Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Goal Orientation and preferred coaching styles of Malaysian Sport School’s athletes

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Nelfianty Mohd Rasyid*, Shaharudin Abdul Aziz, & Ruaibah Yazani Tengah


The objective of this study was to identify goal orientation and preferred coaching styles of the young athletes from Malaysian Sports Schools, based on gender differences, age, and type of sport participated. Instruments used in this study were Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) and the athlete’s preferred version of the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). Subject were young athletes from Malaysian Sport School age 13 to 18 years old (N = 854). Descriptive analysis indicated that athletes were more inclined toward Task orientation rather than Ego. Result of t-test revealed significant differences for goal orientation based on gender and age. ANOVA analysis also showed that there are significant differences of goal orientation based on types of sports. Boys were found to be high in both Task and Ego orientation than girls. Younger athletes are more task-oriented as compared to senior athletes. Individual sport athletes were found to be more Ego oriented than team sport athletes. The most preferred coaching styles were Training and Instruction, followed by Democratic, Social Support, and Positive Feedback. Autocratic behaviour was the least preferred coaching style. The results also indicated that there was a significant different in coaching style based on gender and age group. Male athletes preferred more Autocratic and Positive Feedback as compared to female athletes. Senior athletes preferred Training and Instruction and Social Support, while the younger athletes preferred Autocratic coaching style. In conclusion, the results indicates that the authorities involved in the development and planning of the sport programme should know and understand the athletes’ goal orientation and their preferred coaching styles to achieve success.

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