 2. To study association between prevalence of generalized obesity with socio-demographic factors in Bank Employees.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out among bank employees in Ambajogai city of Maharashtra from August 2016 to December 2018 in 236 bank employees.
Results and conclusion- Overall 43.6% of bank employees had generalized obesity. The prevalence of obesity by waist-hip ratio was 46.6%. The prevalence of overweight was 14.4%. The prevalence of generalized obesity increased significantly with increasing age (p=0.029). Generalized obesity was more prevalent in female employees than male employees but no significant association found. The prevalence of generalized obesity was significantly associated with factors such as age, post of bank employees, history of addiction and mixed type of diet. The factors like sex, religion, marital status, socioeconomic status, and education were not statistically associated with generalized obesity.

Assessment of correlation between obesity and glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetic patients

Abhishek, Jaikirat Singh Gugnani, Harkamalpreet Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1711-1714

Background: To assess the correlation between obesity and glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetic patients.
Materials & methods: 50 patients were enrolled. The categorisation of patients was done based on BMI. Blood samples were obtained and sent to the laboratory where HbA1c values were assessed. Further evaluation of the correlation between obesity and glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetic patients was done.
Results: Mean HbA1c among diabetic subjects with normal BMI, overweight and obese status was 7.2%, 8.9% and 10.1% respectively. Significant results were obtained while correlating obesity and glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetic patients.
Conclusion: There exists a significant correlation between obesity and glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetic patients.  

STUDY OF CLINICAL, BIOCHEMICAL, HISTOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

A. Praveen Naik, Md. Masood Ahmed Shareef

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1640-1648

Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a clinicopathological syndrome, characterized by the development of histological features comparable to those induced by excessive alcohol intake without alcohol abuse. This study is an attempt to evaluate the clinical, biochemical and histological profile of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in this tertiary hospital in Rayalasema.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, prospective, observational study, conducted in patients of all ages, either gender, who are found to have increased echo texture of liver on routine ultra-sound scan.
Results: The present study was conducted on 60 patients, comprised of 36(60%) males and 24(40%) females. Majority were from the age group of 41 to 50 years there were 22 (36.66%) cases of which 12 (54.54%) were males and 10 (45.46%) were females.  The commonest symptom was fatigability and malaise (66.66%), followed by right upper abdominal discomfort (46.66%), Jaundice (10%), ascites (10%), UGI Bleed (8.3%) patients and 20 (33.33%) patients were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis and diagnosis was established due to abnormal sonographic finding and abnormal liver function tests during investigations for other causes. Hyperlipidemia (61.67%), diabetes mellitus (58.33%), obesity (46.67%) & overweight (50%) were the most commonly associated risk factors noted. 7 patients underwent biopsy. Of these 4.28% patient showed steatohepatitis, 42.86% patients showed simple fatty change and 14.28% patient had cirrhosis. Other 28.57% had no specific changes.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that features suggestive of the metabolic syndrome are observed more frequently in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, share many of the systemic disorders that constitute insulin resistance syndrome, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis.

ASSESSING THE CORRELATION BETWEEN LEVELS OF GLYCOSYLATED HB AND SERUM ALBUMIN IN SUBJECTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Dr. Bharat Kumar Parmer,Dr. Roshan Mandloi, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dubey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 401-406

Background: Diabetes mellitus has a high prevalence globally with rising incidence in the
world. Despite the identification of diabetes mellitus and associated complications for a long
time, the measures to reduce mortality and morbidity in subjects with diabetes mellitus are
focused only for a few decades.
Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between levels of
glycosylated Hb and serum albumin in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Method: The present institution-based observational study included subjects with a
confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 where levels of glycosylated hemoglobin
(HbA1c) and serum albumin were assessed and correlated.
Result: It was seen that in subjects with glycosylated hemoglobin of <7%, mean serum
albumin level was 3.87±0.88 mg/dl, in subjects with glycosylated hemoglobin of 7-9%, mean
serum albumin level was 2.95±0.53 mg/dl, and in subjects with hemoglobin of >9%, it was
seen that mean serum albumin was 2.46±0.69 mg/dl. A negative correlation was noted where
lesser HbA1C% was related to higher mean values of serum albumin.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that subjects having higher values of glycosylated
hemoglobin have lower serum albumin levels compared to subjects where lower glycosylated
hemoglobin levels in subjects were associated with near-normal or normal serum albumin
levels.

Obesity with cardiopulmonary wellbeing and oxidative stress in asymptomatic individuals with/without family background of T2DM

Bonala Sharat Babu,Dr. Shreya Nigoskar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1212-1218

Introduction: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have emerged as new drivers of CVD risk
as a result of our contemporary overconsumption of processed and energy-dense food
products with low nutritional value, paired with our sedentary lifestyle. Increased oxidative
stress is a well-known contributor to the onset and progression of diabetes,
as well as its consequences.
Material and Methods: This is a prospective and observational study conducted at
Department of Biochemistry. Students and apparently healthy cases in the age of 18-30 years
who accompanied DM patients in were included for the study (n = 50). Individuals who are
taking any medications for a health issue that prevents them from conducting sub-maximal
exercise, as well as those who engage in regular physical activity, yoga, or other biofeedback,
were excluded from the research. For the control group (n = 50), age and gender matched
seemingly healthy adults with no family history of diabetes were recruited.
Results: The cardiovascular parameters of controls and cases individuals are shown and
Heart rate (p <0.001), blood pressure (SBP p< 0.001, DBP p <0.001, MAP p <0.001)and rate
pressure product (p 0.001) all showed statistically significant differences, but PP (< 0.135)
did not. The body fat distribution, cardio respiratory fitness as determined by the Cooper 12-
minute run test, and blood glucose readings of controls and patients. Body fat percentage
(p<0.001), visceral fat (p<0.001), Cooper 12-minute run test (p<0.001), and FBS (p<0.001)
were all significantly different. The differences in oxidative stress parameters across groups.
Between controls and cases participants, there was a significant difference in TAOS
(p<0.000) and MDA (p<0.000).
Conclusion: In our study, we found that both groups had similar age, height, and waist-hip
ratio (WHR), but FDRDM had a considerably higher body mass index (BMI). Fasting
percentage body fat and blood glucose levels were significantly higher, and the 12-minute
walk distance was much shorter in FDRDM. Visceral fat levels were marginally elevated, but
not statistically significant alteration during the early stages of illness significant differences
in oxidative markers were observed among the subjects.

The effect of body mass index (BMI) on the mortality among patients with stroke

Salah Elsayed, Muath Othman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 181-186

Stroke is considered one of the leading causesof morbidity and mortality in many
countries. Many studies investigated the outcomes after the occurrence of stroke.
Some of those research studies indicated that obesity and the increasein the
bodymass index areestablished risk factors for mortality among stroke patients.
However, the results of these studies were inconsistent.The main aim of this review
article was to examine the association between bodymass index and mortality
among stroke patients. The majority of the studies had shown a possible effect of
overweight on mortality among stroke patients; the evidence regarding the
association's presence is limited.On the other hand, the majority of the studies had
shown a protective effect of obesity (mild obesity, bodymass index between 30-35)
onreducingthe risk of mortality among stroke patients. This means underweight
stroke patients have more risk of mortality. Thus, the argument regarding the effect
of high bodymass index on mortality has been explained by the obesity paradox.
However, most of those studies were observational, and results could be attributed
to the methodological flaw. There is a need to well-designed prospective studies that
to overcome the limitation of the previous studies.

THE EFFECT OF OBESITY AND ITS ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES WHO ATTEND IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER IN MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH 2021

Dalia Awad Eid Aljohani, Abdullah Ali Atoodi, Salem Mansour Algorashi, Abdullah Eidhah Mohammed Almalki, Ola Jameel Filfilan, Afnan Adnan Abdullah Bukhari, Meyaser Adnan Sembawah, Juman Maid Albajaly, Saeed Safran Husseen Al-Malki, Nisreen Mater Khader Allehyani, Ateeq Ali Naffaa Albeshri , Fahad Salem Alsolami

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3006-3022

Background:
     Overweight and obesity constitute a global pandemic with devastating consequences that affect >2 billion people. Obesity plays a central role in morbidity and mortality of diseases of multiple organs and systems, and it is a major contributor to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes. There is now sufficient level of evidence for the association between overweight and type 2 diabetes, among which are the most common type 2 diabetes worldwide.  Obesity results from a combination of personal and societal factors, but is often viewed as a character flaw rather than a medical condition. This leads to stigma and discrimination towards obese individuals and decreases the likelihood of effective intervention. Conditions related to obesity are increasingly common, such as metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), all of which indicate high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and excessive alcohol intake also account for the burden of type 2 diabetes by promoting obesity. The risk of specific type 2 diabetes is also directly influenced, regardless of the magnitude of adiposity, by physical inactivity, consumption of red meat, processed meat and ultra-processed foods, dairy products, alcohol, whole grain cereals, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. The study aimed: To assess the effect of obesity and its associated risk factors on patients with type 2 diabetes who attend in primary health care center in Makkah al-Mokarramah 2021. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity who registered in the chronic disease clinic attended diabetes centre in Makkah at Saudi Arabia in 2021. Our total participants were (300).Results: the total number of participants was 300 were males and female. The participants were classified into 3 age groups, most of them were (54.3%)in the <30 years fallowed by 39-50 years were(29.3%),  regarding gender of  participated male were (70.3%), follow by female were(29.7 %), type of treatment do you use for diabetes, results show a significant relation between BMI and what type of treatment do you use for diabetes, also complications from diabetes, results show a significant relation between BMI and complications from diabetes, Physical activities or exercise, results show a significant relation between BMI and Physical activities or exercise. Eating a portion of fruit, results a significant relation between BMI and Eating a portion of fruit, eating a portion of vegetables, results show a significant relation between BMI and Eating a portion of vegetables Conclusion: Obesity is a highly prevalent comorbidity in type 2 diabetic patients.  Some modifiable risk factors were identified. Multidisciplinary effort is warranted to reduce obesity among type 2 diabetic patients.  appears to be a better indicator of diabetic risk than BMI. The combination of a low-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavioral therapy as the first-line intervention for weight loss should be stressed for the effective management of T2diabetic patients.

Awareness of the Impact of COVID-19 virus on the depression on Population at Saudi Arabia at Makkah in Saudi Arabia 2021

Moaaz Mohammed Fadelelahy, Basem Saad Alghamdi, Molham Emam Badry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3210-3226

      The COVID-19 pandemic in KSA resulted in a nationwide quarantine on March 27th, 2020. This study represents the assessment of rates of depression in the general population of KSA during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented global crisis, necessitating drastic changes to living conditions, social life, personal freedom and economic activity.  study has yet examined the presence of depression symptoms in the KSA population under similar conditions. Patients at risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory syndrome are characterised by the high prevalence of pre-existing diseases (high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer), most of them typically present in severely depression patients. Indeed, the biological role of adipose tissue in sustaining SARS-CoV-2 infection is not completely elucidated. Aim of the study: To assessment the awareness of the Impact of COVID-19 virus on the depression on Population at Saudi Arabia at Makkah in Saudi Arabia 2021 Method : Across-sectional study among Population residents in primary health care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah was conducted using an online questionnaire designed during April 2021. The questionnaire collected socio-demographic characteristics, depression Symptoms in participants before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic (via the PHQ-9 patient depression questionnaire) our total participants were (200). Results: most of the participants (41.0%) were in the age group more than 60 years  follow by the (37.0%)were in the age 30-40 years, the majority of them were female (27.0%) while male(28.0%), regarding  the marital status most of participants married were(44.0%), regarding level of education the majority of participant are Primary/ Intermediate were(35.0%), regarding Chronic Medical conditions the majority of participant are Diabetes were(42.0%) while High blood pressure were(33.0%) , regarding  the Working/studying from home most of participants answer No were(74.0%)while answer Yes were(15.33%).Conclusion: The research's showed increase in the prevalence of mental health problems and depression in the early stages of the pandemic, and these problems were predicted by several specific COVID related variables. Further similar surveys, particularly of those with children at home, are required as the pandemic progresses. In addition Anxiety and depression levels amongst Population at Saudi Arabia in healthcare were found to be high when assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic

A Hospital Based Observational Study to Evaluate the Effect of Prelabour Body Mass Index on the Mode of Delivery

Dr. Ramdas Garg, Dr. Avantica Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2679-2684

Background: Pre-pregnancy obesity is strongly associated with certain pregnancy
complications and perinatal conditions. Placental structure and function are important
for maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy. The aim of this study to
evaluate the effect of prelabour body mass index on the mode of delivery.
Materials and Methods: An hospital-based prospective study involving pregnant women
at term (33-37 weeks) admitted to gynaecology ward in district hospital Dholpur,
Rajasthan, India during one-year period. A total of 120 cases in the age group of 18-40
years included in the study. Patients were classified into 3 categories based on their first
trimester BMI. Category I included normal women (BMI 20- 24.9 kg/m2), Category II
included overweight women (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) and detailed history and clinical
examination including general physical, obstetrical and systemic examinations.
Category III included obese women (BMI >30 kg/m2). Data were analysed statistically
by Chi-square test of the dependence of variables and a p-value of less than 0.05 was
considered as statistically significant.
Results: Under anthropometric parameters, the differences in mean age, mean weight,
mean height and mean BMI among the three categories women were statistically
significant (p<0.001**), In this study, it was observed that overweight and obese women
were slightly older and short in stature when compared with women with normal BMI.
There was increased incidence of antepartum complications in Category III women as
compared to Category II and Category I women. The difference in the onset of labour
as well as mode of delivery among the three categories was statistically significant
(p<0.05*).
Conclusion: As obesity is a modifiable risk factor all attempts should be made to
maintain a normal BMI in women of childbearing age. Pre–pregnancy counselling,
health programme and appropriate multidisciplinary management should be done.

NEED OF VITAMIN D BEYOND BONE: A CONSISE REVIEW.

Roshan Kumar Jha; Deepika Kanyal; Dr. Archana Dhok; Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1096-1109

Vitamin D is also known as calciferol because of its role in calcium metabolism and antirachitic factor because it prevents rickets. It is a modified steroid, synthesised in the skin under the influence of sunlight and is necessary for metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Its RDA is 400 IU or 10 mg, it binds to the receptor of target cells and regulate through gene expression. Vitamin D undergoes hydroxylation in the liver to form 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D]. The two main forms are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). The main source of vitamin D in humans is in the form of vitamin D3, which is derived from synthesis in the skin via exposure of 7- dehydrocholesterol, concentrated in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum, to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. Vitamin D2 is obtained from the diet, and is derived from ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, found in fungi. Both metabolites are transported in the blood bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). These inactive vitamin D metabolites must undergo a two-step hydroxylation process to become biologically active. Initially, vitamin D2 and D3 undergo hydroxylation in the maternal liver, via the action of vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzyme (CYP27A1), to form the inactive steroid precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). 25[OH]D is the major circulating and stored form of vitamin D. In this present review we have focused on need of vitamin D beyond bone.

Hemodynamic indicators in pregnant women with obesity of various degrees of expression

Matlubov Mansur Muratovich; Muminov Abdukhalim Abduvakil; Khamdamova Eleonora Gafarovna; Yusupov Jasur Tolibovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2373-2380

Purpose: To study indicators of central and peripheral hemodynamics in pregnant women with obesity of varying severity at a gestational age of 36-38 weeks.
Materials and Methods: To study hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, SDD, UI, SI, OPSS, CR, LVMI) in pregnant women with obesity of varying severity, 127 pregnant women (I, main group) aged from 23 to 34 years were selected obesity of varying severity with gestational age 36-38 weeks. The second (control) group consisted of 28 pregnant women of the same age and gestational age with normal body weight (body mass index from 19 to 24.9 kg / m2). The groups were identical in age, gestational age, which allowed for an objective and comparative assessment.

Obesity among dental students

Ajrish George; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 562-569

Obesity is a chronic medical condition associated with various oral health problems. The worldwide prevalence of obesity is 27.8%. Since obesity has a high prevalence worldwide, it is considered and prioritized as a major issue with regard to the economics of developed nations. Obesity is a disease with multiple aetiological factors, with genetics and specific obesity-related genes playing key roles. Due to the recent trends associated with urbanization, including increased refined food product consumption, unhealthy dietary habits, and a lack of physical activity, obesity is spreading fast. Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for various systemic diseases, including hypertension, cardio- vascular disease, metabolic diseases, osteoarthritis, respiratory difficulties, and some oral diseases, such as periodontal disease.The aim of the study is to accesses the prevalence of obesity among dental students of a private dental college.The study involve acessesing the obesity of various dental students using BMI index. All the data collected was computed in excel formal and statistical analysis was done.The study was conducted to accesses a change in 6 months period. All the data was statistically significant. After statistical analysis it was found that there was significant change between the initial and the data collected six months after. Thus in the current study it was observed the mean variation of the weight, food pattern and the BMI of each students and was found to have significant higher variation.

Comparative study of obesity between men and women: Review

Zainab khidhair hussain; Israa Hasan Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 367-378

Obesity is disorder in a foremost nutritional health it’s developed with countries developing. Also is known as increasingin fat accumulation that lead toproblem in health, besidesmay coin one of the reasons lead toloss of life,the obesity not effect on adults just but effect onoffspringand juveniles. In some ofinhabitants the incidence of obesity is superior in female than in male; on the other hand, the variation degree of the between the genderdifferby country.Obesity is generally measured by body mass index and waist circumference, Obesity are classified according to body mass index into:Pre obesity sort 1 : (25 - 29.9) kg/m2, Obesity sort 2 : (30 - 34.9 kg/m2) and extreme obesity sort 3: (40 kg/m2) or greater. Obesity is described by a pathologic condition with augmented overall of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol while reduced of HDL levels.There are many hormones causes pathophysiology of fatness such as adipokines, gutcorrelated hormones and ghrelin, numerous studies have revealed that the association among fatness and the metabolic sickness such as Insulin resistance, activity of lipoprotein lipase in muscle reduction and free fatty acids increasing. Conclusion: Obesity and overweight different between men am women according to quality of life in different population and countries

The Association of Body Mass Index with Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Eriska Riyanti; Risti Saptarini Primarti; Andi Virga Zulhiah Pratiwi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1631-1640

Background: In the last few decades, industrialization, urbanization, economic development and market globalization have had a significant impact on changes in lifestyle and diet. Thus, food choices and nutritional intake greatly affect oral health and body weight. This has a significant impact on health and nutrition, particularly through higher carbohydrate intake and lower physical activity, particularly among younger members of the population. High sugar intake, such as sugar-containing snacks and soft drinks, was reported it is more common in children/adolescents who are overweight and obesity than those of normal weight. Frequent sugar intake is also a risk factor for dental caries. Given this, there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between dental caries and dietary intake has been associated with the development of obesity at a young age. Thus, it is possible to conclude that there is a biological relationship between dental caries and body weight. Objective: To see the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Methods: Scientific evidence and clinical cases were drawn from the literature to support this review and information on the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Result/Discussion: There is some scientific evidence showing a specific relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Conclusion:Body mass index has a significantrelationshipwiththeincidenceof dental caries in children. However, thisconditiondoes not account for which category the incidence of dental cariesis greatest. This is associated with multifactorial interactions that mutually influence the occurrence of dental caries in children.

IMPACT OF YOGIC PRACTICES ON PHYSIOLOGICAL SELECTED FACTORS OF OVERWEIGHT ADULT WOMEN

T. Sujatha; R. Elangovan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1110-1117
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.115

The purpose of scientific study by a random sample was to figure out the impact of yogic practices among obese adult women on selected physiological variables. For the purpose of the research, 30 obese adult women residing in Chennai City between the ages of 25 and 35 years were randomly selected from 15 subjects in two categories, experimental group I and group II, using a random sampling group method. It was speculated that there will be substantial variations in selected physiological variables such as Systolic Blood Pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI) relative to the control group owing to yogic practices among obese adult people. For this analysis, the training time was eight weeks. Experimental group-I had yogic practice in the morning, for an hour, six days a week. Community II was held in successful repose. For all the participants, the pre-test and post-test were done before and after the testing. Study of Co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the data to figure out the essential variations between the groups. The significance test was set at a degree of trust of 0.05. Because of yogic meditation on chosen physiological factors such as the index of body mass (BMI) and the control group among obese adult women, the findings revealed that there were substantial variations. It was concluded that as compared to Group II on physiological variables such as Systolic Blood Pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI) in obese adult people, there was a positive influence on yogic practices and the result was agreed at a level of confidence of 0.05. It was concluded that yogic activities are required to maintain a healthy weight and blood pressure for obese adult people.

Assessment of periodontal status in subjects with metabolic syndrome

Anupriya Sharma; Ashish Sharma; Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8311-8315

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a serious universal health problem, is defined as the clustered presence of three or more conditions, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and central obesity. The present study assessed the relationship between MetS and Periodontitis. Materials & Methods: In this case control study, 270 patients with metabolic syndrome aged 18-40 years of both genders (Group I) and equal number of age and gender matched healthy controls (n=270,Group II) were enrolled. Periodontal status was assessed using a community periodontal index (CPI). Score 0 (healthy), 1 (bleeding following probing), 2 (presence of dental calculus), 3 (probing pocket depth between 4 and 5 mm) and 4 (probing pocket depth ≥6 mm) was calculated. Results: Out of 540 patients, males were 258 and females were 282. Healthy periodontium was seen in 12% in group I and 45% in group II, bleeding in 5% in group I and 20% in group II, calculus in 20% in group I and 15% in group II, pockets 4- 5mm in 35% in group I and 13% in group II and pockets >6 mm was seen in 28% in group I and 7% in group II. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: There was poor periodontal status in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to healthy subjects

Binding Affinity Of Omega 3 Fatty Acid As An Agonist PPAR- And GPR120 Receptor For Obesity Using Molecular Docking And ADME Prediction

Ginna Megawati; Dewi M.D Herawati; Ida Musfiroh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1686-1695

Obesity is a complex disease involving excessive amounts of body fat due to problems with lipid metabolism and catalysis by PPARγ and GPR120. It is currently known that full-agonist drugs PPRγ have cardiovascular side effects and are closely related to lipid metabolism by GPR120. The selected of omega-3 derivative compounds is based on an important role in morphological, biochemical, molecular brain development and has been shown to control body weight by reducing body fat accumulation. The aim of this study was to obtain information regarding the binding affinity of 9 selected compounds from omega-3 to PPARγ and GPR120 either as full agonist or partial agonist by showing that these compounds using absorption and distribution prediction (ADME) sufficiently reasonable. Docking analysis was performed using Auto Dock 4.2, and ADME prediction using PreADMET software. The results showed that DPA and DHA have most higher binding affinity of molecular docking at the active site of the partial agonis and full agonist for PPARγ with free energy -9.26 kcal/mol and -8.92, respectively. DPA showed capabilities as partial agonist is characterized by a hydrogen bond in the form of Ser342 such as telmisartan, while DHA has a similar hydrogen bond in the form of Ile281 such as rosiglitazone. Whereas the results for GPR120 showed that DHA, EPA, and ETA compounds had good potential activity as agonists by binding to the same amino acid residues Arg327 and Tyr146, and the compounds have the lowest bond energies were -9.4, -8.72 and -8.15 kcal/ mol, respectively compared to the neurotensin ligand is -6.31 kcal/mol. All compounds meet absorption and distribution parameters, so that the selected compounds have the potential to prevent obesity through PPARγ and GPR120

Characteristic Of The Cardiovascular System In Children And Adolescents At Obesity In Accompanience Of Arterial Hypertension.

Lilya Garifulina; Maksuda Ashurova; Nargiza Goyibova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3171-3175

62 children and adolescents with obesity accompanied by arterial hypertension were examined. It was revealed that the development of myocardial hypertrophy is affected by body weight, blood pressure, vasoconstriction processes, as well as insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia. These parameters serve as early markers of myocardial hypertrophy.

Effects Of Obesity On The Serum Levels Of Free And Total Prostate-Specific Antigen In A Sample Of Iraqi Men.

Dr Ziad Hammad Abd; Dr Ruya Abdulhadi M. Saeed; Omar Farhan Ammar (alrawi)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 142-148

Objectives: the study aims to assess the relationship between obesity and prostatic markers (total prostatic specific antigen (tPSA), and free prostatic specific antigen (fPSA)). Methods: this study was conducted on 127 men aged ≥40 years at The Department of Urology at Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital. Exclusion criteria were a history of previously diagnosed or treated prostate cancer, the use of prostacare or any drugs that affect the levels of PSA in the serum. Results: the age range of the participants of the study was between 40–80 year. The number of men with normal BMI was 26 (20.47%), 47 men were overweight (37%), 33 men were obese (25.98%), and finally, 21 men were severely obese (16.53%). The mean of parameters total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA, fPSA), in the study, were (mean ± SD) (1.683±0.563) ng/ml, (0.537±0.189) ng/ml, respectively. Conclusions: there are no significant relationships between BMI, tPSA, and fPSA, at P≤0.05 in a sample of Iraqi men.

Determination Of Trace Elements And Total Antioxidant Capacity İn Obese Iraqi Patients

Ibrahim Abdulkareem Sabri; Assistant professor Doctor Hakan ÇOLAK; Assistant professor Doctor Mustafa Taha Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2348-2358

Obesity is one of the principle preventable reasons for death. extra than forty % of Iraqis be afflicted by weight problems (obesity). is that it is excessive weight gain with excess body fat. This causes the patient to be exposed to several diseases. (weight problems) is measured in lots of ways, the most crucial of which is referred to as (BMI - body mass index), that's a tool for calculating weight in relation to frame height. someone is overweight if this indicator has a fee of 30 or more.
Methods: The study included healthy natural subjects as a comparison group (control) and they were (61 samples) Including (32) females and (29) males, and their ages ranged (3_15) years, and Patients Group (59 blood samples) were obtained they range in age (2_17) years, Included (35) males, (24) females.
Samples were collected from the patients reviewed at [Al Khayal Hospital].Level of antioxidants was assessed by estimation in the serum convergences of complete cancer prevention agents limit (TAC) by UV spectrophotometric strategy. also, Serum minor components (Zn, Cu and Fe) assessed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS .)
The Statistical Analysis System-SAS (2012) program was utilized to distinguish the impact of contrast factors in study boundaries. T-test was utilized to huge look at between implies. in this examination.
Result: Our study observed significantly elevated concentrations of (TAC)
(p < 0. 01)in the control than patient. Investigation of serum minor components (Zn, Cu and (Fe) found that the mean estimations of Zn, Fe, Cu, were (106.52 ± 0.76) and (70.44 ± 0.76), and (65.85 ± 1.97 ) μg/dl for the patient and (53.73 ± 2.11), (31.16 ± 0.87), and (91.12 ± 3.00) μg/dl for the controls, thusly. There was a significant contrast in minor components the patients and controls (p < 0.01).

DEVELOPMENT OF PRE-ECLAMPSIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH OBESITY

Zulfiya Shamsieva; Yusupbaev R.B.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2450-2454

Abstract. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of obesity in pregnant women in
the development of preeclampsia. All women were divided into 2 groups: the study group
included women with obesity (n=120) and the control group of pregnant women with
physiological course of pregnancy without obesity (n=60).

Evaluation of the relationship between obesity and severity of periodontal diseases in rural population: A Study Protocol

Ms. Gauri , Bendre; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal; Dr. Diksha Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2034-2037

Abstract: Background- Excessive accumulation of fat results into obesity. Obesity further
have an adverse effect on health as it has been seen to be associated with diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, heart disease like coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease such as
hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, metabolic syndrome like insulin resistance, some
cancers such as cancer of esophagus, thyroid, kidney, uterus, colon and breast, and
psychosocial problems. Also, obesity is considered to be a risk factor for periodontitis
which is an inflammation of supporting periodontal structures around the tooth which
results from the complex interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune
response. However, the impact of obesity on different severity of periodontal disease is not
evaluated in rural population. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and the
severity of periodontal disease in Rural population. Methodology: A total 400 obese
subjects will be included in the study. Biometric parameters like age, weight, height, waist
and neck circumference, subcutaneous skin fold will be evaluated. Also periodontal
parameters like Plaque index (PI), Papillary bleeding index (PBI), Probing pocket depth
(PPD), Clinical attachment level (CAL) and Gingival recession (REC) will be evaluated
and co-relation between these parameters will be carried out. Results: A statistically
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis. A positive co-relation will be observed
between biometric parameters and periodontal status of obese individual. Conclusion: A
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis in rural population.

Influence Of Excess Body Weight And Deficiency Of Vitamin D On The Clinical Course Of Uterine Myoma

Dinara Kh. Irnazarova; Dilchekhra K. Yuldasheva; Dilbar K. Najmutdinova; Dilrabo T. Kayumova; Fotima A. Atakhodjaeva; Gulmira A. Akhmedova; Dilfuza R. Sadikova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3317-3324

Uterine fibroids is the most common benign gynecological disease, the pathogenesis of which is not fully understood. We examined 152 women in the II clinic of the T ashkent Medical Academy. The saturation of the body with vitamin D (25 ( OH ) D ) and its relationship with concomitant obesity in patients with uterine fibroids and healthy women were studied . In less than half of women with symptomatic myoma, deficiency and severe deficiency of vitamin D prevails with concomitant obesity of varying degrees . Studying the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and excess body weight in this pathology makes it possible to predict the development of the disease, the nature of the course and the risk of possible complications.

Prevalence Of Gallstone In Relation To Age, Sex And Body Mass Index In Tikrit City

Meqdam A. Khalaf; Abdulhadi M. Jumaa; Ammar L. Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 418-423

gallstones are common diseases in many countries of the world , and incidence rate may reach about 20 % .Most cases of gallstones occur in females , the incidence rate may reach four times to one in comparison between women and men , mainly in fatty , fertile , age of forty female , gall stones are rare before age of 20 years ,but; may occur at any age . many cases are not diagnosed because they do not cause any signs or symptoms , and thus can only be diagnosed accidently by routine abdominal ultrasound.
The aim of study is to evaluate the relationship between age,sex and body mass index as risk factors for gallstone.
a cross sectional study was conducted in Tikrit city during the period from early of May to the end of October 2019 . 468 were enrolled in present study , and only 95 patients were diagnosed as a case of gallstone (29 male , 66 female). All patients attending private ultrasound clinic with different complains, data was collected by using certain questionnaire.
The results showed that, There was highly significant statistical relationship (P – value ≤0.05) between body mass index mean in both gallstone cases(26.628±5.808) and, in cases without gallstone(22.225±1.316). In the present study there was high statistically significant relation(P- value ≤ 0.05) between body mass index measurement above 25(31.97727273± 3.747859149) and measurement below 25(21.85882353± 1.616313889) in patients with gallstone.
The present study conclude that , Body mass index more than 25 considered as an important risk factor for gallstone.

Effect Of Pre Pregnancy Body Mass Index Status In Pregnancy With Obesity Cases

Wardhana ManggalaPasca; Zulhijayanti Noor Assyifa; Cahyani, MeiliaDwi; Rahmatyah, Rizqy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2677-2686

Introduction: Increasing of obesity become endemic problem in childbearing age of women. Therefore, this morbidity frequently found in pregnancy with all of the obesity consequences. Some problems in developing country like Indonesia, especially in our tertiary hospital also experienced burden situation of obesity in pregnancy cases.
Aims:To describe obesity in pregnancy cases and analyze obesity status before pregnancy on obstetric outcome of this morbidity
Material and methods:Retrospective case control study using medical record on singleton pregnancy complicated with obesity in major East Java tertiary referral hospital in one year.
Results:of 1144 deliveries, we revealed 337 cases (29%) of obesity. 246 cases were included and analyzed in this study. Majority of cases were multiparity (72.8%), with age of 31.5±5.6 y.o, BMI of 35.6±4.9 kg/m2 with 19.5% had morbidly obese status.48% of cases had obesity status before pregnancy. Pre pregnancy obesity status not related to Cesarean Section delivery (P=0.07), the occurrence of preeclampsia (P=0.35), gestational diabetes (P=0.97) and fetal macrosomia (P=0.97). Pre pregnancy obesity status related to higher BMI status at delivery (P<0.001) and morbidly obesity condition (P<0.001; OR 5.96; CI 2.58-13.77)
Conclusion:Our study revealed high incidence of obesity during pregnancy. While obesity correlated well with obstetric morbidity, pre pregnancy body mass index status did not associated with obstetric complication in pregnant obesity cases. Higher BMI and morbidly obese pregnancy cases due to pre pregnancy obesity status may contribute to non-significant increase of cesarean section.

CHARACTERISTIC OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT OBESITY IN ACCOMPANIENCE OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

GarifulinaLilya Maratovna; AshurovaMaksuda Zhamshedovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2790-2793

62 children and adolescents with obesity accompanied by arterial hypertension were examined. It was revealed that the development of myocardial hypertrophy is affected by body weight, blood pressure,vasoconstriction processes, as well as insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia. These parameters serve as early markers of myocardial hypertrophy.

Awareness On Effect Of Food In Habits Present Era Among The South Indian Population

M. Laksita; V. Vishnu Priya; A. Jothi Priya; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2756-2771

Global markets have increased the plethora of options available to Indian consumers. With the clear shift in consumer tastes and preferences, food companies have also capitalized on the same. The food processing industry forms an important segment of the Indian economy in terms of contribution to GDP, employment and investment, and is a major driver in the country's growth in the near future. The objective of this study is to create awareness in food habits in the present era among the South Indian population. A well structured questionnaire was administered to the participants through an online survey link. The responses were analysed through descriptive statistics using SPSS software. The results depicted that, majority of participants were aware and had knowledge about the effect of food habits in their daily diet. There is a shift from opting to eat at home to opting to eat out. Also interestingly awareness about harmful effects of processed foods was high but the reason for consumption was attributed primarily to ease of purchase. Nutrition education for adolescents and parents is needed to promote healthy eating. Health Authorities should strengthen the monitoring of food intake and its association with overweight/obesity.

AWARENESS ON SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE, OBESITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT POPULATION

B.V.M. Anirudh; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Nivethigaa. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 737-747

Sedentary lifestyle has become a huge concern in one's life, in which physical inactivity has become a major health problem. Prevalence of sedentary life is increasing nowadays and is seen more commonly in the student population. Sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity is an important health concern which is increasing day by day around the globe. It affects the whole body which mainly causes cardiovascular problems.The Aim of this research is to bring awareness about sedentary lifestyle, obesity and cardiovascular disease in the student population.A questionnaire of a total 15 questions were prepared and was uploaded through surveyplanet. The responses were collected and then interpreted as pie charts and bar graphs. A total of 100 undergraduate college students have taken the survey. The data was analysed by IBM-SPSS software where descriptive statistics and chi square test was done, where the results are plotted as graphs and pie charts.A total of 100 college students have taken up the survey in which 47% were male and 53% were female. In a question pertaining to how many people were following a healthy diet- 74 % have answered yes and 26% said no. The next question was about exercising everyday in which 62 % said yes while 38% said no. In which 47% males and 15% females have answered yes.97% agree that sedentary lifestyle leads to complications such as obesity. 90% of the students are aware about the increase in sedentary lifestyle among students. 69% have answered that unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity,smoking etc were the common causes of obesity. 95% agree that obesity causes respiratory problems. Almost 95 % students agree that obesity causes systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension which will ultimately lead to cardiovascular problems.Chi square test was done between gender and people who are following a healthy diet and exercising daily where p<0.05 which is statistically significant.Our study showed that almost all students were aware about sedentary lifestyle and its complications, but the females in the study have shown that they do not follow a healthy diet and do not exercise regularly which makes them prone to obesity and ultimately cardiovascular problems. To avoid these problems, awareness has to be spread in colleges about the seriousness of obesity and its harmful effects and how to prevent it.

AWARENESS OF SELF-QUARANTINE- A SURVEY

John Francis; Jothi priya; Lavanya prathap; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2236-2247

Everyone gets separated after a few days when they get bored due to that depression. Self quarantine reduces the economic development of the country. Everyone working has many responsibilities but due to this self quarantine in this lockdown shortage of money leads the country to drop in economic status. Due to self quarantine many are affected mentally, they usually get depressed and lose their peace. Cannot concentrate in what they are doing and change in their mood swings. Self quarantine Self quarantine is most useful during the time of spreading disease. This study is done with the help of an online survey. Many are used to this self quarantine. Many ill effects are there in self quarantine like obesity, due to obesity leads to myocardial infarction but other than these many useful things are occurring due to self quarantine like reducing usage of vehicles which reduces global warming. This study created awareness about the self quarantine and told how to spend free time properly

Knowledge, Awareness And Risk Factors Of Childhood Obesity Among Adolescent Population In Chennai - A Survey Based Analysis

Jagadheeswari Ramamoorthy; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3156-3174

IntroductionChildhood obesity is termed as excess body fat accumulation which negatively affects a child's health or well-being. As methods to work out body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is usually supported by BMI. A Body mass Index of 30 or more is considered as obesity. Children are considered to be obese if they are above the normal weight for their height in relation to their age. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle income countries. The rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects it's being recognized as a significant public health concern. AimThe aim of this study is to assess the Knowledge, awareness and risk factors of childhood obesity among the adolescent population.
Materials and MethodThis is a survey based study and was conducted on an online forum, Survey Planet with a sample of 100 participants .Adolescents of age group between 10-21 participated in the study. A questionnaire with 10 questions was circulated among the Chennai population. The responses were collected. The data was summarised as the number and percentage and analysed using SPSS.Chi square test was done and a P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
ResultsIn this survey, we observed that 29% of them consider their current weight to be harmful for their health. 40% of them check their weight regularly. Half of the population were aware that chronic stress can lead to weight gain. Only 41% of the participants have the habit of exercising regularly. 67% of the participants were aware of the complications of obesity. Among all the respondents 28% of them had a family history of obesity.
ConclusionWithin the limits of this survey, we can conclude that awareness on childhood obesity is present among the adolescent population. Females were more aware of Childhood obesity than males. However regular exercise and healthy diet is essential to maintain a healthy weight and prevent obesity.

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN OBESITY AND OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA IN THE YOUNG ADULT AND AGED MALE POPULATION - A SURVEY BASED ANALYSIS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages -

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, causing expiratory dyspnea, intermittent oxygen desaturation, systemic and pulmonary arterial blood pressure surges, and sleep disruption. The aim of this study is to determine the association between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea and to analyse the most prevalent age group in males.This is a survey based study carried between the month of April 2020-May 2020. This survey was carried out with the help of an online platform. Around 100 male participants aged between 15-60 years participated in this survey. Based on the responses, data was collected and tabulated in an Excel sheet. This was followed by transferring the Excel tabulated data to SPSS for data analysis. Students' unpaired T test was conducted for statistical analysis. Based on the analysis the results were tabulated. The most common age associated with sleep apnea was the age group above 40 years 38%. 82% of the participants had a BMI value more than 35kgm2 . 63% reported with a habit of snoring.52% complained with day time sleepiness.52% revealed a family history of sleep apnea. Based on the results it is seen that obstructive sleep apnea is most common among the elderly population. Majority of the participants had a BMI value > 35kgm2.;and a neck circumference > 40 cm which indicates obesity. Hence it is proved that obesity has a strong association with obstructive sleep apnea

ROLE OF PROBIOTICS IN PREVENTION OF OBESITY

N. Naveenaa; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; Leslie Rani. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3213-3223

Probiotics can be defined as live microorganisms that may beneficially affect the host upon ingestion by improving the balance of the microflora. It has various health benefits like alternation in weight, increasing the immunity, and also in digestion. Many of us would think that bacterial products aren’t helpful but in contrast they are enormously useful. The common species involved are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium. At present the alarming issue for everyone might be weight gain. The probiotic diet helps in modification of gut microbiota and it inhibits the absorption of dietary fat and increases fat excretion via faeces. Most of the attempts done to study the effects of probiotics with Lactobacillus strains on weight reduction was found to be positive. Probiotic administration on women over a period of three months had a significant reduction in weight compared to the pills. So probiotics are far better than artificially prepared pills. The aim of the review is to analyze whether a probiotic diet helps in reduction of weight and how far it could play the beneficial role in reduction of weight.

Analysis Of The Assessment Of The Attitude To The State Of Its Health Among The Inorgonized Population

Jo‘rayeva Hafiza Iskandarovna; Soliyev Alisher Urakovich; Djumayev Karomat Shoyimovich; Khusenov Olim Nutfilloyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3346-3352

Analysis of the assessment of attitudes towards their health among the unorganized population. With the important role of timely and adequate detection of various diseases and pathological conditions by doctors of the health facility, the adequacy of assessing patients health is of particular importance. An adequate assessment of the patient's own health is an important help in the timely referral to the doctor and the conduct of the preventive measures. In this regard, the frequency of the main components of the metabolic syndrome among people who differ in assessing their health was analyzed.
Among the unorganized population of Bukhara there is an inadequate assessment of the state of health among patients with arterial hypertension, with body mass index and obesity and a violation of carbohydrate metabolism.

Obesity As A Major Risk Factor In N- Cov Disease.

J. Dhivyadharshini; A.S.Smiline Girija; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2562-2571

The review gives an overview on the relation between obesity and n-CoV disease. A review has been done to understand the correlation of obesity with the n-CoV disease by retrieving a maximum of related articles from various search engines like PubMed, Google Scholar, MeSH, Core, Cochrane, bioRxiv, Semantic scholar and so on published from 2000 to 2020 (till date). Obesity is associated with SARS- CoV-2 which enhances inflammatory response in obese people compared to actual standard BMIs. Obesity is often specifically related to producing inflammation by triggering a cytokine storm in the lungs, which raises the likelihood of ARDS, thereby requiring respiratory assistance for the main issue. Obesity can hinder breathing by hampering the excursion of the diaphragm, inhibit immune responses to critical infection, it is pro-inflammatory and triggers diabetes and even oxidizing tension to worsen cardiovascular activity. This study indicates that obese people through respiratory viruses COVID19 are more likely to be hospitalized comparatively. The implementation of novel ideas on obesity control of ailments will certainly bring about a massive change. Constraining less dependence on recent literature in this area and also upgrading numerous research to increase consciousness among the general public so that they may take measures not to be vulnerable to COVID 19. The current research has shown a strong incidence of obesity in patients participating in medical treatment with SARS-CoV-2. Obesity can be hazard factored to SARS-CoV-2 severity which needs increased attention in susceptible individuals to take preventive measures

THE ASSESMENT OF THE PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF OBESTIY AMONG TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING IN THE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER IN MAKKAH AL-MUKARRAMAH 2019

Majiedabdulmoghth A. Al Harby, KhaledEssam Sheikh, Ali Mansour Ali Ashgar, AmeenahMuallaSaad Alharbi, MajedAbdulghafour Mohammed Turkistani, Nasser Awn Abdullah Albarakati Naif Abdul RahmanKhader Al-Ghamdi, Yasser Bin Hassan Muhammad Sindi, Hassan Sfar Alzahrani, Muidh Mohammed Althagaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 294-304

Background:
      Diabetes mellitus and obesity are key risk factors for long-term complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have shown that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity is high in the KSA. However, none of these studies has focused on the investigation of diabetes mellitus and obesity in Makkah patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are known to contribute directly or indirectly to the development of long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity is a serious public health concern all over the world. In KSA obesity is on rise and if proper intervention and preventive strategies were not adopted of obesity will prove fatal. Obesity among type 2 diabetic patients has proven to have adverse effects in management and control of diabetes and a considerable proportion of type 2 diabetic patients have been reported to be obese in different settings, which increase the risk of complications among them.
Aim of the study: To assesment of the prevalence and associated risk factors of obestiy among type II diabetic patients in the primary health care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah 2019.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at AL-Eskan PHC, among type II diabetic patients and obesity attending in the AL-Eskan PHC Makkah among a random sample of type 2 diabetic and obesity patients registered in the chronic disease clinic. Our total sample size will be 200 patients
. Results:  the majority of our participants were have increase BMI (obese) were constitutes (59.0 %), while normal BMI participants were constitute (40.0 %). the majority of our study are male’s gender in our study was (59.0%). the majority nationality Saudi was (87.0%)
Conclusion: Physical activity probably contains a larger role in promoting health in weighty populations than antecedently thought and should confer substantial reductions in sickness burden. Future analysis might examine prospectively whether or not increase in physical activity in unhealthy weighty adults will cause a healthier standing.